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10          akzente 02/2009
                  SECURITY & DEVELOPMENT
                  THEMES   IN FOCUS: Two sides of a coin – development needs a secure environment,
                           and conversely lays the basis for security
                           INTERVIEW: Afghanistan’s Minister for Women’s Affairs, Dr Hussn Banu Ghazanfar
                           OVERVIEW: Examples of GTZ‘s work
                           IN BRIEF: The African peace and security architecture



akzente 02/2009                                                                                         11
 IN FOCUS




            Two sides of a coin
            Sustainable development can only succeed in a secure environment.
            At the same time, development must progress if countries and regions
            are to be stable and secure. How can security and development issues
            be usefully linked?




            Text Karin Vogelsberg Collage Mira Gatermann




            I
            L
                    argely unnoticed by the rest of the world, the servers          Around two-thirds of all wars and armed conflicts
                    in Estonia – a country with one of the best online         take place in these countries. The causes are diverse, and
                    connection rates in the world – were the object of         usually multiple, in the poorest countries in particular.
            heavy virtual attacks for three weeks in early 2007. In some       Poverty and discrimination, religiously or ethnically fuelled
            cases, these crippled the work of government offices, public       tension, government and economic crises, natural disasters,
            and private institutions and many companies. The damage of         rising food and energy prices, the struggle for scarce re-
            the Estonian cyber war was limited, and there were no per-         sources: all these – in isolation or as a complex – can trigger
            manent adverse consequences. Even so, the case throws a            insecurity and violence.
            light on two central aspects of the very real security situation        These causes of crisis are not new, but their explosive
            worldwide – and its importance for sustainable develop-            potential has increased. For example, because advancing
            ment. First, progress and successes in development, whether        climate change is making scarce resources such as water
            technological, ecological, economic or political, are fragile.     and farming land even scarcer in many places. Or because
            They need a secure and stable environment to develop, sur-         growing global interdependence means that financial and
            vive and grow. Second, the nature and range of threats to se-      economic crises have global effects – including and par-
            curity and stability change, demanding new solutions.              ticularly affecting less developed countries. ‘A particu-
                 ‘The number of armed conflicts between states is de-          larly dangerous feature is that conflicts and disasters of-
            creasing steadily worldwide,’ explains Jörg-Werner Haas,           ten lead to further crises, for example because destruc-
            director of GTZ’s Governance and Democracy division.               tion causes fresh shortages of certain essentials, which in
            ‘At the same time, there is still a large number of so-called      turn creates more explosive situations,’ says Jörg-Werner
            low-intensity violent conflicts in which fewer combatants          Haas. ‘As a result, countries and regions can slip into a
            are injured or killed, but which have more civilian victims.       vicious circle of violence and need, which is difficult to
            These weaken the state and society so much that sustain-           break.’
            able development is no longer possible.’ Frequently, devel-             It is now clear that security and development are two
            oping countries are the site of such conflicts.                    sides of the same coin. In his speech in 2005 at the »


12                                                                                                                              akzente 02/2009
> SECURITY FOR ALL

Globalisation means that regional prob-
lems have an effect well beyond a coun-
try’s borders. For example, a flood of
illegal refugees is causing serious prob-
lems for the countries of Southern Eu-
rope (picture below). Other global chal-
lenges can also only be solved by com-
bining forces. This point was emphasised
by Angela Merkel and Nicolas Sarkozy at
the 45th Munich Security Conference in
February 2009 (picture above).
 IN FOCUS




‘Crisis management and prevention have to be achieved through a combination
of political, development policy, police, cultural and – where necessary of
course – also military measures.’
                                         German Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel at the 45th Munich Security Conference on 7 February 2009




            41st Munich Security Conference, German Federal Presi-          ample, is very fragile, and in parts of the country conflicts
            dent Horst Köhler said that it was ‘almost a rule of thumb’     could break out again at any time. For this reason, we are
            that sustainable development is impossible without secu-        not only working on establishing state structures, but pay-
            rity. Development and security policy have become more          ing special attention to the conflict-sensitive and crisis-pre-
            aligned in recent years, after proceeding in virtual isola-     venting dimension of our work,’ Roman Poeschke notes.
            tion for so long. Very recently, however, the areas of inter-   ‘In the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the
            vention are overlapping more and more often. Striking           situation is very different. There, conflicts are still an every-
            examples of this tendency are Afghanistan and South-            day event, and many people are fleeing. Here, GTZ is en-
            East Europe.                                                    suring the survival of the refugees and assisting returnees in
                  Here and elsewhere, cooperation between civilian and      reintegrating into society. In countries like Guatemala, suf-
            non-civilian actors like GTZ and the German Federal             fering from the consequences of a settled conflict, we are
            Army is becoming increasingly important in international        working on behalf of BMZ on more long-term measures,
            cooperation practice. Experience has shown that military        such as establishing rule of law and social security sys-
            deployments alone cannot create and ensure lasting stable       tems.’
            conditions at the local level, while development successes
            are at risk or blocked in an insecure environment. This is
                                                                            Political decisions as a basis
            why GTZ, for example, is advising African armed forces on
            peacekeeping work, on behalf of BMZ. ‘The decisive factor       The closer interconnection of development and security as-
            is that civilian and military measures must be linked to-       pects in practice is the result of the political principles and
            gether as optimally as possible,’ summarises Roman              goals of individual states, regional alliances and interna-
            Poeschke, also from GTZ’s Governance and Democracy              tional organisations. With their strategies, they are aiming
            division. ‘From prevention to follow-up, everything has to      at sustainably improving living conditions for people in
            be packaged in an integrated approach.’                         crisis areas. The international community is also acting in
                                                                            its own security interests by promoting prosperity and sta-
                                                                            bility in developing countries. Globalisation means that re-
            The approach depends on the situation
                                                                            gional conflict and friction that may appear remote have ef-
            In their cooperation, the various actors operate with their     fects far beyond the borders of a single country.
            own time horizons. While military deployments are de-                For example, the flood of refugees from Africa is pos-
            signed to be relatively short and quickly resolve a critical    ing serious social and economic problems for countries in
            situation, development cooperation aims at long-term on-        Southern Europe. Terrorists find a haven in failing states.
            going commitment, before, during and after a crisis. The        What are the international organisations, nations and alli-
            goal is always to help achieve security for people and stabi-   ances doing specifically to meet these diverse and complex
            lise societies. How this is done, and what methods and ap-      challenges? The EU regards crisis prevention as one of its
            proaches are useful, depends on the situation in the specific   most important foreign policy goals. Protecting human
            country. ‘The security situation in the Philippines, for ex-    rights and strengthening democratic structures are particu-


14                                                                                                                             akzente 02/2009
larly important in this context. When necessary, however,             ing companies have committed to treating people and the
the EU also organises police and military interventions,              environment responsibly.
taking a burden from NATO, with which it has a joint
statement on cooperation in crisis management. NATO it-
                                                                      Regions on different paths
self no longer sees itself as a defensive alliance, and is also
active in global crisis prevention. ‘We need to protect our-          Regional alliances on all continents are working on pre-
selves by spreading stability and intervening where neces-            venting or handling crises and disasters with their own re-
sary,’ states Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer.                sources. These efforts are particularly intensive in Africa,
      The United Nations Development Programme                        where a whole range of initiatives and groups are active.
(UNDP) supports approaches in crisis prevention, peace                     The African Union sees conflict resolution as an im-
efforts and reconstruction. UNDP staff seek to contribute             portant prerequisite for Africa’s economic development. In
to stability by reducing poverty and establishing functional          2004, it formed the Peace and Security Council, which can
government structures and organisations. The programmes               take military action in crisis situations and authorise peace
are always carried out in agreement with the national gov-            missions (see article on page 21). By 2010 the Council
ernment. However, it is not enough to include only ‘offi-             plans to form a peacekeeping force with regional brigades
cial’ entities in crisis prevention – all parts of society are ad-    that will include both civilian and military elements.
dressed. This is why the UN is also looking for private sec-               The initiative New Partnership for Africa’s Develop-
tor support for development and stability. One example of             ment aims to promote good governance, and the members
this approach is the Global Compact Initiative. Participat-           of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development »




ARMAMENT IS VERY VALUABLE FOR MANY COUNTRIES
Globally, ten times as much was spent on arms in 2007 than on development cooperation.



 Worldwide
                  0.2%
   2.5%




                                                                                                                            UK
                                                                                                                2.6%        0.4%



                                             USA
                                                               0.2%
                                             4.2%                                                                                  Germany 1.3%             0.4%

                                                                                                                France
                                                                                                      2.4%      0.4%




  Arms spending as % of GDP 2007 (rounded)
  Spending on development cooperation as % of GDP 2007 (rounded)                                                       Source: Figures based on World Bank and SIPRI material




akzente 02/2009                                                                                                                                                         15
> EDUCATION AGAINST VIOLENCE

In rural Afghanistan it is by no means
certain that children will get basic
schooling – particularly not girls.
Two-thirds of all men and more than
three-quarters of all women in the
country cannot read or write. This is
why improving basic and vocational
education and promoting social
participation by women are priorities
for German development cooperation
in Afghanistan. Education creates
prospects and alternatives to violence.
                                                                                                                                            IN FOCUS




have set up an early warning system for conflicts over re-      to date in the principle of non-intervention in the affairs of
sources in border areas of the Horn of Africa.                  other member states.
     Support for African initiatives includes the Africa Ac-         In Latin America, the Union of South American Na-
tion Plan of the G8 nations. The Organisation for Eco-          tions established a joint security council in March 2009,
nomic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has for               which is intended to act as a forum for sharing experience
years taken a broad approach to security and conflict trans-    between member state defence ministries.
formation, based on open dialogue and good networking.
Its focus is on preventing conflicts, institution building,
                                                                Germany backs crisis prevention
election monitoring and disarmament. There are also signs
of initial efforts in Asia. The member states of the Associa-   The idea that central objectives of German development
tion of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) adopted a char-         cooperation, such as halving extreme poverty by 2015 in
ter at the end of 2007 which commits the member states to       accordance with the Millennium Development Goals, can
protecting democracy, rule of law and human rights, and         only be achieved by promoting peaceful coexistence is seen
bans atomic weapons. However, there has been no change          as a matter of course by the German Federal Ministry »»




  » INTERVIEW

  ‘WE HAVE ALREADY ACHIEVED A LOT’
                        Dr Hussn Banu              such as forced marriages, child marriages,          can’t trade in the bazaar – they have to
                        Ghazanfar                  and using women as pawns in family dis-             sell their products to male intermediaries,
                        Minister for               putes. This can’t be overcome in five or ten        and lose income.
                        Women’s Affairs            years. A lot of persuasion is needed, particu-
                        in Afghanistan             larly in rural areas. Education is important in     What do you think the life of an Afghan wo-
                                                   this. It helps to distinguish between what re-      man will look like in 10 years?
                                                   ligion says, what the constitution says, and        ... That’s a long time. But I think that wo-
                                                   what are obsolete customs. However, there’s         men could make up one-third of the go-
                                                   not enough time or money for education now.         vernment. We will see them in business,
  Madam Minister, what are the biggest             The war and civil war in recent years has           cultural life, intellectual life. But there will
  problems for Afghan women?                       turned many women into refugees and wi-             still be a lot to do.
  For centuries, Afghan women have had no          dows. They have to feed their families.             Today, at least, we have got back to the
  access to education. Even in the cities,                                                             point where girls are going to school. We
  progressive groups only started sending          How does the current security situation affect      have women as ambassadors, members of
  their daughters to girls’ schools a centu-       women?                                              parliament and ministers. We want to build
  ry ago. In Juzjan Province, my sister and I      Very directly. You think carefully about            on this success. It’s important that we are
  were still pioneers just 40 years ago. Only      whether your daughter can leave the home            not abandoned. We need the support of in-
  when we turned out not to be at a disad-         just to learn something. There are threats of       ternational partners, including our German
  vantage were neighbours’ daughters also          attacks. In Kandahar a factory run by women         partners.
  allowed to go to school. This trend was          had to close because of threats. In Uruz-
  abruptly stopped under Taliban rule.             gan Province, fear of Taliban attacks is ham-       Interview: Katharina Rodriguez, project mana-
  Another problem is traditional customs           pering projects to promote women. Women             ger, Gender Mainstreaming Project in Kabul



akzente 02/2009                                                                                                                                        17
 IN FOCUS




FROM GTZ’S WORK


 GEORGIA

 Know-how and networking help members of parliament
 Client: European Commission, financed by the EU programme
 Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS)
 Project partner: Georgian parliament
 Term: 2005-2009

 The aim is to make the work of the Georgian parliament more efficient with a view to EU
 alignment, among other things. GTZ is advising on draft legislation, the participation of
 civil society in parliamentary processes, the parliament’s function of monitoring the gov-
 ernment, PR work, the creation of information databases and EU information centres. It
 is promoting study tours by members of parliament and networking between the Geor-
 gian parliament, parliaments of other EU states and the European Parliament. These ac-
 tivities have been successful. There are professional contacts with a growing number of
 parliaments. Members of parliament and the general public are able to get information,
 and technical literature on new legal issues has been translated and published.




                         AFRICA & AFGHANISTAN

                         Partnership between UNHCR                                                                         of arrival, reintegra-
                                                                                                                           tion is made easier by
                         and BMZ                                                                                           building housing and
                                                                                                                           schools, and measures
                         Clients: Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and                                            to develop villages and
                         Development (BMZ), UN High Commissioner for Refugees                                              generate income. Young
                         Countries: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Southern Sudan,                                               people in particular
                         the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi,                                                    are trained in a craft.
                         Rwanda, Afghanistan                                            Protection for refugees            Since 2005, 2.7 milli-
                         Term: since 2005                                                                                  on refugees have been
                                                                                                                                                         PHOTOS: URSULA MEISSNER/GTZ, DPA - FOTOREPORT




                                                                                        repatriated, 175,000 housing units, 5,700 social and com-
                         The global partnership programme of the UNHCR and              mercial facilities and 1,500 km of roads built, 75,000
                         BMZ is securing the basis for living for refugees and dis-     communities assisted where refugees have returned, and
                         placed persons at their place of refuge, and – if desired      600 small projects implemented with affected persons
                         – returning them to their home and reintegrating them.         and local authorities. 33,000 people have received basic
                         People are assisted in camps and with return trans-            vocational training. In 2009 alone, 1.3 million refugees
                         port, and provided with food and health care. This re-         will be cared for in camps, 150,000 brought back to their
                         quires effective logistics and infrastructure. At the points   home, and 85,000 assisted with reintegration.



18                                                                                                                                     akzente 02/2009
                                         COLOMBIA

                                         New law creates legal basis for peace
                                         Client: Federal Foreign Office
                                         Lead executing agency: Colombian public prosecutor’s office
                                         Term: February 2008 to December 2009

                                         Colombia’s Justice and Peace Act creates a legal framework for dealing with human
                                         rights violations which explicitly takes account of the concerns of the victims. This
                                         is important for the success of the national peace process. GTZ is advising the public
                                         prosecutor’s office on improving the legal basis for ensuring the uniform interpretation
                                         of law and international standards. One innovation is the use of mobile courtrooms with
                                         video transmission to enable victims of crimes by paramilitary and guerrilla forces to
                                         participate in hearings even in remote areas. Between June and December 2008,
                                         4,061 victims participated in 31 hearings, and not only convinced themselves that
                                         proceedings were carried out in an orderly fashion but also exercised their right to
                                         participate actively in the hearing.




                  INDONESIA

                  Tsunami early warning                                                                      developed a modular,
                                                                                                             standardised concept
                  Client, overall management: German Research Centre                                         with procedures and
                  for Geosciences (GFZ), Potsdam, funded by the                                              responsibilities which
                  Federal Ministry of Education and Research                                                 includes govern-
                  Project partner: State Ministry of Research and                                            ment agencies, pub-
                  Technology                                                                                 lic institutions and
                  Term: 2006-2010                                                                            the tourist industry.
                                                                           Evacuation plan                   The technology was
                  In response to the disaster in 2004, the Indonesian                                        commissioned at the
                  Government is installing a tsunami early warning sys-    end of November 2008. The first training measures at
                  tem with German assistance. The core is a sensor         a number of locations included evacuation drills with
                  technology developed under the direction of GFZ, Pots-   members of the public. The concept can be transferred
                  dam, which sends out an alarm in the event of dan-       to other vulnerable regions of Indonesia. Besides GFZ
                  ger. Regional and municipal authorities, police, fire    Potsdam, GTZ and CIM, Inwent, the German Federal In-
                  brigades, disaster protection units and the population   stitute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR)
                  must then be notified, and evacuation plans put into     and the United Nations University (UNU) are also par-
                  action. For this part of the warning system, GTZ has     ticipating.



akzente 02/2009                                                                                                                       19
 IN FOCUS




                        for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). The              tems in Indonesia. Western industrialised nations are also
                        German Federal Government therefore made the promo-              participating in mine clearing programmes. Following the
                        tion of human security and disarmament firm components           motto ‘prevention is better than cure’, the German Federal
                        of its Program of Action 2015, which aims to reduce pov-         Government is giving special priority to crisis prevention.
                        erty. On this basis, Germany is participating in numerous        It regards this as a cross-cutting task which has to be an ele-
                        initiatives and projects for crisis prevention, restoring sta-   ment of all areas of policy, requiring well coordinated ac-
                        bility and peace, disaster risk management and responding        tion and clear responsibilities, and should be initiated as
                        to climate change. This commitment ranges from assisting         early as possible before the outbreak of violence. The Ger-
                        the African Union with establishing institutions for early       man Federal Government has formulated its most impor-
                        warning in crisis situations to tsunami early warning sys-       tant approaches in the action plan ‘Civilian crisis pre- »




GTZ photo competition on the theme of security
For the annual photo competition, GTZ staff in Germany and abroad are –
literally – visualising GTZ’s 2009 spotlight for themselves.




                                                                                         (Picture left) Elise Vigier ‘Carefree’: Afghan children jump around
                                                                                         on the remains of a Russian tank. (Picture above) Peter Matz
                                                                                         ‘Everything aboard’: necessity is the mother of invention. (Picture
                                                                                         below) Walter Keller ‘Mines’: after more than 20 years of civil
                                                                                         war in Sri Lanka, landmines are still buried in many areas on
                                                                                         the island.


20                                                                                                                                           akzente 02/2009
  AFRICAN PEACE AND SECURITY ARCHITECTURE
                  Many African nations want to assume more responsibility for peace and security on the continent. The
                    African Union has accordingly received a mandate from its member states to establish institutions and
                    committees to develop an African peace and security architecture.




                                                                                               components of the African Standby Force.
  THIS AFRICAN PEACE AND SECURITY ARCHITECTURE COVERS:                                         The strategic management capacity of
                                                                                               the African Union’s Peace and Security
    a peace and security council at the highest political level, which decides among other     Department is also being improved. The
    things on interventions in crises and peace missions                                       Federal Foreign Office is funding a build-
    a permanent Peace and Security Directorate, located at the African Union Commission        ing with the most modern infrastruc-
    a continental crisis early warning system, supplemented by regional systems                ture. A border programme with the Afri-
    a Panel of the Wise for mediation in conflicts and quiet diplomacy                         can Union is reducing the risk of border
    the African Standby Force for peace missions in crisis areas, which is able to perform     conflicts. Disputed borders are surveyed
    military, police and civilian functions                                                    and marked, cross-border cooperation
    a fund to finance measures to promote peace                                                between communities promoted, and the
                                                                                               African Union’s human and institution-
                                                                                               al resources strengthened in the area of
                                                                                               border management.
                                                                                               The Federal Ministry of Defence is di-
  THE ESTABLISHMENT of individual com-           ly warning system for the African Union,      rectly assisting the establishment of the
  mittees and institutions, the descrip-         with its regional components (including       African Standby Force in its military ar-
  tion of their tasks, coordination, staff-      East Africa). For the early warning sys-      eas. For example, German military advis-
  ing and employee training are matters for      tems, a common reference framework was        ers are being assigned to African train-
  the African Union and regional organisa-       developed. GTZ continues to advise on         ing centres to help plan and implement
  tions in the five African subregions, such     structuring the civilian component of the     training for peacekeeping troops.
  as the Economic Community of West Af-          African Standby Force. Some 300 partici-
  rican States (ECOWAS) and the East Afri-       pants benefited from courses on civilian-
  can Community (EAC).                           military cooperation and disarmament,
  On behalf of the German Federal Gov-           demobilisation and reintegration, and ci-
  ernment, the Federal Foreign Office and        vilian experts took part in regional troop
  the Federal Ministry for Economic Coop-        exercises. In 2008 the Southern African
  eration and Development (BMZ) are sup-         Development Community reoriented its
  porting the establishment of an African        training for peace missions. Institutions
  peace and security architecture, and have      and procedures for conflict mediation are
  placed corresponding commissions with          another BMZ priority area. Assistance is
  GTZ. In addition, the Federal Ministry of      also provided for election monitoring mis-       www.africa-union.org
  Defence is taking direct action.               sions, small arms control and reconstruc-
  The focus for BMZ is on capacity devel-        tion measures after conflicts. The Feder-
  opment – building institutional capaci-        al Foreign Office is helping to develop an    Julie Kolsdorf is a member of staff in GTZ’s
  ties - and networking. Assistance focuses      African peace and security architecture by    African department, working on coordination
  on establishing a continental crisis ear-      providing assistance to police and civilian   in the thematic area peace and security.



akzente 02/2009                                                                                                                               21
 IN FOCUS




            vention, conflict resolution and post-conflict peace-build-      avoid reigniting hostilities.’ In this, GTZ benefits from its
            ing’. Besides disarmament and arms control, this includes        close cooperation and mutual trust with local partners.
            above all establishing reliable state structures, creating       These know the local situation and are able to assess poten-
            peace potential in civil society and securing opportunities      tial for conflict accurately.
            for life. ‘Each of these points covers a whole range of action
            areas,’ Roman Poeschke points out. ‘For example, establish-
                                                                             Staff need protection
            ing reliable state structures involves promoting rule of law
            and assisting developing countries in establishing or reor-      As far as possible, Germany is maintaining its commit-
            ganising their police forces.                                    ment today even where conditions are difficult and those
                  However, projects which help countries guarantee re-       in power are less than cooperative. Prevention has the po-
            spect for human rights, promote equal opportunity or pro-        tential to achieve major successes even in unstable states,
            tect minorities also fall under this heading.’                   and is more economical than reconstruction after a total
                                                                             collapse.
                                                                                  However, careful consideration is needed with unsta-
            ‘Do no harm’
                                                                             ble states in particular. For people in international coopera-
            All the activities of German international cooperation fol-      tion, working in such regions can be life-threatening. In re-
            low the guiding principle ‘do no harm’. This means that the      cent years the security situation has become more serious
            involvement should not unintentionally make conflicts            in many countries of assignment. Over half the countries
            worse. ‘This can happen, for example, if individual interest     where German development cooperation is working are
            groups are excluded in dealing with problems,’ Roman             threatened by violent conflict or are dealing with the re-
            Poeschke explains.                                               sults of war and terror. In Afghanistan, for example, or the
                 ‘For this reason, GTZ-assisted projects involve parties     Democratic Republic of the Congo, there is a situation of
            to the conflict which are seeking a constructive solution, to    latent or acute violence. More and more, the various parties
                                                                             to the conflicts are trying to make use of aid and aid work-
                                                                             ers for their own purposes. The situation is often particu-
                                                                             larly risky for national personnel of foreign organisations
              Security – a concept in                                        in international cooperation, because they frequently use
                                                                             their local knowledge to act as intermediaries in critical sit-
              transformation                                                 uations. To minimise risks, organisations like GTZ have
              The concept of security in the field of international          developed detailed crisis plans for their staff and estab-
              relations has undergone a transformation in recent             lished risk management offices (see box on page 24). In
              decades. Originally, it related to the security of             doubt, your security always has priority.
              states, and focused on military threats and avoid-
              ing these. In 1994 the United Nations Development
                                                                             Europe as an example
              Programme developed the concept of human secu-
              rity. This shifts the focus from a state-centred con-          Experience teaches us that it often takes a very long time for
              cept of security to a people-centred concept, with             stability and peace to establish themselves. This requires pa-
              the justification that a state often fails to meet its         tience and stamina on the part of international cooperation
              security obligations, and in some cases becomes                and all other actors. European history is the best example of
              a threat to its own population. By ‘human security’            how even the deepest divisions can be bridged. The Stability
              the United Nations means a situation where every-              Pact in Southeastern Europe, which is regarded as a text-
              one is free from fear and want and is allowed to               book example of regional crisis prevention, shows how well
              stand up for themselves. This extended concept                 crisis prevention by the international community can func-
              of security, which is also the basis of GTZ’s work,            tion if activities are planned for the long term and are coor-
              also includes threats which can arise from the col-            dinated well. This was launched at the initiative of the Ger-
              lapse of states and regions, ecological disasters,             man Federal Government after the Kosovo crisis in 1999,
              new forms of terrorism, or deliberate attacks on               and has brought together the countries of South-East Eu-
              information systems.                                           rope and over 40 donor countries and organisations. Its goal
                                                                             was to bring permanent stability to the whole region, »


22                                                                                                                            akzente 02/2009
                  > PREVENTION AND CURE

                  Natural disasters like the 2004 tsuna-
                  mi destroy life and vital resources. The
                  resulting shortages and uncertainty are
                  a natural breeding ground for conflicts.
                  In numerous projects – most conducted
                  on behalf of BMZ – GTZ is contributing
                  to the reconstruction, for example in Sri
                  Lanka (picture above). Another impor-
                  tant activity area is improving protection
                  against natural disasters.
                  In Indonesia, GTZ is assisting with set-
                  ting up a tsunami early warning system
                  (picture below).



akzente 02/2009                                            23
 IN FOCUS




            and this has been largely achieved. The stability pact has                         donor countries and peacekeepers, so that secure condi-
            helped make it possible for regional cooperation structures                        tions can be created for sustainable development,’ states
            to be established or revived. It has significantly improved                        Roman Poeschke. ‘It’s clear that the complex and often
            the prospects of the western Balkan nations joining the EU,                        multicausal crises and conflicts today can only be prevented
            and also mobilised substantial aid for South-East Europe.                          or resolved by bundling a lot of different forces. With its
                 ‘Such networking, consultation and agreement on                               know-how and long-term perspective, international coop-
            goals will be needed much more often in future between                             eration can make a decisive contribution here.’




              » NEEDED

              DON’T WAIT FOR THE CRISIS!
                                               Cornelia Schomaker                              sions, often in regions with critical security situations.
                                               team leader at GTZ’s                            GTZ intends to keep the risk to its staff as low as
                                               crisis desk COPE*),                             possible through professional security and crisis man-
                                               talks to akzente                                agement. ‘We are currently operationalising a compre-
                                                                                               hensive action framework for security and crisis man-
                                                                                               agement by introducing practical recommendations and
                                                                                               requirements.’ The framework describes critical sce-
                                                                                               narios and provides suitable models for strategies and
                                                                                               action. Task and responsibilities are assigned for in-
              ‘The safety of our staff is very important to us. We in-                         dividual situations. ‘We want to stay one step ahead
              vest in precautionary measures and avoiding risks.’ At                           of the crisis. Standardised security precautions reduce
              GTZ Head Office in Germany, Cornelia Schomaker has                               risks and ideally make crisis management redundant,’
              been working with colleagues on the details of a new                             is how Cornelia Schomaker describes important ele-
              security strategy since the start of 2008. ‘We are just                          ments of the GTZ security strategy.
              completing a paradigm shift, away from backstop-                                 The preventive approach includes – depending on the
              ping existing conflicts and crises and towards preven-                           specific conditions – regular risk forecasts for coun-
              tion. Advising management on security issues in coun-                            tries and project regions with potential dangers and
              tries of assignment and projects is becoming more and                            security instructions for staff. For high-risk countries
              more important. Each individual is prepared for his/her                          such as Afghanistan, this also involves the appoint-
              stay abroad.’                                                                    ment of full time security advisers and the establish-
              In recent years, the potential risk to GTZ staff has in-                         ment of continuously-staffed security offices.
              creased. ‘In 2008 alone there were 70 crises which                               There is also still support available in personal emer-
              affected GTZ staff directly or indirectly,’ Schomak-                             gencies and in crises. GTZ’s crisis desk COPE is on call
              er notes. There are various reasons for this. As GTZ’s                           around-the-clock, as are GTZ’s Medical Services.
              main client, BMZ is increasingly focusing its work in
                                                                                                                                                                PHOTOS: CORBIS, ISTOCK, GTZ




              fragile states or countries with a high level of criminal                        The interview was conducted by Carola Ritzenhoff and
              violence. GTZ is also taking on humanitarian commis-                             Wolfgang Barina.

              *) COPE stands for ‘Cooperation with personnel in stress, conflict and crisis’




24                                                                                                                                            akzente 02/2009
Security in numbers
1946

                                                                             30%
                  THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL meets for the
                  first time. Under the UN Charter, it has
                  primary responsibility for the maintenance of                                     of all Berlin inhabitants feel unsafe.
                  international peace and security. The Council              This is the result of a UN study. In New York, on the other
                  has five permanent and ten non-permanent                   hand, the figure is only a little over 20%. The least secure
                  members, elected for a term of two years. It               are the inhabitants of São Paulo. Three out of four admitted
                  adopted 1,869 resolutions up to the end of                 that they preferred not to go out at night. In Hong Kong, by
                  March 2009. These are aimed at states or                   contrast, only one person in 20 had problems.
                  parties to conflicts which violate international
                  law or endanger international security.




HAPPY BIRTHDAY, seat belt! 50 years
ago the Swedish car manufacturers
Volvo and Saab were the first to equip
their vehicles with belts as stand-
ard. Today, they are compulsory in eve-
ry car, and it is estimated that they
have saved a million lives worldwide
in the last fifty years. In Germany, any
                                                                     180
                                                         EUR 8,700,000,000
                                                                             THIS IS THE NUMBER of inhabitants for every police officer in Sweden. This
                                                                             makes Sweden one of the safest countries worldwide – at least statistically.
                                                                             South Africa, which has one of the highest crime rates, has over 170,000 po-
                                                                             lice officers, or one for every 290 or so South Africans.




driver who fails to put on a seat belt
has been subject to a fine since 1984                      This was the total value in 2007 of arms sales by German companies
– and rightly so. Drivers without seat                    like ThyssenKrupp and Krauss-Maffei Wegmann to countries all over the
belts are seven times more likely to                      world. This makes Germany the leading European exporter of ammuni-
die in an accident than drivers who                       tions and weapons, and the world’s third-largest arms exporter, after the
wear seat belts.                                          USA and Russia. More than 126 countries ordered from German compa-
                                                          nies, with 19,000 assault rifles and 10,000 submachine guns ordered in
                                                          one year alone.


akzente 02/2009                                                                                                                                       25

				
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