PowerPoint Presentation The Deep Underground Science and

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					                                     Bernard Sadoulet
                                     Dept. of Physics /LBNL UC Berkeley
                                     UC Institute for Nuclear and Particle
                                     Astrophysics and Cosmology (INPAC)

 The Deep Underground Science and
      Engineering Laboratory

              History and process
              The science
              Infrastructure requirement

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05             1                                  B.Sadoulet
                         The DUSEL Process
         Early 1980’s first investigation (Nevada, San Jancinto)
         2000 Renewed interest in a US Deep Underground Science Laboratory
                    Rapid expansion of Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics
                    Potential availability of Homestake on a short time scale
         Strong scientific support. A number of reports.
         Recent realization that such a facility would bring tremendous
           opportunities to earth sciences, biology and engineering: DUSEL

   March 2004: New process put in place by NSF
         Solicitation 1: Community wide study of
                   • Scientific roadmap: from Nuclear/Particle/Astro Physics to Geo
                   • Generic infrastructure requirements

         Solicitation 2 : Pre-selection of 3-5 sites
                   • Proposals due February 28 2005

         Solicitation 3
         Selection of initial site(s)
         MRE and Presidential Budget (optimistically in 09)

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                                2                                 B.Sadoulet
                       Site Independent Goals
The best scientific case for DUSEL
      The big questions
      Roadmaps of class A+ experiments
      Long term needs
Implementation parameters
      Infrastructure requirements
                 Modules (set of experiments sharing same infrastructure needs)
      Generic management structure
      Integration of science and education and involvement of local population
International context
      Identify strategic aspects of a U.S. facility
      Estimation of the space needs for first two decades
    =>Build up common language, consensus and synergies
                clearly happening already (3 workshops)

Deliverables by summer 05
 Printed report directed at generalists
      OMB/OSTP/Congress     cf. Quantum Universe
    +Web based reports with technical facts
      for scientists and programs monitors

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                          3                                    B.Sadoulet
  6 PI’s responsible for the study
           in particular scientific quality/ objectivity
                                  Bernard Sadoulet, UC Berkeley, Astrophysics/Cosmology
                                       Hamish Robertson, U. Washington, Nuclear Physics
                                         Eugene Beie,r U. of Pennsylvania, Particle Physics
                                   Charles Fairhurst, U. of Minnesota, geology/engineering
                                                 Tullis Onstott, Princeton, geomicrobiology
                                               James Tiedje, Michigan State, microbiology
  14 working groups + Workshops
        Infrastructure requirements/management
        Education and outreach
  2 consultation groups
        • The site consultation group (Solicitation 2 sites)
                  Endorsement of the PI’s and general approach
                  Input on scientific/technical questions important to the sites
                  Competition between sites
        • The initiative coordination group: major stakeholders (e.g. National
                  Coordination with other major initiatives
                  Major facilitator of involvement of other agencies
  External review à la NRC

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                                4                                  B.Sadoulet
                       Status/Plans                     See

   3 workshops
         Berkeley Aug 04: mutual discovery of Physics and Earth Sciences
         Blacksburg Nov 04: big questions in Earth Sciences
         Boulder Jan 05: fundamental biology, international aspects
                          common language, modules, schedule
         Infrastructure matrices
         Survey of the demand for DUSEL 1st decade and 2nd decade
                   Rescaling for likely evolution of community and budgets

    Start real work from working groups                                     after Feb 28

    Final workshop in DC area ≈July 15
         General discussion of a draft of overall report
         Information of agency people
    August-September
         Convergence on wording
         External review
    Glossy report fall 05

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                                5                                   B.Sadoulet
           Major Questions in Physics (1)
What are the properties of the neutrinos?
    Are neutrinos their own antiparticle? The answer to this question is a key
      ingredient in the formulation of a new ``Standard Model'', and can only be
      obtained by the study of neutrinoless double beta decay.
    What is the remaining, and presently unknown, mixing angle q13 between
      neutrino mass eigenstates?
    What is the hierarchy of masses?
    Is there significant violation of the CP symmetry among the neutrinos?

 DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                  6                                B.Sadoulet
                       Double beta decay
    Many new experiments
   gearing up to test this claim
   and go beyond it…
    Major US efforts
         Majorana expt- 500 kg Ge76
         EXO - 1-ton LXe TPC

                             Majorana Experiment

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                     7         B.Sadoulet
           Major Questions in Physics (1)
What are the properties of the neutrinos?
    Are neutrinos their own antiparticle? The answer to this question is a key
      ingredient in the formulation of a new ``Standard Model'', and can only be
      obtained by the study of neutrinoless double beta decay.
    What is the remaining, and presently unknown, mixing angle q13 between
      neutrino mass eigenstates?
    What is the hierarchy of masses?
    Is there significant violation of the CP symmetry among the neutrinos?

Do protons decay?
    It is expected that baryonic matter is unstable at some level and the lifetime
      for proton decay is a hallmark of theories beyond the Standard Model.
    These questions relate immediately to the completion of our understanding of
      particle and nuclear physics, and to the mystery of why the universe
      contains much more matter than antimatter.

 DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                   8                                B.Sadoulet
       Nucleon decay & long-baseline 
    Large multipurpose detectors             LANNDD - Liquid Argon
         Long-baseline neutrinos             Neutrino and Nucleon
         Proton decay                        Decay Detector
         Supernova observatory

  UNO: ~20 SuperK (fid.)

                       Water cherenkov
DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                     9                           B.Sadoulet
          Major Questions in Physics (2)
What is the nature of the dark matter in the
    Is it comprised of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) of a type
      not presently known, but predicted by theories such as Supersymmetry?
    Goal: observe both in the cosmos and the laboratory (LHC,ILC)

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                  10                               B.Sadoulet
             Large mass WIMP detectors
   Cryogenic Detectors
         Similar reach with complementary


   Low pressure TPC

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05               11       B.Sadoulet
          Major Questions in Physics (2)
What is the nature of the dark matter in the
    Is it comprised of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) of a type
      not presently known, but predicted by theories such as Supersymmetry?
    Goal: observe both in the cosmos and the laboratory (LHC,ILC)
What is the low-energy spectrum of neutrinos
 from the sun?
    Solar neutrinos have been important in providing new information not only
      about the sun but also about the fundamental properties of neutrinos.

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                   12                               B.Sadoulet
                            Solar neutrinos

 Possible future US
      Heron - rotons in LHe
      Clean - scintillation in LNe
      LENS - liquid scintillator

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                 13       B.Sadoulet
needs low
ray rates

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05   14   B.Sadoulet
                       Subsurface Geoscience
      How are the Underground Processes Changing
                      the Earth
  How does the rock flows and cracks at depth?
         Fundamental Processes at Depth
         How are the coupled Hydro-Thermal-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological
           (HTMCB) processes in fractured rock masses vary as function of the
           physical and time scales involved. Cannot be done in laboratory!
  Transparent Earth
         Can progress in geophysical sensing methods and computational advances
           be applied to make the earth transparent, i.e. to ‘see’ real-time
           interaction of processes and their consequences in the solid earth?
         Relationships between surface measurements and subsurface
           deformations and stresses
  How does the Earth Crust Move?
         – What controls the onset and propagation of seismic slip on a fault?
         – How are surface deformations and stresses related to their subsurface
           counterparts, and to tectonic plate motions?
         – Can earthquake slip be predicted; can it be controlled?

                   Need for long term access as deep as possible
                       Observatories in particular at largest depth
                       Laboratories where we can act on the rock

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                        15                          B.Sadoulet
        Rock Mass Strength-Unknown
       “We don’t know the rock mass strength. That is why we need an International Society” Muller, 24 May 1962

                                                                                        Forc e
                                                      Rock mass

                                                                                                                                       rm      atio n
                                                                                                                                 D ef o

                                                   Single joint

                                                   Intact block

                                                                                                                   e[                         Decreasing

                                                                          Localization and                           10                       deformation
                                     Continuum                                                                            2
                                     mechanic s                           disintegration                                    06                rat e
                                                                                                                                     rs   ]
                                     Ela sticity                                             Ela stic unloading
                        Maximum                        mecha-
                        design                                                                              Energy excess
                                                                                                     5      (Seismic

                                                                                                     Energy deficit
                                          1               2           3                              (Aseismic
                                                                                                     deforma tion)

                  Complete Load-Deformation Behavior

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                                                   16                                                                                   B.Sadoulet
    Correlation Surface -Underground
                                      (GPS, etc.)

                                                                  Above ground
                                                                  • Earthscope
                                                                  • Surface-based geophysics
                                                                  • Surface-underground experiments (e.g., drilling)

                                    Surface strain network

                                                         DUSEL                                         Tectonic
                       (imaging)                                                   Joint slip tests

                                                                                                        In situ

                       Correlation of above-ground and underground observations
DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                                         17                                                        B.Sadoulet
              Induced Fracture Processes
 Evaluate and refine models of
   fracture initiation and
       Resource recovery
       CO2 sequestration
       Waste isolation
 Examine effects on proximal
   fluid flow and transport
   including proppants
       Wellbore interaction effects
       Pressure solution in fractures
       Examine roles of different
 Examine roles of fractures in
   bacterial colonization
 Examine the long-term
   stability and durability of
   underground openings


 Courtesy of Derek Ellsworth
DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                    18                              B.Sadoulet
  Deep Coupled Processes Laboratory

 Characterize coupled-processes
   that affect critical
   environmental engineering,
   and complex subsurface
   Earth processes
       CO2 sequestration
       Waste isolation
       In situ mining
       Mineralization and ore body
 Characterize coupled processes
   under ambient conditions
 Chemical fate and transport
   dissolution/precipitation and
   modification of mechanical
   and transport parameters
 Multiphase flow and transport
 Microbial colonization


 Courtesy of Derek Ellsworth
DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                 19                              B.Sadoulet
                       Subsurface GeoEngineering
Importance for a number of applications
     – groundwater flow;
     – contaminant transport;
     – long-term isolation of hazardous and toxic wastes, carbon
       sequestration and hydrocarbon storage underground
     – ore forming processes;
     – energetic slip on faults and fractures; stability of underground

Mastery of the rock
     What are the limits to large stable excavations at depth?
       Petroleum boreholes;                 0.1m Ø. at 10km
       Mine shafts                          5m Ø            at 4km.
       DUSEL physics excavations        10-40m Ø at 1-3km
                                      Need for long term access
                                      as deep as possible
                                              DUSEL nearly unique in the world

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                    20                                B.Sadoulet
 What will we need to do better in 20 years?
 Grand Challenges…..

Resource Recovery
             Locate resource
             Access quickly and at low cost
             Recover 100% resource at chosen timescale
             No negative environmental effect
Waste Containment/Disposal
             Characterize host at high resolution
             Access and inter quickly at low cost
             Inter completely or define fugitive concentration
                    output with time
Underground Construction
             Characterize inexpensively at high resolution
             Excavate quickly and inexpensively
             Provide minimum support for maximum design life

 Courtesy of Derek Ellsworth
DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                                             21   B.Sadoulet
  Major Questions in Geomicrobiology
  How does the interplay between biology and geology
   shape the subsurface? Role of microbes in HTMCB
  How deeply does life extend into the Earth?
         What are the lower limits of life in the biosphere? What is the
          temperature barrier, the influence of pressure, the interplay of energy
          restrictions with the above? The subsurface biomass may be the most
          extensive on earth but samples so far are too few.
  What fuels the deep biosphere?
         Do deep microbial ecosystems exist that are dependent upon
           geochemically generated energy sources ("geogas": H2, CH4, etc.) and
           independent from photosynthesis. How do such systems function, their
           members interact to sustain the livelihood?

                   Need for long term access as deep as possible
                             In many cases need horizontal probes (pressure)
                             Deeper bores

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                    22                                     B.Sadoulet
                           Variation of Life with Depth

                    Cells/ml or Cells/g
         101         103        105       107


Depth (km)



                    S. African data +
                    Onstott et al. 1998
         6                                           Fig. 2 of Earthlab report
             DUSEL seminar 3/4/05               23                         B.Sadoulet
                Major Questions in Biology
What can we learn on evolution and genome dynamics?
    Microbes may have been isolated from the surface gene pool for very long
     periods of time. Can we observe ancient life?
    How different are this dark life from microbes on the surface?
     Unexpected and biotechnologically useful enzymes?
    How do they evolve with very low population density, extremely low
     metabolism rate and high longevity? Role of Phages

Did life on the earth's surface come from underground?
    Does the deep subsurface harbor primitive life processes today?
    Has the subsurface acted as refuge during extinctions.
    What "signs of subsurface life" should we search for on Mars?

Is there dark life as we don't know it?
    Does unique biochemistry, e.g. non-nucleic acid based, and molecular
      signatures exist in isolated subsurface niches?
                 Requires systematic sampling at various depths
                 Attention to contamination issues
                 Long term observation in their own environment

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                   24                                  B.Sadoulet
               Answers require DUSEL (1)
Very Deep: 6000 mwe               (meters water equivalent, about the same as feet
  of rock):
     – Double beta decay
     – Solar neutrinos
     – Dark matter detectors (may be 4000 mwe)
     - Construction technology for deep waste sequestration
     - Monitor and relate surface deformations and stresses to their
       subsurface counterparts.
     – Determine processes controlling maximum depth of subsurface
       biosphere and perhaps discover life not as we know it.
     – Access to high ambient temperature and stress similar to seismogenic
       zone for in situ HTCMB experiments.
+ Intermediate depths: automatic
     –   Some solar neutrinos
     –   Radioactive screening/prototyping
     –   Fabrication+ Assembly area
     –   Construction technology for modest depth applications
     –   Monitor and relate surface deformations and stresses to their
         subsurface counterparts.

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                     25                                   B.Sadoulet
               Answers require DUSEL (2)
  Very Large Caverns (1,000,000 m3) at 2000-4000
         – Proton decay
         – Long-baseline neutrino physics (q13, masses, CP)
         - 3D +time monitoring of deformation at space and time scale
           intermediate between bench-tops and tectonic plates.

  Very Large Block Experiments: (100x100x100 m3)
   spanning the whole depth range
         – HTCMB experiments under in situ conditions in pristine
           environment over multiple correlation lengths with mass and
           energy balance.
         – ‘See’ real-time interaction of HTCMB processes using geophysical
           and computational advances and MINE–BACK to validate imaging.
         – Perform sequestration studies and observe interaction with
           surface bio-, hydro- and atmosphere

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                    26                               B.Sadoulet
       Exciting Science and Engineering
Compelling questions: A snap shot
       Neutrinos, Dark Matter, Stability of Matter
       The Ever Changing Earth: Fundamental Processes and Tectonics
       Transparent Earth, Mastery of the Rock, Resources
       The exploration of subsurface biosphere: limits, metabolism, role in
         geological processes
       New questions on origins, evolution and biochemistry diversity

       Not just a juxtaposition for political convenience
             Clarity about differences: e.g. earth scientists prefer variety of sites including hard
                rock and sedimentary if possible ≠ physicists
             Learning how to live together: e.g. tracers in water used for exploratory drilling, rock
                deformation laboratories far from observatories
       Overlap of questions: between fields and between fundamental and applied
       Multidisciplinary approaches: e.g. geo-micro-biologists
       New Synergies
                Instrumentation of the rock prior to construction of physics cavities
                Low radioactivity methods, instrumentation, data acquisition

Marvelous education and outreach opportunity
                Training of a new generation of multidiciplinary scientists and engineers
                Exciting the imagination of K-12 students (Bio+Earth+Physics+Astronomy)
                Involvement of local population (often Native Americans)

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                               27                                        B.Sadoulet

                       Ever Changing Earth
                          Fundamental processes
                             Role of microbes
                          Tectonics/Seismology     Resources

                                  Transparent Earth
                                  Remote Characterization
                                   Surface-> subsurface

Overlap is testimony of the richness of the field
Opportunity for multiple advocacy
       NSF-DOE- Congress - Industry
       Experts-other scientists- Public at large

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                         28                    B.Sadoulet
                       International Aspects
  International Science and Engineering !
         Not only in physics and astronomy
         But also: geo sciences (relationships with URL)
                   geo-microbiology is a new frontier

  Strategic advantage of a U.S. DUSEL
         A premier facility on U.S. soil will
                   • more readily put U.S. teams at core of major projects
                   • attract the most exciting projects
                   • maximize impact on training of scientists and engineers + public
         However we should check our intuition that there is enough demand
         DUSEL complementary to other major U.S. initiatives
                   • e.g. Earth-Scope, Secure Earth
         An existing infrastructure could be a major asset in competition for
           proton decay/neutrino detector

  At same time, considerable flexibility available in
         To conform with evolution of science, budget realities, and
           international Mega-Science coordination
                   • Excavate as we go (≠ Gran Sasso)
                   • Single site or multiple sites (in which case common management)
                   • Modules which can be deployed independently (in time or space)
                   e.g. Deep vs Large cavity

DUSEL seminar 3/4/05                                  29                                B.Sadoulet