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					L.O.      To know the effects of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake.
Key Words.
Epicentre
Richter
Mercalli Scale
What are earthquakes and where do they occur?
                             Earthquakes are
    DESTRUCTIVE              vibrations caused by
                             earth movements at plate
                             boundaries and at major
                             fault lines (cracks in the
                             earth’s surface).

                             They can occur at all 4
   CONSERVATIVE
                             major plate boundaries
                             but the most severe
                             earthquakes are normally
                             found at CONSERVATIVE
                             and DESTRUCTIVE
                             boundaries.
Why do earthquakes happen?
How can we measure earthquakes?                  1
                                                 2
 The Richter Scale                               3
                                                 4
This measures the magnitude of a                 5
                                                 6
tremor (how powerful it is) using an             7
instrument called a seismograph.                 8
                                                 9
                                                10
On the Richter Scale, magnitude is
                                              Richter
expressed in whole numbers and                Scale
decimal fractions. Although the
Richter Scale has no upper limit, the
largest known shocks have had
magnitudes in the 8.8 to 8.9 range. It
is a logarithmic scale which means        The largest earthquake
                                          ever recorded was in
that a size ‘6’ on the Richter Scale is   Chile. It measured 8.9
10 times larger than a size ’5’ and       on the Richter Scale.
100 times larger than a size ‘4’.
                                              1
                                              2
                                              3
The Japanese earthquake in Kobe               4
                                              5
(September 1995) measured 7.2 on the          6
Richter Scale.                                7
                                              8
                                              9
                                             10
The Greek earthquake (June 1995)            Richter
measured 6.2 on the Richter Scale.          Scale




  How many times greater was the Japanese earthquake?
             Activity
             Design your own cartoon based on
             the Mercalli Scale descriptions below.
I     Felt by almost no one.
II    Felt by very few people.
III   Tremor noticed by many, but they often do not realise it is an
      earthquake.
IV    Felt indoors by many. Feels like a truck has struck the building.
V     Felt by everyone; many people are awakened. Swaying trees and
      poles may be observed.
VI    Felt by all; many people run outdoors. Furniture is moved.
VII   Everyone runs outdoors. Poorly built structures considerably
      damaged. Slight damage elsewhere.
VII   Specially designed structures damaged slightly, others collapsed.
IX    All buildings considerably damaged, many shift off foundations.
      Noticeable cracks in the ground.
X     Many structures destroyed. Ground badly cracked.
XI    Almost all structures fall. Bridges wrecked.
XII   Total destruction. Waves seen on ground surfaces, objects are
      tumbled and tossed.
                  Mercalli Scale
                 This measures
                 how much
                 damage is
                 caused by the
Mercalli Scale   earthquake
                 based on
                 observations. It
                 is measured on a
                 scale between I
                 and XII.
              Focus       Epicentre

An earthquake has occurred along this fault line.
Match the letter with the correct label.

				
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