2 - Cavossa SIA Presentation.ppt - NCS National Communications

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2 - Cavossa SIA Presentation.ppt - NCS National Communications Powered By Docstoc
					National Communications System (NCS)

Satellite and Microwave Transmission
                         ESF2 Training
                         May 23, 2006

   David Cavossa, Executive Director, Satellite Industry Association
                Peter Hill, Senior Engineer, ARTEL Inc.


•   Operability Before Interoperability
•   Satellite Communications Overview
•   Microwave Transmission Overview
•   Satellites Are Critical Infrastructure
•   Questions?

               Operability Before Interoperability
• Following a disaster you need basic OPERABILITY before
• SATELLITES = OPERABILITY when terrestrial
  communications infrastructure is damaged or destroyed
• Satellites Communications are;
   –   Highly Survivable (Physical Survivability and Robustness)
   –   Independent of Terrestrial Infrastructure
   –   Truly “Air Gapped” and Quickly Provisioned/ Restored
   –   Suitable for Fixed and Transportable User Locations

• Satellites Provide:
   – Added Layer of Path Diversity and Link Availability
   – Backup, Load Sharing, Surge Capacity Solution for Larger Sites
   – Unique Multicast and Broadcast Capabilities
                 Satellite Is Part of the Solution
• First Responders and Public Safety need a non-
  terrestrial back-up communications infrastructure
  that is;
   – Independent of the Public Infrastructure
   – Pre-positioned
   – Included in First Responder Training Programs

• The Department of Homeland Security is currently
  examining a range of emergency communication
  proposals, including proposals to ensure
  interoperability. Satellite systems should be
  emphasized and included in the early planning of
  these initiatives.
• The required capacity and equipment is available today
  from commercial satellite operators to corporations, first
  responders, and consumers across the globe.
                    Commercial Satellite Industry
Voice/Video/Data Communications
• Rural Telephony                     GPS/Navigation
• News Gathering/Distribution         • Position Location
• Internet Trunking                   • Timing
• Corporate VSAT Networks             • Search and Rescue
• Tele-Medicine                       • Mapping
• Distance-Learning                   • Fleet Management
• Mobile Telephony                    • Security & Database Access
• Videoconferencing                   • Emergency Services
• Business Television
• Broadcast and Cable Relay           Remote Sensing
• VOIP & Multi-media over IP          • Pipeline Monitoring
                                      • Infrastructure Planning
                                      • Forest Fire Prevention
• Broadband IP
                                      • Urban Planning
• DTH/DBS Television
                                      • Flood and Storm watches
• Digital Audio Radio
                                      • Air Pollution Management
• Interactive Entertainment & Games
• Video & Data to handhelds           • Geo-spatial Services

                      Infrastructure / Support Services
   Launch Vehicles Ground Equipment Insurance Manufacturing
                      Value of Satellite Services

• Satellite systems perform most effectively when:
   • interconnecting widely distributed networks,
   • providing broadcasting services over very wide areas such as a
     country, region, or entire hemisphere
   • providing connectivity for the “last mile” in cases where fiber
     networks are simply not available for interactive services.
   • providing mobile wideband and narrow band communications
   • satellites are best and most reliable form of communications in
     the case of natural disasters or terrorist attacks - fiber networks or
     even terrestrial wireless can be disrupted by tsunamis,
     earthquakes, etc.. i.e. satellites are instant infrastructure
                         Satellite Components

• Bus
  – Power Subsystem
  – Telemetry and
    Command Subsystem
  – Attitude and Control
  – Propulsion Subsystem
• Payload
  – Communications
        • Transponders
•   The transponder is the “workhorse” of the satellite - provides
    the connection between the satellite’s receive and transmit
•   Satellites can have 12 to 96 transponders plus spares, depending
    on the size of the satellite and the desired transmission power.
•   A transponder bandwidth can frequently be 36 MHz, 54 MHz,
    or 72 MHz or even wider.
•   A transponders function is to:
    •   Receive the signal, (Signal is one trillion times weaker then when
    •   Filter out noise,
    •   Shift the frequency to a down link frequency (to avoid interference
    •   Amplify for retransmission to ground                                  1
                              Satellite Frequencies
There are specific frequency ranges used by commercial satellites.
    L-band                      Mobile Satellite Services (MSS)
    1.0 – 2.0 GHz

    S-band                      MSS, DARS – XM, Sirius
    2.0 – 4.0 GHz

    C-band                      Fixed Satellite Services (FSS), VSAT
    4.0 – 8.0 GHz

    X-Band                      Military/Satellite Imagery
    8.0 – 12.0 GHz

    Ku-band                     FSS, DBS, VSAT
    12.0–15.0 GHz

    Ka-band                     FSS “broadband” and inter-satellite links
    15.0 – 30.0 GHz
                     Orbital Options
• A Geosynchronous (GEO) satellite orbit
  is high enough (22,000 miles) that it keeps
  pace with the earths rotation. Three
  satellites can provide 24/7 coverage of most
  of the globe.

• Medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites are
  closer to users on Earth but 10-18 are
  required for continuous coverage.

• Low earth orbit (LEO) satellites are
  closest to users (300-500 miles) but 40-70
  satellites are required for full coverage.
  Shorter distance results in lower power, smaller size terminals
            Satellite Coverage “Footprints”
 Global Beams

Regional Beams

     Spot Beams

Geosynchronous Orbit

Teleports – Earth Stations

                               Fixed Satellite Services (FSS)

• FSS Industry
   • Geosynchronous Spacecraft
       • ~22,000 miles in orbit
   • C, Ku and Ka Frequencies
   • Terrestrial Infrastructures
       • Teleports
       • TT&C Centers
       • Service Platforms
       • Fiber Interconnects
   • Diverse market-base
       • Media Distribution
       • Telecom Infrastructure
       • Enterprise Networks
       • Government Networks & Apps

   • ~ 250 operational commercial GEO satellites in use today
       • 59 to be launched over next 3 years
                        “Typical” Fixed Satellite Service Network

 Credit Card Validation
 ATM/Pay at the Pump
 Inventory Control
 Store Monitoring
 Electronic Pricing
 Training Videos
 In-Store Audio
 Broadband Internet Access
 Distance Learning


 Gas Stations

                                                                               Red Cross
 Branch Offices         Corporate Offices   Residential
                                                                               News Agency
                                                          Emergency Response                 1
                           Ground Equipment
Overall systems costs have decreased because of the explosion of low-
cost user terminals that can now receive video via hand-held units
Omni directional antennas
Smaller, lighter, cheaper
More powerful, faster
Pocket, notebook, rugged
Application specific terminals, embedded modems

     Minimal Set-Up Time, Robust, Portable, Easy To Use                 1
                           Mobile Satellite Service
• Function like terrestrial wireless system with ubiquitous reach
• Use a mix of orbit types
    • Geosynchronous (GEO)
    • Non-geosynchronous (LEO and MEO)
• System sizes range from (1) GEO to (66) LEO
• Use a mix of frequencies
    • Mostly L-Band / Some S-Band, UHF/VHF
    • Feeder links and some services use C, Ka, and Ku-
• Applications
    • Aeronautical
    • Maritime
    • Land

“Typical” Mobile Satellite Network
Mobile Satellite Equipment
                     Critical To The Economy

 Pump                      Eat               Watch
  Gas                      Out                TV


 Transact              Stay at    Buy & Service
                       Hotels      Automobile
                          DoD Need’s Commercial SATCOM
             Deployed Forces                            Commercial Satellite Services
    800                                         3500                           3,200
    700                                         3000
O                                           M   2000
R                                           B
C                                           P
E                                           S   1500
S   300
                               132K             1000
                   51K   54K                                       250
    100                                         500
     0                                            0

    Requirements                                       Solutions
Radiation hardened, secure,           Military owned and operated
dedicated communications              Constellations (AEHF, WGS, TSAT, DSCS,
                                      MUOS etc…

                                          Commercial, or Milsatcom when available

Routine, non-classified                                Commercial
Satellite Industry Response to Hurricanes
Satellites and Katrina
                Satellite Communications for
                Emergency Response
Satellite bandwidth
• Can be reserved and pre-positioned ahead of time
• Or ad hoc bandwidth can be purchased when needed
Full range of transportable terminals
• Hand Held
• Trailer-mounted terminals
• Vehicle-mounted terminals
• Flyaway terminals
Terminal at other end can be …
• Teleport, with terrestrial tail circuit into customer network
• Fixed terminal at customer facility
• Another transportable/handheld terminal
                  Satellite Technology Trends
• Satellites in general are becoming more capable, with higher
  power and larger aperture antennas to promote frequency re-use
• With electronically formed beams, the beam patterns can be re-
  formed on command to respond to needs or changing
  requirements that emerge in response to market demand
                   Emerging Services/Applications
Broadband Connectivity to Homes/Offices

Mobile Broadband
• Comms’ on the Move
• In-Flight or Ships at sea

Consumer Focused
• Ancillary Terrestrial Component (ATC)
• Satellite Radio

• High Definition Television
• Digital Video Recorders

Hybrid Solutions
• Satellite + WiFi
• Satellite + cellular (pico cell)

• Propagation of Signals
• Antennas
• Microwave Radio Equipment
• Configurations
• Similarities of Satellite &
• Applications
               Line of Site Propagation

• Free Space Loss
• Path Profile (Clearance (Fresnel Zone))
• Reflections, Refraction, Diffraction, Absorption
• Ducting
• Multipath
• Radio Frequency Interference


•   Isotropic Radiator
•   Dipole
•   Parabolic Reflector
•   Polarization
•   Gain
                      Earth Station-Microwave-Network


              LNB         TX     Tx/Rx


                                         HQ      INTERNET

                                             Microwave Path Calculations

                                                                FSL = 104 dB

                                               G Tx = 28 dBi                       G Rx = 28 dBi

                                LTx = 5 dB                                                             LRx = 5 dB
                                                  FSL in dB = 36.6 + 20Log f + 20Log D                               Tx/Rx
                                                          F = Frequency in MHz
                                                          D = Distance in miles
                                                                                                       Link Calculation
      Rx Signal Level (RSL) =                                     Example:
                                                          F = 2.4 GHz = 2400 MHz                           Tx Power = +30 dBm
      Tx Power – LTx + GTx –FSL + GRx – LRx                       D = 1 mile                                     TL Loss = 5 dB
      G = Na (4p/l2)A                                          FSL = 104.2 dB                       Gain of Tx Antenna = 28 dBi
       l (ft) = 984/f (in MHz) = 0.41 ft                                                                          FSL = 104 dB
      A = pr2 = 12.57 ft2                                                                             Gain Rx Antenna = 28 dBi
      r = 2 ft                                                                                                   RL Loss = 5 dB
      G (dB) = 10Log(.65(4p/(.41)2)12.57 = 27.86 dB                                                             Total = -31 dBm

                                                                                                   Receiver Threshold = -90 dBm
                                                                                                                 Margin = 59 dB

          Microwave Radio Equipment

•   Radio Frequency Bands
•   Modulation
•   Bandwidth
•   Transmitted Power
•   Repeaters
             Equipment Configuration

•   Last Mile
•   Long Haul
•   Call Center Connectivity
•   Point to Point & Point to Multipoint
          Similarities in Satellite & Microwave

• Satellite is (a Bent Pipe) with A Repeater
  in Space and Terminals on the Ground
• A Microwave Link may have repeater(s)
  between terminals path Propagation
• Propagation principals the same
• Antennas- Some similar
• Same frequency bands
             Applications of Satellite/Microwave

• Voice/Video/Data Communications
•   Rural Telephony
•   News Gathering/Distribution

•   Internet Trunking

•   Tele-Medicine

•   Distance-Learning

•   Mobile Telephony
•   Videoconferencing
            Network Connectivity

•   Public Switched Telephone Network
•   Private Network
•   Corporate Network
•   Internet Connectivity
•   Stand Alone