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					                                FLS TMA COVER FORM (2007/2008)
 Course No: A210 Course Title: Approaching Literature TMA No: 04_
 Task: Discussing how Shakespeare's plays depict the universal struggle for power [see page 02]

Part (I): STUDENT INFORMATION (to be completed by student)
1. Name: Linda hazem qtaishat                              2. Registration No:020355
3. Section No:01                   4. Tel. :0795812103               5. E-mail:lena_kteshat@yahoo.com

I confirm that the work presented here is my own and is not copied from any source.
Student's signature:

Part (II): TUTOR'S REMARKS (to be completed by tutor)
Tutor's name:                                                   Signature:
Date TMA received:                                              Date returned:
TUTOR'S REMARKS:




Mark Allocated                                            STUDENT MARK
   to TMA
                    For Content        Marks deducted (for             Mark           Earned Mark (out of 8.75)
     8.75%          (mark out of      lang. & communication          out of 100        [Mark out of 100 x 8.75
                       100 )           errors: a max of 20%)                               divided by 100)




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Introduction



The following essay will discuss the universal struggle for power. I shall also
discuss two plays Henry V, and Julius Caesar, and refer to issue in the
performance of this theme in the two plays. Julius Caesar is a tragedy by
William Shakespeare probably written in 1955, it portrays the conspiracy
against the roman director. Its one of several shakes pear plays that are based
on true event from history, although the full title of the play is ―the Tragedy of
Julius Caesar‖ unlike other Shakespeare plays (e.g. Henry V, Hamlet) Caesar
wasn’t the central character in the action of the plays as expected the central
protagonist of the play is Brutus and the central psychological drama is his
struggle between the conflicting demands of honor, patriotism and friendship.
Henry V is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to be written in
1599. It is based on the life of King Henry V of England, and focuses on
events immediately before and after the Battle of Agincourt during the War.
The play is the final part of a tetra logy, preceded by Richard II, Henry IV,
part 1 and Henry IV, part 2. The original audiences would thus have already
been familiar with the title character, which was depicted in the Henry IV
plays as a wild, undisciplined lad known as "Prince Hal." In Henry V, the
young prince has become a mature man and embarks on an attempted
conquest of France. Henry V is one of Shakespeare so called history plays. It
forms the fourth part of a tetra logy. Henry V probably written in 1599 is one
of the most popular of Shakespeare. the play is full of noble speeches, heroic
battles, and valiant English underdogs , king Henry seems to be a perfect
leader brave, modest, and fiercely focused, but with a sense of humor to
match . Henry is presented as a nearly ideal king, with a diamond hard focus;
he emerges from the play as a heroic figure king as cold as he is brilliant
depends largely on each individual reader’s interpretation


Julius Caesar is a confident and very proud character, he thinks him self as the
semi-god especially after his triumph over the son of another roman, Caesar is
so ambition and will be absolute dictator destroying forever the Republic
Rome. In the play we see a brief picture of Roman life during the time of the
first triumvirate. Caesar is a clever character but malicious. Caesar and refuse
to aspect rising power in fate to be nothing more than a form of passivity.
As the play develops readers see a few signs of Caesar tragic end aside from
sooth-sayer waving, readers also see another sign when Caesar wife’s
Calpurnia wakes up frightened due to horrible night more. Power is the main
element in the play Julius Caesar. It is acquired and used in many different


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ways by Caesar, Cassius, Brutus and Anthony, as they are all individuals who
need different kinds of power to achieve their goals. In this whole conflict,
Caesar is at the center of this power struggle, in both life and death.



Shakespeare idea of tragedy main character:-

   1- Tragedy tells the story of people of high estate Caesar, falling into
      misfortune.
   2- The hero suffers from ―Hamartia‖, a fatal flaw or error of judgment this
      may be ―Hubris‖ over whelming pride as in Julius Caesar.
   3- Peripeteia there is a surprising reversal of fortune in the life of the hero.
      Caesar is killed by jealous men.
   4- Agnorisis in some heroes there is recognition of some grave
      unwelcome truth.

   Julius Caesar aspect of performance are important in role in the play,
   performance is almost about how imitate with all aspects while producing
   the story in the stage. The audience setting watching events on the theatre
   or as in Shakespeare time called the globe. There were three tires of all
   egeries the stage was bar with no decoration, embellishment, special
   effect. It could be produce thunder and lighting effects performance.
   The character in Shakespeare time should accompany particular emotion,
   so they acting was mere conventional, and more stylized.
   When play is staged, it’s a performance. In each age, Shakespeare plays,
   created different reactions in the audience. For example, Julius Caesar has
   been staged, audience have found it relevant to their times. For example, in
   Shakespeare own times, queen Elizabeth was ruling. She was seen as
   autocratic as Caesar in many performances in Europe; the play was seen as
   a warning to communism and dictatorship in general.
   Shakespeare plays have had other problem in performance. Technology,
   the performance is completely different, and is now making it possible to
   stage play with special. Effect we can project the face of Caesar. In film,
   the director, can present certain types of scenes in a thrilling manner. For
   example, a battle scene in the play, Henry V, is described in a few
   dialogues, but in film, it can be presented as a very exciting scene. In
   Shakespeare time, women were not allowed to act on stage, and there was
   no women character in play, but boys whose voices hadn’t broken played
   the character.

A tragic hero, is a literary who makes an error of judgment with fatal that
combined with fate and external forces, brings on a tragedy. The tragic flaw


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of Brutus is his idealistic views, which ultimately leads him directly and
indirectly into his death. In Julius Caesar, Brutus is the protagonist who
reveals a tragic flaw. Brutus was a man of moral and honor. Brutus fits the
definition of a tragic hero, because he did a great thing for Rome. If Caesar
was crowed and given the power to rule, the destruction that he may have
cause is unknown. Brutus tragic flaw was his trustfulness lack of political
skills and hubris, although Brutus not has done the best things at the time, his
ideas and intentions were not flawed. Brutus is a tragic hero because he
possesses some of the major requirement of a tragic hero. Finally, he is the
tragic hero since his tragic flaw leads to his demise. Throughout all the naive
decisions and assumptions Brutus still has another downfall. A flaw that is
closely related, but still different. The second flaw seen in Brutus is his one
sided perception of many things. His perceptions of attitudes, values, beliefs,
and more. This can be seen during his funeral speech. Focusing only on the
political aspects of the assassination, he not once stops to consider that Caesar
was more than a representation of the future Rome, but a person too Brutus
has two, maybe three, distinct flaws in his character, and many downfalls.
Brutus first is naive, and assumes to much about the people of Rome




     Power Struggle in Shakespeare

      Shakespeare's plays show some type of power struggle – a fight between
kings and people of high rank to hold on to power. Thus, the play Henry V is
about England's great king who wants to invade and conquer France. To
justify his action he raises false arguments like applying the Salic law. He
also has to justify the deaths of his own soldiers and the suffering it will cause
to their families. He justifies this by saying that if they die they will have
done their duties. His powerful speeches before battle are to frighten his
enemies and to prove to his own subjects how brave he is. He wants power at
any cost. Julius Caesar is another play about struggle for power. Caesar is a
Roman general who wants to become king. He has to put up an image of
being a truly great Roman – he does not believe in superstitions, does not fear
death, and never changes his decisions. His struggle for the throne leads to
his death.

A speech that is spoken by a character to himself. This reveals his thought in
a play. Shakespeare's characters like Brutus in Julius Caesar and Henry V
make soliloquies in which they reveal their secret thoughts. For example,


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Brutus reveals through one soliloquy why he would like that Caesar should be
killed. The speech shows he is a noble person and has no ill will towards
Caesar. He wants Caesar's death for the good of Rome. He doesn't want
Caesar to be king and a dictator. Henry V shows his guilty mind in one of his
soliloquies. He knows that his invasion or war with France will cause the
deaths of innocent people and soldiers, but he has no choice. He is a king and
has to pretend that his war is just.

Shakespeare's plays show the beliefs of the times. The play, Julius Caesar
refers to superstitions and astrology according to the beliefs of Shakespeare's
times. Also in his days, the Greek writer Plato's book, The Republic was read
and discussed. This book describes democracy as the right form of
government. The English people wanted freedom and considered Queen
Elizabeth I who was ruling then, like a dictator (like Julius Caesar himself).

Henry V was considered a great king by his people. The play shows how the
people still admired him and his famous speeches although he was not really
just in his actions. The pride in being English and being proud of an English
king is brought out through this play. Shakespeare’s plays also throw light on
the attitude to women in different western settings. Women were considered
subordinate to men. Thus Henry V, an Eng In "Julius Caesar", Caesar's wife
begs her husband slavishly not to go to the Senate for she has had a bad dream
list King lays claim to the French princess Katherine and calls her his
property.

Shakespeare plays, Henry V exists in two different early printed versions: the
folio version and an earlier quarto version. There are many differences
between the two versions, the most important of which involve of the
speeches of Westmorland, the Dauphin, and Bourbon. Additionally, the
character called Clarence in the quarto is called Bedford in the folio. A single
character who introduces each of the plays five acts. Like the group of singers
who comprised the Chorus in Greek drama. Henry is brilliant, focused,
fearless, and committed to the responsibilities of kingship. For example,
Henry often draws critism from modern readers for refusing to take
responsibility for the war in France.
Throughout Henry V Shakespeare has many moods, or them brought up
leadership burdens of leadership, or good qualities of a good leader, just and
unjust cause, and mercy and fairness. These all Henry choose to quite his old
ways. A lot of time, people get hurt, just as Falstaff did because of Henrys
decision about his friends. in presenting the figure of its heroic yet ruthless
protagonist, Henry V predominant concern is the nature of leadership and its
relationship to morality. The play proposes that the qualities that define a
good ruler are not necessarily the same qualities that define good person.


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Shakespeare portrayal of the king shows that power complicates the
traditional distinctions between heroism, the very nature of power is morally
ambiguous, which would account for the implicit critique of Henrys actions
that many contemporary readers find in the play. The catalog of characters
from different countries both the diversity of medieval England and
intensifies the audience sense of Henrys tremendous responsibility to his
notion. For the play that explore the nature of absolute political power, there
is something remarkable democratic in this enlivening portrayal of rich. This
disparate group of character types is not unanimous in supporting. In this
way, the plays exploration of the people of Britain becomes an important
facet of the plays larger exploration of power. Henry V has been praised by
many scholars as a vigorous portrayal of one of England's most popular
national heroes. While the central issue for critics has been the character of
the king and whether he represents Shakespeare's ideal ruler, modern
commentary has increasingly explored both Henry's positive and negative
attributes. Although the personality of the king has attracted significant
criticism, commentators have also shown renewed interest in Shakespeare's
attitude toward patriotism and war, his use of language and imagery, the
absence of Falstaff, and the play's epic elements, particularly Shakespeare's
use of the Chorus. The Chorus serves a different purpose in every act, but its
general role is to fire the audience imagination with strong descriptive
language that helps of the stage. The choruses the fact that the play is a
performance that require the audience mental cooperation to succeed, the play
suggest the impossibility of presenting the events as they really were as
chorus vainly wishes for ―a‖ kingdom for a stage. A tradition, impossible to
verify, holds that Henry V was the first play performed at the new Globe
Theatre in the spring of 1599; the Globe would have been the "wooden O"
mentioned in the Prologue. Samuel Pepys saw a Henry V in 1664—but it was
written by Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery, not by Shakespeare. Shakespeare's
play returned to the stage in 1723, in an adaptation by Aaron Hill.[2]There is
no evidence that Henry V was popular in Shakespeare's own time. However, it
is now frequently staged and many of its speeches have passed into popular
culture. A stirring example is from Shakespeare's Henry V.
 Performance entreating battle scenes, sreat speeches, comedy, defeat of
national army the Freud and coshrme. Political allusion to the contemporary
problem Elizabeth and succession and reference to Elizabeth of Essex of
behryed Elizabeth executed.
Henry V is the last play in a tetra logy. The larger story begins with the
overthrow of Richard II (ineffective monarch and tragic hero of the first play)
by the future Henry IV, who suffers pangs of guilt about his responsibility for
Richard's death. The story continues with the father-son struggle of Henry IV
and Hal, the heir apparent. The old king dies and the prodigal son assumes
power, banishing his former friend and mentor, Sir John Falstaff. In the


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present play, Henry V proves good, establishing himself as England's greatest
military general, the victor of the Battle of Agincourt.

In this essay discussed Julius Caesar and Henry V of struggle for power and
performance, then it has the funeral speeches of Brutus and Anthony made
after Caesar death and contrast them from the point of view of language.
Finally there were some comments on aspects of performance in Shakespeare
time and nowadays.



References:-

   1- Shakespeare and the canon/ chapter3- 5/edited by W.R. Owens and
      Elizabeth Goodman
   2- the new penguin Shakespeare/ Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare
      and Henry V / edited by Norman Sanders
   3- www.freeessays.com




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