SAMUM Motivation Milestones of SAMUM The SAMUM Consortium

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Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment*                                                                                 Jost Heintzenberg (speaker, IfT) and the
                                                                                                                      SAMUM consortium

                                             • The Sahara is the most important source of desert dust on a global scale
                                             • A contribution of up to 10% of the total globally emitted annual amount of mineral dust has been estimated as anthropogenic
                                                                                                                                   sulfur,       compounds,
                                             • The mixture of mineral matter from soil erosion plus significant contributions of sulfur nitrogen compounds soot from
                                               combustion sources, and particulate matter from the biosphere, is causing a significant impact on the atmospheric radiation
                                               The         it d     d        the i     f th di t di ti d t f i is
                                             • Th magnitude and even th sign of the direct radiative dust forcing i uncertain. It d
                                                                                                                               t i          d     th    ti l        ti    fd t
                                                                                                                                       depends on the optical properties of dust,
                                               its vertical distribution, cloud cover, and the albedo of the underlying surface.
                                                      g                                   g ,            q
                                             • Strong columnar aerosol mass loadings, which are frequently observed over deserts and during long-range transport of dust
                                                                                                               y                                 g    g    g        p
                                               outbreaks, cause warming of layers aloft and thus changes of the atmospheric stability.
                                             • To date no weather model includes any feedback between these strong diabatic heating rates and atmospheric dynamics. A
                                                                                                    –0.5         0.5
                                               magnitude of direct mineral dust forcing of about –0 5 Wm-2 to 0 5 Wm-2 is discussed and thus indicates global significance
                                             • The presence of dust may alter cloudoptical properties by changing the number of cloud condensation or ice nuclei

                                                                      Milestones of SAMUM
• The first phase of SAMUM is dedicated to the understanding of the radiative effects in the source region.
• A first joint field campaign will take place at Quarzazate and Zagora, Morocco in August/September 2005 to create the
  experimental data set of surface and atmospheric columnar information. This data set will provide the base of the first
  thorough columnar radiative closure tests in Saharan dust.
• By the end of the first phase of SAMUM (end of 2006) regional radiative forcing and updated global estimates of climate
  effects of Saharan dust will be provided.
• The second phase will quantify for the first time the radiative effects of the mixed plume of Saharan dust and biomass                           SAMUM 1
  burning aerosols as it leaves the source region.
• For the characterization of the mixed plume a second joint experiment is envisioned on Sal, Cape Verde in spring 2007
  with the hope that CALIPSO then still will be operational. As in the source region, closure efforts will be made in the
  complex aerosol mixture of the polluted dust plume.
• The feedback between diabatic processes and atmospheric dynamics will require major modeling efforts.
• At the end of SAMUM a realistic description of dust related aerosol processes and feedbacks would be provided with            SAMUM 2
  which global scale dust modeling will be improved.

                                                                   The SAMUM Consortium
#                             Research group
                              R        h                                                PI'
                                                                                        PI's                                             Titl
1 Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und          Petzold,                 Airborne in situ and remote sensing studies on the vertical and areal
  Raumfahrt (DLR)                                                              Ehret Schumann
                                                                               Ehret,                   distribution of microphysical and optical properties of Saharan dust
2 Institut für Fernerkundung, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt        Trautmann, Wendisch, Radiative properties of Sahara dust: In-situ aircraft measurements
           Leibniz Institut
  (DLR), Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung Leipzig (IfT)              Heintzenberg         and model calculations
3 Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung Leipzig (IfT)                     Tegen, Heintzenberg,     Regional modeling of the Saharan dust cycle
4 Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung Leipzig (IfT), Institut für       Ansmann, Wiegner         Vertically resolved characterization of Saharan dust based on
  Meteorologie der Universität München                                                                  observations with lidars
5 Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung Leipzig (IfT)                     Heintzenberg,            Aerodynamic, hygroscopic, and optical dust properties
6 Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre der Universität Mainz, Institut für       Jaenicke, Schütz
                                                                               Jaenicke Schütz,         Physico-chemical
                                                                                                        Physico chemical parameters of desert aerosols
  Mineralogie der Technischen Universität Darmstadt                            Weinbruch
7 Institut für Umweltphysik und Fernerkundung der Universität Bremen           Burrows, v.              Dust aerosol REtrievAl from space-borne instruMentS (DREAMS)
8 Laboratoire de Physique de l`Atmosphère, Departement de Physique,            Mohammed Diouri          Columnar optical aerosol properties over Morocco
              Sciences, Oujda, Morocco.
  Faculté des Sciences Oujda Morocco

                       * Funded in part by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

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