"Cost Cutting Strategies in Hrm During Economic Slowdown"
ASSESSMENT OF THE MENA-OECD GOVERNANCE PROGRAMME [Type text] 2008-2009 [Type text] Assessing the Thematic Outputs and Achievements of the MENA-OECD Governance Programme The OECD-MENA Governance Programme is part of an overall OECD Initiative on Governance and Investment for Development, launched in 2005. The MENA-OECD Governance Programme implements the Good Governance for Development (GfD) in Arab Countries Initiative, which is jointly carried out by the OECD and UNDP. The Steering Group of the Good Governance for Development in Arab Countries Initiative decided at its Ministerial Conference in November 2007 to adopt the Terms of Reference for each Working Group. Complemented by a detailed Programme of Work for 2008-2010 (Terms of Reference) that sets the strategic framework for the implementation of the activities of the Working Groups. The Initiative made important progress in 2008 and 2009, successfully fulfilling the Programme objectives. The demand-driven approach of the Programme has proven effective in achieving its results as it reflects the stakeholders’ needs and expectations. This report provides a broad assessment of the implementation of the Programme of Work, putting emphasis on some of the concrete results achieved by the various Working Groups and Focus Groups. The assessment reports on the thematic priorities covering the fields of Human Resources Management, Integrity, e-Government, Administrative Simplification, Regulatory Reform, Public- Private Partnerships, Public Finance, as well as cross-cutting issues such as Gender and Environment. This report also presents concrete impacts of the process of reform supported by the MENA-OECD Programme in MENA countries, as well as outputs and outcomes from a governance perspective. This Assessment reports on a large number of activities: regional dialogue arising from seminars or workshops; capacity-building activities, national adaptation of policy design resulting from tailor-made peer-to-peer studies, joint learning activities, study visits or training sessions. The following assessment provides insights on how the MENA-OECD Governance Programme can build capacities in linking governments from MENA and OECD countries and allow for regional knowledge sharing and networking. In 2008, the publication of the “First OECD Joint Learning Study on Enhancing Integrity in Public Procurement in Morocco” has proven that the OECD can effectively support MENA countries on their path to governance reform, by adapting OECD tested tools to the national policy context of a country. In 2009, the progress report on Public Governance Reform in the Middle East and North Africa shed light on the reform achievements reached by countries in some key areas. This report will show a new commitment to the reform of public governance over the past five years in MENA countries, underlining how countries have developed cross-cutting initiatives to improve public governance and to integrate these initiatives into national reform programs. TABLE OF CONTENT Report of the Actions- and Results-Oriented TABLE OF CONTENTS Priorities of the Thematic Working MENA-OECD Governance Programme Working Group I on Civil Service and Integrity Integrity in the Public Sector ………………………………………. P. 5 Human Resources Management ………………………………… P. 7 Working Group II on E-Government and Administrative Simplification E-Government ……………………………………………………………. P. 12 Administrative Simplification ……………………………………… P. 14 Working Group III on Governance and Public Finance Governance of Public Finance ……………………………………. P. 18 Working Group IV on Public Service, PPPs, and Regulatory Reform Regulatory Reform …………….………………………………………. P. 22 PPPs and Public Service Delivery ………………………………… P. 25 Cross-cutting Issues Environment and Governance of Water ………………………. P. 28 Gender Policies .………………………...………………………………… P. 30 Regional Centers …………………………………..…………………. P. 32 1 MANAGING THE IMPACT OF THE CRISIS th MANAGING REFORM IN A PERIOD agenda, and a number of necessary orientations. Discussions of the 5 OF SLOWDOWN modernisation processes, as for regional meeting of the Working Group example in the area of e-government, on Civil Service and Integrity held on Workshops and capacity-building could be perceived as too costly and 16-17 June 2009 in Rabat emphasised seminars of the various Working low-priority. Policies oriented to adjust that all MENA countries maintain their Groups have addressed the impact of the size of government and downsize traditional public employment policies the crisis on public governance reforms the civil service may also be challenged aiming to absorb a high proportion of in MENA countries. Technical experts by the crisis as the public sector has to the qualified young population. have exchanged intensive discussions deal with the implications of increased and experiences on concrete policy unemployment. Policy dialogue revolved around measures to adjust structural Discussions reflected on the impact of the crisis as a result of governance reforms to the impact of appropriate policy instruments to which OECD countries have the crisis. effectively respond to the crisis. They experienced a collapse in growth, The high-level meeting on Moving presented mechanisms for the co- public expenses increment and rise in Forward with the Governance Reform ordination, the adequate sequencing unemployment. The change in the Agenda was held on 5 March 2009 in and the prioritization of public public employer’s role is a major Cairo, Egypt, provided government governance reforms in times of breakthrough. The civil service is going officials from MENA and OECD economic crisis. Several participating to become a “safe investment” for governments with the opportunity, for countries underlined the utmost workers and the average earnings in the first time, to discuss in a regional importance of leadership, citizen the public sector are favourable against forum the impact of the economic and consultation and enforced the private sector, even in position- financial crisis, as well as strategies for accountability mechanisms in the based countries where the competition moving forward with national government’s dealing with the crisis. for talent with the private sector is governance reform agendas in times of traditionally tight. As a result, many economic uncertainty. ADJUSTING PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT OECD countries are in the process of adapting their HRM policies, such as POLICIES TO CRISIS Delegates discussed, in particular, freezing civil servants’ wages, reducing whether, and to what extent, the head counts to increase productivity, current global economic and financial constraining spending growth or crisis can provide the base for change achieving efficiency savings targets. and a window of opportunity for Country experience shows that there is governance reform, or on the contrary, no main trend in public employment whether it becomes an obstacle to with a view of alleviating the impact of reform by increasing resistance and the crisis: some countries have slowing down the pace of reforms. voluntarily increased the entry Participants agreed that the recruitment rate (i.e. Tunisia, Turkey, impact of the economy on reform UK), while others have reinforced their projects has to be considered carefully commitment to downsize the when shaping and implementing workforce (i.e. France, Belgium). reform strategies. They recognised that critical economic and financial ENHANCING INTEGRITY DURING situations can become a reform driver CRISIS THROUGH PUBLIC and an incentive for adapting Public employment has traditionally PROCUREMENT government action. The general been a policy option to avoid large opinion expressed in the meeting was Discussions of the Special Session on percentages of unemployment in that the current situation should not be Integrity on 5 May 2009 reviewed the several MENA countries. Although this key challenges decision-makers are used to justify the deceleration of mechanism plays a role in terms of facing in MENA. The global financial required reforms. social cohesion, several concerns arise crisis is a test for governments. Their However, the policy priorities and regarding public administration role is critical in designing and the sequencing of reforms may shift performance and the cost of wage bills. implementing anti-crisis measures. In when economic uncertainty prevails. Few MENA countries have adjusted this time of challenge, the integrity of Delegates from MENA countries noted their public employment level to wage both public officials and decision- that the implementation of previous bill projections in line with their HRM making remains under constant decisions can be postponed, new policy policies in order to introduce scrutiny and can affect public trust in elements can be introduced in the alternative public management government. Countries are increasingly 2 MANAGING THE IMPACT OF THE CRISIS required to invest in fostering a culture management in a volatile environment. in turn gave an interesting answer to of integrity, transparency and The first challenge to surface during our question on the role of e- accountability in public sector the crisis for budget offices has been government in times of crisis, which organisations to maintain trust and a finding ways to respond to the call for was generally considered as an level playing field for business. fast disbursements of large additional effective tool to promote efficiency in sums without forsaking traditional public administration operations and The Regional Conference on objectives in integrity and legality of therefore having an impact on the Integrity on 26-27 October 2009 in expenditures. business and investment environment. Istanbul pointed out that the current global crisis raises additional challenges The start of the crisis in financial and requires governments to pay markets and the major contraction in BETTER REGULATIONS FOR WELL- particular attention to risk areas at the intermediation have led governments FUNCTIONNING MARKETS interface of the public and private to unprecedented interventions in The Regional Meeting of the Working sectors (i.e. lobbying or emergency financial markets. This has translated Group on Public Service Delivery, PPPs public procurement processes). All into a large increase in governments’ and Regulatory Reform held on 19 May these efforts for ensuring transparency contingent liabilities for guaranties and 2009 in Tunis, Tunisia, pointed out the and integrity will ultimately contribute loans offered to banks and firms. contribution of regulatory policy in to rebuilding public trust. MENA Budgetary handling of those has always tackling the crisis. Improved regulatory countries put particular emphasis on been difficult. quality is one of the main pillars of the modernization of procurement countries’ strategies to avoid future The crisis has also involved a laws and in embedding the economic turmoil created by market massive expansion of tax expenditures procurement reforms in public financial failures and low compliance with in many countries. In parallel, and management, anti-corruption and e- regulations. Regulatory management probably as a consequence of the government reforms. As a response to and administrative simplification issues crisis, there is a substantial renewal on the current economic crisis, countries – are among the core public policy topics interest internationally in finding a including those of the MENA region – for OECD and MENA countries, more effective integration of tax have put in place stimulus packages. especially when considering the expenditures into the decision This increased volume of public funds current global situation, the financial processes and disciplines of the to be spent in an accelerated manner, and economic crisis and the expenditures budget. The key which may create additional risk of redefinition of the role of the state. underlying question for all Budget fraud and corruption in public The global economic and financial crisis 0fficials is whether and how tax procurement, for instance in projects has challenged the capacities of expenditures can truly be reintegrated devoted to infrastructure. The real governments around the world to into a comprehensive expenditure challenge, however, is creating deliver effective policies and to react in policy framework, years after a first capacities to enhance integrity and a timely manner to urgent demands. unsuccessful attempt internationally. transparency in public procurement. Participants underlined the importance MORE EFFICIENT of a high-quality public services and a ASSESSING IMPACT OF CRISIS ON sound regulatory framework for ADMINISTRATIONS FOR BUDGET MANAGEMENT IN MENA ensuring well-functioning markets and ECONOMIC RECOVERY AND OECD COUNTRIES balanced economic growth. A sound The role of e-government in times of regulatory framework is also relevant A key issue countries are facing in the for competitiveness as investment crisis is considered as a key resource to short-term is how to return to a both, reducing costs and increasing becomes more discriminating. sustainable fiscal position. In this efficiency and effectiveness of the regard, the crisis has revealed needs To strengthen co-operation in this public sector and as a fundamental tool field and ensure a better regulatory for improvement in structures and to promote business and investment. quality, participants agreed that the processes of budgeting. The MENA th Participants of the 5 Regional Meeting Senior Budget Officials Network Regional Charter on Regulatory Quality of the Working Group on E- (MENA-SBO) met on 4-5 November can be an instrument to provide government and Administrative guidance to Arab countries for 2009 in Doha, Qatar, to exchange Simplification held on 25 June 2009 in improving regulatory policy and challenges and policy options between Manama, Bahrain, agreed that the role MENA and OECD countries. The integrating its principles into policy of governments is central in mitigating challenges exacerbated by the crisis reform agendas in MENA countries. the effects of the crisis and that The Charter will be submitted for have to do with off budget national as well as international commitments and entities, contingent approval to Ministers at the MENA recovery strategies are based on public liabilities and flexibility on budgetary Ministerial Conference in Marrakesh. policies more than market forces. This 3 MANAGING THE IMPACT OF THE CRISIS PROGRAMME IMPACT 1. Improved government ability to identify the reform options and national actions to deal with the crisis and to communicate effectively difficult reforms to public. 2. Enhanced public sector capability to manage the consequences of the crisis on the public budgets and how to absorb recovery plans 3. Enhanced capacity for designing policy instruments to take the crisis as a window for opportunity to reduce costs and increase efficiency in public administrations. 4. Endorsement of a key instrument to improve quality in regulation and therefore build well-functioning markets: The Regional Charter for Regulatory Quality. PROGRAMME OUTCOMES 5. Knowledge-sharing and dissemination of good practices on the impact of the crisis. 6. Identification and dissemination of strategies for moving forward with national governance reform agendas in times of economic uncertainty. 7. Implementation of frameworks to strengthen government capability to adjust the public governance strategies. 8. Supporting countries to anticipate the effects of the crisis and to adjust their governance frameworks to future growing expenditures and stimulus packages. PROGRAMME OUTPUTS nd 2 Meeting of the MENA Senior Budget Officials Network on “Budget offices’ adjustments to an international crisis,” Doha, Qatar, 4-5 November 2009. th 5 Special Session of Working Party on Regulatory Management and Reform, Paris, France, 4 November 2009. Regional Conference on Public Sector Integrity, Building a Cleaner Public Sector, Istanbul, Turkey, 26-27 October 2009. Steering Group Meeting, Cairo, 11 October 2009. th 5 Regional Meeting of Working Group on Civil Service and Integrity, Rabat, Morocco, 17 June 2009. th 5 Regional Meeting of Working Group on E-government and Administrative Simplification, Manama, Bahrain, 25 June 2009. th 5 Regional Meeting of Working Group on Public Service Delivery, PPPs and Regulatory Reform, Tunis, Tunisia, 19 May 2009. The high-level meeting on Moving Forward with the Governance Reform Agenda, Cairo, Egypt, 5th March 2009. 4 INTEGRITY IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR PLANNED THEMATIC PRIORITIES FOR THE PERIOD 2008-2010 Enhancing integrity in public procurement Citizen engagement in policy making and mobilising public opinion for fighting corruption Anti-corruption agencies National anti-corruption strategy and action plans Conflict of interest in the public service Codes of conduct ENHANCING INTEGRITY IN PUBLIC ENGAGING CIVIL SOCIETY IN INTRODUCING MECHANISM OF PROCUREMENT REGIONAL DIALOGUE ON PEER ADVICE IN MENA COUNTRIES INTEGRITY VIA JOINT LEARNING STUDIES Public procurement is one government activity particularly vulnerable to The active participation of civil society The Joint Learning Studies (JLS) are a corruption. Given the importance of and regional and local actors in the new and innovative method public procurement in economic and regional conference held on 26-27 established to share knowledge strategic terms, governments have October 2009 in Istanbul, Turkey, has between MENA and OECD countries become increasingly alert to the risk of shown the progress in citizens and to support the successful corruption in public procurement and engagement in integrity promotion. implementation of reforms. One of the to its prevention. At the invitation of MENA countries recently introduced key elements is the involvement of the General Treasury of Morocco and anti-corruption reforms that include experts from both MENA and OECD the OECD, government officials from codes of conduct, new procurement countries in the assessment process. MENA and OECD countries met on 3-4 laws and stronger control mechanisms. April 2008 in Rabat to share good The plenary session shared experiences practices for enhancing integrity in and good practices that have proved public procurement and to discuss the successful in their national contexts in main findings and lessons learned from overcoming the implementation the pilot OECD Joint Learning Study on challenges stemmed from capacity Integrity in Public Procurement in issues (technical, budgetary or human Morocco. resources) or from the absence of a The Moroccan government has supporting external environment (i.e. gradually come to realise the scale of awareness of non-governmental the problem and the issues involved. stakeholders). The MENA-OECD Governance Although public procurement has not Two workshops were organized to Programme is currently implementing been a policy priority in the past, a address the issues of integrity a series of JLS in the field of integrity 2007 decree underlines Morocco’s standards in public administration on for the purpose of supporting the growing determination to reform the one hand, and the promotion of important efforts of governments in public procurement processes. Fighting the principles of integrity and this regard and with a view of enriching corruption and enhancing integrity in transparency in public procurement regional dialogue in this area. In 2009- public procurement in Morocco reforms on the other. Outcomes of the 10, at least six new JLS will be carried signifies not only formulating and first workshop included increased out in key areas of corruption implementing a solid legal framework understanding of success factors for prevention. Fact finding missions have for procurement, but also enforcing it effectively implementing integrity been conducted in Yemen for a JLS on and imposing sanctions in the event of standards, particularly in MENA public integrity in public procurement, in non-compliance. The Joint Learning administrations. Outcomes of the Jordan for a JLS on the implementation Study examines the legislative, second workshop included better of a Code of Conduct and in Morocco institutional and procedural elements understanding of success factors to for a JLS on the Central Agency for of the management and control of effectively integrate the principles of Fighting Corruption. These fact finding public procurement in Morocco. This integrity and transparency in missions to Yemen, Jordan and study has been the first regional procurement reforms in the MENA Morocco took place in January, March application of the OECD Principles for region, in line with international good and October 2009 respectively. Enhancing Integrity in Public practice. Procurement, approved in 2008 as an OECD recommendation. 5 INTEGRITY IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR back meeting provided the opportunity The Working Group on Civil to discuss the analysis of public Service and Integrity intends to support procurement regulations in light of MENA countries in enhancing integrity international benchmarks and the in the public sector. A key objective of review of anti-corruption efforts by the the 4th Regional Meeting of the Government of Iraq and specific Working Group on 4 April 2008 in agencies. Rabat was to narrow down the programme of work in the area of anti- corruption, integrity and public procurement. MENA as well as OECD Did you know… countries participating in the meeting … that worldwide bribery in defined concrete activities to be government procurement is carried out during the second phase of estimated to be adding 10-20% the programme. Regional capacity- to the total contract costs? building activities and joint learning studies in support of national reform appear to be the most adequate tools At the high-level meeting on for co-operation among members of economic and governance policy the Working Group. Delegates reforms in Iraq, organised earlier by identified countries interested in future the OECD and UNDP Iraq on 8-10 July Joint Learning Studies on integrity in 2008 in Paris, preliminary findings of public procurement, anti-corruption the OECD surveys on “Improving bodies or code of conduct for civil Transparency in Government servants. MENA countries’ delegates Procurement Procedures in Iraq” and expressed their strong support to the on “Fighting Corruption in Iraq: Sources OECD Joint Learning Studies: the and Challenges” were presented, review of the Moroccan procurement discussed and agreed upon with Iraqi system provided not only significant delegates. policy advice and helpful recommendations to the Moroccan In order to better support Iraq in government, but valuable input to the moving forward with its reform regional policy dialogue and objectives, a back-to-back training governance reforms in other MENA session on anti-corruption issues has countries as well. also been organised by the OECD for Iraqi participants at the French Anti- SUPPORTING NATIONAL ANTI- Corruption Agency. CURRUPTION STRATEGIES IN IRAQ Within the framework of the International Compact with Iraq, collaboration of the OECD with the Government of Iraq started in October 2007 on investment and anti- corruption policies. Supported by the Governance and Investment pillars, high-level meetings and capacity- building workshops were organised on fighting corruption in the public and private sectors and on investment policies. Following a request by the Government of Iraq to prepare Iraq’s adherence to the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, a meeting was organised by the OECD and UNDP Iraq on 26-27 May 2008 in Paris. A back-to- 6 HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PLANNED THEMATIC PRIORITIES FOR THE PERIOD 2008-2010 Central Human resources bodies and HR units in line-bodies Overall human resources planning and management Managing senior civil servants Performance management and assessing staff Pay strategies for better public sector performance account for public employees and to roadmap. HRM policies have shifted to PROMOTING PERFORMANCE IN calculate wage bill costs. It guarantee an appropriately structured HRM concentrated on the methodological workforce based on appropriate skills At the Regional Meeting of the processes developed in countries and competences resulted from Working Group on Civil Service and specifically to review and plan organizational goals both short- and Integrity on 4 April 2008 in Rabat, workforce needs and skills in long-term, taking into consideration delegates from MENA and OECD government, in a context where demographic evolution, mobility, countries exchanged on the current political priorities aim at decreasing turnover and recruitment rate change. tendencies and challenges of HRM in compensation costs and maintaining The different HR strategies the public sector. They identified capacity. resulting from workforce planning, priority topics for the regional policy such as delegation of the decision- Addressing the two-fold issue of dialogue, capacity-building activities making process at the public and peer advice in support of national employment level, job classification, reforms. Performance-related pay is a Did you know… job descriptions, recruitment high priority topic for MENA and OECD procedures, career paths policies, … that the public sector is the first countries. It is seen as a way to training plans, identification of critical employer in all MENA countries ? improve performance and efficiency in skills, determining size of units, the public service, and as a policy tool removing oversized units, were all for upgrading salaries and the among the topics discussed. MENA public employment measurement and countries draw on simple standardized attractiveness of the public service as workforce planning is crucial for the an employer. Recruitment and training measurement devices and endorsed capacity-building of an efficient civil further activities on the issue (i.e. of civil servants are two other relevant service and the containment of public topics for MENA countries. Other areas training session or surveys on expenditures. As a consequence, workforce and skills planning in of interest, more related to the outlining a clear level of public particular needs of specific countries, government). The first achievement of workforce and composition is a this seminar was establishing a cover career development, prerequisite for ensuring a sustainable professionalization of local agents, technical exchange of experiences and and well-balanced public employment, information between experts from flexibility in HRM, as well as mobility as well as for delivering high-quality and retirement schemes. Participants OECD countries and MENA authorities. public services. Similarly, planning Most importantly, countries expressed also agreed that HRM and integrity workforce numbers and skills is a indicators in the MENA region should their interest in the technical approach preliminary condition for strategic and the strategic choice of the agenda. focus on obtaining accurate, up-to-date reforms in order to anticipate changes information on: pay and employment; The other main achievement was in labor demand and aligning policies building a solid network of high-level decentralisation; e-governance linked to competency requirements. MENA to transparency; service delivery; dedicated public HR experts. countries have made considerable anticorruption measures; and case progress in the past decades in studies of successful reform policies. ABSORBING THE SOCIAL IMPACT improving their workforce OF DOWNSIZING POLICIES management systems. The public ENHANCING STRATEGIES AND workforce level is above OECD average. The 5th Regional Meeting of the TOOLS OF WORKFORCE PLANNING Workforce accounting methods, Working Group was held on 17 June AND ACCOUNTING IN MENA evaluation needs and forecast need to 2009 in Rabat, Morocco, to address a PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONS be furthered. number of important topics of priority Governments in MENA and OECD to the Working Group, notably new HR The Technical Seminar on Workforce challenges arising from the economic Planning and Measurement, held on 16 countries converge on the increasing priority given to workforce planning on crisis with a view of providing strategic June 2009 in Rabat, discussed the the public management reform policy responses dealing with short- methodologies used in countries to 7 HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT and long-term consequences that have Management on 14-15 February 2008 service workforce as well as the pros been examined (particularly new in Tunis, that was opened by Mr. and cons of outsourcing manpower arrangements for workforce Zouheir M'Dhaffar, Minister Delegate planning and job evaluation processes. adjustments and the necessity to to the Prime Minister in charge of the Participants also underlined the develop HR policies to cope with the Civil Service and Administrative importance of examining social impact of streamlining Development. Participating officials administrative procedures and strategies). Moreover, examining the from seven OECD and five MENA regulations inside the government for social and economic impact of countries discussed the delegation of improved HRM in the public sector. In workforce downsizing strategies in recruitment processes in line with this context, the practitioners from countries having already experienced ministries and to loosen up OECD countries presented best this policy, was also among the topics employment conditions in the public practices, strategies and tools for discussed. These discussions touched sector. They also addressed the use of administrative simplification. on the strategic orientations of the performance incentives such as Working Group, especially in relation performance related pay and rewards. to modernizing public management in Several sessions considered the MENA countries. training of public sector staff, in particular of senior public officials, as a ENCOURAGING REFORMS OF crucial tool for capacity and leadership PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT THROUGH development. The seminar helped the JOINT LEARNING STUDIES Tunisian government to advance with its roadmap for reform. Joint Learning Studies (JLS) on public Bahrain also seeks to modernise employment and human resources its Human Resources Management in management practices will be the public sector, which also requires undertaken in the upcoming months reviewing and streamlining a growing with intentions to support the number of related regulations and important efforts of governments and administrative procedures. Bahrain’s with a view of enriching regional Civil Service Bureau, the central unit in dialogue in this area. Morocco charge of HRM, initiated and financed a expressed its wish to commit its peer learning activity on HRM and administration to this exercise. A regulation inside government. specific methodology based on a process of consultation with experts and countries has been refined and will be put in practice in the near future. MODERNISING CIVIL SERVICE IN TUNISIA AND BAHRAIN The Tunisian government has launched a national consultation process for the modernisation of the civil service. To The event took place on 26-27 this end, the government initiated in May 2008 at the OECD headquarters in early 2008 a national consultation Paris. Senior officials from Belgium, process to review the statute of the Germany and the Netherlands shared civil service, in place for 15 years, with their expertise with Bahraini civil the objective to ensure transparent servants and provided focused policy recruitment and promotion processes advice. With respect to efficient HRM, in the public sector and to enhance the the officials of the CSB were especially performance and efficiency of civil interested in learning from OECD servants. countries’ experiences with HR policy In order to sustain the formulation, job evaluations, and the momentum of reform, the Tunisian delegation of HR authority to line Prime Ministry and the OECD organised ministries. Participants also discussed a seminar on Human Resource approaches to downsize the civil 8 INTEGRITY AND HRM: RESULTS PROGRAMME IMPACT 1. Enhanced institutional capacity to improve integrity and performance of the civil service. 2. Enhanced public sector integrity, transparency and accountability and fighting corruption in the public sector. 3. Enhanced capacity for designing workforce planning and performance management strategies and tools to establish a well-dimensioned and effective public workforce in government. 4. Improved public employment environment in the MENA region for social and economic development. Concrete examples of progress in integrity supported and disseminated through the programme and included in the MENA progress report. The implementation of the Jordan Code of Conduct and Ethics in the Civil Service Enhancing integrity in public procurement in Morocco The establishment of a Central Agency for Corruption Prevention in Morocco The development of a comprehensive governmental National Reform Agenda in 2006 in Yemen Concrete examples of progress in Human Resources Management supported and disseminated through the programme and included in the MENA progress report. The competence-based model adopted in Bahrain in 2007 The establishment of an integrated workforce planning system in Morocco since 2007 The consultation process started in Tunisia in 2007 The drafting of a new civil service law in Egypt PROGRAMME OUTCOMES 1. Progressing with reforms Knowledge sharing and networking among national policy makers from MENA and OECD countries. Adoption and implementation of international standards for integrity and corruption prevention: codes of conducts, public procurement and conflict of interest. Adoption and implementation of strategies to improve the management of the workforce in the administration. Designing strategies to formulate and implement codes of conducts in the civil service, public procurement rules and anti-corruption prevention policies. Establishment of control mechanisms to manage conflicts of interests and to ensure enforcement of the integrity standards on the daily work (guidance for public officials, establishment of central agencies to manage corruption policies, whistle blowing, etc). Growing institutional capacity for managing the performance of government employees and HRM bodies. Implementation of integrated policies including the various HR processes (recruitment, training, career development, pay scales, performance appraisal, etc). 9 INTEGRITY AND HRM: RESULTS 2. Monitoring reform implementation Collecting and mapping out data on public employment and integrity as a first step to build up indicators. Development of methodologies to account for public workforce and wage bill in MENA countries. Continuous monitoring of progress in implementing workforce planning instruments and policy arrangements on recruitment, pay, training and senior civil service. Methodological support for developing a review mechanism through the Setting up of the MENA Network to support the implementation of the UNCAC. Progressive conception of indicators on the Integrity framework and oversight mechanisms. Continuous monitoring of progress in implementing international corruption prevention and integrity standards in national legislations and regulations. PROGRAMME OUTPUTS 1. Active networking of reform drivers and regional dialogue Regional Conference on Public Sector Integrity, Istanbul, Turkey, 26-27 October 2009. 5th Regional Working Group Meeting on Civil Service and Integrity, Rabat, Morocco, 17 June 2009. Technical seminar on Measuring and Planning workforce, Rabat, Morocco, 16 June 2009. Special MENA Session on Integrity back to back with the OECD Forum on Public Governance: Building a cleaner world: tools and good practices for fostering a culture of integrity, Paris, France, 5 May 2009. 4th regional meeting of the Working Group on Civil Service and Integrity, Rabat, Morocco, 4 April 2008. Regional Capacity Building Seminar Comparative Approaches in the Field of Civil Service Modernisation in OECD Countries, Tunis, Tunisia, 14-15 February 2008. 2. Capacity building and national adaptation of capacity design Participation of MENA countries in the Meeting of the Public Employment Working Party on Strategies for building a representative public workforce, Paris, France, 1 October 2009. National capacity building to support the Government of Iraq : High-Level Meeting on Economic and Governance Policy Reforms in the Republic of Iraq, Paris, France, 8-10 July 2008. Peer Learning Study Visit Modernising the Civil Service Bureau: Human Resource Management and Regulation inside Government, Paris, France, 26-27 May 2008. Regional Conference and Capacity Building Seminar on Integrity in Public Procurement, Rabat, Morocco, 3-4 April 2008. Finalization of the JLS on Enhancing Integrity in Public Procurement in Yemen. Finalization of the JLS on the implementation of the Code of Conduct in the Civil Service in Jordan. Ongoing drafting of the JLS on Central Authority for Corruption Prevention in Morocco. Discussion on a JLS on Public Employment and Human Resources Management in the Moroccan administration. 10 INTEGRITY AND HRM: RESULTS 3. Publications OECD Joint Learning Study on Morocco: Enhancing integrity in Public Procurement. Chapter on Public Employment and Human Resources Management reform - MENA-OECD progress report on the public governance reform in MENA countries, submitted at the MENA ministerial meeting in November 2009. Chapter on Enhancing integrity in Public Administration – MENA-OECD progress report on Public Governance Reform in the Middle East and North Africa countries, submitted at the MENA ministerial meeting in November 2009. 11 E-GOVERNMENT PLANNED THEMATIC PRIORITIES FOR THE PERIOD 2008-2010 Measurement and evaluation of e-government E-government training and capacity building Legislative infrastructure for e-government E-services Institutional arrangements for e-government Strategy formulation and implementation moved to the direct contribution by for most MENA countries, which are SOLUTIONS FOR COLLABORATIVE E- non-government entities to the particularly interested in the GOVERNMENT DELIVERY development and delivery of e- institutions and tools for e-government services. Furthermore, the traditional coordination and implementation Carring out e-government projects model for e-government, in which across levels of government. Enabling requires the combined availability of agencies work in isolation to develop e-services – referring in particular to financial resources, infrastructure their own systems and services, has specific cases of e-service design and assets, information and been challenged. International implementation – and the introduction communication technology products experience has shown that countries of shared applications, are priority and services, and human capacities. have adopted different solutions for topics for most countries. This is the reason for which many collaborative e-government delivery, individual governmental organisations Several MENA countries which were also discussed during the that are not necessarily able to provide participated in the first OECD E-Leaders seminar. The intensive exchange of these items on their own, have Conference on 6 March 2008 in The experiences between experts from increasingly turned to other public and Hague, the Netherlands. The event MENA and OECD countries paved the non-public entities through brought together the most senior way for implementing best practices partnerships and arrangements in government officials responsible for e- and to set up state of the art e- order to access specialized skills and government in OECD countries to governance procedures. knowledge and to acquire the capacity discuss three main issues: Role of e- to develop innovative solutions. government in 2020, e-government’s SUPPORTING GOVERNMENTS ON However, the involvement of third impact on economic development, and DEFINING E-GOVERNMENT AGENDA parties creates complex collaboration the future agenda for e-government arrangements and partnerships for e- At the 4th Regional Meeting of the and public service delivery. government. Working Group on E-government and Administrative Simplification that took BETTER E-SERVICES FOR CITIZENS: place on 28-29 May 2008 in Tunis, THE CASE OF ELECTRONIC IDENTITY participants from eleven MENA and CARDS seven OECD countries identified the MENA countries expressed great activities to be carried out in 2008-09. interest in e-government tools, for In addition to traditional seminars, example in electronic identity cards MENA delegates agreed to conduct that some MENA countries have Joint Learning Activities and Joint already introduced or are seeking to Learning Studies in the area of e- implement. A pioneering joint learning government and administrative activity took place on 21 November simplification. Most countries showed 2008 in Brussels, organised by the interest in deepening their knowledge Within this context, delegates OECD and FEDICT, the Belgian Ministry on the technical infrastructure for from eleven MENA countries and seven in charge of Information and digital identification and OECD countries met on 27 May in Tunis Communication Technology. Experts authentication. Some MENA and OECD to discuss different forms of from Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco countries, such as Morocco and collaborative arrangements and their and Tunisia learned from the Belgium, expressed their availability to areas of application. Participants experience of Belgium in the share their knowledge and experience recognised that partnerships between conception, implementation and in the area of electronic identity cards. governments and the private sector production of electronic identity cards. Organisational arrangements for e- have become one key feature for e- Belgium presented its experiences with government and administrative government. PPPs no longer deal only e-ID cards such as strategic decisions simplification are also a priority area with technical services; they have related to card implementation, 12 E-GOVERNMENT environments for e-ID employment, policies and initiatives among OECD marketing campaigns and quick-wins to and MENA countries that proved useful gain support from citizens and policy- for both, the OECD and MENA makers. This activity was organised as countries. follow-up with the OECD’s Expert Seminar on the Business Case for Digital Identity Management on 19-20 November 2008 at the OECD headquarters in Paris. IMPROVING TAKE-UP OF E- GOVERNMENT SERVICES A high-level seminar on Improving Take-up of E-Government Services was held back-to-back with a Regional PROMOTING JOINT STRATEGIES Meeting on e-Government and BETWEEN E-GOVERNMENT AND Administrative Simplification on 24-25 ADMINISTRATIVE SIMPLIFICATION June 2009 in Manama, Bahrain. During AUTHORITIES this two-day event, the MENA countries had the opportunity to A seminar held on 24-25 June discuss the challenges, solutions, and 2009 in Manama, emphasized the role good practices on e-government. They of Information and Communication brought to the table the outcomes of Technologies (ICT) and E-government an OECD report on the issue of users’ in time of international financial crisis. take-up of e-government application. It also emphasized the need for This report identified a number of building joint strategies with regulatory trends in OECD countries considered authorities dealing with administrative test-worthy against the diversified simplification. The issues discussed experiences within the MENA region. were of great importance for a Attended by the Bahraini chair strategic evaluation and understanding and a large number of other valuable of the impacts of the Initiative in terms contributions from MENA participants, of its capacity to elaborate ad hoc the seminar turned out to be a great analyses and contribute to policy success. The presence of Bahraini elaboration in the MENA region. Minister of Cabinet Affairs Sheikh The MENA as well as the OECD Ahmad Al Khalifa at the opening of the delegates had the opportunity to verify event also testified the relevance of that, although in different ways, the the seminar to the Government of economic crisis is indeed affecting both Bahrain, receiving considerable media geopolitical areas with similar levels of attention. intensity, both are facing the important The Italian Ambassador in Bahrain task of identifying the most productive also attended the first day of the and effective way out. seminar, confirming his country’s The meeting ended with a commitment to the Initiative, renewed list of priorities in the field of especially within the activities of the e-Government for the region in view of Working Group on E-Government and the forthcoming Ministerial Conference Administrative Simplification, currently in November 2009. co-chaired by Italy and Korea. Twelve participants in this event presented their experience in the field and discussed concrete case studies, followed by a stimulating account of different practices and a comparison of 13 ADMINISTRATIVE SIMPLIFICATION [Type text] [Type text] PLANNED THEMATIC PRIORITIES FOR THE PERIOD 2008-2010 Simplification of administrative procedures for citizens and businesses Simplification of the legal system Implementing and coordinating policy and policy tools for administrative simplification across levels of government Institutional arrangements for administrative simplification. th Relations. In addition, a very concrete At the 4 Regional Meeting of the REDUCING ADMINISTRATIVE training session on tools to measure Working Group on E-Government and BURDENS administrative burdens will be Administrative Simplification in Tunisia, organized for the benefit of MENA MENA countries reconfirmed their country experts on 3 November 2009. interest in capacity-building activities This session will disseminate practical on comprehensive and long-term concrete knowledge on the Standard administrative simplification strategies Cost Model. with a whole-of-government perspective. MENA countries OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO increasingly seek to measure ADMINISTRATIVE SIMPLIFICATION administrative burdens imposed to business and citizens. Bahrain, Administrative simplification is not Lebanon, Morocco, the Palestinian only about saving money but also National Authority, and Tunisia have about increasing efficiency. Most expressed strong interest in hosting Burdensome legislation and inefficient governments engage in administrative technical capacity-building activities on administrative procedures are barriers simplification activities by laying down administrative simplification, and also to economic growth and social economic objectives positive for undertaking JLS. development. Improving efficiency business, citizen and government. through cutting red tape and Cutting red tape and simplification of administrative simplification is thus a administrative procedures have been policy priority for MENA and OECD identified by MENA countries as one of countries. In this context, governments the top priorities in their policy increasingly use a wide range of policy agendas, in particular overcoming tools, such as e-government, as levers barriers to the implementation of for a more efficient public sector. The administrative simplification strategies. main goal of simplification remains to In many countries, burdensome ensure a citizen-focused, proactive and legislation, inefficient administrative timely public service delivery. procedures, and unnecessary Several MENA countries administrative obligations are barriers participated in a workshop on to economic and social development. "Administrative Burden Reduction: In this context, the High Level Capacity Experiences, Practices and Use of ICT Building Seminar on “Administrative Tools” that was organized on 5-6 Simplification: Overcoming Barriers to GUIDANCE FOR POLICY-MAKERS March 2008 back-to-back with the first Implementation,” held on 18-19 June OECD E-Leaders Conference in The 2008 in Cairo, provided participating Following the seminar in Cairo, the Hague. The workshop addressed MENA delegates with the opportunity to learn OECD published in early 2009 a Guide countries designing and implementing from each other’s experience in the on Overcoming Barriers to programs focused on the simplification development of sound simplification Administrative Simplification and rationalization of administrative strategies. Participants jointly Strategies: Guidance for Policy Makers. procedures. It aimed at an exchange of identified barriers commonly The publication was approved during good practices on implementing encountered when designing and the Special Session of the OECD policies and tools for administrative implementing administrative Working Party on Regulatory simplification, with a focus on the use simplification strategies, and identified Management and Reform on 20 of electronic means. The workshop was a number of policy options to October 2008. It draws on the co-organized by the OECD and the overcome these barriers. experiences of MENA and OECD Dutch Ministry of Interior and Kingdom countries. The guide explores the 14 ADMINISTRATIVE SIMPLIFICATION [Type text] [Type text] challenges of minimizing administrative with putting in place a comprehensive all parties interested. As well, burdens imposed by bureaucratic strategy for implementation of tools administrative simplification is required requirements. It identifies good for administrative simplification. The to improve efficiency and economic practices in streamlining procedures, importance of impact assessment was performance related to the design of reducing complexity, paperwork and highlighted as an instrument for comprehensive simplification uncertainty of the administrative preventing unnecessary administrative strategies; and evidence-based policy environment. Its objective is to help burdens stemming from newly tools, such as RIA (Regulatory Impact governments make public service developed regulation. Assessment), are necessary to study delivery more efficient and to foster a the effects of regulation on the regulatory environment that enables SHARING EXPERIENCES ON economy and the society, and to better economic and social activity. IMPLEMENTING ADMINISTRATIVE inform regulatory activity. SIMPLIFICATION: Study Visit TRAINING OFFICIALS ON CUTTING UNNECESSARY RED TAPE A study visit to the Directorate General for State Modernisation Administrative simplification is (DGME) in the French Ministry of pertinent to this Working Group in Budget was organized on 4 November th order to ensure better public service 2009. Held back-to-back with the 5 delivery, improved regulatory quality Special Session of the Working Party on and investment climate. Regulatory Management and Reform, For a number of years, the MENA this visit was an excellent opportunity countries have been successfully for delegates from MENA countries to implementing ad hoc administrative observe how the French Government simplification initiatives; however, it is deals with administrative simplification very important to develop a clear from a practical point of view. whole-of-government approach and Presentations on French methods programmes that utilize more and systems applied to implement evidence-based tools to improve administrative simplification policies, efficiency of administrative systems to simplify the administrative and reduce red tape. procedures, and to ensure a better A training session on tools to regulatory quality were given during measure administrative burdens, the event. presenting Dutch and Belgium Launched in 2005, the DGME is experiences, was organized on 3 developing measures to review public November 2009 at the OECD policies, ensuring an innovative headquarters in Paris. Designed to approach with projects that entail answer demands from MENA delegates policy guidance. Particularly attention working on administrative was given to a user-oriented approach simplification and regulatory reform and better coordination across issues, this activity allowed for ministries. assessing the advantages and disadvantages of different methods MOVING FORWARD WITH applied in MENA and OECD countries, EVIDENCE-BASED POLICY TOOLS especially as the quantification of costs and benefits helps decision-making on Since 2008, activities have focused on the effectiveness of administrative three key areas: Law drafting, obligations. administrative simplification, and evidence-based policy tools. During the first part of the training session, participants had the Law drafting requires opportunity to broaden their standardized procedures to reduce knowledge on the Standard Cost uncertainty and discretion, the Model, which is the most popular refinement of techniques that support method of assessing the costs of red drafters in their work, and the use of tape. The second presentation dealt ICT to make law proposals accessible to 15 E-GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE SIMPLIFICATION: RESULTS [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] E PROGRAMME IMPACT 1. Increased access to e-government services and citizen participation. 2. Enhanced institutional capacity to improve e-government and administrative simplification. 3. Enhanced capacity for designing e-government strategies and establishing instruments or shared applications. 4. Simplified administrative environment through reduced burdens and red tape affecting business for better economic performance. 5. Capacity building on the use of the Standard Cost Model Concrete examples of progress in Electronic Government supported and disseminated through the programme and included in the MENA progress report. The financial accounting system of the ministry of finance of Jordan. The company-registration schemes run by the Dubai Economic Development Agency. The new five-year plan in Morocco, bringing e-government into the context of broader ICT industry support. Concrete examples of progress in Administrative Simplification supported and disseminated through the programme and included in the MENA progress report. The Bahrain Investors’ Centre (BIC) created in 2003: one-stop shop to register companies. The new Administrative Simplification Unit created in the Office of the Minister of State for Administrative Reform (OMSAR) in Lebanon The administrative simplification strategy and reengineering process designed in the 2007-2011 National Strategy for Administrative Development in Tunisia. PROGRAMME OUTCOMES 1. Progressing with reforms Knowledge sharing and networking among national policy makers from MENA and OECD countries. Enhanced capacity to design e-government national frameworks – both at political and at technical level. Improved use of e-government instruments and electronic services (e.g. national identity cards) Further collaborative partnerships with the private sector on e-government and within government units on shared services. Supporting governments to set frameworks to overcome the administrative and technical barriers to trade, competition and innovation. Elaborating administrative simplification toolkit for governments, linking better regulation to a greater use of ICT. Helping governments to introduce instruments such as burden measurement techniques or standard cost model. 16 E-GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE SIMPLIFICATION: RESULTS [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] 2. Monitoring reform implementation E Collecting and mapping out data on e-government and administrative simplification as a first step to build up indicators. Continuous monitoring of progress in implementing e-government strategies and in using ICT tools. Methodological support for developing qualitative and quantitative e-government indicators on back office performance. PROGRAMME OUTPUTS 1. Active networking of reform drivers and regional dialogue th 5 Regional Working Group Meeting on E-government and Administrative Simplification, Manama, Bahrain, 25 June 2009. High Level Regional Seminar on Improving E-Services Take Up: Challenges, Solutions and Good Practices on E- government, Manama, Bahrain, 24 June 2009. th 4 Regional Meeting of the Working Group on E-government and Administrative Simplification. Tunis, Tunisia, 29 May 2008. th 6 High Level Seminar on Partnerships and Frameworks for E-government Collaboration, Tunis, Tunisia, 28 May 2008. 2. Capacity building and national adaptation of capacity design Training on Tools to Measure Administrative Burdens: an Introduction to the Standard Cost Model. Paris, France, 3 November 2009. Joint Learning Activity on Electronic Identity Cards in Belgium, Brussels, 21 November 2008. Participation of MENA representatives in the Expert Seminar on the Business Case for Digital Identity Management, organised in the framework of the OECD Network of Senior E-Government Officials, Paris, France, 19-20 November 2008. st 1 OECD e-Leaders Conference with the participation of invited MENA countries, The Hague, the Netherlands, 6 March 2008. 3. Publications Overcoming Barriers to Administrative Simplification Strategies, guidance for policy makers, containing statements to overcome barriers to administrative simplification strategies based on OECD and MENA countries’ experiences, OECD, 2009. Chapter on Administrative Simplification Strategies: Making life easier for citizens and businesses - MENA-OECD progress report on the Public Governance reform in the Middle East and North Africa, submitted at the MENA ministerial meeting in November 2009. Chapter on Achievements in E-government - MENA-OECD progress report on the Public Governance reform in the Middle East and North Africa, submitted at the MENA ministerial meeting in November 2009. 17 GOVERNANCE OF PUBLIC FINANCE [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] PLANNED THEMATIC PRIORITIES FOR THE PERIOD 2008-2010 Supporting MENA countries in improving the transparency, comprehensiveness, accountability, and control of public financial management Financial risk management Long-term budget projections Legal frameworks for financial management reforms Management of debt and temporary revenues Cash management and allocation systems Market mechanisms and their use for public services delivery Medium-term expenditure frameworks; and performance budgeting budgeting clearly ranks above all other of the SBO network proved that such an SHARING EXPERTISE ON themes. Comprehensiveness of the institution would provide the MENA PERFORMANCE BUDGETING budget ties for second place with multi- region with a novel and efficient year expenditures framework and its instrument for policy dialogue and The 4th Regional Meeting of the uses. The following themes were of innovation dissemination on financial Working Group on the Governance of interest only to a minority of countries governance. Public Finance took place on 20 May or are ranked much lower than the 2008 in Rabat, Morocco. The meeting The MENA SBO emerged from the preceding four by most: a) market was hosted by Mr. Abdellatif Bennani, Working Group on the Governance of mechanisms and their use for public Budget Director in the Moroccan Public Finance of the OECD MENA service delivery; b) cash management Ministry of Economics and Finances. Governance Programme. Senior and allocation systems; c) debt officials from OECD and MENA management and management of countries have regularly met since 2005 temporary revenues from petroleum; to address a wide variety of budget and d) legal frameworks to give a public expenditure issues within this permanent character to financial Working Group that is chaired by H.E. management reforms. Mr. Yousef Boutros Ghali, Egyptian Minister of Finance and co-chaired by LAUNCHING MENA SENIOR Sweden and the United States. BUDGET OFFICIALS NETWORK The Working Party of Senior Budget Officials (SBO) has been established in Participants reviewed the 1980. This Working Party brings achievements and activities of the together regularly budget directors and Working Group in the past year, other senior officials from OECD exchanged experiences and innovative member countries to discuss main approaches to public financial public expenditure concerns and management. The delegates of the relevant policy options. As part of the Working Group confirmed their OECD’s co-operation programme with unanimous support for the creation of a non-member countries, several SBO On November 24-25, the MENA MENA Senior Budget Officials Network Regional Networks have been SBO was officially launched at a high and agreed to organize a launching implemented in recent years, following level meeting in Cairo, Egypt. This meeting in November 2008 in Cairo. the model introduced by the OECD. In meeting was chaired by Mr. Hany Participating countries also agreed on the past, the OECD invited delegates Dimian, Deputy Minister of Finance in the programme of work for the coming from MENA countries as observers to Egypt. Nearly fifty delegates from years that confirmed the thematic SBO meetings, most recently to the SBO thirteen MENA and seven OECD priorities as identified at the previous Symposium on PPPs on 22-23 February countries as well as representatives meeting. The below themes shall be 2008 in Zürich, Switzerland. The from the European Union, the World retained for policy dialogue and participation of MENA countries in Bank and the International Monetary analysis within the Working Group these meetings and the collection of Fund participated in the meeting. during the coming years: Performance information from peers on the benefits 18 GOVERNANCE OF PUBLIC FINANCE [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] In keeping the objective of a self- The first output was to identify the sustained and permanent MENA SBO responses to the crisis. The problems Network, the delegates appointed a and solutions in major large economies committee to reflect on the network’s were abundantly reported and structure, organisation and financing discussed. The meeting also focused on for the post-2010 phase. Until 2010, the less well-know examples of the impacts MENA SBO will carry out the work of and reactions to the crisis in Central the Working Group on the Governance and Eastern Europe, where many of Public Finance. The names Working conditions close to those of the MENA Group and MENA SBO will be used region prevailed, notably on question of jointly. Chairmanship of the SBO is debts and access to capital markets. ensured by Egypt as chair of the The second main output was on Working Group. The OECD Secretariat responses to come out of the crisis and provides the MENA SBO network with manage its budgetary sequels and administrative support and technical consequences. expertise. MENA countries seek to exchange SBO MEETING ADRESSES IMPACT experiences with OECD countries on OF THE CRISIS ON PERFORMANCE budget planning and long-term BUDGETING projections. Did you know that currently 10 OECD countries make Current emphasis of the SBO work will long-term budgetary projections that be put on the consequences of the extend out as long as 75 years? crisis on budget management and budget reforms. New outputs were also reached at the second meeting of the MENA Senior Budget Officials Network on “Budget offices’ adjustments to an international crisis,” held on 4-5 November 2009 in Doha, Qatar. As requested by delegates to its first meeting in Cairo last November, the meeting focused on various aspects of the present economic and financial crisis. The nature of problems created by the crisis and its policy responses in various countries occupied an important place. Even more immediately relevant for SBOs was how various countries were handling exit questions as the crisis abates, notably how the economy is envisaged to return to a sustainable fiscal position, and how the crisis has revealed needs for improvement in structures and processes of budgeting. The challenges exacerbated by the crisis have to do with off budget commitments and entities, contingent liabilities, flexibility on budgetary management in volatile environment, etc. 19 GOVERNANCE OF PUBLIC FINANCE [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] PROGRAMME IMPACT 1. Enhanced performance budgeting and cost effectiveness in MENA countries. 2. Enhanced institutional capacity for designing a performance budgeting framework to ensure the economic and social stability. 3. Improved budget planning, budget forecasting and debt management to guarantee the financial sustainability. Concrete examples of progress in the Governance of Public Finances supported and disseminated through the programme and included in the MENA progress report. The Public Finance Training Institute (PFTI) in Egypt The budget reform in Morocco implementing a multi-objectives and multi-tracks strategy and using a programmatic Medium-Term Expenditure Framework. The creation of the General Directorate for Public Debt Management and Financial Cooperation at the Tunisian Ministry of Finance. Phasing out oil subsidies in Jordan absorbing the social impact through specific measures. PROGRAMME OUTCOMES 1. Progressing with reforms Creation of the Senior Budget Official network in MENA countries. Designing and implementing a comprehensive budget reform based on results/outputs and on long-term perspective. Improved policies on budgetary allocation and use of resources. Designing and implementation of budget forecasts and budget control instruments for a more efficient budget decision-making process. Developing and furthering the use of sophisticated debt management instruments. Better use of financial tools to manage public investment programs in countries. Building financial governance institutions and budget practices in keeping with the international standards. 2. Monitoring reform implementation Collecting and mapping out data on budget procedures and practices as a first step to build up indicators. Continuous monitoring of progress in implementing performance measurement and budgeting. Reviewing budget information (audit, budget formulation, reporting, etc.) 20 GOVERNANCE OF PUBLIC FINANCE: RESULTS [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] PROGRAMME OUTPUTS 1. Active networking of reform drivers and regional dialogue nd 2 Meeting of the MENA Senior Budget Officials Network on “Budget offices’ adjustments to an international crisis,” Doha, Qatar, 4-5 November 2009. Launching meeting of the MENA Senior Budget Officials Network, Cairo, Egypt, 24-25 November 2008. Symposium on the Fundamentals of Implementing a Government Financial Management Law, Cairo, Egypt, 28-29 May 2008. th 4 regional meeting of the Working group on the Governance of Public Finance, Rabat, Morocco, 20 May 2008. 2. Capacity building and national adaptation of capacity design Participation of MENA countries in the Senior Budget Officials Symposium on Public-Private Partnerships, 21-22 February 2008, Zürich, Switzerland. Creation of the Tax and Financial Management Training Centre in Cairo, Egypt, in 2008. 3. Publications Chapter on Public Finance Management Trends in MENA: Innovation and convergence amid diversity MENA-OECD progress report on The Public Governance Reform in Middle East and North Africa, submitted at the MENA ministerial meeting in November 2009. 21 REGULATORY REFORM t] [Type text] [Type text] PLANNED THEMATIC PRIORITIES FOR THE PERIOD 2008-2010 Law-drafting procedures and frameworks promoting cooperation between the public administration and the private sector Assessing the impact of regulations and regulatory decisions on economic and social development Tools and policies for quality law-making and regulations Institutional design for regulatory quality such as oversight bodies for regulatory quality control Plain and multi-language law-drafting Use of public-private partnerships in the delivery of public services focused on the revision and April 2008 in Amman, Jordan, provided DRAFTING LEGISLATION AND simplification of existing legislation. an opportunity for delegates to present OVER-SIGHT BODIES FOR regulatory reform initiatives and REGULATORY QUALITY Did you know…that since 1974, developments in their countries. Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) has Delegates also identified the following Anticipating the impacts of new key priorities for the future programme regulations on economic and social become widespread among OECD countries? In 2004, 26 of 30 OECD of work: Improving law drafting development, adapting existing capacities as a pre-condition for moving legislation to the needs of changing member countries require RIA of new regulatory proposals. Arab forward with the agenda of high-quality societies, and promoting enabling regulation; Regulatory Impact Analysis regulatory frameworks are major policy countries seek to use RIA to evaluate the effects of regulation on (RIA), used by governments to study concerns for the MENA and OECD the effects of regulation on the countries. Governments seek to the economy and the society. economy and the society; improve capacities so as to promote strengthening institutions dealing with high-quality regulation. At a seminar on regulatory quality; and using “Drafting Legislation and Oversight Different approaches to the administrative simplification as one of Bodies for Regulatory Quality” on 29-30 management of the stock of legislation the most dynamic and prevalent policy April 2008 in Amman, Jordan, delegates were also presented and discussed. The tools to undertake regulatory reform. discussed key factors for quality law challenge for governments is to keep Delegates welcomed the close co- drafting and ways to improve capacities up-to-date all legislation, and to adapt operation on administrative within government. Delegates it to changing society’s needs. The simplification questions with the identified institutional settings, training, fourth session focused on Working Group on e-Government and manuals and guidelines as crucial strengthening capacities for legal Administrative Simplification. Delegates elements for the improvement of law drafting in government institutions. The supported the creation of a Regional drafting capacities. They also addressed aim of this capacity-building should be Centre of Expertise on Regulatory the importance of anticipating the to improve the quality of legislation. Quality, which Tunisia has offered to impacts of new regulations on Participants discussed resource host. This centre could promote administrative procedures and allocation questions, human capital regulatory expertise in MENA by economic developments as well as the development, and training organising regional training seminars need to adapt legislation to changing mechanisms. The last session referred and providing manuals and guidelines societies. In the first session, to improving legal drafting techniques for sound regulatory management. participants presented experiences and use of drafting manuals and regarding regulatory oversight bodies guidelines. whose role is to promote coherence and coordination in regulatory FURTHER STEPS TO IMPLEMENT management. The second session REGULATORY REFORM focused on managing the creation of new legislation, also highlighting the The Working Group on Public Service Delivery, PPPs and Regulatory Reform importance of impact assessment tools. supports MENA countries in improving The use of these mechanisms enables the design and implementation of governments to foresee the impacts of th regulatory reforms. The 4 Regional regulation and thus avoid unnecessary Meeting of the Working Group on 29 regulatory barriers. The third session 22 REGULATORY REFORM t] [Type text] [Type text] SUPPORTING QUALITY IN A capacity-building seminar on was organized in co-operation between REGULATION the review of existing legislation held OECD, the Tunisian Prime Ministry and on 11-12 March 2009 in Cairo, Egypt, the Centre of Legal and Juridical Studies Public sector performance is directly provided MENA and OECD countries of Tunisia. related to the quality of regulations, with an opportunity to exchange ideas compliance and the government’s and showcase regulatory reform ability to enforce them. Policy dialogue efforts. The seminar helped assess in this area increases the institutional progress of the ongoing Egyptian capacity to design and enforce Regulatory Reform and Development th regulations. In this context, the 4 Activity (ERRADA) and explore Special Session of the OECD Working international experience to support the Party on Regulatory Management and definition of the way ahead towards Reform, which took place on 20 configuring a sound regulatory October 2008 at the OECD management system in Egypt. headquarters in Paris, aimed at deepening understanding of regulatory In view of supporting regulatory th The aim of the event was to build management and reform issues across management reform, the 4 Special capacities on law-making in MENA the OECD and MENA countries. Session of the OECD Working Party on countries through an analysis of Regulatory Management and Reform, The meeting dealt in particular institutions promoting expertise in which took place on 20 October 2008 with law drafting capacities, regulatory management. This event has in Paris, also dealt with law-drafting administrative simplification and the provided a forum to discuss how OECD capacities, administrative simplification use of evidence-based tools to support and MENA countries have strengthened and the use of evidence-based tools to policy-making. During the meeting, the their institutional capacities to promote support policy-making processes. To project “Law-Drafting Capacities” in better regulatory policies, and will this end, delegates from the MENA countries was endorsed. This contribute to the ongoing work of the participating MENA and OECD project aims at assessing capacities for LDC. countries agreed to carry out a “Project providing high quality regulation, which on Improving Law-Drafting Capacities The Seminar provided an should be clear, transparent, in MENA countries” as a precondition opportunity to build capacities on law predictable, effective, efficient, and for enhanced regulatory quality. The making through a discussion about the enforceable. It will focus on law- aim of this project is to build capacities institutions which disseminate drafting mechanisms, institutional for providing high-quality regulations, knowledge and promote understanding design, training and dissemination of which should be clear, transparent, about regulatory management and guidelines and manuals for government predictable, effective, efficient, and reform. These institutions should play a officials. enforceable. The project is expected to key role in the process of improvement address law-drafting mechanisms, of law drafting capacities and promote ADVANCING LAW-DRAFTING institutional design, as well as training the regulatory quality by enhancing CAPACITIES IN MENA COUNTRIES and dissemination of guidelines and clarity, transparency, predictability, manuals for government officials. It is efficiency, effectiveness and Anticipating the impact of new to be implemented within the enforceability. Participants stressed on regulations on economic and social framework of the Working Group on the importance of legal and technical development, adapting existing Public Service Delivery, PPPs, and expertise in different government legislation to the needs of changing Regulatory Reform. A mid-term review institutions. They also presented some societies, and promoting stronger meeting for this project took place on of the mechanisms and tools which are regulatory frameworks are major 19-20 May 2009 in Tunis, Tunisia. used in their countries to promote policy concerns for MENA and OECD better regulatory quality. They also countries. Over the past months, the IMPROVING REGULATORY agreed on the necessity of monitoring MENA-OECD Governance Programme ENVIRONMENT quality and ensuring accessibility and has provided several capacity-building transparency of rules for a more seminars to support ongoing The Working Group on Regulatory comprehensive and confident approach regulatory reform initiatives in MENA Reform held a capacity-building to law. Finally, delegates discussed countries. seminar in May 2009 in Tunis, Tunisia, results of the training for juri-linguists on “Institutions Promoting Expertise on at the University of El Manar in Tunisia. Regulatory Management.” The meeting Participants emphasized the benefits of 23 REGULATORY REFORM t] [Type text] [Type text] training activities for their daily work, the Ministerial Conference in presentations by and discussions with stressing on the advantages of the November. This normative approach representatives from TBS-RAS, the practical dimension of training. should help promote common Canada School of Public Service, Justice principles and facilitate the Canada, the Community of Federal ADDRESSING IMPACT OF CRISIS ON implementation of regulatory reform Regulators, the Standing Joint REGULATORY REFORM POLICIES policies. Committee for the Scrutiny of Regulation, and several clients of CORE Held back-to-back with this event, was Moroever, expertise and training including Health Canada and the th the 5 Regional Meeting of the programs on regulatory management Canada Food Inspection Agency. Working Group, during which will be ensured by the Regional Centre delegates discussed how the impact of of Expertise for Regulatory Quality The visit provided a complete the Working Group activities could be (RCERQ) in Tunis, in cooperation with overview of Canada’s regulatory policy reinforced and its programme of work the Tunisian government. Its purpose is and process, focusing on the Cabinet enriched in the future. With sound to provide specialized training on law Directive on Streamlining Regulations legal frameworks for markets drafting as it has been developed and on the establishment and functions compromising regulatory inflation and unevenly across countries. of CORE, the Regulatory Impact Analysis complexity, uncertainty, burdensome Statement process, cost-benefit compliance costs, poor risk STUDYING THE CANADIAN analysis, evaluation of regulatory management, and under-resourced REGULATORY SYSTEM programs, and training. institutions, the delegates also Regulatory modernization is a priority discussed possible ways to overcome for the Government of Canada. The the challenges of the current global Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat economic slowdown, with regulatory (TBS) plays a central role in the quality being one of the main pillars of regulatory management and reform countries’ national strategies. process. The TBS’ Regulatory Affairs Delegates agreed that clarity, Sector (TBS-RAS) hosted a study visit accessibility, coherence and about Canada’s regulatory applicability are supported through the management system on 28-30 April promotion of regulatory policy tools 2009. This visit was timely as Tunisia is and approaches such as: the use of presently establishing the Regional clear objectives to justify regulatory Centre of Expertise for Regulatory action to which regulation should be Quality (RCERQ), which is designed to accountable; a life-cycle approach respond to the interest expressed by a should balance the creation and number of MENA countries to deepen management of existing legislation; knowledge and capacity-building on consultation processes which involve regulatory reform and, in particular, the stakeholders in the regulatory process; role of oversight bodies and Regulatory evidence-based analysis policy tools Impact Analysis (RIA). that strengthen regulatory The Canadian TBS-RAS Centre of management; and administrative Regulatory Expertise (CORE) was simplification to make the life of identified as a model for the citizens and business easier. The establishment of Tunisia’s own centre sequencing of the reforms is important of expertise. CORE’s model as a to ensure success. consulting service for federal departments was of particular interest REGIONAL TOOLS TO SUPPORT since the centre in Tunisia is also REFORM intended to provide consultative The Regional Charter for Regulatory services throughout the MENA region. Quality was presented and submitted TBS-RAS developed a three-day for approval by all participant countries, agenda for a group of 11 government and delegates agreed to submit the officials from Tunisia, as well as Egypt contribution of the Working Group at and Lebanon. The sessions included 24 PPPxt]AND PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY S [Type text] [Type text] ENHANCING THE USE OF PPPs IN The first day of the seminar was PPPs for E-GOVERNMENT PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY devoted to issues such as affordability, risk sharing, value for money, At the Sixth High Level Seminar on Fiscal deficits, public debt burdens and budgeting and accounting for PPPs, Partnerships and Frameworks for E- a quest to enhance efficiency has led, and the institutional and regulatory government Collaboration on 28 May since the mid 1990’s in MENA and aspects. On the second day, countries 2008 in Tunis, Tunisia, delegates from OECD countries, to a redefinition of the discussed country-specific PPP MENA and OECD countries exchanged roles of the public and private sectors frameworks and experiences. on partnerships with the private sector in delivering services. The private for implementing e-government. sector increasingly finances large Partnering with the private sector has infrastructure projects and delivers become one key feature of the use of services that have traditionally been ICT in government. PPPs for e- provided by the public sector. The government have moved from focusing selection of Public Private Partnerships on the simple acquisition of technical over other procurement methods products and services to the direct raises economic, financial, legal, and contribution by non-government organizational questions that countries entities to the development and have to deal with. delivery of electronic services (i.e. th through establishing and managing The 4 Regional Meeting of the A Capacity Building Workshop on front office service portals). However, Working Group Public Service Delivery, Public Private Partnerships also took partnerships with the private sector in PPPs, and Regulatory Reform in April place on 28 April 2008 in Amman, e-government pose a number of 2008, organised under the Patronage Jordan, hosted by the Executive challenges to governments. of the Prime Ministry of the Hashemite Privatization Commission in co- Implementing these partnerships Kingdom of Jordan, was attended by 80 operation with the OECD. Participants requires that governments be able to participants. This meeting supported reviewed case studies and good strike a balance between existing MENA countries in improving the practices for the interaction of the accountability frameworks (which delivery of public services and the public and private sectors in the involve public scrutiny and oversight) arrangements of PPPs. The objective of provision of goods and services. and the search for innovative solutions the meeting was to provide an Participants concluded that the (requiring increased flexibility). One opportunity to delegates to present effectiveness and success of PPPs important challenge is to ensure that a latest developments and current depends on appropriate allocation of proper governance framework for such activities on public service delivery and risks between partners, the efficiency partnerships is in place. Another PPPs in their countries and to identify and value for money of the challenge includes ensuring that public priorities for the future programme of partnership, the affordability of the organizations have the adequate work. projects, budgeting and accounting capacity and skills to manage these considerations, the establishment of partnerships, in particular with regards PROMOTING SUCCESSFUL USE OF PPP units in the government, and a to specification of outputs and risk PPPs: VALUE FOR MONEY AND sound regulatory framework, including management. ECONOMIC AFFORDABILITY complementary regulations on competition policy, transparency and A two-day seminar on PPPs: accountability. Affordability, Value for Money, and the At the Public Private Partnership PPP Process was held on 21-22 Symposium, held on 20-21 May 2008 in February 2008 in Zürich, Switzerland. Rabat, Morocco, delegates from OECD The meeting was hosted by the and MENA countries discussed the use Institute for Public Management of the of PPPs taking into account the Zürich University of Applied Sciences. A concerns of economic affordability, broad range of important issues in the financial risk sharing, competition, and PPP process were discussed. Countries transparency. Participants addressed exchanged experiences on handling the importance of appropriate complex PPPs. regulatory and oversight mechanisms and institutional capacity to initiate and manage PPPs. 25 REGULATORY REFORM, PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY AND PPP’S: RESULTS xt] [Type text] [Type text] PROGRAMME IMPACT 1. Setting up of regional tools for regulatory reform: Regional Charter for Regulatory Quality 2. Enhanced institutional capacity on introducing regulatory framework, improving law drafting and reviewing the existing legislation to ensure the market flexibility and the economic development. 3. Enhanced use of PPP’s or innovative management techniques to accelerate the improvement of public infrastructures and then impact upon the economic growth. 4. Improved quality of public service provision and delivery. Concrete examples of progress in regulatory reform, public service delivery and public private partnerships supported and disseminated through the programme and included in the MENA progress report. The introduction of two new legal databases in Jordan, and the creation of the inter-ministerial steering committee to provide legislative drafting support in 2009. The establishment of the “the higher National Committee on the Legislative Plan” in 2007 in the Palestinian National Authority. The 2007 initiative called the “Egyptian Regulatory Reform and Development Activity” aiming at compiling an inventory of all legislation that impacts Egyptian businesses and preparing for regulatory impact assessment on economic activity in Egypt. Implementation of new PPP’s policy frameworks in Jordan and in Tunisia PROGRAMME OUTCOMES 1. Progressing with reforms Increased introduction of appropriate legal frameworks and regulatory policy tools Extensive dissemination of guidelines for law drafters and better practices on regulatory reform and on types of service delivery. Introducing concrete evidence-based mechanisms (such as the Regulatory Impact Assessment) or normative instruments (such as the Regional Charter for Regulatory Quality) to support policy-making. Further review process of the existing legislation. Continuous adaptation of the legal frameworks to the PPP process Reinforced the administrative capacities for the conclusion and the implementation of PPP contracts Enhanced technical expertise in MENA countries on institutional and accounting aspects of PPP’s and outsourcing processes. Disseminating expertise through extensive training on the use of regulatory quality instruments. 2. Monitoring reform implementation Collecting and mapping out data on regulatory quality and PPP’s as a first step to build up indicators. Continuous monitoring of progress in implementing regulatory policy, law drafting capacities and PPP’s. Progressive building of a Regional Framework for Regulatory quality and performance, taking inspiration from the OECD Guiding Principles of Regulatory Quality and Performance. Reviewing implementation of Regulatory Impact assessment in national contexts. 26 REGULATORY REFORM, PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY AND PPP’S: RESULTS xt] [Type text] [Type text] PROGRAMME OUTPUTS 1. Active networking of reform drivers and regional dialogue Capacity-building seminar on “Institutions Promoting Expertise on Regulatory Management”, Tunis, Tunisia, 20 May 2009. th 5 Regional Working Group Meeting on Public Service Delivery, Public Private Partnerships and Regulatory Reform, Tunis, Tunisia, 19 May 2009. Capacity building seminar on the Review of the existing legislation, Cairo, Egypt, 11-12 March 2009. High Level Capacity Building Seminar on Administrative Simplification: Overcoming Barriers to Implementation, Cairo, Egypt, 18-19 June 2008. Symposium on Public-Private partnerships, Rabat, Morocco, 20-21 May 2008 th 4 regional meeting of the Working Group Public Service Delivery, Public Private Partnerships and Regulatory Reform, Amman, Jordan, 29 April 2008. Capacity building workshop on Public Private Partnership, Amman, Jordan, 28 April 2008. 2. Capacity building and national adaptation of capacity design th 5 Special Session of the OECD Working Party on Regulatory Management and Reform, Paris, France, 4 November 2009. th 4 Special Session of the OECD Working Party on Regulatory Management and Reform, Paris, France, 20 October 2008. Jordan Regional Capacity building seminar on “Drafting Legislation and Oversight Bodies for Regulatory Quality”, Amman, Jordan, 29-30 April 2008. Study visit of Canada's regulatory system, Ottawa, Canada, 28-30 April 2009. 3. Publications Chapter on Regulatory Management and Reform (law drafting capacities illustrating jurisdictions in some countries) / MENA-OECD progress report on Public Governance Reform in the Middle East and North Africa, submitted at the MENA ministerial meeting in November 2009. Building an Institutional Framework for Regulatory Reform Impact Analysis (RIA): Guidance for Policy Makers, drawing on the regional policy dialogue among MENA and OECD countries on regulatory reform issues, OECD, 2008. 27 ACTIVITIES IN 2008-2009: ENVIRONMERESULTSGERNANCE ENVIRONMENT AND GOVERNANCE OF WATER [Type text] ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL related to local governance as well as to the lack of effective operational ISSUES regulatory questions, and hosted in July strategies, weak policy implementation 2009 a “Conference on Sharing and law enforcement, weak monitoring In the MENA region, institutional Experiences on the Governance of and assessment at the national and responses are needed to address the Water between Arab and OECD local level; limited technical, as well as environmental problems and to better countries.” Given the critical management and implementation manage the region’s scarce natural environmental implications of the capabilities and financial constraints. resources. While environmental governance of water, this activity can problems are becoming increasingly Major regulatory challenges also progressively help integrate other global in scope and significance, identified were the financial cost of environmental challenges into the governments’ responses remain largely setting regulatory agencies and process of policy dialogue. territorial. For the widespread adoption ensuring their viability (financing gap), of ecologically compatible behavior and the technical expertise and ENHANCING GOVERNANCE OF competences of their staff (capacity for the effective management of WATER IN MENA COUNTRIES natural resources, strengthened gap), their autonomy and governance institutions and increased A high level Regional Conference on independence from the executive regional policy dialogue and co- the Governance of Water was held on power, the asymmetry of information operation will be necessary. 8-9 July 2009 in Tunis. The Conference between the regulator and the was organized at the invitation of the operator (information gap), and citizen Reforms to improve governance participation in regulatory agencies. Tunisian Ministry of Agriculture and could have particular leverage on Water Resources. It brought together environmental policies, as well as on PROMOTING A SUSTAINABLE representatives from governments, the development of related judicial WATER MANAGEMENT APPROACH public companies, the private sector, capacity and the enforcement of and civil society from MENA and OECD environmental legislation. In 2008, the This event determined to what extent countries from the Mediterranean MENA-OECD Governance Programme the agencies assigned to the water region, to exchange experiences on conducted a strategic environmental sector could contribute to the governance reforms in the water assessment in accordance with the reconciliation of hydrological and sector. OECD Development Assistance environmental views with national and Committee (DAC) Guidelines and in The Conference provided sub national administrative ones. The close co-ordination with the OECD’s participants from a wide range of examples of river basin organization in Development Co-operation Directorate. backgrounds with the opportunity to Mediterranean countries stressed the Conducting this Strategic share experiences on the trends and diversity of existing agencies as well as Environmental Assessment increased challenges of water reforms, as well as their place in the institutional national the awareness of the OECD Secretariat on the major institutions in the sector or supranational arrangements. of the programme’s potential impact and their interaction. Discussions were on the environment. The organized around four sessions, which INVOLVING CITIZENS environmental assessment explored essentially concentrated on the potential relations between public following aspects of water governance: The creation of local expertise in sector reforms and the environment. Coherence of public water policies, the the water sector must involve civil modalities of the implementation of society. Discussions provided examples The OECD member countries are of how communication, education and these policies, and the establishment of aware of the importance of addressing awareness could be encouraged at local partnerships with the private sector, environmental issues in the MENA levels to promote sustainable including the participation of citizens region and provided specific funding for management of water resources. Some and civil society. The territorial activities to be carried out by 2010. citizen groups were identified as dimension and its implementation from MENA country delegates recognise the leaders in capacity-building at local the point of view of both local importance of enhancing the public level (i.e. women in the case of Tunisia), specificities and overall coherence also sector performance in preserving the and young generations and farmers (i.e. received special attention. environment and have defined Morocco). Interesting experiences technical activities with an involving the consultation of actual environmental focus to be carried out IDENTIFYING CHALLENGES users of public services were also within the programme. In particular, Participants agreed that mproving discussed, based on an initiative of the Tunisia has expressed great interest in water governance is a top priority due French Institut de la Gestion Déléguée. addressing environmental aspects 28 ACTIVITIES IN 2008-2009: ENVIRONMERESULTSGERNANCE ENVIRONMENT AND GOVERNANCE OF WATER: RESULTS [Type text] IMPACT 1. Enhanced awareness of water governance challenges in MENA countries. 2. Enhanced institutional structure of water governance and improved policies to ensure an improved quality of service. Concrete examples of progress in environment and governance of water supported and disseminated through the programme and included in the MENA progress report. Comprehensive approach of “Integrated Water Resources Management” in Tunisia Setting up of basin agencies in Morocco The National Water plan in the Palestinian National Authority OUTCOMES Dissemination trends and sharing good practices on integrated water resources management. Creation of a new technical network on environment and water experts from governments, public companies, private sector and civil society. Supporting governments to develop a territorial approach and local mechanisms for dealing with environment related issues. Elaboration of a common framework on rules and practices for decision-making and strategic planning in the field of water governance. Supporting governments to Establishment of partnerships with the private sector. OUTPUTS 1. Active networking of reform drivers and regional dialogue Participation of MENA countries in the Conference on Climate Change and Sustainable Cities, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, June 2009. Regional Conference on the governance of water: Sharing experiences between OECD and MENA countries, Tunis, Tunisia, 8-9 July 2009. 2. Publications Chapter on Water governance – MENA-OECD progress report on Public Governance Reform in the Middle East and North Africa, submitted at the MENA ministerial meeting in November 2009. 29 GENDER POLICIES [Type text] FOCUS GROUP TO PROMOTE The first meeting of the gender addressed in the upcoming years by the GENDER EQUALITY IN PUBLIC Focus Group took place on 18 May 2009 Focus Group: Addressing gender objectives in HRM; addressing gender SECTOR Did you know…that the percentage of discrimination and unethical behaviour in The MENA-OECD Governance women holding ministerial positions the public sector; gender-aware e- Programme is increasingly addressing reaches roughly 10% in a significant government policies, services and gender questions, transversally within its number of MENA countries ? practices to address gender-related thematic Working Groups, and in digital divide and enhancing the coherence with the strategic directions participation of women in public services for 2008-10 approved at the Ministerial in Cairo, Egypt. At the meeting, and policy making; integrating the gender Conference in November 2007. participants exchanged their experiences dimension in public budgets, and on empowering women in public decision introducing gender analysis into making and fostering a gender-balanced regulatory quality frameworks. environment in the public sector by considering the specific needs of women within public management. Representatives from MENA and OECD countries drew on their experiences with national or regional strategies, action programmes and pilot projects for the promotion of gender equality in the public sector and presented recent trends, key developments, lessons and Reinforcing gender policies in the challenges. Participants addressed MENA region is critical for the A second meeting on addressing budgetary and regulatory instruments as empowerment of women and the gender in public management was held 2 well as organizational policies and promotion of good governance. Gender- October 2009 in Paris, back-to-back with procedures that can contribute to sensitive personnel policies, for example, the meeting of the OECD Working Party counteracting inequalities in the public can ensure adequate representation of on Public Employment and Management sector. They identified key factors which women within the public sector, in on 1 October 2009, entitled “Building a help in overcoming obstacles to particular in decision-making and senior stronger and fairer public service by introducing gender initiatives in the positions. Governments can further strengthening diversity.” Taking public sector. provide enabling online environments by advantage of the presence of the OECD ensuring equal access to e-government experts on HRM, the meeting services as well as ICT education and COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO thematically paid special attention to the training. Another policy tool to promote GENDER IN PUBLIC POLICIES question of addressing gender in HRM. gender equality, increasingly applied by A comprehensive gender approach to MENA and OECD member countries, is in public management implies bringing mainstreaming the gender perspective in gender concerns to the attention of the the budgetary process. Moreover, several public sector, raising awareness about MENA and OECD countries analyse the existing gender inequalities and impact of law proposals on equality adequately communicating policy between men and women and use legal objectives to public sector staff, political measures to foster gender-friendly leaders, citizens and the media. In order administrative structures. to build support for gender policies and At the regional meeting of the action programmes within and outside Working Group on Civil Service and the administration, governments need Integrity on 4 April 2008 in Rabat, also to develop strategies and tools for Moroccan representatives suggested the raising awareness on persistent gender creation of a gender focus group that inequalities in the public sector and for would reflect on concrete measures for communicating the expected benefits of introducing the gender dimension in the action programmes. activities undertaken within the MENA- The whole-of-government OECD Governance Programme. In July perspective comprises institutional 2008, the Steering Group approved the approaches to gender policies. The creation of the gender Focus Group and following thematic priorities will be the implementation of gender activities. 30 GENDER: RESULTS [Type text] PROGRAMME IMPACT 1. Endorsmenet of a Gender Programme of Work to mainstream gender in public policies, with special focus on personnel policies, gender budgeting and regulatory policies. 2. Enhanced the gender perspective in institutions and processes to address gender imbalances in decision-making 3. Consolidated strategies and whole-of-government approaches to make governance more gender-sensitive. Concrete examples of progress in Gender policies supported and disseminated through the programme and included in the MENA progress report. National Strategy for Gender Equality through the Integration of Gender Objectives in Public Policies and Development Programmes in Morocco. Gender budgeting in Egypt. Equality in legal frameworks in Tunisia. PROGRAMME OUTCOMES Creation of a new technical horizontal network on gender in public management including experts from governments, civil society, and media Enhanced capacity to incorporate gender objectives in public policies and adopt comprehensive institutional approaches to gender policies Raised awareness on the necessity to introduce gender objectives in personnel policies as well as budget and legal frameworks PROGRAMME OUTPUTS 1. Active networking of reform drivers and regional dialogue Kick-off meeting of the gender focus group on Addressing gender in public management, Cairo, Egypt, 18 May 2009. Meeting on Addressing gender in public management, Paris, France, 2 October 2009. Expert meeting of the Public Employment and Management Working Party on Building a stronger and fairer public st service by fostering diversity, Innovative practices and future challenges, Paris, France, 1 October 2009. 2. Publication Chapter on Gender in Public Management in MENA countries – MENA-OECD Progress Report on Public Governance reform in the Middle East and North Africa, submitted at the MENA ministerial meeting in November 2009. 31 REGIONAL CENTERS [Type text] REGIONAL PLATFORMS FOR evaluation for governments in the charge of evaluation in OECD countries, CAPACITY BUIDLING MENA zone; to raise awareness and the RCPPE will have to implement an inform its partners about the action plan that can incorporate the This initiative supports the efforts of importance of studies to evaluate following: the establishment of quality MENA countries to create regional public policy; and to offer training in standards or a regional good practices centres for capacity building in different evaluation. guide which integrates internationally fields related to managing public policy. recognised standards, yet adaptable to These centres have an important role With the aim of supporting the specificities of countries in the to play in strengthening regional governance and public policy reform MENA region; and the establishment of cooperation, improving governance, already underway in Morocco and decentralised co-operation with centres and disseminating good practices. It is other countries in the region, the in OECD countries regarding public as such that three centres: for RCPPE has elaborated its strategy policy evaluation. A partnership is evaluating public policy, for expertise in around four poles of excellence envisioned with the National Agency for regulatory quality, and for training in responsible for: training to improve the Evaluation of Public Policies and financial management, were created in skills in the field of public policy Quality of Services in Spain, based on Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt evaluation; Information sharing and the experience of the Agency, respectively. increased exchange between particularly with regard to its systems evaluation practitioners in order to At this stage, these centers are for planning activities, managing encourage the emergence of operating as initial core units, each information and agency expertise; and professional and ethical standards; sponsored by an existing institution in the creation of a website for the RCPPE raising awareness in MENA countries their respective host country. With the which will promote the Centre and its about the need for evaluation studies support of the OECD Secretariat, they activities in the region. and the role that these play as a key have developed feasibility plans, instrument in the rendering of accounts defined an institutional structure, and a in the public sector; research and REGIONAL CENTRE OF EXPERTISE substantive orientation which is being regional evaluation studies. FOR REGULATORY QUALITY translated into an action-oriented (RCERQ) IN TUNISIA programme of work. Initial activities are As a regional centre, the services currently being implemented with the of the RCPPE are available to all The RCERQ has several roles, including: support of the Working Groups. A countries in the MENA region, which Promoting the culture of regulatory will allow for strengthening regional co- quality practices in local, sub-regional, strategy for fundraising and partnership operation and collaboration. Over time, and regional legal and governmental building is also in progress to ensure the viability of the Centers. a pool of evaluation experts and spheres. Developing individual and professionals will be created and the institutional capacities in managing Centre will become recognised for its regulatory quality in Tunisia and in REGIONAL CENTER FOR PUBLIC quality training programmes and top- other MENA countries involved in the POLICY EVALUATION (RCPPE) IN level seminar organisation. OECD-MENA Governance Programme; MOROCCO and creating a network of regional and In February 2010, the RCPPE is The RCPPE addresses the needs of the organising an international seminar on national expertise in regulatory quality. MENA region in terms of public policy trends and practices in public policy The Centre has set, as a major evaluation and will bring added value to evaluation and four training workshops goal, improving the quality of legal texts national efforts to improve public policy on evaluation techniques. These by getting involved in the preparation evaluation. activities will be regional and involve and drafting of legislative and The main goal of this Centre is to the participation of senior government regulatory texts, private acts (private promote public policy evaluation figures from different MENA countries sector, government, and international practices and sector and administrative involved in the MENA-OECD contracts, for example), international reform in MENA countries, as well as Governance Programme. A centre for agreements, and in the translation of capacity-building for public policy documentation and analysis will be legal texts. It will also facilitate access evaluation and analysis, notably opened that will be responsible for to and involvement in comparative law through the training of public officials. procuring adequate documentary and improving legal electronic data resources about public policy processing. To help reach its goals, the Its objectives are: To strengthen evaluation for the countries involved. RCERQ benefits from the support and the capacities of governments in doing expertise of the Centre for Legal and ex-post and ex-ante evaluations; to Regarding mid-term projects, Judicial Studies (CEJJ) created in 1993 in offer consultation on public policy similarl to what is done by the bodies in Tunis. 32 REGIONAL CENTERS [Type text] The RCERQ’s plan for 2009-10 The Centre aims to provide quality budgeting, debt management, internal include: launching an interactive training in public taxation and financial auditing, change management, and website for the Centre; creating a management on the one hand, and to PPPs; database for the tools and techniques carry out research on new trends in ii) A Certification Programme that of regulatory quality in three languages public finance and fiscal policy on the includes long-term training and leads to (Arabic, French, and English); other. professional certification recognised Organising a national seminar (October) throughout the region. The first To maintain its regional and a regional seminar programme to be launched by the dimension, the Centre needs a (January/February 2010) to promote Centre will be the “Professional decision-making body that is the activities of the RCERQ. This will Certification in Governmental representative of the different allow for connections to be made Accounting,” for which there is already countries in the MENA region and their between civil servants in the MENA strong demand. This programme will be interests, hence its structure into three region and for a network of legal taught in collaboration with levels: a Board of Directors or experts to be established. international experts and institutions Governors (supervisory board) which Over the course of 2010, the includes the Ministers of Finance from specialised in governmental accounting; RCERQ is planning to organise study member countries; an Advisory Council and, visits between its members and represented by donor countries, iii) A programme for “training trainers” different MENA country governments. technical experts, and organisations; and an Executive Committee in charge which will ensure that subsequently, TAX AND FINANCIAL of running its affairs. the best practices are quickly spread MANAGEMENT CENTRE IN EGYPT throughout the region. The Centre does not intend to With the support of the MENA Senior simply provide training courses, but Budget Officials Network, co-chaired by rather to implement a complete Sweden and the United States, the training system which defines needs, Egyptian government has created a designs models and measures their Regional Centre for Tax and Financial efficiency through trainee evaluations, Management Training in Cairo. and uses performance indicators to assess the success of its operations. The idea of creating a centre coincided with the reforms undertaken To successfully achieve these by most of the countries in the MENA goals, the Centre will draw on the region to modernise their revenue and expertise of regional and international budgetary management systems. organisations (OECD, World Bank, IMF, Currently, the main impediment to …etc). It will establish an active successful modernisation efforts is partnership with international institutes insufficient training of staff involved in such as the Slovenian-based Centre of establishing reforms. Such training Excellence in Finance, the British needs to exceed the capacities of Chartered Institute of Public Finance national institutions, hence the and Accountancy, and the Singapore pertinence of creating a regional Regional Training Institute. centre. Once it is fully operational, the The Tax and Financial Centre will offer three types of training: Management Training Centre was i) A “Responsive Programme” involving inaugurated in 2008, and intends to the organisation of short (2-5 day) launch regional activities within the conferences on specific topics, based framework of the MENA-OECD on the best international practices Governance Programme. In May 2009, regarding different aspects of fiscal and an Egyptian delegation visited Spain to financial governance. The subjects learn from the Spanish Institute for addressed will pertain mostly to Fiscal Studies tied to the Ministry of financial management, taxation, Finance, which plays an important role planning and implementing a budget, in shaping Spain’s public finance policy. results- and performance-based 33