Geology seismology by nikeborome

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									                     GEOLOGY

  What is the meaning of geology ?


The meaning of geology is the science which study the
minerals and chemical composition of the earth, issues of earth
and the inner and outer processes which affected it , since its
issue to this day.
                     Geological Branches



A-Pure geology:-
1. -Crystallography .
2. -Mineralogy .
3. Petrology .
4. - Paleontology .
5. -Stratigraphy .
6. -Dynamic geology .
7. -Historical geology .
                                           2
B-Connected Branches:-


1. Geochemistry .
2. Geophysics .
3. Geomorphology .
4. Structural geology .
5. Photo geology .
6. Field geology .
7. Oceanography .
8. Glacial geology .
9. Volcano logy .
10.Cosmic geology .
11. Geodesy .



                          3
C-Applied geology:-

1. Economic geology .
2. Engineering geology .
3. Petroleum geology .
4. Hydrogeology .
5. Mining geology .
6. Agricultural geology .
7. Military geology .




                            4
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GEOLOGY AND OTHER SCIENCES




        1. Physics ----------- Geophysics
        a.     Gravity.
        b.      Magnetic.
        c.      Seismology.
        d.      Electrical.




                                                      5
Biology---------Paleontology (Remaining of Animals and Botanical)


     Chemistry ----------- Geochemistry


           Engineering ---------- Engineering geology




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     HISTORY OF GEOLOGY

1.   Humorous 600 B c                  :-Thinking about the
     shape of Earth and he descript the earth as disc
     surround by water
2.   .Aresto 384-322 B C :-He is provided that the
     Earth is a ball by scientific method . by observation he
     notice the matter collection to the same center .
3.   Herodotus 424-484 B c:-The first scientist who
     noticed the remaining of Botany and Animals on the
     earth crust of mountains which prove that the present
     mountains were oceans surfaces in the deep past.
4.   Khalelo 1546-1642 c :-Pr0vided Earth motion
     around its axis from west to east .
5.   William Smith 1769-1839 c :-He is the first
     scientist whose established stratigraphy and correlation
     by its contents of fossils and drawing a geological map
     for e England in 1845 .
                                                                7
       HISTORY OF GEOLOGY – ARAB SCIENTISTS


1.   Ibin Siena died 1049 :-The first one who
     established the geology and also studied the minerals .
2.   Al Bairony d 1271 :-He described an expensive
     crystals minerals in scientific methods .
3.   Alrazi d 1369 :- Divided the minerals into six groups
     in his book (secrets of the secrets) .
4.   Other scientist such as Jahith Takishkhandy
     Sarkhasy et .




                                                               8
THE SITE OF EARTH WITHIN GALAXY
         (MILKY WAY)
                                  SUN




                                   9
               HYPOTHESIS ISSUES OF EARTH AND GLOBAL SYSTEM

   Since 18th century ,the scientists were beginning searching
    methods about the Astronomy or cosmic geology without
    Church affection.

   1- Buffoon Ht 1707-1788 (France) :- The first scientist whose gave
    idea
   For the source of Earth in his book (Natural the history). The idea is the
    present global system is result from very hard attack between the sun
    and one of big solar mass, then the result were many big masses
    separated swimming in different distances around the sun gravity.

   2-Kants Ht 1755 (German) :-This hypothesis proposed that the
    whole solar system was very much of small solid parts swimming
    in the global system in high speed. This parts collected together
    by gravity with high heating due to attachment between the
    parts which result very hot gases (NEBULA) rotation around
    together in great speed. This conditions give a gas rings and by
    the force out of center which result our sun system.

                                                                             10
3-Nebular OR Lab lass Ht 1796 C( France) :-The solar system in the
beginning were a ( NEBULA) occupied about four sizes of our solar system.
With the time ,there are heating loss ,contraction which result rotation with high
speed around it s axis .at this time the force out of center makes a cycle with
irregular out line which result a big masses named the solar system. later the
contraction of masses due to the continuous cooling and rotation to consist the
solar system.

4-Other hypothesis:-
      a-Planetesimal Ht(Chamberlin-American Geologist and Moulton- Am sc
        1905).
       b-Gaseous Tidal Ht(Jemis and Jeffery 1929).




                                                                           11
        NEW THEORIES IN ORIGIN OF SOLAR SYSTEM

1-The Nuclear Explosions Th 1931:-This Th suggests that a part
    of Global Space was composed of Dense Gases (Protogalaxy).
With time these gases collect together to form ( Nuclear Cells). So at
    same time Great explosions happened for global bodies which
    separated it faraway from its original space and form (Global
    Galaxy). After that the Gases began cooling and space
    reduction with rotation and finally birth new solar Galaxy in
    space before about 13-10 Billion years ,while the Gases
    condensation about 250 million years ago.
2-Great Gas Cloud Th 1942 -1948:-In the beginning the Sun and
    Stars were a Global cloud consist of Gases and dust which
    condensed under stars light pressure, dust and gases gravity
    forces. This conditions lead to Great rotation to form (Primary
    Nucles),The remain clouds stays in the center forming the Sun.
    Later this theory considered that Electromagnetic force played
    as important agent in global system.


                                                                   12
          EVALUATION OF THE EARTH
Since 6 Billions years , the Earth was separated from Sun. So
  by rotation , continuous cooling ,the mass of gas became
  Ball-shape covered by solid crust called ( Earth crust
  ),while the inner of Earth still in Fusion state.
There are four stages at Evaluation of
 Earth :-
1-Anhydric Period:-In this period the elements consists Earth
  differentiated into three zones depend on gravity, rotation of
  Earth,( mass of gases and liquids) as :-
     a-Silicate-Sulfides zone--------Outer part.
     b-Iron- Nickel zone-----------------Middle part.
     c-Earth crust---900-1000 million years cooling time.
2-Oceanic Period( water Basins):-This period of Rains fall due to
  the Temperature changes within about 300- 400 million years.


                                                               13
3-Contraction Period:-A big water Basins such as oceans seas as a result of
continuous cooling for earth crust ,association with mountains building
within about 1000 -1700 million years.
4-Continintal Drift period:-There are many evidence says the Dry part of
earth( CRUST) was connect in the ancient time. By Earth agents (Hypogene
Processes) the crust moves along the fusion zone of Earth which result
sedimentary basins due to the big Oceanic sediment.

    Conclusions:-
      a-The Earth crust and air cover were buildup at first stage.
      b-The water cover was buildup at second stage.
      c-The ancients evidence of life is before 2500 million years.




                                                                      14
                NATURE OF EARTH

A-Dimension of Earth :-
  1-The polar Radius =6357 km .
   2-Equator Radius =6378 km .
   3-Polar Circumference = 6357 km x 2 x 22 ÷ 7 = 40 009 km .
   4-Equator Circumference = 6378 km x 2 x 22 ÷ 7 = 40 077 km .




                                                    Equator
           Polar
           Dimension



                                                                  15
    1                                                             sial
                                                                  sail                                     0C
                           2       5 - 60 km    Crust
4                                                                             Sima
                                 Conrad Discontinuity
    3                            Conrad Discontinuity                                                 870 C
                                                                   Upper M (Asthenosphere)
                                  Moho Discontinuity                Peridotite Rocks
                                 Moho Discontinuity                  Peridotite Rocks
                                   35 2900 km Mantle
                                  35 - -2900 km Mantle
                                                                   Pallasite Rocks (peri+Fe)
                                                                  Pallasite Rocks (peri+Fe)
        Cross section in Earth




                                 Gutenberg Discontinuity
                                 GutenbergDiscontinuity
                                                                         Upper Core
                                                                          Upper Core
                                                                                                 2 200 C
                                                                           Fe = 90%
                                                                           Ni = 10%

                                     2900 - 6370 km
                                   2900 - 6370 km       Core
                                                        Core
                                                                             Lower
                                                                             Core
                                                                                       C . DENSITY=10.7gm /cm3

                                                                                     M . DENSITY=4.53   gm/cm3
                                                                                                             16
                                                        6 000 C                      E . C Density=2.85gm/cm3
1-Atmosphere Cover                     4-Lithosphere Cover

                     EARTH COVERS
2-Hydrosphere Cover                     3-Biosphere Cover
    1-Atmosphere :-This is Air cover surrounding Earth .
     Its thickness about 316 km which consist of :-
     a- N2 about 78% .
     b- O2 about 21% .
     c- Ar  about .093% .
     d- CO2 about .03% .
     e- H2   about .011 .

                  99.124%
    About 35 PPM inactive Gasses such as Neon, Helium and
     Ozone in the Atmosphere .                          17

    .
a-Troposphere Layer                                C-Ionosphere Layer


                   1-ATMOSPHERE COVER
b-Stratosphere Layer                               d- Exosphere Layer

    A-Troposphere layer :-
    1-The lowest layer with elevation about 8- 18 km .
    2-Decreasing 6C every 1 KM rising .
    3-This layer consist of homogenous gases water vapour,co2,dust---
     -


    B-stratosphere :-
    1-The second layer with elevation about 50- 80 km .
    2 The lowest part(50 km)named Ozone .
    3-Layer temperature increase to 35 C with no storm ..
                                                                    18
    4-Atmospheric Pressure 0.5 mm mercury(1/1520) .
C-IONOSPHERE LAYER :-
  1- ITS ELEVATION ABOUT 80 -316 KM .
  2-THE IONIZATION DUE TO THE AFFECTS THE COSMIC AND
ULTRAVIOLENT RAYS,                                   SO IT IS
GOOD CONDUCTOR FOR ELECTRICITY.


   3-MANY OF (METEORS AND METEORITES) ARE BURN WITH TRAFFIC
IN THIS LAYER .
    4-THIS LAYER IS GOOD FOR RADIO AND WIRELESS WAVES .


   D-Exosphere layer :-The highest layer in the Atmosphere
    ,so it beginning to entrance for outer space .
   Meteor:-It is Solid Small masses swimming in the space, but
    when falls on the Earth called (Meteorites).


                                                                  19
                2-HYDROSPHERE COVER


   Hydrosphere consists of Oceans, Seas, Lakes, Rivers
    and Ground Water. The Water of Oceans, Seas
    Contains about 35 gm/ l of different Salts most of
    Sodium Chloride (NaCl).

   The Rivers Water contains about 1 gm/ l Salts.


   Ground water quality depend on the source, host
    Rocks and the migration of the ground waters.




                                                          20
                    3-BIOSPHERE COVER


        Biosphere is not true Cover. It is consist of
   Animals and Botany Creatures which deals with
    Hydrosphere, Atmosphere and the upper part of
    Lithosphere cover.

   Biosphere plays important rule in the difference
    changes on Earth Crust.




                                                         21
                    4-LITHOSPHERE COVER
   The thickness of Lithosphere (Earth Crust) is from 5 km
    in the Oceans to 60 km in the Mountain regions.

   The Wells drilling operations in the Earth Crust still about
    10 km depth.

   Earth Crust consist of Sedimentary, Igneous and
    metamorphic Rocks, covered by Soil in many regions of
    Earth.

   The Soil is a Result of Disintegrate ,Erode of all kinds of
    Rocks with different thickness depend upon many factors.

   The Rocky layers of Earth Crust are found below Soil and
    divided into tow Layers depend on Minerals consist it:-
                                                              22
Sial=Silicone, Aluminium Minerals       Sima=Silicone, Magnesium Minerals

                    Section in Earth Crust


                                                            Sea Level
                                                              S.L


             Sial Layer
             Sial




      Conrad Discontinuity               Moho discontinuity
  M           a          n          t    l           e
                                                                            23
                    SIAL –SIMA LAYER
                     (EARTH CRUST)

   Sial Layer:-It is the upper part of Lithosphere .Its thickness
    between 2-15 km, Density about 2.8gm/cm3 . Sail consist of light
    colours Granitic Rocks9(Aluminum Silicate).
   Sial Layer is thick at Land while it is thin or absent at Oceans.

   Sima Layer:-It is the lower part of Earth Crust. Its thickness
    about 20-25 km, Density about 3.4gm/cm3.Sima consist of
    Magnesium Silicate. The upper part of this layer is Crystalline
    but the lower part is un crystalline(classy texture).

   Conrad Discontinuity:- Interference zone which is separated
    between Sail and Sima

                                                                        24
                       EARTH BOTTOM

   THE Seismology:- is good manner to know consist of Earth
    Bottom.
   Moho (Yugoslavian Scientist):- is the first one who notice
    Difference in Earth Layers by using of Longs and Transverses
    Waves.

   Moho noticed:- Waves behaviour changes at depth about 35km,
    that is means changes in properties of Rocks Called Moho
    Discontinuity.

   Moho Discontinuity:- separated between Earth Crust and
    Mantle at depth between 35-50 km (depends on its position in
    different Continents).

                                                              25
                  EARTH MANTLE

   The information about the Mantle is get by
    Geophysical Methods, since the increasing of
    seismologic Waves speed leading to collection of
    Ferric-Magnesium which is mean dark colour Rocks.
    Mantle thickness is about 2650 km.

   The Scientists were identified two Layers:-

   Upper Layer (Peridotite):-The Density is about 3.4
    gm/cm3 consist of Basic or Ultra basic Igneous Rocks
    with more Dark Colure.

   Lower Layer (Pal26lasite):-It is consist of basic      26
    Minerals and Ferric Metals.
                              EARTH CORE
                            (CENTRO SPHERE)
   The Thickness of Core is about 3600 km. The Core consist of Ferric about
    90%, Nickel about 10%.

   The Scientists collects information about the core of Earth by

   indirect methods that they used seismological waves and Meteor,
    meteorites analysis which fall on Land from Ancient time.

   The analysis of Meteor and Meteorites shows Ferric, Nickel and some
    Chromium and Cobalt Metals.

   So the Earth Magnetic to make a sign for Iron presentation in Earth
    Core. Some Specialists divided Core into:-

   Outer Core which is Fluid.
    Inner Core which is Solid.
                                                                          27
28
                    EARTH CRUST CONSISTS

    The Average of chemical consists of Earth Crust as Weight% are:-
              The Oxygen percentage about 50% .It is not free, but
   O=46.60    chemically Combined with Another Elements to form
   Si=27.7     element oxides. Since Si is at second order, the
               Expectation is SiO2 the most existence ,Then AlO, FeO
    A=l8.10
                CaO and so on. Usually more of Metallic oxide is
    Fe=5.00
                combined with silicon oxide to form Silicate Materials
   Ca=3.60       like Potassium, Aluminum, Silicate(KAl2SiO8) and
   Na=2.80       Magnesium, Silicate(MgSiO3).These minerals are
   K=2.60        Naturally Crystalline with out human made and named

    Mg=2.10
                  (MINERALS).The Minerals are find in Nature as free or
                  Minerals consist Rocks. It issues from Atoms in
    Others=1.5
                  Geometric Arrangement which differentiate Minerals.
 ---------------
    100%                                                            29
      CRYSTALS

   Crystal:-It is Sold body, homogenous chemical compound,
    particular by Crystalline Planes.

   The Minerals are consist Naturally in Earth Crust by
    way of (crystallization).

   Amorphous:-it is no crystalline minerals, unstable chemical
    compound , unstable crystalline building, without
   Chemical formula.



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