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					Chapter 12

          Civilizations of East Asia
  589-617 – Sui Dynasty
  618 – 906 – Tang Dynasty
  960 – 1279 Sung Dynasty
  1275- 1292 – Marco Polo visits China
  1280 – 1368 The Mongols rule China
  1368 – 1644 The Ming Dynasty
I. China Under the Sui, Tang and
Sung Dynasties
A. Sui Dynasty
   1. The Han Dynasty collapses c. 220 and
   instability exists in China until the Sui
   come to power c. 589.
   2. Most Important Contribution – The
   Grand Canal – engineering marvel that
   linked North and South China.
   3. Short reign – overthrown in 618 by
Sui Dynasty
B. The Tang Dynasty
  1. Ruled for 300 years and created an
  empire that stretched from Korea to
  Turkestan – allowing for Chinese culture to
  2. Silk Road extremely important, exported
  silk, china and paper.
  3. Capital was C’hang-an (Xi’an) – center
  of government and culture, largest city in
  the world in the 700-800s. Nearly 2 million
  people of all backgrounds lived there.
Tang Dynasty

Map of Tang Dynasty
4. Considered a Golden Age for China
  a. Literature/ Poetry flourished – more
  than 49,000 known works
      1. Best Known Poets included – Li Bo
  and Du Fu. Li Bo, a Daoist, demonstrated
  love for life – legend says he drowned
  after drinking. Du Fu was a Confucianist,
  more serious. Most famous poem “A Song
  of Chariots” provides a view of the life of a
  Tang soldier.
Famous Poets

 Du Fu         Li Bo
5. Religion under the Tang
  a. Buddhism reached its peak in China
  during the Tang Dynasty.
  b. Empress Wu (690-705)– only woman to
  rule China in her own name – strongly
  supported Buddhism.
  c. The growth and wealth of Buddhist
  monasteries alarmed later rulers.
  Buddhists were persecuted and
  Confucianism became the government
6. Tang Inventions
  1. Gunpowder – used for fireworks (this is
  debatable, some scholars say Han
  invented it.)
  2. Fine pottery – now called China
  3. Began printing on paper using wooden
C. The Sung Dynasty
 1. Never had control of all of China –
 constant pressure from invaders – paid
 huge tributes to Mongols called Qidan to
 avoid war. A central Asian people, the
 Juchen took, over northern China in 1126,
 established the Jin Dynasty.
 2. Trade and Arts Important
     a. Exported gold, silver, copper and
 china, porcelain.
     b. Landscape paintings flourished –
 inspired by Daoism
Southern Sung Dynasty
Calligraphy and Pottery from Sung
3. Improved Civil Service exam to prevent
4. Improved Farming Methods allowed for the
   surplus production of rice and tea became an
   important crop.
5. Peasants became tenant farmers – because of
   high taxes under the Sung govt.
6. Under the Sung – more people lived in cities
   than ever before.
7. As some Chinese became wealthier foot
   binding became popular – this showed that a
   man’s wife did not have to work and that he
   was wealthy enough to have servants.
II. The Mongol Empire
A.   Genghis Khan and the Mongols

1. Mongols were originally from the area known today
    as Mongolia. They began invading China c.1211.

2. They were warlike, nomadic tribes that used horses
     and sophisticated weapons such as catapults and
     giant crossbows.

3.Genghis Khan (means Universal Ruler) –
    considered greatest Mongol leader, originally
    named Temujin, united Mongolian Tribes.
    Legend says that when he was born he had a
    bloodclot in the palm of his hand, an omen that
    he was destined to be a hero.
B. Mongol Conquests and Rule
  1.Genghis Kahn captured present day
  Beijing in the early 1200s. Then
  conquered Persia
 (This map reflects the Mongol Empire in 1227, when Genghis Khan
 died. His descendants expanded into Eastern Europe, the Middle
 East, and all of China )
2.Kublai Khan, Genghis'’ grandson,
invaded China, Tibet and SE Asia.

3. Batu Khan, another grandson,
invaded Russia and Poland around
4. In 1260 Kublai Khan became the
Great Khan and head of the Mongol
C. China Under the Mongols
  1. 1271 – Mongol Empire in North China
  became known as Yuan Dynasty. The
  Yuan Dynasty took over the Sung Dynasty
  and ruled China until 1368.
  2. The Yuan was the only foreign dynasty
  to rule all of China. At its height, the
  Mongol empire stretched from Korea to
  Hungary and as far south as Vietnam. It
  was the largest empire the world has ever
  3. The Mongols improved the road system
  linking China with Russia and promoted
  trade throughout the empire and with
  4. Mongols had more contact with
  Europeans – most famous Marco Polo
Insight about Marco Polo’s Book
 The Description of the World was written before
 the invention of the printing press, so copies were
 made by hand. The book delighted its readers and
 stimulated interest in China. Christopher
 Columbus owned a copy and studied it closely
 before beginning his journey in 1492 to what he
 thought would be China. Some observers saw
 Marco Polo as an astute observer with a keen
 memory. Others argue that Marco Polo made up
 his stories based on gossip and stories he heard.
 Marco failed to mention the Great Wall of China,
 tea, or the Chinese practice of binding the feet of
 women. Kublai Khan's records make no mention
 of the Polos. As an old man, Marco was asked if
 he invented the stories in his book. His answer
 was that he barely told half of what he actually
D. Chinese – Mongol Relations
 1. Mongols did not speak Chinese.
 2. Punishment for Chinese criminals
 more harsh than for Mongols.
 3. Local governments became more
 responsible to Beijing.
III. Japan, Korea and Southeast
A. Japan’s Geography
  1. 4 Main Islands, Northern Island –
  cold winters and heavy snowfalls.
  Southern Islands – tropical.

 2. Mountainous terrain and water
 have led to significant cultural
 diversity in Japan’s history.

 3. Even today significant regional
 dialects and variations in customs
  4. A theme running through Japanese
  history is the extent to which a central
  government has had problems
  keeping provinces under control –
  thus strong central institutions have
  developed throughout time as a
  response to fear over regional

5. Positives – plentiful rainfall and many
  rivers allow for easy irrigation and
  productive farming.

6. Negatives - Earthquakes, tidal waves
  and typhoons often hit islands.
B. Japanese Religion
  1. Japanese myths help explain the
  existence of various gods, or spirits
  (kami) which are at the core of the
  Japanese religion – Shinto – which
  means “the way of the Gods.”

2. Shinto is fundamentally one of
  nature-worship that helped explain
  changes in nature.
An example of the Shinto torii gate
3. Shinto has helped unify Japan
  throughout history.

4. Chinese introduced Buddhism
  around 550. It did not replace Shinto
  – most Japanese believed in both
C. Chinese Influence on Japan

1. Chinese writing by early 700s (but
  speak a different language)

2. Law Code from Tang Dynasty adopted
  around 700 centralized govt. and gave
  emperor more power.

3. 1100s – Zen Buddhism – taught
  salvation through enlightenment not
D. Feudal Japan – After 800s developed
  slowly over a few hundred years with two
  sources of power:
  1. The emperor influenced by powerful
      families, (such as the Fujiwara, the
      Minamoto, the Ashikaga)
  2. Powerful local leaders (the daimyo)
      with warriors called samurai that
      followed a code of behavior called
      Bushido – the way of the warrior.
  3. In 1192 the emperor gave Minamoto
  Yorimoto the title shogun - which gave him
  power over military, finance and laws.
4. More on the Samurai –
  a. the Bushido – the way of the
  warrior – contained elements of
  Confucianism, Buddhism and Shinto.
  Training in the martial arts was central
  to their lives – overtime this develops
  into excellent swordsmanship,
  archery and horseback riding.
  b. Extremely loyal to the daimyo –
  samurai would seppuku – a
  ceremonial suicide - if they were
E. Korea

1. Because of Korea’s location it has
  often been influenced or ruled by
  China and Mongols.

2. Koreans achieved independence
  form the Mongols in 1392. The Yi
  Dynasty came into power and ruled
  for centuries.
F. China’s Influence on Korea