International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering

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					International Institute
of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering

                                 Report prepared for the Government of Japan
                                 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific
                                 and Cultural Organization acting as Executing
                                 and Participating Agency for the
                                 United Nations Development Programme,
                                 Special Fund Component,
                                 for the period 1963-1968


United Nations Development   ,   United Nations Educational
Programme                        Scientific and
Special Fund Component           Cultural Organization
Unesco/UNDP, Special Fund Component
Report Series
19. International Institute of Seismology
    and Earthquake Engineering
    Tokyo, Japan

 Published in 1969 by the United Nations
 Educational, Scientificand Cultural Organization
 Place de Fontenoy, 75 Pari~-7~
 Printed by Istituto grafico Casagrande SA, Bellinzona
 @Unesco 1969.Reproduction i whole or
 in part is authorized subject to proper
 Printed i Switzerland
          n                                              FR/Unesco/UNDP/SF
 BMS.69/11.19/A                                          JPN. 1
l? oreword

In November 1965 the United Nations General           purpose and over a limited period of t m .The
Assembly voted to merge two existing develop-         participating government contributes substan-
ment operations-the Expanded Programme                 ily o
                                                      t a l t the project i the form of national s a f
                                                                            n                      tf,
of Technical Assistance (established i 1 5 )
                                          n 90                               el
                                                      project buildings,as wl as supplies and services
and the Special Fund (established i 1959)-            that can be m t from local resources.UNDP, n
                                                                    e                                i
into a single entity now known as the United                 il
                                                      turn,wl normally meet the cost of international
Nations Development Programme.This merger             personnel,project fellowshipsfor seniorcounter-
was accomplished i January 1966.
                     n                                part staff,and equipment.
   UNDP a s s s the developing countries i
             sit                                  n                    l
                                                         In virtually al cases, the implementation of
their e f r s to realize the f l potential of t e r
       fot                    ul               hi     pre-investmentprojects is entrusted by UNDP
human and natural resources. To t i end,  hs          t an ‘ExecutingAgency ’, selected from among
UNDP and t e United Nations family of Agen-
               h                                      the United Nations family of Agencies. The
cies work with government i carrying out
                                  n                   Executing Agency is responsible for the day-
priority pre-investmentand technical assistance       to-daysupervision and execution of the project’s
projects. In the pre-investmentsector, UNDP           work plan. It also recruits internationalexperts,
provides assistance to governments: () i    a n       trains national personnel,and procures imported
conducting resource surveys and f a i i i y stud-
                                    esblt             equipment. Upon completion of project opera-
ies t determine the economic potential and
     o                                                                                ia
                                                      tions, the Agency submits a f n l report to the
t plan the productive use of natura1 resources;
 o                                                    participating government, describing the work
( ) i establishing or strengthening permanent
 b n                                                  carried out,evaluating the results obtained,and
educational institutions designed to provide          setting forth the Agency’srecommendationsfor
these countries with the s i l d people needed
                             kle                      follow-upaction by the government.
in their development efforts;and () i building
                                     c n                In the present instance, the Government of
up research centres for the development and           Japan has established,with the help of Unesco
application of new techniques i industry,
                                      n               and UNDP, the International Institute of
agriculture,and a variety of other fields.            Seismology and Earthquake Engineering. The
   These pre-investment projects are carried
                           .                           ia                hs
                                                      f n l report on t i project records the results
out i response to s e i i requests from govern-
                     pcfc                                 hs
                                                      of t i collaborative endeavour.
ments. Assistance is provided for a well-defined
International Institute of Seismology
and Earthquake Engineering
Tokyo, Japan

               I. Introduction                        oil
                                 The economic and s c a consequences of
                                   earthquakes                                       9
                                                          pcait n
                                 The world demand for s e i l s s i seismology
                                   and the need for international co-operation
                                   i training                                        10
                                 History of the InternationalTraining Centre,
                                   Tokyo,1960-63                                     10
                                 Reasons for the government’srequest:
                                   objectives of the project                         11
                                 The Plan of Operation and its amendments            12
                                 Summary of project implementation                   13

IT. Development of the project   Role of the Unesco experts                          14
                                 Role o the senior consultants
                                        f                                            14
                                 The curriculum and its successive modifications     15
                                 Building,equipment and f c l t e                    16
                                 Fellowships                                         17
                                  ciiis                 fe           o hi
                                 A t v t e of trainees a t r return t t e r
                                   respective countries                              18
                                            evcs            nttt
                                 Advisory s r i e of the i s i u e                   18
                                 Publications                                        18

              111. Conclusions   Assessment o the project
                                             f                                       19
                                 FoIIow-u~                                           20

       IV. Recommendations                                                           22

                  Appendixes     A. Plan of Operation                                23

                                 B. Project finance                                  29

                                 C.Unesco experts                                    30
                                 D.             tf
                                   Counterpart s a f                                 31

                                 E. Fellowships                                      32

                                 F. Equipment supplied by UNDP(SF)/Unesco            36

                                 G.Building plan                                     37

                                 H.Curricula of courses                              40

                                 J. Advisory services carried out by the i s i u e   41

                                 K.Reports and recommendations of the senior
                                   consultants                                       42
I. Introduction

The economic and social consequences                cent of the annual budget of the Government
of earthquakes                                      of Yugoslavia.
                                                       Considerable effortis now being devoted i     n
Among the natural hazards which face mankind        various parts of the world to research on the
on this planet, earthquakes may be counted          possibility of predicting the occurrence of
among the most destructive, if not of human                                           n h s il
                                                    earthquakes.Although success i t i f e d would
life itself, certainly of the works of man. With                                  cetfc
                                                    rightly be hailed as a major s i n i i achievement
the spread of urban civilization throughout the     and one which would result i the saving of
world, the t l taken by them has, during the        human life, it would not prevent damage t        o
past 1 0 years, been steadily increasing.
        0                                           buildings and public works. The only way t       o
   Systematic records of the damage and the         ensure against substantial economic loss is to
l s of life caused by earthquakes go back only
 os                                                                             o
                                                    design and build, and t strengthen existing
1 0 years, but they show that i the second
  0                                  n              buildings,i such a way that the structures wl
                                                                 n                                  il
quarter of t i century,between 1926 and 1950,
              hs                                    resist the maximum seismic forces t be ex-o
                         ee ild
over 350,000people w r k l e and the damage         pected in each particular area.
t buildings and public works totalled nearly           The application of proven technologies of
$10,000million.1                                    earthquake-resistant design and construction
   From the study of the immense volume of                                   n
                                                    raises building costs i a proportion depending
seismological data collected during the past        on the maximum expected seismic intensity,on
s x y years,the pattern of distribution of earth-   the type of construction and on local economic
quakes over the world has emerged quite clearly.    factors. Typical figures for the percentage of
Two principal seismicb l s may be distinguished:                                                  n
                                                    increase i cost vary from 3 to 5 per cent i the
the Circum-Pacific B l extending around the         case of large reinforced concrete structures up
shores of that ocean from New Zealand t        o    to 15 to 20 per cent i the case of small buildings
Chile; and the Mediterranean-Alpine B l ,    et      n
                                                    i zones of high seismic intensity.Nevertheless,
extending from Morocco, through the Mediter-        apart from the fundamental importance of
ranean and the Middle East into Central and         saving human life, such additional capital costs
South-East Asia. Other b l s of a t v t are
                              et       ciiy                            fst n
                                                    are more than o f e i the long run by the
associated with rift systems such as the East       saving of reconstruction expenses and by the
African rift valley. Within these main belts,       avoidance of the economic losses due to inter-
recent research has revealed the existence of                                  ciiis
                                                    ruption of productive a t v t e by earthquake
detailed patterns of seismicity, knowledge of       damage.
which is of great practical importance, since it                               utfe
                                                       These reasons have j s i i d the elaboration
permits a more precise delimitation of the zones                         n
                                                    and enforcement i many countries of special
 n                            iey
i which earthquakes are l k l to occur.             codes for earthquake-resistant design and con-
    Over sixty countries lie within these main                                                     hi
                                                    struction,despite the additional cost which t e r
                        n              ciiy
seismic zones, and i them seismic a t v t has       application implies. In order to reduce these
had a significant impact on t e r economy. For
                                hi                          o
                                                    costs t the minimum compatible with public
instance, the re-construction i the Islands of      safety, it is a general practice t divide each
Cephalonia, Ithaca and Zante, i Greece, a t rfe     country into three or more seismic zones,
the earthquake of 30 April 1954., is estimated
t have cost more than $30 million. The re-
construction of the city of Skopje (Yugoslavia)     1. The dollars quoted throughout this text are United States
wl have cost over $ 0 million or about 30 per
                        50                             dollars.


according t the maximum seismic intensity t
             o                                  o      Quite apart from the purely economic aspect
be expected,i order to ensure the application       of the problem, it must be borne i mind that
of effective but not excessive safety measures in                         t
                                                    a larger institution,a which both professors and
each zone.                                          students from different countries meet and
   The promulgation and enforcement of anti-        exchange ideas,provides a fertile meeting ground
seismic building codes and regulations present      for ideas. The recent history of science and
problems of particular d f i u t to developing
                           ifcly                    technology provides many examples of this, and
countries:                                          the t m spent a an international centre may
                                                          ie          t
1. The technical needs are not clearly defined,     be one of the m s stimulating periods i the
                                                                      ot                         n
    due t the fact that local and traditional                                     cets
                                                    professional life ofa young s i n i t or engineer.
    building methods and materials have not                                                t
                                                    The contacts which he may form a such an
    been the subject of s i n i i study.            institution are often of the greatest value to
2. The detailed seismicity of many developing                              o i                 o
                                                    him when he returns t h s own country t work
    countries has t be investigated by seismol-
                     o                              in comparative isolation from h s colleagues.
    ogists,so it is not possible a yet t estimate
                                  s     o                      ee
                                                       These w r the reasons which l d the Govern-
    the maximum seismic intensity t be expected
                                     o                                  o
                                                    ment of Japan t propose, and the United
    i different areas.                                         o
                                                    Nations t accept the idea of setting up i        n
3. Social and economic factors make it d f i u t
                                          ifcl      Tokyo an International Institute of Seismology
    to establish a reliable system of inspection    and Earthquake Engineering, intended to pro-
    and enforcement.                                               n                          cetss
                                                    vide training i these subjects to young s i n i t
                               il n
While the l t e problem wl, i most cases,
             atr                                    and engineers from countries throughout the
disappear only with the general improvement of                                      s il
                                                    seismic areas of the world. A wl be seen i       n
the standard of l v n and of education, the
                     iig                            the l t r part of t i report, the institute has,
                                                          ae            hs
first two can be m t and solved, provided that
                     e                              during its five years of operation, t a large
the country has a its disposal a nucleus of
                     t                                                                  ee
                                                    extent j s i i d the hopes which w r placed i
                                                            utfe                                     n
adequately-traineds i n i i and technical per-
                       cetfc                                                    hs
                                                    it. One of the reasons for t i success is that the
sonnel.                                             Japanese Government and the persons respons-
                                                     be                           n
                                                    i l for the operation had,i the years previous
                                                    t 1963, already acquired valuable experience
The world demand for specialists in                  n
                                                    i dealing with the special problems of training
seismology and the need for                         people from different countries, with widely
international co-operationin training               different social and professional backgrounds.
In a number of developing countries,consider-
able progress has already been made. Earth-         History of the International Training
quake engineering is studied and taught i a n       Centre,Tokyo,1960-63
number of university faculties of engineering,
notably i Argentina, Chile, India,Mexico and
          n                                         The active growth of seismology and earthquake
Turkey. Such examples are, however, rare. In                     n
                                                    engineering i modern times has l d a number
fact, it would probably be unrealistic and even                    n
                                                    of countries i the Middle East, South-East
unnecessary for each small country i the seismic
                                    n                                            o
                                                    Asia and Latin America t send students to
zones to possess such institutions. Countries               o
                                                    Japan t avail themselves of the special f c l t e
with populations ranging from 10 t 50 million
                                    o               offered by the various universities and institu-
probably require only one professional seismol-            n                              hs
                                                    tions i that country.The reason for t i is not
ogist a year and one or two specialists i      n           o
                                                    hard t find. Japan is situated i one of the
earthquake engineering.It would be uneconomic       most active seismic zones of the world and its
to set up an institution i each country for the
                          n                          cetss
                                                    s i n i t and engineers have acquired a high
training of such specialists.The world demand                                   n
                                                    reputation for the way i which they have
for specialists i seismology and i earthquake
                                   n                              o
                                                    tackled and t a great extent solved problems
engineering may be m t by a r l t v l small
                       e         eaiey              posed by rapid industrialand economic develop-
number of training centres,preferably located in            n                   o
                                                    ment i an area subject t destructive earth-
countries which have already acquired substan-      quakes.
ta scientAc and technical experience i t in hs                                n
                                                      The continual increase i the numbers of such
 il.                                                          e
                                                    students l d the Japanese authorities, by the


beginning of 1960,t realize that more e f c e t
                      o                    fiin       ie                         n
                                                     l z d Agencies concerned,i studying the possi-
training could be provided by creating a unified     iiis
                                                    b l t e of reducing to a minimum the damage
organization with a well-designed and compre-       resulting from earthquakes.Encouraged by t i   hs
hensive curriculum. Accordingly, an ad hoc                              fe
                                                    resolution, and a t r informal consultations
committee was set up i April 1960 a the
                            n               t       with Unesco and the Special Fund,the Govern-
University of Tokyo; under its auspices the                                          fiil
                                                    ment of Japan submitted an o f c a request to
‘International Training Centre of Earthquake        the Managing Director of the Special Fund i     n
Engineering’ was opened temporarily i co-   n                                      n
                                                    June 1961, for assistance i establishing an
operation w t other institutions concerned. In
            ih                                      International Institute of Seismology and Earth-
the first period of training, from July 1960 t  o   quake Engineering (IISEE), by expanding and
March 1961, f f e n students participated; one
                ite                                 strengthening the existing training centre. This
of these came under the United Nations Exten-       request was supported by the Governments of
ded Programme of Technical Assistance, while        Chile, Indonesia, the Philippines and Turkey.
the remaining fourteen w r supported finan-         It was made clear i t i application that the
                                                                          n hs
c a l by the Government of Japan under the
 ily                                                                      hs                   o
                                                    principal object of t i request was not t help
Technical Co-operation Plan for Near and            Japan, which clearly did not need any such
Middle East and Africa, the Technical Co-                                      o
                                                    assistance, but rather t make available to
operation Scheme under the Colombo Plan,                                    n
                                                    developing countries i the seismic zones the
and the Technical Co-operationPlan for Latin                                n
                                                    experience acquired i Japan and i other  n
America.                                            advanced countries. The Governing Council of
   For the 1961-62training project the govern-      the United Nations Special Fund approved the
mental institutions and agencies concerned m te     Japanese request i January 1962.It authorized
i conference; they came t an agreement t
 n                            o                 o   the Managing Director of the Special Fund to
reorganize the centre, and t establish a new
                               o                                                       n
                                                    provide assistance to the project i the form of
one on a permanent basis i the Building Re-
                              n                     experts, fellowships and equipment during the
search Institute of the Ministry of Construction.   period offive years,with Unesco a the Executing
For t i new training centre the Government of
      hs                                            Agency and the Ministry of Construction as the
Japan allocated $95,500i the 1961 f s a year;
                           n           icl          Co-operatingGovernment Agency.During these
t i included the costs of a building of experi-
 hs                                                 five years, the Special Fund, acting through
mental f c l t e and of operating the centre.       Unesco, would provide expert services i seis-
A division i charge of training was set up i
             n                                  n   mology and earthquake engineering, would
the Building Research Institute. The new buil-       fe                                o
                                                    o f r fellowships for students t attend the
ding for t i project was completed i September
                                     n                                 t
                                                    one-yearcourses a the institute,and would pro-
1962 within the precincts of the Building Re-       vide equipment and books.
search Institute. T e v specialists from s x   i        s
                                                       A its counterpart contribution to the project,
countries participated i the 1961-62 course
                          n                         the Government of Japan would provide the
under the technical co-operation plans of the       land and buildings, the equipment and experi-
Government of Japan,while the 1962-63course                   aiiis
                                                    mental f c l t e ,the Japanese professional and
was attended by f f e n trainees from ten coun-
                   ite                                          tf,
                                                    teaching s a f and would contribute to the
tries, twelve holding Japanese Government fel-      current expenses. It would also o f r a total of
lowships and three holding Unesco fellowships.      seventy-eightfellowships during the five years.
                                                       Detailed negotiations directedtowards drawing
                                                    up a plan of operation were started i Novem-
                                                    ber 1961,with a visit to Tokyo of a s a fmember
Reasons for t e government’s request:               of Unesco. However, the signature of the Plan
objectives of the project                                                               ni fe
                                                    of Operation could not take place u t l a t r the
                                                    conclusion of a basic agreement between the
Meanwhile, i July 1960, the Economic and            United Nations Special Fund and the Govern-
Social Council of the United Nations adopted        ment of Japan. This basic agreement required
a resolution on ‘InternationalCo-operation i  n     the approval of the Japanese Diet. Roth the
the Field of Seismological Research’,requesting     basic agreement and the Plan of Operation w ree
the Secretary-General o secure the co-operation      n
                                                    i fact signed on the same day,31 October 1962.
of the United Nations Educational Scientific,          It had been envisaged that the project would
and Cultural Organization and of other Specia-                               t
                                                    come into operation a the beginning of the


academic year 1962-63,that is t say, i Sep-
                                          n                t
                                                    ated a $157,500.The institute would have a
tember 1962.The enforced delay in the signa-        floor area of about 1 3 0 square metres and
ture of the Plan of Operation made it necessary     would cost about $94,510, which would be
t reconsider t i target date. In fact, a t r
 o               hs                         fe      provided by the government. As regards
consultations between al parties concerned,it
                         l                          equipment,the government would make provi-
was decided that the project should come into       sion up to $83,430,together with equipment,of
operation a the beginning of the academic           estimated value $49,500,already i the Building
year 1963-64.Adequate tm would thus be
                            ie                                                    aiiis
                                                    Research Institute. Other f c l t e estimated
available for the recruitment of experts,and for     t
                                                    a $9,830 a year would be made available.
the announcement and award of the fellowships.         Correspondingt the Special Fund fellowships
The Plan of Operation was therefore revised so      the government would award seventy-eight
that the project should run for a period of five    fellowshipsfor studentsfrom abroad ; the e t m
years from 1 September 1963 t 31 August
                                   o                ated vahe of these would be $280,000.Further,
1968.                                               the government would meet the tuition costs of
                                                    trainees who held Special Fund fellowships,t     o
                                                    an estimated total of $44,890.The cost of the
The Plan of Operation and its                        tf
                                                    s a f and consultants of Japanese nationality
amendments                                                   n     ie
                                                    would i the f v years of operation amount t      o
                                                                     o hs
                                                    $155,340,and t t i would be added running
The Plan of Operation is reproduced as Appen-       costs totalling $86,000.
dix A t the present report.
        o                                              According to the plan, the Special Fund and
   The allocation from the United Nations Spe-      the government would each provide the services
c a Fund was $761,700,which included pay-
 il                                                 of three senior consultants, who would meet
ments by the Government of Japan to the United      i Tokyo three times during the course of
Nations Special Fund of $51,975 towards local       execution of the project. The sequence of opera-
operating costs.This was matched by a govern-                            n
                                                    tions was outlined i the plan, and a detailed
ment counterpart contribution estimated a       t   schedule of expenditure year by year was set
$1,001,920.                                         out.
   For the development and working of the              Two important provisions were made with
institute, the United Nations Special Fund,                                        nttt fe
                                                    a view to continuing the i s i u e a t r the
acting through Unesco, agreed t provide the         end of the period of assistance by the Special
                          n              ttl
services of two experts i seismology ( o a 96                is,
                                                    Fund. F r t the government undertook t con-o
man-months), two experts i earthquake engi-                     ciiis
                                                    tinue the a t v t e of the i s i u e a the same
                                                                                 nttt t
neering ( o a 72 man-months)and three short-                                                 fe
                                                    level: secondly, it was agreed that, a t r the
                    ttl                   ;
term consultants ( o a 12 man-months) these         successful conclusion of the project, the govern-
would be recruited by Unesco and, with the          ment, the Executing Agency and the Special
approval of the government, one of the experts      Fund should consult with a view to transferring
would be chosen as Chief Technical Adviser.          o                   o
                                                    t the government ( r to a designated agency)
The Special Fund would award a maximum              the title of the equipment which had remained
 oa                               ttl
t t l of sixty-seven fellowships ( o a 804 man-     the property of the Special Fund during the
months) i seismology and earthquake engi-           period covered by the Plan of Operation.Provi-
neering t candidatesfrom Member States of the       sion was made for any revision of the plan that
United Nations or its Specialized Agencies i    n                              hs
                                                    seemed advisable during t i period.
        o                           o
order t enable these candidates t pursue the           This change of project schedule caused by the
course of study a the institute.Further,equip-
                  t                                 delay i signing the Plan of Operation is reflected
ment to a total value not exceeding $ 4 , 0 ,
                                         1000       i Amendment No. 1, signed i Octoberj1965.
                                                     n                               n
as wl as certain miscellaneous expenses not                                  elcs
                                                    This amendment also r f e t other changes i      n
             n l
exceeding i al $19,500 would be provided.           the project: there is a s i h increase i the
                                                                               lgt              n
   Roughly matching t i expenditure, the            project costs for experts corresponding to the
Government of Japan would make the counter-          ie n                        lgt
                                                    r s i costs;there are also s i h increases in the
part contribution of a site, occupying an area of   budget provisions for equipment and for miscel-
2,100square metres, within the precincts of the     laneous expenses.The principal change concerns
Building Research Institute, for a building t   o   the fellowships:in the original plan, budgetary
        hs                         hs
house t i institute;the value of t i was estim-     provision was made for the award of sixty-


seven fellowships a an estimated cost of            the provision, particularly as regards building
$3,000each.Because of the rapidly rising cost of          aiiis
                                                    and f c l t e .
fellowships both for travel and for living expen-      In Appendixes C,E and F attached to t i      hs
ses, the number of fellowships t be awarded i
                                 o              n   report,a list is given of the experts who served
the five-year period was reduced to fifty-three,    a the i s i u e during the five year period,ofthe
                                                     t     nttt
although the total cost of these fellowships        fellowships awarded by Unesco, and of the
actually rose from $201,000to $216,000.             equipment provided.
   The continuing rise i costs during the period
                        n                              The main problem encountered by the
of operation of t i project made necessary a
                  hs                                                           n
                                                    Executing Agency was i connexion with the
further revision of the budget,which is reflected                                         n
                                                    recruitment of experts. Specialists i seismology
i Adjustment Advice No.2 signed on 1 No-
 n                                         6        and in earthquake engineering, with adequate
vember 1967. The figures i t i adjustment
                               n hs                 teaching experience, are not numerous and are
advice represented the f n l estimates of the                               n                   n
                                                    often heavily engaged i important work i their
                          o hs
Special Fund allocation t t i project.Although      home countries.However,the Unesco Secretariat
the total of man-monthsof expert services w s a                        n
                                                    was greatly aided i its search for such specialists
          n hs ia
reduced i t i f n l version from 180 t 169%
                                         o                                                  n
                                                    by the Director of the institute,and i fact,the
expert months, the costs of expert services rose                           t       nttt
                                                    experts who served a the i s i u e during the
t $382,300.The provision for fellowships rose       project were of the highest quality.
t $233,870,for equipment t $145,000, and
 o                              o                      The fellowships awarded by the Special Fund
                             o          The
for miscellaneous expenses t $32,330. total                                            l
                                                    were announced by Unesco to al its Member
Special Fund allocation was $865,900.In these                             ee
                                                    States.The awards w r made by open compe-
amendments to the Plan of Operation no formal       t t o between the candidaturesreceived,regard
change was made t the government counter-
                     o                              being paid to geographical distribution.A most
part contribution i kind.                           satisfactory feature of the project was the
                                                    gradually increasing number of applicants for
                                                    the fellowships during the four-year period
Summary of project i p e e t t o
                    mlmnain                         during which they were available.In the fourth
                                                    year, over seventy applications, coming from
The amended Plan of Operation has i fact been
                                    n                             hry
                                                    more than t i t countries, were received for
followed very closely i the execution of the
                       n                                                            ee
                                                    the twelve fellowshipswhich w r awarded.This
project,by Unesco a the Executing Agency,and
                   s                                shows clearly that there is not only a great de-
by the Government of Japan. For its part, the                            n
                                                    mand for training i these subjects throughout
government has closely adhered to the Plan of       the world, but also that the institute has begun
                   n      n
Operation and has i fact i many cases exceeded       o
                                                    t meet t i demand.

II. Development of the project

Role of the Unesco experts                            Another valuable contact was the participa-
                                                    tion of trainees i individual projects under the
The fourteen experts who served a the i s i u e
                                     t    nttt      advice of Unesco experts.The better equipped
during the five years of Phase I have played                  ee
                                                    students w r able t join with experts i research
                                                                        o                  n
an essential part i developing its international                   s
                                                    projects such a the study ofthe great Matsushiro
character. They brought to the i s i u e t e r
                                      nttt hi                                               ee
                                                    swarm of earthquakes. The experts w r able
experience of teaching and research i seismol-       o
                                                    t give advice i connexion with the development
ogy and earthquake engineering from many                    nttt                   n
                                                    of the i s i u e library, and i putting forward
different countries.They assisted i the planning
                                    n               recommendations for the purchase of apparatus
of the curriculum and the time-table of the                        n                   n
                                                    for training i seismology and i earthquake
course,took part i the teaching,guided students
                   n                                engineering.
 n                                n
i individual studies and lastly,i so far a tm
                                            s ie
was available,undertook research on t e r own
           n hi               ils
account i t e r special f e d , sometimes i     n   Role of the senior consultants
collaboration with the Japanese s a f of the
institute. Without exception, they carried out                                   ee
                                                    Three senior consultants w r appointed by the
these tasks conscientiously and with great                         s
                                                    government a counterparts of the three senior
enthusiasm.                                         consultants appointed by Unesco.
                                        ee n
   The assignments of the experts w r i no                                                  s
                                                       The function of the consultants, a stated i     n
way easy,i view of the various duties they had
            n                                       the Plan of Operation,was ‘toadvise the govern-
to assume.In addition to a substantialprogram-      ment, the Executing Agency and the Special
m of lecturing,they interested themselvesi the
  e                                          n      Fund, throughout the duration of the project,
practical teaching, an a t v t that was t some
                         ciiy              o        with regard to: ( ) the training programme of
extent hampered by the lack of f c l t e for
                                       aiiis        the institute (syllabus and curriculum of the
experimental work. The experts accompanied          training courses, the number of trainees,
students on a number of visits t universities,
                                    o                tfig;           b
                                                    s a f n ) and ( ) the research programme of the
t engineering and construction works a wl
 o                                          s el     nttt .
                                                    i s i u e’
as t sites of earthquake damage. In addition,
    o                                                  To these ends the consultants,with represen-
they took part i more extended visits to centres                         tf, e n
                                                    tatives of Unesco s a f m t i Tokyo i Decem-
 n                                     n hs
i the Kansai and Kyushu areas; i t i way            ber 1963,March 1965,and April 1967.
trainees greatly benefited by the contacts with        By the courtesy of the Acting Director, h s   i
experts that these excursions made possible.         tf                                     aiiy
                                                    s a f and the Unesco experts, every f c l t was
A the institute itself, experts w r frequently
                                   ee               afforded to the consultants for becoming
consulted by trainees i connexion with matters                         l
                                                    acquainted with al aspects of the operation of
         n               n
arising i lectures or i practical work. Some                                                    tf,
                                                    the institute, including its buildings,its s a f its
                            hi           n ul
o the experts wrote out t e r lectures i f l for
 f                                                  curriculum (including some typical visits
the benefit of trainees; t i was particularly
                             hs                      o                                     o
                                                    t co-operating institutions and t areas of
helpful t those whose knowledge of English or       seismic interest, such as the damaged area a       t
whose lack of adequate previous training made       Niigata); with opportunities of meeting the
following a lecturer a d f i u t matter. This                              fe
                                                    students informally a t r lectures given by the
method involves, nevertheless, the r s of ik        consultants.
retarding the i i i t v of students and oftending     After a formal opening, the meetings began
t stereotype the training that a student carries    with progress reports by the Acting Director,
back t h s own country.
       o i                                          which provided a valuable basis of discussion.

                                                    Development of the project

The first meeting (1963)had a special importance    the opportunities for practical instruction. A  t
i that during the i i i l stages of the project
 n                    nta                           subsequent meetings it was seen that these dif-
certaind f i u t e had been encountered,concern-     iute
                                                    f c l i shad been m t to a great extent,but there
ing which discussion and advice w r desired.
                                     ee             was still scope for more extended practicalwork.
A n outstanding d f i u t was the lack of library
                  ifcly                                The third meeting (1967)reviewed the progress
f c l t e for the satisfactory prosecution of
 aiiis                                              of the project since its inception and discussed
teaching and for the individualresearch problems                                           fe
                                                    plans for a possible continuation a t r 1968.
of the students. A n urgent requirement was         They appreciated that the project had been
t build up a working library; such a service
 o                                                  developing entirely satisfactorily.A considerable
could not, of course, be provided a the very
                                       t                                  ie
                                                    proportion of the tm of t i meeting was
outset of the project, but, a a temporary expe-     devoted to a detailed examination of the way i   n
dient, arrangements had been made for trainees      which a ‘secondphase project’ could be carried
to have access to libraries i other institutions.
                             n                      out. It was recognized, of course, that t i    hs
                              hs o
The consultants considered t i t be an urgent       would be a new project enlarged and deepened
matter, and recommended that the purchase of         n
                                                    i comparisonwith the existing project;it would
necessary books proceed without delay. Prompt       include the creation of an advanced course,
action was taken, and orders amounting t        o   with students devoting themselves for the most
$ , 0 w r placed. For the requirements of the
  8 0 0 ee                                          part to research problems, both in seismology
more advanced students,a wl as for the teach-
                           s el                           n                                   aife
                                                    and i earthquake engineering.Having s t s i d
ing s a f the consultants recommended that an       themselves of the desirability and the f a i i i y
appeal should be made to institutions and to                                   h
                                                    of such a second phase, t e consultants strongly
s i n i t of high repute for gifts of journals      and unanimously recommended that steps be
and offprints of original papers; t i recommen-
                                   hs               taken t put the scheme into operation. A
                                                             o                                      t
dation was duly acted upon,and i consequence         hs ia
                                                    t i f n l meeting they expressed their apprecia-
the s z and quality of the library have been        tion of the support given by the Government of
greatly enhanced.                                   Japan to the founding, the running, and the
   A this first meeting the consultants inquired    development of the institute, and they paid a
into the l v n conditions of the trainees and       tribute t the devoted labours of the Director
t e r working conditions outside lecture and        of the project,the Acting Director,the Japanese
laboratory hours. These appeared t be far            tf
                                                    s a f and the Unesco experts.
from satisfactory,and appropriate recommenda-           t
                                                       A the 1967 meeting of consultants,a morning
tions w r therefore made. By the t m of the
        ee                             ie           session was set aside so that the whole body
second meeting (1 965), they w r pleased to note    of trainees could meet the Acting Director and
that a considerable improvement had been                                i tf,
                                                    some members ofh s s a f along with the consul-
effected. A that meeting, too, the consultants      tants and the Unesco experts, and give their
noted with satisfaction the excellent way i     n   v e s on the merits and the deficiencies of the
which the project was developing, with the          training.In addition,those trainees who wished
growth of an e p i de corps.
                srt                                 were able to talk privately with individual mem-
   Another d f i u t i the e r i r stages was
              ifcly n           ale                 bers of the panel.
the extent of the curriculum and its lack of           The reports of the senior consultants are
balance. The f c l t e for practical instruction
                aiiis                               attached as Appendix K to t i report.
were clearly inadequate, so that there was a
preponderance of lecturing. Further, the scope
of the teaching,particularly i seismology,had
                               n                    The curriculum and its successive
proved too ambitious i view of the limited total
                        n                           modifications
t m available for instruction and the wide
range i the attainments of trainees a the t m
         n                             t      ie    The curriculum consists of lectures, practical
of entry.The consultants recognized the wisdom              n                       iis
                                                    work i the laboratory and v s t to observa-
ofthe Government of Japan i exercising caution                                               el
                                                    tories, universities and institutes, as wl as to
i building up the permanent teaching s a f    tf    building sites and l c l t e of seismological
and i supplementing the schedule of lectures
       n                                            interest, particularly where earthquake damage
by the employment of outside lecturers. They        could be seen. The teaching is conducted in
considered it an urgent matter to overhaul the      English which formed the only common mode
syllabus of teaching,and particularly t improve
                                        o           of communication.

                        Development of the project

   The lectures are given by the Japanese s a f                              aiiis
                                                     Building,equipment and f c l t e
and the Unesco experts, supplemented by a
large number of shorter specialized courses                                      n
                                                     The building was completed i September 1962.
given by lecturers from Tokyo University and         It comprises a ground floor with offices,a small
co-operatinginstitutions.In t i way the trainees
                              hs                     lobby and laboratories and two lecture rooms,
are brought into touch with many of the leading                               fie
                                                     a library, a drawing o f c and various other
Japanese seismologists and earthquake engin-          fie                             tf
                                                     o f c s for the Director and s a f on the two
eers. In order that the best available members                                        )
                                                     upper floors (see Appendix G .The essential
could be secured for the whole-time Japanese         furnishingswere supplied by the government.
s a f the agreed complement of s a f members
 tf,                                tf                  The instrumental equipment of the institute,
was not f l y made up a the commencement of
          ul              t                          both for training and research,has been progres-
the project. Thus, i the early stages there was
                      n                               iey
                                                     s v l augmented throughout the duration of the
over-emphasis on lectures, somewhat t the   o        project. A list of the equipment provided by
                                    t hi
detriment of practical work. A t e r first           UNDP(SF)/Unesco is given i Appendix F.
meeting the consultants expressed the hope              The installation of observatory-type seismo-
that t i shortage of s a f would be remedied as
                        tf                                                       ifcl
                                                     graphs has presented a d f i u t problem. In
soon as feasible;i fact,the lack of balance was
                    n                                            o
                                                     addition t those furnished by UNDP(SF),
gradually overcome, and practical teaching has              nttt
                                                     the i s i u e possesses a set of s x Standard
been f c l t t d by the supply of equipment from
       aiiae                                         seismographs donated by the United States
UNDP(SF).                                            Coast and Geodetic Survey. For teaching pur-
   The academic year begins i September and
                                 n                   poses, it was desirable that some seismographs
ends the following August.Except for the winter      of an experimental kind should be installed a     t
and spring vacations,oftwo weeks each,training                           hs
                                                     the institute,and t i has been done,but it was
is conducted for five days each week;the morning     strongly felt from the beginning that the institute
hours (increased i 1964 from two hours to
                     n                               should have its own seismological station.This
three hours d i y are devoted to lectures, so        need was emphasized by the consultants a          t
that the afternoons are free for exercises and       t e r first meeting. A site within the built-up
laboratory practice, and for visits.                 area of Tokyo would be unsuitable on account
   The first five weeks or so of the course are      of the general background of man-made distur-
devoted t general lectures,i order t give t
                                n        o       o                 fot
                                                     bance, but e f r s to secure a suitable site away
trainees i earthquake engineering a general                      iy
                                                     from the c t have so f r been unsuccessful.
knowledge of seismology,and vice versa. These                           ee t
                                                     The instrumentsw r a first temporarily housed
are followed, from the beginning of October           t                 t
                                                     a the institute; a present, the United States
u t l the beginning of June, by basic lectures       Coast and Geodetic Survey instruments,   intended
and specialized lectures,with separate program-      for a Standard seismologicalstation,are installed
m s for seismology and earthquake engineering.
 e                                                    n
                                                     i the Inuyama Observatory of Nagoya Uni-
In the advanced lectures, special emphasis is        versity, from which records are sent regularly
placed on laboratory work, and the curricula                         n
                                                     and are used i training.Although the govern-
are drawn up so as to concentrate on the more        ment’s contribution has considerably exceeded
important and basic subjects rather than t       o                   n
                                                     that foreseen i the Plan of Operation,there is
spread the teaching over too wide a f e d In
                                           il.       still a need for improvement i the f c l t e for
                                                                                     n      aiiis
February or March, a two-week observation                             n
                                                     practical work i seismology.
tour of Kansai and Kyushu is arranged for the                                            n
                                                        In connexion with the training i earthquake
two sectionsjointly.                                 engineering, it should be recorded that IISEE
   The l s eight weeks of the course are devoted
         at                                               fiitd o
                                                     is a f l a e t the Building Research Institute
to individual study, t which great importance
                        o                            of the Ministry of Construction, and that there
is attached; during t i period each trainee
                         hs                                                             hs
                                                     has been close co-operationwith t i institute.
prepares a report on a subject chosen by himself        By the end of 1967 the equipment ordered
i consultation with the Unesco experts and the
 n                                                   under the Special Fund totalled $125,037, of
s a f of the institute.These reports of individual
 tf                                                  which equipment t the amount of $120,665 had
studies are published by the institute.              been delivered to the project. The sum of
   The detailed curricula of the general course      approximately $1 5 0 0remaining from the allo-
and the courses i seismology and earthquake                      1000
                                                     cation of $ 4 , 0 agreed i the Plan of Oper-
engineering aregiven i AppendixH t t i report.
                        n             o hs           ation has been earmarked for equipment and

                                                     Development of the project

books. Al the equipment delivered has been           rience has shown that the lack of a reasonably
properly installed and is i use.
                           n                         good training i mathematics is a serious draw-
  In any institution the building-upof a library            o
                                                     back t a trainee’sprogress.
is a gradual process. In the early stages of            In view of the wide range i the previous
IISEE, students were hampered by the lack of         education and occupations of the trainees, as
library f c l t e .This was a matter of serious       el
                                                     wl as i their age and interests, the process
concern to the s a f and the Unesco experts,
                   tf                                                 o                    n
                                                     of adaptation t courses of study i seismology
so much so that mimeographed copies of selec-              n
                                                     and i earthquake engineering necessarily pre-
t d lectures w r supplied t the students a a
 e             ee            o               s                ifclis
                                                     sented d f i u t e to newcomers. The shortage
substitute for books. Also, arrangements were        of suitable textbooks and the inability of stu-
made for students to have access t libraries i
                                   o           n     dents to spend much on their purchase constitu-
other co-operating institutions. The question             ifclis n          ale
                                                     ted d f i u t e i the e r i r stages of the project,
was discussed i d t i a the meeting of senior
                 n eal t                                                                       n etig
                                                     and the perseverance of the trainees i s t l n
consultants i 1964,and the steps taken, des-
              n                                      down t a programme of hard work is much to
cribed above,have greatly improved the situa-        be commended.It may a first have been some
tion.The library now possesses over 4,000 books      disappointment to trainees whose ambition it
and journals,and has a collection of more than         a o
                                                     w s t learn to tackle the problems of building
5 0 0offprints of relevant papers.A the library
 ,0                                s                                 n hi
                                                     construction i t e r own countries, that they
expands,the need of increased s a f and library
                                 tf                  had to devote t m to understanding, a l a t
                                                                        ie                        t es
       il a l
space wl c l for consideration.                       n
                                                     i outline, a large proportion of theoretical
                                                     seismology; however, lectures, demonstrations
                                                     and visits to construction work and areas of
Fellowships                                                                               o
                                                     earthquake damage led trainees t realize that
                                                     the various aspects and topics of instruction
The genesis and development of the training           ee l
                                                     w r al parts of one very large subject.
programme i Japan have been described earlier.          The growth of an institution must i general
Details are given i Appendix E.
                   n                                 be by a process of successive approximation;the
   The fellowships awarded by the government         imperfections of the original scheme of instruc-
included the cost of travel t and from Japan,        tion have already been indicated.To some extent
living expenses, tuition costs and incidental                                        hs
                                                     it has been possible to adapt t i scheme to meet
                       n l
expenses, amounting i al to an estimated cost        more nearly the requirements of the trainees i    n
of $3,600 each fellow.The number of fellow-
           for                                                 o                    hi
                                                     relation t the problems of t e r own countries.
ships t be awarded was advertised early i        n   The hours of lecturing have been somewhat
each calendar year,and applications for fellow-      shortened,and up t the lmt of the f c l t e
                                                                           o      iis            aiiis
ships w r made through the Japanese diplo-           of the institute more attention has been paid t   o
matic missions and the Ministry of Foreign           practical instruction. The need for a working
Affairs of the Government of Japan.                  seismological observatory, as recommended by
   The fellowships awarded by UNDP(SF)/              the consultants, has been continually kept i      n
Unesco carried similar benefits, but the tuition     mind and there is every hope that t i important
costs were m t by the Government of Japan,
              e                                                      il
                                                     development wl soon be achieved.
and the fellowships w r administered i accor-
                      ee                  n             There are considerable advantages i con-  n
dance with the fellowship regulations of the         fining the instruction to a rather small commu-
Executing Agency. For these fellowships,Mem-         nity. Although the number of applications for
ber States ofthe United Nations or its Specialized   fellowships indicates perhaps a need somewhat
Agencies that are signatories of a Special Fund      greater than can be m t by IISEE under the
Agreement were invited t submit candidat-
                            o                        present project, small numbers (of the order of
ures, which w r examined by the Executing                           t
                                                     twenty-five a any one t m ) enable a close
Agency i consultation with the Director of the       relationship to be maintained between the s a f tf
project.                                                             n                 o
                                                     and students,i sharp contrast t the impersonal
   The minimum qualification for an applicant        kind of lecturing with which large classes have
was that he should be a university graduate,or       to be content i many institutions: that is t
                                                                       n                               o
the equivalent. Since instruction is given i     n   say, a kind of informal tutorial system is i       n
English it was essential that a fellow should                 ul                              hs
                                                     effect b i t into the structure of t i close-
have a good command of that language. Expe-                                  aiiy
                                                     knit community.This f c l t of communications

                         Development of the project

makes more easy the problem of mutual adapta-         Publications
tion of s a f and students, of syllabus and
study.                                                     pt        hi
                                                      In s i e of t e r heavy teaching commitments,
  The complete list of fellows who studied at               tf
                                                      the s a f and the Unesco experts published a
the i s i u e during the period from 1963 to
     nttt                                             number of papers setting out the results of
1968 is given i Appendix E.
               n                                       hi
                                                      t e r own researches. Such research work is
                                                                              nttt n
                                                      important for the i s i u e i enhancing its
                                                      reputation both i Japan and abroad: the
Activities of trainees after return to                trainees are thus made aware that they are i    n
their respective countries                                                 aet
                                                      contact with the l t s developments of t e r hi
                                                      science, and indeed some of the researches
The i s i u e and the Executing Agency have                                 nttt ee
                                                      published by the i s i u e w r the work of
made a point of keeping i touch with trainees         trainees. In addition, the individual studies of
 fe                           hi
a t r they have returned to t e r home countries.     the traineescontain valuable material for further
In Appendix E a list is given of the present          research.
occupations of these trainees. It wl be seen
                                       il                Apart from individual studies by participants
that with f w exceptions the trainees are either       t
                                                      a the institute, which are published annually,
actively engaged i research or teaching i         n   and other occasional works, the main publica-
seismology or earthquake engineering or they          tions of the institute are:
                  n                        n
are employed i posts of responsibility i which                  f
                                                      Bulletin o the International Institute o Seismo-
the knowledge and experience acquired a the   t          logy and Earthquake Engineering. Published
i s i u e is d r c l applied t the f e d ofbuilding
              iety            o     il                   annually,it contains reports on research by
or public works.                                              tf,
                                                         the s a f Unesco experts and trainees.
                                                      Prospectus o the Institute. Published annually,
                                                         it contains general information, list of per-
Advisory services of the institute                       sons holding teaching assignments,number of
                                                         participants, analysed according t country
During the period of the project, the i s i u e          and academic year.
was called upon to provide advisory services          Year Book. Published annually,it contains home
on a number of occasions including visits of                                           l
                                                         address and profession of al trainees who
members of the s a f (both Japanese and
                     tf                                  participated i the course, with their photo-
Unesco experts) t several countries. Details of          graphs,list of s a f and Unesco experts.
these a t v t e are given i Appendix J.
       ciiis               n                          Progress Report. Published occasionally. Con-
                                                         tents : B i f history of IISEE, organization,
                                                         training curriculum, research a t v t of
                                                         teaching s a f list of equipment, publications
                                                         and other items of interest.

III. Conclusions

Assessment of the project                           obtained the advice of the Acting Director of
                                                    the institute.This arrangement has worked wl    el
The project achieved its main purpose and           on the whole, but it appears that the govern-
provided training t 155 engineers and s i n i t
                                         cetss      ment agency responsible for the selection of
from the developing countries i seismology and      candidates for the Japanese fellowships has
earthquake engineering. Besides training, the       not always followed the same procedure and
institute has also contributed t the advance-
                                   o                that the Acting Director has had little say i the
                       n         ils
ment of knowledge i these f e d through its         selection of candidates for these fellowships.
           ciiis          tf
research a t v t e . Its s a f has co-operated in   The result has been that a great deal ofindividual
surveying and making recommendations for                                 o
                                                    attention has had t be given to each trainee a   t
reconstruction of areas damaged as a result of                                                 n
                                                    the outset of each training course,and i some
earthquakes. Staff members have been sent t     o   cases the better-qualified trainees have had t   o
developing countries t advise on educational                       n
                                                    be held back i order to allow the less-qualified
programmes and measures t be introduced t       o          o
                                                    ones t catch up with them. Problems of t i      hs
minimize the effect of earthquake damage. The                                       n
                                                    kind are,ofcourse,inevitable i an international
institute decided t publish annual bulletins on     trainingprogramme and can be dealt with if the
its research a t v t e , the first of which was               tf
                                                    ratio of s a fto students is kept a a high level.
issued i 1965. This bulletin, i addition t
                                    n           o                      o        tf
                                                       With regard t the s a f of the institute,
containing papers prepared by s a f members,        Unesco is still rather concerned by the high
experts and trainees,contains reports of indivi-    proportion of the teaching which is done by
dual studies for the benefit of other researchers   visiting, part-time lecturers.The fact that these
and institutions throughout the world. The                                               n
                                                    lecturers come from universities i Tokyo and
institute is therefore serving not only as a                                         n hi
                                                    are often leading authorities i t e r respective
training centre for engineers and s i n i t from     ils
                                                    f e d does not disguise the fact that they are
the developing countries but also a a world-                  o
                                                    unable t give the persona1 attention t the   o
wide centre of information i seismology and
                                n                   students which a training course of t i kind
earthquake engineering.                             requires.
   One of the principal d f i u t e facing the
                             ifclis                    A similar remark can be made about the
Director of the i s i u e and the Unesco experts    Unesco experts. During the first phase, the
and consultants has been i devising a training      government requested that experts remain a       t
curriculum t meet the needs of students from        the institute for a period of no more than one
many different countries with widely differing                                      hs
                                                    year. The reason given for t i was that the
academic and social backgrounds. Much can                                    t
                                                    government wished, a the beginning of the
be done by a careful selection of trainees, and                                    al
                                                    institute’s development, to c l upon as wide a
t i is relatively easy when there are a large
 hs                                                 variety as possible of individual s i l and
number of applicants from whom t choose for                                                hs
                                                    experience. Unesco believes that t i decision
the award of fellowships. The Unesco Secre-         was perfectly justified,but it has meant that the
t r a has always paid great attention t t io hs     experts have not always been able t give of
aspect of fellowship selection and has attempted     hi
                                                    t e r best, because it inevitably took them some
t choose for each annual training course a           ie
                                                    t m to adapt to new surroundings and to the
group of students who are a homogeneous a       s   particular problem presented by the international
possible with regard t age and academic             nature of the institute.
attainment. Before proceeding t the award of           The only serious and recurring criticism of
fellowships, Unesco has always requested and        the training curriculum that has been received,


both from Unesco experts and trainees,is that        advanced trainees may be recognized by one
insufficient tm and f c l t e are provided for
              ie         aiiis                       or more universities as qualifying for the award
practical training. In the f e d of seismology,
                              il                     of a university degree or diploma. It seems
the situation wl undoubtedly improve when            therefore both inevitable and desirable that the
      nttt                         ntl
the i s i u e has been able to i s a l its own        nttt
                                                     i s i u e seek a greater degree of autonomy pro-
seismological observatory.The government has                      hs
                                                     vided that t i can be achieved without com-
indicated that it wl provide funds for the           promising its financial situation. This is, of
building of t i observatory i 1969. O n the
               hs                n                   course, first and foremost a matter for study
earthquake engineering side, the situation is        and decision by the Japanese authorities.How-
rather better because the i s i u e is situated i
                             nttt                n   ever, Unesco naturally feels concerned with
the grounds of the Building Research Institute       the future of the institute,and is ready to a s s
o the Ministry of Construction and the stu-          i any way it can.
dents are able to visit the laboratories of t ihs
 atr nttt             o
l t e i s i u e and t see experimental work i    n
progress. However, even here, the practical
instructionis limitedto demonstrationsofexperi-      Follow-up
ments and the students have f w opportunities
to operate equipment themselves and thus t       o   The panel of senior consultants appointed by
acquire practical experience i experimental
                                  n                  Unesco and the governmentreviewed the results,
work. The panel of senior consultants, i its n                                           nttt
                                                     progress and deficiencies of the i s i u e and
various reports,has drawn the attention of the                                      n
                                                     concluded that the institute,i order to better
Director of the institute and of the government      meet the needs of developing countries for
t t i problem, and there has indeed been
 o hs                                                                 cetss                 n
                                                     engineers and s i n i t specializing i seismo-
considerableimprovement during the l t e years
                                        atr          logy and earthquake engineering, should rein-
of the first phase of the project.                   force and expand the curriculum to reflect more
   Another subject of preoccupation has been         f l y the widely varying academic leveIs of the
the library of the Institute,which, a the outset,
                                     t               trainees. They recommended further that in-
was quite inadequate for the students. Arran-        structionbe given i future a two levels,namely
                                                                         n        t
gements were made for the exchange of publica-        n
                                                     i regular and advanced training courses.
tions with other institutes, and also through           The government accepted the consultants’
the use of equipment funds for the purchase of       recommendations and accordingly requested
books, so that the library is now adequate for       further assistance from UNDP(SF) t help  o
the purposes of the regular course. However,                                         n
                                                     establish a higher-levelcourse i seismology and
considerable expansion is still needed i order
                                          n          earthquake engineering a the i s i u e as wl
                                                                               t       nttt       el
that it may meet the requirements of the partici-        o
                                                     as t expand the advisory services it can pro-
pants i the advanced course,who wl devote a
        n                                            vide to developing countries. This application
much greater proportion of their t m t indivi-
                                    ie o             for further support was endorsed by the govern-
dual study and research.                             ments of Chile, Indonesia,Iran and Venezuela
   From the beginning of the project up t theo       and each country agreed to avail itself contin-
present t m , i s i u e has been administer-
          i e the n t t t                            ually of the f c l t e ! for the training of its
ed,on behalf ofthe Ministry of Construction,by       nationals.
the Director of the Building Research Institute.         t
                                                        A its meeting in June 1968 the Governing
This has been, on the whole, a very satis-           Council of the United Nations Development
factory arrangement and has assured the insti-       Programme agreed to provide further assist-
tute of effective financial and material support.    ance for a four-yearperiod beginning 1 Septem-
However,when the participation of UNDP(SF)           ber 1968.
and Unesco comes t an end i 1972, the ques-
                      o         n                    The new elements of the second phase are:
       il r s s o
tion wl a i e a t the form i which the
                                    n                                                         n
                                                     1. The creation of an advanced course,i which
institute shall continue its a t v t e and the
                                ciiis                                 il
                                                        participants wl devote themselves mainly to
way i which its international character can be
      n                                                 research work on problems most urgently
preserved. Furthermore, with the introduction                              n hi
                                                        needing solution i t e r own countries. They
of the advanced course,the need wl a i e for
                                     il r s              il
                                                        wl also be called upon to a s s i the
                                                                                         sit n
the i s i u e t be given some academic sta-
      nttt o                                            teaching programme for the trainees of the
tus i order that the work carried out by the
     n                                                  regular course.


2. The creation of new curricula i the present
                                  n                  present practice of teaching these subjects
   regular training course. In seismology, the        n
                                                     i series throughoutthe year,and participants
   course wl be divided during the second half        il
                                                     wl thus be able t make a selection from
   of the academic year into two options:                                             o hi
                                                     two parallel courses according t t e r spe-
   ( ) an improved course along the present                                              il
                                                     cialized f e d . Individual study wl begin
   lines, but with greater emphasis on seismic               ale         t
                                                     much e r i r than a present.
   zoning, seismotectonics, research and inde-    3. Improved communication between seismol-
   pendent study; and ( ) a new course i      n                                           ih
                                                     ogists and earthquake engineers, w t the
   instrumentation and data processing, with         object of closing the gap between the two
   emphasis on practical training i techniques
                                   n                  ils
   important for seismological observatory per-   The minimum qualification for advanced level
   sonnel.                                                      il
                                                  participants wl be a Master’s degree or its
      Correspondingly,for earthquake engineer-    equivalent. The institute should attract partici-
   ing,the second part of the year wl contain
                                    il            pants not only from developing countries, but
   options mainly for building and civil engi-    also from advanced countries,including Japan.
   neering construction; t i wl supersede the
                          h s il


The following s e i i recommendations rep-
                    pcfc                                              nttt
                                                    5. While the i s i u e itself has undoubtedly
resent an attempt t summarize the lessons
                         o                             gained from the participation of a large
learnt from the experience gained i carrying
                                        n              number of foreign specialists serving as
out the first phase, that may be applied during        Unesco/UNDP(SF) experts for periods of
the operation of the second phase:                     one year or less, it is recommended that the
1. Special care should be taken, both by the           Executing Agency and the Government
   Executing Agency and by the government,             explore the possibility of engaging foreign
   i the selection o trainees for the regular
    n                   f                                           o
                                                       specialists t serve for more than one year
              n         o
   courses i order t reduce t a minimum the
                                 o                      t        nttt
                                                       a the i s i u e during the second phase;
   d f i u t e caused by disparity i the profes-
    ifclis                            n                 hs                  o
                                                       t i would tend t ensure a greater degree
   sional levels of the trainees.                      of continuity and would enable the foreign
2. The i s i u e should continue and intensify                       o
                                                       specialists t adapt themselves more f l y    ul
   its e f r st provide more scope for individual
        fot o                                           o
                                                       t the special demands of the institute.
   practical work with seismological instruments    6.The proposal t i i i t an advanced course
                                                                        o ntae
   and engineering laboratory equipment a part         for more highly-qualified trainees is w l     e-
   of the regular courses. The i s i u e urgently
                                  nttt                 comed.
   needs t have its own seismological observa-
            o                                       7. From the point of view of the trainees,and
   tory installed,for preference i a rural area
                                    n                                                 il
                                                       particularly of those who wl be taking the
   within easy reach of Tokyo, so that trainees        advanced course, it is desirable that the
   may be given detailed practical instruction in                                o
                                                       institute endeavour t make arrangements
   the operation and maintenance of such                                                        n
                                                       with appropriate universities, either i Japan
   observations.                                            n
                                                       or i other countries, whereby the trainees’
3.Despite recent acquisitions, the institute’s                                t
                                                       study or research a the institute would be
   library still requires enlargementand improve-                       uflig
                                                       recognized as f l i l n ,wholly or partly, the
   ment, and substantial funds should be               requirements for a university degree or dip-
   allocated to the purchase ofbooks and period-       loma. The academic level of the work
   i a s during the second phase.
    cl                                                 already carried out by some trainees during
4.In view of the inevitable differences i the
                                            n          the first phase of the project is s f i i n t
                                                                                             ufcet o
   background qualifications and experience of          utf         nttt
                                                       j s i y the i s i u e in seeking such an arrange-
   trainees coming from many different coun-           ment.
   tries, the institute should be prepared t    o   8. Finally, it is recommended that the govern-
   provide an unusual degree of personal               ment give early consideration to the question
   attention and supervision of t e r studies;
                                      hi               of establishing the institute on a permanent
   t i implies a further strengthening of the
    hs                                                 basis, ensuring its international character,
   permanent teaching s a f of the i s i u e and
                                       nttt             fe
                                                       a t r the end of the second phase project
   a gradual reduction i the proportion of              n
                                                       i 1972.
   lectures given by v s t n professors from
   other Japanese institutions.

Appendixes                                               A Plan of Operation

PROJECT DATA S U M M A R Y                               experts from other countries in the teaching and
                                                         research activities,and by an increase in the number
Special Fund allocation: $ 6 , 0 .
                            71701                        of trainees coming from abroad.
Government of Japan counterpart contribution              .                il
                                                         4 The institute wl thus be i a position to respond
  (estimated): $1,001,920.                                o
                                                         t the need for specialists in seismology and earth-
Duration:Fiveyears.                                                                             s
                                                         quake engineering,the lack of w h o m i one of the
Executing Agency: United Nations Educational,                                               n
                                                         main factors retarding progress i alleviating the
  Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco).                              f
                                                         destructive effects o earthquakes in many parts of
Co-operating Government Agency : Ministry of             the world.

1. For the purpose o the project for an International
Instituteo Seismology and EarthquakeEngineering
           f                                             II. W O R K PLAN
in Tokyo,Japan,to be undertaken by the Government
of Japan and by Unesco acting as Executing Agency        A.   PARTICIPATION A N D CONTRIBUTION
f r the United Nations Special Fund, this Plan of             OF THE SPECIAL F U N D
Operation shall be the P a of Operation provided
for in Article I, paragraph 2 of the Agreement bet-      Experts
ween the Government of Japan and the United              5. The Special Fund, acting through the Executing
Nations Special Fund concerning assistance from          Agency, shall provide the services of the following
the Special Fund for the establishment of an Interna-                                             n
                                                         experts and consultants:( ) two experts i seismol-
tional Institute o Seismology and Earthquake             ogy (total 96 man-months); ( ) two experts in
Engineering signed in N e w York on 31 October           earthquake engineering (total 72 man-months);
1962.                                                    and () three short-term consultants (total 12 man-
                                                         months). In the recruitment of experts and consul-
                                                         tants,the Executing Agency shall follow i s normal
I. PURPOSE AND D E S C R I P T I O N                     procedure. One of the experts shall be selected as
   OF THE PROJECT                                        Chief Technical Adviser by the Executing Agency
                                                         i consultationwith the government (see paragraph
2. The purpose of the project i t establish an
                                 s o                      3.
International Institute of Seismology and Earth-         6.The expert services t be provided by the Special
quake Engineering, whose main function wl beil           Fund are summarized i Appendix I: attached t
                                                                                  n                      o
t offer advanced training in seismology and earth-       this Plan of Operation.2
quake engineering, particularly to scientists and
engineers from those countries lying within the           el
                                                         F l 0wshìps
main seismic zones of the world, where the science        .
                                                         7 The Special Fund, acting through the Executing
and applications o seismology are as yet not fully       Agency,shall award a maximum total of sixty-seven
developed. The institutewl also undertake research       fellowships (total 804 man-months) in seismology
in earthquake engineering and related seismological                                     o
                                                         and earthquake engineering, t enable persons
problems.                                                                        o
                                                         from other countries t pursue the course of study
3. The institute wl draw on the f c l t e f r training
                  il             aiiis o                 offered by the institute.
and research in these subjects offered by existing
Japanese institutions, including those which have
collaborated in recent years in the international            hs
                                                         1. T i figure includes the government’s payments towards
training courses held under the auspices of the Uni-        local operating costs.
                                                         2 The appendixes referred to were included in the original
versity of Tokyo.The international character of the         document but have not been reproduced in the present
institute wl be reinforced by the participation of          text.


8. Member States of the United Nations or its            building t house the institute, having a floor
Specialized Agencies, which are signatories o the        area of approximately 1,300 square metres, a a   t
Special Fund Agreement,shall be invited to present       cost of $94,510.In addition, the government shall
candidatures f r the fellowships, which shall be         provide the necessary furniture and fittings for this
examined by the Executing Agency in consultation         building.
with the project Director.Fellowships awarded t the
                                                         18. Equipment. The government shall supply directly
successful candidates shall be administered in
                                                         to the institute equipment to a value of $56,370
accordance with the normal fellowship regulations
of the Executing Agency.                                 in 1962 and of $27,060 in 1963, making a total of
9. Appendix I sets out the estimated cost of these       19.In addition, the government shall transfer to
fellowships.                                                                                t
                                                         the institute training equipment, a present installed
                                                         in the Building Research Institute,whose value is
Equipment                                                            t            t
                                                         estimated a $49,500. I shall also make available
10. The Special Fund, through the Executing                                     t
                                                         to the institute,for is training programme,certain
Agency, shall furnish equipment to the project of                                             aiiis
                                                         laboratory,workshop and library f c l t e , located
value not to exceed $140,000.                            in the Building Research Instituteand other institutes
                                                         in Tokyo;the value of these f c l t e is estimated a
                                                                                        aiiis                 t
11. The detailed list o equipment shall be estab-
                       f                                 $9,830per year.
lished by the Chief Technical Adviser i consulta-
tion with the project Director and submitted by          20. Fellowships.The government shall award,during
him t the Executing Agency. The Executing Agency
     o                                                   the period of operation of the project, seventy-
shall finalize the ls and order the equipment in
                    it                                                       o
                                                         eight fellowships t enable persons from countries
accordance w t i s normal procedure, bearing i
              ih t                               n                                                     f
                                                         other than Japan t undertake the course o studies
mind the fact that equipment shall be delivered to       offered by theinstitute.The value of these fellowships,
the project site only after buildings are ready to               il
                                                         which wl include tïavel to and from Japan,living
house i.t                                                                                            t
                                                         expenses and tuition costs,is estimated a $280,800
                                                         (78 Y $3,600).
12. Appendix I sets out the estimated cost of the
equipment.                                               21. In addition, the government shall meet the
                                                         tuition costs of the persons attending the institute
13. The Special Fund shall meet the cost of trans-       with fellowships awarded by the Special Fund.These
portation and insurance of the equipment from the                             t
                                                         costs are estimated a $670 per fellowship,and the
country of purchase to the port o entry.
                                 f                       total contribution of the government under this
                                                         heading wl thus be $44,890(67 Y $670).
Miscellaneous expenditure                                22. The provision for these fellowships by the
1 .Miscellaneous expenses to be borne by the             governmentis shown i Appendix II attached to this
Special Fund in connexion with the project shall         Plan of Operation.
not exceed $19,500;the anticipated yearly expendi-
tures are s t out in Appendix I attached t this
           e                                o            23. Participantsfrom Japan may be admitted to the
Plan of Operation.                                       courses but their number shall not exceed one-third
                                                         of the total number of trainees.
                                                         24. Stuf. The government shall provide t the  o
                                                         project the following staff and consultants of
                                                         Japanese nationality : a project Director (see para-
                                                         graph 32); an assistant project Director; eight
15. The government shall, on the basis o its rele-       experts in seismology and earthquake engineering
vant and applicable laws and in accordance with                                       tf)
                                                         (forming the professional s a f ; eight other staff,
is annual budgetary appropriations,contribute t o        includingresearchassistants,a librarian,a chauffeur,
the project in kind and i cash as follows:               a guard, etc.; three consultants as counterparts to
                                                         those provided by the Special Fund (see paragraph
Governinent counterpart contribution i kind
                                      n                  34).
16. Land.The government shall allot t the institute
                                                         25. The cost of salaries, allowances, overtime and
an area of 2,100 square metres, located within the
                                                         other staff expenses is estimated a $28,680 during
precincts of the Building Research Institute, for
                                                         the f r t year of operation. Making allowance for
the construction of a building to house the institute.
                                                         an annual increase of 4 per cent i these costs each
The estimated value of this land, a $75 per square
                                                         year,the total contribution of the government under
metre,is $157,500.
                                                         this heading wl be $155,340.
17. Building. The government shall construct a


26. Riming costs. The government shall meet the         1962
running costs of the institute, including the costs                                il
                                                        The Executing Agency wl appoint the f r t two
of training excursions,the remuneration and trans-                n
                                                        experts,i seismology and in earthquakeengineering,
portation of visiting lecturers, expenditure on                             o
                                                        who are expected t take up their posts towards the
research, etc. The contribution of the government                                                        il
                                                        end of the year or early in 1963.Ten fellowshipswl
under this heading is estimated to be $21,300during     be awarded to trainees from other countries for
the first year of operation and $16,360 during each     study a the institute (see footnotes t Table I
                                                                t                             o       .
subsequent year, making a total of $86,800for the          The government wl allot the land and wl
                                                                               il                        il
duration of the project.                                                                               t il
                                                        complete the building to house the institute.I wl
                                                        provide the project Director, the assistant project
27. Internationnl transport, installation and mainte-
                                                        Director and most of the professional and other
nance of equipment contributed by the Special Fund.
                                                        Japanese staff of the institute. It wl award fifteen
The government shall designate a responsible agent      fellowships to trainees from other countries for
or authority to receive the equipment a the port of     study a the institute in 1962-63and wl supply the
                                                                t                              il
entry and to deliver it to the project site.
                                                        institute with equipment and f c l t e to a value of
28. The government shall meet the cost of clearance     $115,700.
through customs of project equipment, its transpor-
tation from the port of entry t the project site as
                               o                        1963
mel1 as its insurance, handling and storage within                                 il
                                                        The Executing Agency wl arrange the first meeting
the country,and related expenses.                       betwcen its consultants and their Japanese counter-
                                                        parts in Tokyo i the secund quarter of the year.
Government contribution towards local operating            The second expert i earthquake engineering wl
                                                                                 n                          il
costs                                                                        il
                                                        be appointed and wl take up his duties i July or
29. With reference to the payments to be made by                   n
                                                        August, i time to prepare for the commencement
the government under Article V,paragraph 1 ( ) to
                                                a                        n
                                                        of the courses i September.
(d) of the Agreement referred to in paragraph 1 of                                           il
                                                           In April the Executing Agency wl invite applica-
this Plan of Operation,exceptingthe cost oftransport    tions for fifteen fellowships to be awarded i June
within the country of project equipment,which is a                  t               n
                                                        for study a the institute i 1963-64.
counterpart contribution (see paragraph 28 above),                      n
                                                           The experts i seisniology and in earthquakeengi-
the government shall pay to the Special Fund the                  il
                                                        neering wl draw up,i consultationwith the project
equivalent of $51,975 a the rate of exchange
                            t                           Director, a list of equipment for purchase by the
applicable on the day of payment towards local                                     il
                                                        Executing Agency and wl forward this list to the
operating costs.This amount represents 15 per cent                                                  l r
                                                        Agency Headquarters before mid-year.Al o most
o the total estimated cost t the Special Fund of
 f                             o                                        il
                                                        of the orders wl be placed, and it is expected that
foreign project personnel (see paragraph 5 above).                                           il
                                                        equipment to a value of $15,000 wl be despatched
The above amount shall be deposited by the Govern-      to the institute by the end of the year.
ment to the credit of the Special Fund account,i the
                                                n                             il
                                                           The government wl provide the f l professional
Mitsui Eank, Mead Office, Tokyo i accordance
                                        n                                      tf
                                                        and other Japanese s a f of the institute throughout
with the following schedule:                                        t il
                                                        the year. I wl also award fifteen fellowships to
  Equivalent of $1,730 on signature o€ this Plan of     trainees from other countries for study a the   t
     Operation                                                                      il
                                                        institute in 1963-64,and wl supply equipment and
   Equivalent of $9,820 on 1 May 1963                   f c l t e to the institute to a value of $36,890 i the
                                                         aiiis                                            n
   Equivalent of $11,550 on 1 May 1964                  course of the year.
   Equivalent of $10,395 on 1 May 1965
   Equivalent of $10,395 on 1 May 1966                   94
  Equivalent of $8,085 on 1 M a y 1967                  The expert in earthquake engineering appointed in
Payment of the above amounts, on o before the
                                         r                    il
                                                        1963 wl terminate his mission a mid-year and the
dates specified above is a prerequisite to operation.                       il
                                                        Executing Agency wl appoint the second expert
                                                        in seismology,who wl take up his post in July o   r
                                                        August, in time to prepare for the course beginning
C. S E Q U E N C E O F O P E R A T I O N S              in September.
30. The Executing Agency shall commence execu-
                                                          The second meeting o the Executing Agency’s
                                                        consultants with their Japanese counterparts wl il
tion ofthe project on receipt o written authorization
to do so from the Managing Director o the Special
                                         f                                   n
                                                        take place in Tokyo i September or early October.
31. The operation of the project is expected to
commence in September 1962. The anticipated
sequence of subsequent operations is as follows:        1. Not included i the present text.


   In April the Executing Agency wl invite applica-       By the end of September, the Executing Agency
tions for fifteen fellowships to be awarded i June       il
                                                        wl have completed the execution of the Special
for study a the institute in 1964-65.
            t                                           Fund’s obligations under this Plan of Operation.
   I is estimated that equipment t a value of
    t                                 o                                     il
                                                           The government wl take steps to ensure that the
approximately $75,000wl be delivered to the insti-                il
                                                        institutewl continue to function as an international
tute in the course of the year, as a result of orders   centre for training and research in seismology and
placed by the Executing Agency in 1963. By mid-         earthquake engineering after termination of this
1964, the remaining orders, if any, wl have been
                                       il               project.
placed for al the equipment t be furnished by the
Executing Agency t the institute.                       D. O R G A N I Z A T I O N
   The government wl continue to meet the local
staff and running costs of the institute throughout     32. The responsibility for discharging the govern-
           t il
the year.I wl award fifteen fellowshipsto trainees      ment’s obligations under this Plan of Operation
from other countries for study at the institute i   n          i ih
                                                        shall le w t the Ministry of Construction,represen-
1964-65,and w l provide to the institute f c l t e
                                              aiiis                                                 4
                                                        ted by the project Director (see paragraph 2 above).
to a value o $9,830.
                                                        33. The Chief Technical Adviser (see paragraph 5
                                                        above) shall provide the direct channel of commu-
1965                                                    nications between the Executing Agency and the
The Executing Agency wl continue t supply the
                                       o                institute. H e shall be responsible for the satisfactory
services of three experts (two i seismology and one
                                                        integration into the project of the Special Fund’s
in earthquake engineering) throughout the year.
                                                        contribution, and to this end shall maintain close
   In April applications wl be invited f r fifteen
                                                        consultativerelationswith the project Director.
                             n                t
fellowships,to be awarded i June,for study a the
institute i 1965-66.
           n                                            34. The three consultants appointed by the Execu-
   The remainder of the equipment ordered by the        ting Agency (see paragraph 5 and the three Japanese
Executing Agency in 1963 (and i 1964, i any) wl
                                  n       f     il      consultants (see paragraph 24) shall meet in Tokyo
be delivered to the Institute in the course of the      three times during the period of execution of the
year,bringing the total value of equipment supplied              n
                                                        project i accordance with the schedule s t out i
                                                                                                      e     n
up t $140,000.
     o                                                                                     f
                                                        paragraph 31 of this Plan o Operation. Their
   The government wl continue to meet the local         function shall be to advise the government, the
staff and running costs of the institute throughout     Executing Agency and the Special Fund,throughout
the year.It wl award fifteen fellowshipsto trainees
             il                                                                                         a
                                                        the duration of the project, with regard to: ( ) the
from other countries for study a the institute in
                                   t                    training programme of the institute (syllabus and
1965-66,and wl provide t the institute f c l t e
                             o               aiiis      curriculum of the training courses, the number of
to a value of $9,830.                                                safn)           b
                                                        the trainees, t f i g , and ( ) the researchprogramme
                                                        of the institute.
The Executing Agency wl continue to supply the
services of three experts throughout the year.          III. BUDGET
   In April, it wl invite applications for twelve
fellowships,t be awarded in June,for study at the
              o                                         35. In addition to the servicesand facilitiesdescribed
institute in 1966-67.                                    n
                                                        i paragraphs 15-28above to be provided i kind to
   The government wl continue to meet the local
                      il                                                                             o
                                                        the project by the government, estimated t cost
staffand runningcosts ofthe institute throughout the                                           the
                                                        a total of Japanese Yen 360,691,200, equivalent
       t il
year. I wl award eighteen fellowships to trainees       o $1,001,920as detailed in Appendix TI, the esti-
from other countries for study a the institute in
                                   t                                                                  o
                                                        mated total cash project budget amounting t the
1966-67,       il
          and wl provide to the institutef c l t e to
                                           aiiis                                 il
                                                        equivalent of $761,700wl consist of the following:
a value of $9,830.                                       a
                                                        ( ) the gross cost of experts,fellowships,equipment
                                                        and miscellaneous expenses, described in para-
 97                                                     graphs 5-14 above,to be met by the Special Fund
The third and l s meeting between the executing
                  at                                    and amounting to a total of $707,000 which in-
Agency’s consultants and their Japanese counter-        cludes an amount estimated at the equivalent of
parts wl take place in Tokyo in the second quarter                                           n
                                                        $51,975representing cash payments i local currency
               t il
of the year. I wl be concerned particularly with        to be made by the government to the Special
plans f r the continuation of the work of the insti-
        o                                               Fund towards local operating costs described in
tute after the termination o this project.                                      b
                                                        paragraph 29 above; ( ) the overhead costs of the
  The three experts supplied by the Executing           Executing Agency ($54,700) to be met by the
Agency wl terminate their missions between June         Special Fund.
and September.


IV. REPORTS                                             Revision of the Plan of Operation
                                                        42. If, in the course of the implementation of the
Reports by the government                                                       f
                                                        project,one or more o the parties concerned should
36. A the end of each f s a year (31 March), or
                            icl                                                           f
                                                        consider a revision of this Plan o Operation advis-
during the f r t quarter of the following fiscalyear,   able, such a revision shall be discussed by the three
the government shall submit to the Executing            parties concerned, and any necessary changes shall
Agency a report on the government's expenditure i   n   be a matter of agreement between them, subject t    o
connection with the project. The report shall be        their respective legal procedures.
s t out in the form of a comparison with the expected
 e                                                      Agreed on behalf o the Parties by the undersigned.
expenditure under this Plan of Operation.
37. A the end of each calendar year, the Chief
Technical Adviser and the project Director shall
jointly establish and certify an inventory o the
                                               f                      '
                                                        Amendment No. 1
equipment supplied t the project since is commen-
cement with the funds allocated by the Special Fund.
This inventory shall be submitted by the Executing      PROJECT DATA SUMMARY
Agency to the Special Fund.
                                                        Special Fund allocation:$818,740
                                                        Consisting of
v. CONCLUSION                                             Special Fund contribution:$731,940.
                                                          Government contribution towards local operating
Continuation of the project                                 costs: $86,800.
38. After the period of assistance by the Executing     Government counterpart contribution in kind :
Agency and the Special Fund has been completed,           $1,001,920.
the government undertakes, on the basis o is   f t      Duration:Five years.
relevant and applicable laws and in accordance with     Executing Agency : United Nations Educational,
its annual budgetary appropriations,t continue the
                                      o                   Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco).
activities of the institute a the same level. Arran-    Co-operating government agency: Ministry o       f
gements for such a continuation shall be effected         Construction.
between the Executing Agency and the government
in the course of the l s year of programme opera-
                       at                               The Plan of Operation signed on 31 October 1962,
tion.                                                                                     f
                                                        shall, pursuant t the provisions o paragraph 42
                                                        thereof,be amended as follows:
Transfer of the t t e of property on equipment
                                                        1. The attached Appendix 12,Plan of Expenditure-
39. Upon successful conclusion of the project, the      United Nations Special Fund Allocation, shall be
government,the Executing Agency and the Special         amended in accordance with the attached revision
Fund shall consult with a view to effecting the         to reflect minor adjustments in the Work Plan.
transfer t the government or a designated agency
o the government, the tte of the equipment which
 f                      il                              2. The attached Appendix IV,Schedule o Opera-
remains the property of the Special Fund during         tions, indicating the main features of the revised
the period covered by this Plan of Operation.           Work Plan shall be newly added.
                                                        3. In Section IV (Reports) of the Plan of Operation
Visits to the project
                                                        a new paragraph on the final report shall be inserted,
40. In order t assess progress in the operation of      worded as follows:
the project, or t discuss is development with the
                  o         t
experts or government authorities, representatives      Final report
of the Executing Agency or the Special Fund, in-        Within three months following the conclusion of
cluding the liaison o f c r of the United Nations
                      fie                                                                        il
                                                        project operations the Executing Agency wl submit
Technical Assistance Board and Special Fund, may                                                     o
                                                        a final comprehensive report on the project t the
v s t the project a any time.
 ii                t                                                         f
                                                        Managing Director o the Special Fund f r presenta-
                                                        tion t the government.
Supplementary assistance from other sources
4 .The receipt of assistance from the Special Fund
 1                                                                         f
                                                        Agreed, on behalf o the parties,by the undersigned.
t the project shall not prevent the government from
receiving assistance from other sources (through
United Nations programmes, bilateral programmes,
private foundations). The government agrees t     o
                                                        1. October 1965.
furnish the Executing Agency with information on        2. The appendixes referred to were included in the original
any such assistance.                                                                              n
                                                           document but have not been reproduced i the present text.


Adjustment Advice No.2                                                                      o
                                                                        Payments equivalentt $51,975
                                                     should read $51,975.
                                                     have been effected by the government a this
This Plan of Operation,signed on 31 October 1962,
adjusted according to Adjustment Advice No. 1,       2. The attachedAppendix 12-Dlan ofExpenditure-
and amended according t Amendment No. 1,
                            o                        SpecialFund allocation,has been revised as indicated
has been further adjusted as follows:                to r f e t adjustmentsin the Work Plan.
1. Corrigeitdum. The amount of Governnient rontri-   3. The attached Appendix IV-Schedule of Opera-
bution towards local operating costs, which was      tions-indicates the main features of the revised
erronously shown a $86,800i Amendment No. 1
                   t         n                       Work Flan.

                                                     1. November 1967.
                                                     2. The appendixes referred to were included in the original
                                                        document but have not been reproduced i the present

B Project finance

                                   Plan of Operation1   Actual2
UNDP(SF) Unesco
                                               0           Q
Expert services                             382 299     398 948
Fellowships                                 233 871     232 588
Equipment                                   145000      132841
Miscellaneous                                32 330      31 001
Executing Agency costs                 ~~
                                             72 400      72 400
                                            865900      867778

Government of Japan
                                            Yen3        Yen3
Counterpart staff                55 922 400 77 941 800
Buildings, furnishings and
  equipment                      99572400 196115580
Fellowships, including salary
  payments to counterpart staff
  on fellowship leave           117248400 134462400
Recurrent operating costs,
  students’subsistence and
  miscellaneous services         31 248 O00 34055 280
                                303991200 442575060

 1. Adjustment Advice No. 2 (November 1967).
2 Figures up to 31 July 1968.
3. $1 = 360 Yen.

C Unesco experts

   ~~      ~

Academic       N a m e and                         Field of
year           nationality                         competence                 From       To

1963-64        Bruce H.Falconer, N e w Zealand      Earthquake engineering,   15.11.63   14.11.64
                                                    Chief Technical Adviser
               V t Karnik, Czechoslovakia           Seismology                14.9.63     13.9.64
1964-65        J. Penzien, United States of America Earthquake engineering,   22.8.64     21.8.65
                                                    Chief Technical Adviser
               K.E.Bullen, Australia                Seismology                13.8.64      3.3.65
               G.P. Gorshkov, U.S.S.R.              Seismology                5.10.64     20.7.65
1965-66        E. E.Vesanen, Finland                Seismology,               11.8.65     10.8.66
                                                    Chief Technical Adviser
               R.M.S. Teisseyre, Poland             Seismology                15.8.65     14.8.66
               I. Alpan, Israel                     Earthquake engineering    22.8.65     21.8.66
1966-67        C. Kisslinger, United States of      Seismology,               14.8.66     13.8.67
                  America                           Chief Technical Adviser
               I. E. Gubin, U.S.S.R.                Seismology                24.8.66     23A67
               S. Cherry, Canada                    Earthquake engineering    13.8.66     12.8.67
               R. Flores, Chile                     Earthquake engineering     9.1.67     23.6.67
1967-68        L.Egyed, Hungary                     Seismology,               20.8.67     19.8.68
                                                    Chief Technical Adviser
               N.Norby Nielsen, Denmark             Earthquake engineering     3.9.67      2.9.68
               K.E.Bullen, Australia                Seismology                6.10.67     31.5.68

D Counterpart staff

Name                            Title

D .T.Hisada
 r                             Director of the Building
                               Research Institute and
                               Project Director of I S E
Dr.S. Omote                    Acting Director of IISEE

Research and teaching sfaff
D .K.Nakagawa
 r                             Chief Research Engineer
D .T.Santo
 r                             Chief Research Seismologist
Mr.T.Okubo                     Chief Research Engineer
Mr.N.Nakajima                  Research Seismologist
D .M.Izumi
 r                             Research Engineer
Dr. M.Ozaki                    Research Engineer
D .M.Watabe                    Research Engineer
D .A. Terashima                Research Seismologist

Senior consirltants
Professor Kiyoshi Muto
Professor Nobuji Nasu
Dr. Kiyoo Wadati

Research assistants
Mr.H . Murata
Mr.H.  Asaba
M s H . Yamagishi

M s M.Ohta

1. International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering.

E Fellowships

Name                  Nationality            Period of study               Present function
Boen,T. T.            Indonesia              1962-63            tf
                                                               S a f Member,Regional Housing Centre.
Banijamali,M .        Iran                   1962-63           -
Taningco,P.E.         Philippines            1962-63           Senior Civil Engineer,Designing Division,Bureau
                                                               of Public Highways.
Chang,H.H.            Republic of China      1963-64                                  ii
                                                               Professor,Faculty of Cvl Engineering,Provincial
                                                               Chen Kung University,Taiwan.
Sauter,F.F.           Costa Rica             1963-64           Professor of Advanced StructuralDesign,
                                                               University of Costa Rica,and Manager i charge
                                                               of engineering,Productosde Concreto,S.A.
Correa,C.A.           Mexico                 1963-64                                          ii.
                                                               Partner,Diseños de IngenieriaC v l
Rathi S.N.            Nepal                  1963-64            ii
                                                               C v l Engineer,Public Works Department.
Ingco,G. C.           Philippines            1963-64                         ii
                                                               Supervising C v l Engineer,DesigningDivision,
                                                               Bureau of Public Highways.
Lechuga,M . P.        Philippines            1963-64           Supervising Civil Engineer,Chief,Investigation
                                                               Section,National Power Corporation.
Zapanta,S.L.          Philippines            1963-64                        ii
                                                               SupervisingC v l Engineer,Designing Division,
                                                               National Power Corporation.
Jankovic,M.           Yugoslavia             1963-64           SeismologicalStation Manager.
AIlam,A. M.           United Arab Republic   1963-64           Assistant Researcher,Department of Geophysics,
                                                               National Research Centre,Ministry of S i n i i
Song,H.S.             Republic of China      1963-64           Assistant Seismologist,ANPU World Wide Stan-
                                                               dard SeismographStation,GeophysicalDivision,
                                                               Taiwan Weather Bureau.
Janakiramiah,B.       India                  1963-64                     n
                                                               Lecturer i Geophysics,Andhra University.
Nag, S.K.             India                  1963-64           Assistant Meteorologist, Seismology Section,
                                                               Indian MeteorologicalDepartment.
Sinha,S.B.            India                  1963-64           Lecturer,Indian Instituteof Technology.
Park,S.H.             Republic of Korea      1963-64           Junior Member o Observation Section i charge
                                                                                f                     n
                                                               of seismometers,Ministry of Transportation.
Syed,A. A.            Pakistan               1963-64           Abroad on further study.
Poobrasert.S.         Thailand               1963-64                     n
                                                               Lecturer i Geology,Faculty of Science,
                                                               Chulalongkorn University.
ocal,N.               Turkey                 1963-64                                                    n
                                                               Assistant Director,Kandilli Observatory i Istanbul
                                                               and collaboratingwith the Mineral Research and
                                                               ExplorationI s i u e of Turkey.
Lee,M. A.
      H.              Chile                  1964-65           ChiefEngineer,Lee &Lozano Co.Ltd.,
                                                               Engineering Construction.
Chen,W . Y.           Republic of China      1964-65           Professor,Chen-KungUniversity,Architecture
Escallon,A.S.         Colombia               1964-65                      nttt
                                                               Engineer,I s i u e of Fomento Mpal,National
Cepeda,C J. M .       E Salvador
                      I                      1964-65           Seismologist,GeotechnicalResearch Institute,
                                                               Ministry of Construction.
Henaku,N.O.           Ghana                  1964-65           Lecturer,Faculty of Engineering,Kwame Nkruma
                                                               University of Science and Technology.
Prakash,A.            India                  1964-65                               ii
                                                               Reader,Faculty of C v l Engineering,University
                                                               of Roorkee.


Name                  Nationality            Period of study               Present function

Ghassemlou, A.
           D.         Iran                   1964-65           Chief,ArchitectureDepartment,Ministry of
                                                               Housing and Development.
Galtazar,2.F.         Philippines            19644-65          Civil Engineer,National Power Corporation.
Borcena,A. C.         Philippines            1964-65                    ii
                                                               Senior Cvl Engineer,Bureau of Public Highways,
                                                               Designing Division.
Özcicek,B.            Turkey                 1964-65           Seismologist,Mineral Research and Exploration
                                                               Instituteof Turkey.
Skoko,D.              Yugoslavia             1964-65           Assistant Professor,Geophysical Institute,Faculty
                                                               of Sciences,University of Zagreb.
Satchanski,S.V.       Bulgaria               1964-65            cetfc                   cetfc nttt
                                                               S i n i i Collaborator,S i n i i I s i u e of
                                                               Building,Construction Section.
Amaya,G.              l
                      E Salvador             1965-66                   ol
                                                               Chief,S i Mechanics Engineering,Centro de
                                                               Estudios e InvestigacionesGeotecnicas,
                                                               Ministerio de Obras Públicas.
Aytun, A.             rurkey                 1965-66           Civil Engineer,Research Board,General
                                                               Directorate of Natural Disaster Affairs,Ministry
                                                               of Housing.
Dao-Trong-Hung        Vietnam                1965-66           Architect.
Giuliani,H.           Argentina              1965-66           Professor and Research Engineer,Faculty of
                                                               Engineering,University of Cuyo.
Khatri,V. D.          India                  1965-66           Assistant Professor i StructuralEngineering,
                                                               Sardar Patel College of Engineering,University
                                                               of Bombay.
Can,R.                Turkey                 1965-66           Assistant Seismologist,Kandilli Observatory.
Dutta,T.K.            India                  1965-66                    cetfc
                                                               Senior S i n i i Officer,Regional Research
Hedayati,A.           Iran                   1965-66           Research Staff,GeophysicalInstitute,Teheran
Kebeasy,R.M.          United Arab Republic   1965-66                                                     cetfc
                                                               Assistant Research,Supreme Council of S i n i i
Santa Cruz,J. T.      Bolivia                1965-66           Engineer,Instituto Geofisico Boliviano.
Singh,R.              India                  1965-66           Lecturer in Geophysics,Banaras Hindu University.
Bercovici,N.           sal
                      Ire                    1966-67           District Engineer,Water Planning for Israel,Ltd.
Dabija,F.E.           Romania                1966-67           Engineer,Chiefof Project,Institutefor Studies
                                                               i Architecture,Building and Construction and
                                                               Town Planning.
Sen,R.                Turkey                 1966-67           StructuralDesigner,Ministry of Housing.
Miladinov.V.D.        Yugoslavia             1966-67           Assistant for Soil Mechanics and Foundation a t
                                                               the TechnicalFaculty,University of Skopje.
Rames,M.R. H.         United Arab Republic   1967-67           Researcher,Building Research Centre.
Orruma,J.             Argentina              1966-67           Professor,Economic Geology,Topography and
Aparicio, L.J.        Bolivia                1966-67           Responsible for Seismic Stations,Desaguadero
                                                               and Sicasica.
Gupta,H.K.            India                  1966-67           S i n i t Grade B,National Geophysical Research
                                                               Institute,Osmania University.
Jeong,B.              Republic of Korea      1966-67           Professor,Second National University,College
                                                               of Liberal A t and Sciences,Seoul National
Feidler,B.G.E.        Venezuela              1966-67           Chief Geophysicist,  Venezuelan Navy,Government
                                                               of Venezuela Observatory.
Rezayee,M.A.          Afghanistan            1966-67                       n ii
                                                               Instructori Cvl Engineering,Faculty of
                                                               Engineering,Kabul University.
Calero,H. B.
         C.           Ecuador                1966-67           TechnicalAdviser and Professor,Director of
                                                               Excutive Committee,University of Guayaquil.
UNDP (TA)fellowship
Tun,U.K.              Burma                  1967-68           Executive Engineer,Board of Management for
                                                               the Port of Rangoon.


Name                    Nationality          Period of study                Present function

Rosenberg,V.L.A.        Chile                1962-63           Research Engineer,Escuela de Ingenieria,
                                                               Universidad de Chile.
Sanchez,C. J.
          A.            Ecuador              1962-63           Professor,Guayaquil University.
Latour,O.H. S.          Guatemala            1962-63           Director,Civil Engineering Office,
                                                               Centre f r Industrial Production and Development.
Almeida,F.N.            India                1962-63           Chief TechnicalExaminer,
                                                               Ministry of Works,Housing and Supply.
Sandhawalia,P.S.        India                 1962-63          Executive Engineer,Construction Division,
                                                               Central Public Works Dept.
Jahanshahi,M . T.       Iran                  1962-63          Acting Director of Development Department,
                                                               and Director of Urban Developmentand Housing.
Ito,G.I.                Peru                  1962-63          Researcher,Engineering Dept.,   National University
                                                               of Peru.
Coco,R.V.               Philippines           1962-63                  ii
                                                               Senior Cvl Engineer,Bureau of Public Works.
Santos,R.S.             Philippines           1962-63          Associate Cvl Engineer,Bureau of Public Works.
         J              Mexico                1962-63          Chief of Earthquakeand Meteorological
Khan,S. A.              Pakistan              1962-63          ProfessionalAssistant,Seismic Section,Meteorolo-
                                                               g c l Research Station.
Peña,O.                 Philippines           1962-63          Volcanologist,Commission on Volcanology.
Yoma,F.Y.               Chile                 1963-64          Researcher,StructuralLaboratory,University
                                                               of Chile.
Carrasco,R.             Ecuador              1963-64           Professor,University o Ecuador.
Kusdarjono              Indonesia            1963-64            ii
                                                               Cvl Engineer,Department of Public Works and
Rudiman                 Indonesia            1963-64           EngineeringGeologist,Geological Survey of
Jahanshahi,S.           Iran                 1963-64           Director,Housing Loan Corporation.
Rios,R.                 Peru                 1963-64           Researcher,Faculty Civil Engineering,University
                                                               of Peru.
Turel,Y.                Turkey               1963-64           Structural Designer,Ministry of Construction.
Careage,M. P.
           J.           Bolivia              1963-64           Geologist,Instituto Geofisico Boliviano.
Sevilla,F.Q.            Philippines          1963-64           Geophysical Observatory,University of the
Valenzuela,R.G.         Philippines           1963-64          Geophysical Observatory,University of the
B l o i l , S.Jr.
 elslo                  Philippines           1963-64          Geophysicist,PhilippineWeather Bureau.
Cassis,J.               Chile                 1964-65          Research Engineer and Professor,Laboratory of
                                                               Structures,Engineering School,University of Chile.
Jain, C.S.              India                 1964-65          Assistant Executive Engineer,Central Water and
                                                               Power Commission.
Hadiwidjojo,W.H.        Indonesia             1964-65          Senior Official,Directorate of Irrigation,
                                                               Ministry of Public Works and Power.
Shibayama,K.            Mexico                1964-65          Assistant Researcher,Faculty of Civil Engineering,
                                                               University of Mexico.
Montes,G.R.             Peru                  1964-65          Civil Engineer,StructuralInstitute,National
                                                               University of Engineering.
Yumgullu,o.             Turkey                1964-65            ii
                                                               C v l Engineer,Middle East TechnicalUniversity.
Welkner,M.P.            Chile                 1964-65                                            nttt
                                                               Head,Seismology Department,I s i u e of
                                                               Geophysicsand Seismology,    University of Chile.
Soekarman               Indonesia             1964-65          Assistant Geophysicist,Meteorologicaland
                                                               Geophysical Service.
Moftakhar,K.            Iran                  1964-65          Researcher,Geophysical Institute,
                                                               University of Teheran.
Hussain,M.              Pakistan              1964-65           Meteorologist, Pakistan Meteorological
Sungchaya,L.I.          Thailand              1964-65           Technician,Division of MeteorologicalInstruments,
Ayatolahi,M.A.          Jran                  1965-66                               o
                                                                Expert responsiblef r Building Code and Building


Name                   Nationality            Period of study               Present function

Gupta, L.R.            India                  1965-66           Executive Engineer, Central Public Works
Mazumder, P.S.         India                  1965-66           Executive Engineer, Central Public Works
                                                                Department, Ministry of Works and Housing.
Mould, J.              Peru                   1965-66           Structural Engineer, Junta Nacional de l a
Khatib Semnani, M.A.   Iran                   1965-66           Researcher, Geophysics Institute.
Lazo, L.L.E.           Peru                   1965-66           Seismology Assistant, Geophysics Institute,
                                                                Universidad Nacional de San Agustin de Arequipa.
Mirzaghafoury, H.      Iran                   1965-66           Researcher, Geophysics Institute.
Aguirre, R.            Chile                  1966-67           Design Engineer and Inspector of Reinforced
                                                                Concrete and Metallic Structures,Empresa Nacional
                                                                de Electricidad S.A.
Venkatramaiah,P.       India                  1966-67           Assistant Director, Central Water and Power
Evoghli, F.            Iran                   1966-67           Structural Engineer, Ministry of Development
                                                                and Housing Construction.
Martinez, M.O.         Mexico                 1966-67           Investigator’sAssistant, Research Institute.
Limeta, F.B.           Philippines            1966-67            ii
                                                                Cvl Engineer, Bureau of Public Works.
Vergel de Dios, R.S.   Philippines            1966-67                                                      iy
                                                                Senior Structural Engineer, Office of the C t
                                                                Engineer, Building Construction Inspection
Rizkalla, R.I.         United Arab Republic   1966-67           Assistant Researcher, National Research Centre.
Rodriguez, E.R.        Bolivia                1966-67           Assistant, San Calixto Observatory.
Soehardi,              Indonesia              1966-67           Seismological Station, Meteorological and
                                                                Geophysical Service.
Ai-Tamimi,             Iraq                   1966-67           Head, Geological Survey Department, Ministry
                                                                of O l
Deza, M.R.E.           Peru                   1966-67           Assistant in local seismology project, Geophysics
Lazo, A.M.A.           Peru                   1966-67           Research Assistant, Institute of Geophysics,
                                                                National University of San Agustin.
Huda, S. Q.            Pakistan               1966-67           Assistant Meteorologist, Meteorological Services.
Noponen, I.            Finland                1967-68           Seismologist,Institute of Seismology, University
                                                                of Helsinki.

F Equipment supplied by UNDP(SF)/Unesco

Contact-type strain gauge and accessories
Seismograph retraction apparatus and accessories
Cartographic stereo micrometer and accessories
Seismographic equipment (donation from the United
  States Coast and Geodetic Survey)
Recorder of seismograph and accessories
Galvanometers and accessories
Seismometers and accessories
Synchronic master clock
Strong-motion seismograph and accessories
Survey-type seismoscope
Seismograph and accessories
Reflection seismic amplifiers (12 channels) and
Electro-hydraulicvibration generator table
Strong-motion accelerograph and accessories
Filter galvanometers
cost :                                        121,147
Publications:                                  11,830
Total                                         132,977

Plan of Operation estimate:                   145,000

G Building plan

                                                                     ;      I__

                                                                     1I laborator!

                                   nternational Institute          Research
                                    Of Seismology and              Institute
                                    rthquake Engineering

                  Plot Plan


                  Location Map

                                                                                             II               ¡a
                                                                                                               E   Il
                                                                       South elevation       East elevation

*     12m                                     12m      L         12m

    Electronic computer


U                         I I                         I I                  I

                                                                         First floor

                                Seismic instruments              Conference room


                                                                    Second floor

                                        North elevation    et
                                                          W s elevation

          36m               ~_
c         12m   I                 12m



                                         Third floor

                    First floor          432 mz

                I   Second floor1        432 mz     I
                    Third floor          432 mz

                    Total               1,296rnz

H Curricula of courses

                                           S E I SMOLOGY COUR SE

General course                                25 days    Observational seismology                     42 days
                                                         Theory and practice of seismograph                 (1 5)
Elementary mathematics                            (9)    Seismological instruments                          (10)
Earthquake damage                                 (4)    Observatory seismology                             (10)
Introduction t structural dynamics                       Structure of the Earth                              (7)
   for building structures
Introduction t soil mechanics                            Seismicity                                   29 days
Introduction t earthquake resistant                      Destructive earthquakes                          (7)
           f ii
   design o c v l engineering structures                                         f
                                                         Magnitude and energy o earthquake                 (8)
Visit to Tokyo University                                Seismicity and seismotectonics                    (7)
                                                         Statistical seismology                            (7)
Special course                               148 days
                                                         Special lectures                           36 days
Theoretical seismology                        27 days    Seismic prospecting                             (5)
Theory o elastic waves                            (13)   Geophysics                                      (5)
  Elasticity theory                                      Volcanology                                     (3)
  Vibration and waves                                    Crustal deformation                             (5)
  Bodily and surface elastic waves                       Experimental seismology                          4
  Reflection and refraction                              Ground characteristics related to
Seismic rays and travel time                               earthquake damage                             (5)
  Seismic ray theory                                     Internal constitution of the Earth              (4)
  Amplitude o seismic wave                               Current topics in seismology and geophysics     (5)
  Travel time
Theory of earthquake mechanism                    (4)    Observation trip to Kansai and Kyiishu districts
                                                                                                       10 days

                                                         Field study at Asaina and at Matsushiro        4 days

                            EARTHQUAKE E N G I N E E R I N G COURSE
General course                                           Earthquake-resistant design of
                                                           building structures
Elementary mathematics                                   Structural dynamics
Earthquake damage                                        Analysis of building structures
General seismology                                       Building code and regulations
 ii o
Vst t Tokyo University                                   Various kinds of building structures
                                                         Observation and special lectures
Special course                               148 days
                                                         Earthquake-resistant design of
Soil Mechanics and foundation engineering     25 days      civil engineering
Fundamentals                                       (9)   Structures
Dynamics of soil and foundation                    (3)   Harbour engineering
Design of Foundation                               (3)   Waterworks engineering
Laboratory and f e d works
                il                                (10)   Bridge engineering
                                                         D a m engineering
                                                         Special lectures

                                                         Observation trip to Kansai and
                                                           Kyushu districts                            10 days

J Advisory services carried o t by the institute

The services listed below were carried out during the first phase of the project

Year          Name                      Months           Counw                Subject

1963           T. Hisada'                 1.2            Yugoslavia           Technical assistance,advice on reconstruction
               K.MutoZ                                                        of the city of Skopje
               S. Okamoto2
1964           N.Nakajima3                0.5             Indonesia           Technical assistance, microtremor
1965           M.1
                 i                       15               Yugoslavia            r
                                                                              D .Izumi was appointed to the post of a
                                                                              Unesco expert on earthquake engineering
                                                                              at the Institute of Seismology, Earthquake
                                                                              Engineering and Town Planning, Skopje
1966           E.Vesanen3                0.3              Republic of China   Investigation on Taiwan seismic problems
1967           K.Nakagawa3               0.2              Republic of China    IAEA siting mission for the Taiwan
                                                                              Nuclear Power Station
1967           S. Omote3                  1.5             Venezuela           Technical assistance for seismic problems
                                                                               in relation to the Caracas earthquake

1. Building Research Institute.
2 University of Tokyo.
3. InternationalInstitute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering.

K Reports and recommendations
         of the senior consultants

FIRST MEETING, D E C E M B E R 1963                      lectures, which provide a group treatment, rather
                                                         than on individual teaching in the laboratory.
The f r t meeting o the consultantstook place in the
      is                                                    3. The scope of the course had necessarily to be
building of the institute from 5 t 1 1 December 1963,
                                  o                       e
                                                         s t out in the beginning somewhat speculatively,and
and the following i the report based on the working                      o
                                                         it now seems t have been drawn up on a rather too
sessions,meetings with staff and trainees,inspection                                                 il
                                                         ambitious scale,with the rs that trainees wl return
of the institute and v s t to associated institutions.
                        iis                              to their own countries with much of the course
There were five working sessions, attended by the        unassimilated.A deeper knowledge of a limited part
s x consultants, with the addition of D .
 i                                           r Omote,    of the present curriculum might well be more profit-
                              r V.
Director of the institute,D . Karnik, who acted          able than a more superficial acquaintance with the
                        r K. i l g
as secretary, and D . B l i as representative            existing extended syllabus.
of Unesco. Three of the sessions were presided over          .
                                                            4 The trainees, though evidently selected with
by Dr. Stoneley and two by D .   r Wadati.                                                        n
                                                         great care,have a considerable spread i ability and
   During their v s t the consultants were able to
                   ii,                                                                 il
                                                         preparation.N o doubt this wl alwaysbe so,and the
learn in some detail the work of the institute and t o              s
                                                         Director i to be encouraged to adapt the plan of
see the trainees a their lectures.The consultants are
                  t                                      teaching so that in al a better level of training may
grateful t the Director for the readinesswith which       f
                                                         i possible be attained. There again the need for a
                    l       aiiis
he afforded them a l the f c l t e they needed.                       s
                                                         larger staff i apparent.
   The consultantsare impressed by the great efforts        5. In view of the differing backgrounds of the
that are being made by the Director and his staff        trainees it may not be desirable to attempt to eva-
t develop the institute along the lines specified in
 o                                                       luate their attainments by formal examination or
the agreement with Unesco.There are clearly some         numerical grading. Indeed, such a scheme, though
difficulties to overcome in the early stages o this      stimulating towards concentration on the work,
project; o these the Director i well aware,and it i
           f                     s                   s   might be unacceptable to the candidates or t their
the wish o the consultantst give him every encour-
                               o                         countries. Yet, so far as shortage of s a f allows,
agement in his task of enhancing the reputation o    f   some appraisal by personal interviews or otherwise
the institute. I i evident that the Director and his
                t s                                      would furnish the institutewith recordsof the quality
s t a have had to put in a formidable amount of          of the trainees of the different years.
work t build up the institute to is present level,
        o                              t                    6. Owing to the shortage of staff,a high propor-
and it is a source of satisfactionthat the Government    tion of the lectures must be given by lecturers from
of Japan has fully taken is agreed share in providing
                           t                             other institutions.This could in fact be remedied by
buildings and equipment. There is clearly good           an increase of staff, so that trainees would be i   n
co-operation with the University of Tokyo, the           closer contact with the staff;this would enhance the
University of Waseda, the Japanese Meteorological        unity of the institute, with benefit to the trainees.
Agency, the Earthquake Research Institute and the        None the less, the employment of a reasonable
Building Research Institute,under whosejurisdiction      number of lecturers from outside should stimulate
this institute i organized.
               s                                         the trainees by bringing them into contact with
   Some of the d f i u t e may be stated explicitly:
                 ifclis                                  distinguished workers in the fields concerned.
   1. Considering the number of trainees involved           7 Because of the delay in the formal ratification
and the dual emphasis on training and research,the        f
                                                         o the agreement between the Special Fund, Unesco
staff i inadequate in numbers to carry out its
       s                                                 and the Japanese Government,the project has been
task in the most desirable way, and i no doubt
                                           s             essentially delayed for one year so that 1963-64
bearing a heavier burden than was originally              s       is
                                                         i the f r t academic year of the Special Fund
envisaged.                                               project and, hence, this i the first year that
   2 One consequence o this f r t difficulty i that
    .                             is            s        Unesco experts and Unesco fellows have been in
there is less laboratory training than is desirable,     residence.
and insufficient personal contact between staff             8. The IISEE has been established as a section of
and trainees. The accent thus tends t be placed on
                                        o                                                        il
                                                         the Building Research Institute,which wl be advan-


tageous in promoting experimental researchin earth-       8. The consultantsconsider that some improvement
quake engineering. However, this wl also create
                                      il                      s
                                                             i desirablein the conditionsunder which trainees
special problems in the areas o academic teaching
                                 f                           can pursue their studiesoutside regularcurricular
and of seismological research as these activities            hours.
have been traditionally associated w t established
               t il
universities. I wl be necessary for the Director
to give special attention t recruiting staff members
so as t strengthen the academic instructionalcapa-       SECOND MEETING, M A R C H 1965
 iiis f
b l t e o the institute and t promote close working
relationships in teaching and research with neigh-       Recommendations
bouring universities.
   9 The consultantsnote with satisfaction that the
    .                                                     1. The consultants note with great satisfaction the
Director i taking active steps to build up the collec-       steps that have been taken by the Director to
tion o books, journals and offprints in the libraly.                                                      o
                                                             give effect,so far as has been practicable,t the
The importance t the trainees of ready access to an          recommendations made by the meeting of
adequate library can scarcely be overestimated.              senior consultantsin 1963.The suggestionshave
   1 .The conditions under which trainees can                been accepted i their entirety by D .
                                                                               n                     r Omote
pursue their studiesoutside curricularhours,whether          with the greatest willingness,and the consultants
in the institute o in hostels,compare unfavourably                                    t
                                                             record their pleasure a the manner in which
with those of working a most foreign universities;           these ideas have been incorporated i the func-
and these conditionsare likely to prevent the trainees       tioning of the institute. The documents giving
from deriving the maximum benefit from their                 the requisite information to this meeting have
course. The consultants welcome the efforts of the           been admirably prepared, and evidently embody
Director t overcome the difficulties that are a      t       much careful thought.
present hampering the provision o suitable places         2 The consultants, noting the efforts made by
for study outsideclass-roomo laboratory hours.                              o
                                                             the Director t secure approximate equality of
                                                             numbers of trainees as between seismologists
                                                             and earthquake engineers, record their satis-
Recommendations                                              faction in learning that next year Unesco wl   il
                                                             award seven fellowships in seismology and five
 1. The consultants consider it essential t the o            in engineering.They consider that the spread of
    efficientworking of the institutethat the teaching                                                   s
                                                             trainees over some twenty-fivecountries i fully
    staff be substantiallyincreased.                                                    prt f
                                                             in accordance with the s i i o Unesco. They
 2 The consultants consider that the scope o the
  .                                              f                                                    o
                                                             consider,however,that there i a case f r asking
    lectures could profitably be diminished, with                                     o
                                                             Unesco to endeavour t secure a better repre-
    greater emphasison laboratory work.The Direc-            sentation from Africa.
    tor is to be encouraged to review the plan of         3. The consultants approve the publication of a
    teaching accordingly.                                    report on the individual studies by trainees;
 3. The consultants recommend that certain distin-            they consider that, in addition to helping to
    guished seismologists and earthquake engineers                                      f
                                                             make known the work o the Government o          f
    from developing countries be invited to v s t the
                                               ii            Japan and the support of Unesco,such a publica-
    institutefor limited periods of t m .
                                     ie                              il
                                                              tion wl promote the esprit de corps of the
 4 Noting the delay in the start of operation o the
  .                                              f            institute. They greatly appreciate the action of
    institute, the consultants recommend that the             the Japanese Earthquake Engineering Promo-
    project should terminate in August 1968.                  tion Society in supporting this publication.
 5. Noting the close co-operation between the               .
                                                          4 The consultantswere pleased to see the consider-
    Building Research Instituteand the International          able growth in the contents of the library,and
    Tnstitute o Seismology and Earthquake Engin-
               f                                               t
                                                              is excellent arrangement.They suggest that the
    eering,and the specific interests o both institu-
                                       f                               o
                                                              appealst organizationsfor publications,includ-
    tions, the consultants recommend that this                                                        tl
                                                              ing offprints,might be sent out on a sil wider
    institute should concentrate on matters o        f        basis.
    training and research,with special emphasis on        5. The consultants recommend, as a matter of
    the conditionsin developing countries.                    immediate importance, the expenditure o a    f
 4 The consultants emphasize the importance of
  .                                                                      400
                                                              further $ , 0 of the Special Fund contribu-
    building up an adequate library of books,                                        f
                                                              t o on the purchase o books for the library.
    journals and offprints,and of providing suitable      6.The consultants hope that the Government of
    textbooks.                                                                      o
                                                              Japan wl feel able t increase is contribution
                                                                      il                        t
 7.The consultants recommend the setting up of a                                  f
                                                              towards the cost o library purchases, institute
     seismologicalstation for teaching purposes.              publications and strengtheninglaboratory work.


 7 The consultants support the proposal that the         4.The consultants consider that the minimum
    Govemment of Japan be invited to s t up ae              budget requirements of the second phase project
    seismologicalobservatory a a suitable location                           o
                                                            approximate t the funds provided by the
    outside Tokyo. They consider that in addition           Government of Japan and the United Nations
    to strengtheningthe Japanesenetwork of stations         Special Fund during the present project, and
    it would provide a valuable aid in the training         recommend that this sum be made available.
    of seismologists a the institute.
                      t                                  5. The consultants consider that the operation of
 8. The consultants note that approximately 5                                                   t
                                                            the institute could be improved by is reorganiza-
    per cent of the trainees’ time in earthquake                                               fiitd o
                                                            tion as a more independent unit a f l a e t the
    engineering i spent in laboratory work and              Building Research Institute.
    hope that as staff and f c l t e become available,   6 In order that trainees and their countries may
    this may be increased t IO or 15 per cent.
                            o                               derive the maximum benefit from the training
 9. The consultants note the great effort of the            scheme,the consultantsrecommend that special
    institute t increase the number of full-time                             o
                                                            care be given t the selection of candidates for
                    t s et
    staffmembers.I i f l ,however,that additional           the new programme. Accordingly they consider
    staff members wl be required to implement               it advisable that the final selection should be
    the strengtheningo the laboratorywork.                  made in consultation with the Director of the
1 .The consultants consider that, within limits,
 0                                                                                    t
                                                            institute.The Director, a his discretion, could
    lectures from foreign visitors are helpful i    n       transfer candidatesfrom one category to another.
    increasing the acquaintance o trainees with             The consultantsthink it desirable that the selec-
    foreign investigations.                                 tion should include some traineesfrom advanced
                                                            countries. In addition, they recommend that
                                                            more attention should be given t an evaluation
THIRD MEETING, APRIL 1967                                    f
                                                            o the progress being made by the trainees
                                                            in the regular course.
Recommendations                                           .
                                                         7 The panel of consultants recommends that tte   il
                                                            of the equipment and books supplied to the
1. The consultants,   having reviewed the progressive                        t
                                                            institute and a present the property of the
   development of the institute during the f r t f v
                                              is i e        Special Fund,shall be transferred to the Govern-
   years, are strongly and unanimously of the                                     o
                                                            ment of Japan or t an agency designated by
   opinion that the institute should,with the assist-       that government immediately on completion
   ance ofthe Governmentof Japan and the United             of the present project.
   Nations Special Fund, embark on an enlarged           8. The consultants note with satisfaction that,
   and deepened programme f r the period of five
                                o                                                            o
                                                            in the event of the proposals f r a new second
   years after the conclusion of the present project                                              s
                                                            phase project not being approved,it i the inten-
   in 1968. This new programme wl be referred
                                     il                                                           o
                                                            tion of the Japanese Government t continue
   t in what follows as ‘TheSecond Phase’.
    o                                                                                       t t
                                                            the operation of the institute a is present level.
2 The consultants recommend that a general
 .                                                          The consultantsassume that this decision implies
   plan for coursesa two levelsbe adopted,namely
                      t                                     the replacement of Unesco experts by equiv-
   a regular course and an advanced course.                 alent additional full-time IISEE staff in order
3. The consultants, recommending theacceptance
                     in                                      o
                                                            t maintain the academic standards of the
   of the second phase project,express the opinion          institute.
   that an increase o full-times a f i the institute
                      f           tf n                   9.The consultants express their great satisfaction
   wl be required,together with some new appa-               t
                                                            a the progress made by the institute in the l sat
   ratus,as well as accommodation and f c l t e for
                                          aiiis            two years.They wish t pay tribute t the devoted
                                                                                   o            o
   research.In particular, as an aid to training of                                     r S.
                                                            service o the Director, D . Omote, and to
   observatory seismologists, the provision of a            the energetic and loyal support given t himo
   teaching seismological observatory is strongly          by his staff, co-operating agencies and by the
   recommended.                                            Unesco experts.