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Cabinet - 28 September 2010 - Salix Project

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Cabinet - 28 September 2010 - Salix Project Powered By Docstoc
					Salix Finance:
Project Compliance Tool - version 23:

      Example Project
        Start   Site                      Site life   Project                            Cost     Energy        p/kWh    Technology - Work Type                   Annual kWh   % kWh savings     Financial    Payback in   kg/kWh    tCO2 pa     PF      tCO2 LT       £/tCO2 LT        Compliant
 #                                         (yrs)      description                                  type                                                                                          savings        years
        date    name                                                                                                                                                savings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #          ##                  ##       #####
 1      6/3/10 Civic Centre                 30        Cavity Wall Insulation         £30,000        Gas         2.25     Cavity wall insulation                      296,000       12.0%          £6,660          #          ##       54.46      ##                      18.36          Compliant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #####
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #          ##                  ##

      Client Projects
        Start   Site                      Site life   Project                            Cost     Energy        p/kWh    Technology - Work Type                   Annual kWh   % kWh savings     Financial    Payback in   kg/kWh    tCO2 pa     PF      tCO2 LT       £/tCO2 LT        Compliant
 #
        Date    name                       (yrs)      Description                                  type                                                             savings                      savings        years

 1

 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #
 3      1/9/10 Knowle Green                  15       Quattroseal - whole project    £43,000        gas          2.90    Insulation - draught proofing               304,016        25.0%         £8,816          #        0.184      55.94     9.00      503.45          85.41         Compliant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #
 4

 5

 6

 7

 8

 9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #
Tot                                                                                  £43,000                                                                         304,016                      £8,816                              55.94               503.45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #
                Definitions:
                New feature for V23 - % kWh saved. For V23 we are asking clients to include the % kWhrs they are projecting to save. This is either for the
                equipment they are replacing e.g. lighting upgrade or for the saving that will be given when new equipment is added in e.g. voltage reduction.
                tCO2 pa                 Tonnes CO2 saving per annum                 PF          Persistence factor                                               tCO2 LT       Tonnes CO2 savings life time                         £/tCO2 LT          Cost (£) per tonne CO2 saving life time
                                                              Technical Support Notes
Project type                                                                                            New PF Added & work type Ref
Introduction
The main aim of these technical support notes is to help give clients some guidance on the more recent technologies that have been added to the list,
including where appropriate, an expansion of the definition and/or an explanation of how the persistence factor (PF) has been derived.

Restrictions in the benefits of some technologies may also be covered, and in some cases, restrictions on using the compliance tool may also be raised
especially where multiple fuels savings are the norm. In this case we would recommend that the client use SERS (existing clients) or alternative
calculations to recognised methodologies.
Boilers
Boilers                          Boilers - control systems                                               7.92 V0, Aug 06
Originally recorded as sequence controls. Boiler sequence controls to be used where multiple boiler control is being considered.

Controls systems could also waste far more than 20% energy, but because their raison d‟etre is to operate plant optimally and save energy, they are not
likely to be permitted to deteriorate to such an extent that they are obviously wasting energy. No distinction made in PFs for ECA approved controls.

Boilers                           Boilers - replacement condensing                                     16.70 V0 Aug 06, GPG312
A condensing boiler is a boiler that makes use of a secondary heat exchanger to capture residual heat in the flue gas to heat the cooler returning water
stream. They are designed to recover heat energy that would normally have been discharged as waste through the flue and often achieve higher
efficiencies than single heat exchanger standard boilers.
Boilers                           Boilers - replacement combination                                     8.40 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
A combination boiler is a boiler that combines central heating and domestic hot water (DHW) provision from a single boiler without the need for a
separate hot water storage tank or calorifier. They are most common in the domestic arena and often serve small to medium sized applications. They
provide power to instantly supply space heating or DHW as required.
Boilers                          Boilers - replacement modular                                            12.50 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
A modular boiler is an assembly of two or more similar (but not necessarily identical) boiler modules, each with their own heat exchanger, burner, and
control and safety devices. The assembly has common water feed and return connections, but the water flow to, and flow from each module is
independently controlled.
Boilers                          Boilers - burner management                                                7.92    V21, UoGlasgow
This is considered the same as for boiler controls, but usually fewer user settings.
Boilers                          Boilers - retrofit economiser                                               12.50 V23, Kings Hospital - QPF0415PC
A boiler economiser is a heat exchanger fitted in the boiler flue that allows additional heat to be recovered. This can be used to preheat make-up water
on steam systems or return water on low temperature hot water systems. In multiple boiler installations an economiser can serve more than one boiler
depending on the configaration of the boilers and existing flue arrangements.

No exact match for this type of flue heat recovery system was found in the current Salix or CT PF models or in the CIBSE Guide M, but there are several
analogous systems in the CT PF model. For example, the CT model includes Process Heating & Cooling: Heat Recovery (PF 12.5), space heating: heat
recovery (PF 12.5), Air Conditioning: Heat Recovery (PF 11.9), Building Services Distribution Systems: Steam traps (PF 8.4), Building Services
Distribution Systems: Heat exchangers water/water (PF 12.5). This latter appears to be the closest parallel to the Boiler Economiser described

The type of economiser used should be stainless steel including the heat exchange medium (other metals would have a significantly shorter life), and that
it is fitted to the flue. An assumption has been made that the associated induction fan(s) will be maintained / replaced as required as part of normal
maintenance as they are likely to have a shorter operating life than the economiser itself. There will be an overriding factor on the life of the economiser,
which is the life of the boiler itself - it is assumed any economiser will be replaced at the same time as the boiler.

On the basis of these assumptions, the economic life is 15, with an inherent degradation factor of 95% and an operational degradation factor of 88%,
giving a PF of 12.5. These may be slightly conservative but highly dependent on the grade of the stainless steel medium and water quality for the level of
corrosion and calcification and frequency / efficiency of maintenance.


Building management systems
Building management systems BEMS - bureau remotely managed                                                9.00 V18E Jun 07
Building management systems allow reduction in staffing levels and remote identification of prevailing conditions and alarms.

Savings should be based on both a reduction in heating e.g. gas and a reduction in pumps / motors etc e.g. electricity. When entering on SERS the
multiple work type option can be used.

The PF assumes that bureau will continuously maintain the BMS system and sensors at optimum working performance with no operational degradation.
Software upgrades are included in operational degradation.
Building management systems BEMS - not remotely managed                                                   7.90 V0 Aug 06 GPG312
Building management systems allow reduction in staffing levels and remote identification of prevailing conditions and alarms.

Savings should be based on both a reduction in heating e.g. Gas and a reduction in pumps / motors etc e.g. Electricity. When entering on SERS the
multiple work type option can be used.

The PF assumes the same technology life as for bureau, but less skilled maintenance so 88% operational degradation.
Building management systems BEMS - remotely managed                                                       8.30 V0 Aug 06 GPG312
Building management systems allow reduction in staffing levels and remote identification of prevailing conditions and alarms.

Savings should be based on both a reduction in heating e.g. Gas and a reduction in pumps / motors etc e.g. Electricity. When entering on SERS the
multiple work type option can be used.

The PF assumes a 6 monthly check; maintained by skilled staff : therefore operational degradation is 92%. Includes software upgrades.
Combined heat & power
Under the previous persistence factors where combined heat & power (CHP) was only 3.9, successful CHP projects needed 95% utilisation for 17 hours
a day, 7 days a week.

Under the new persistence factors, we believe there is far more scope for CHP to be considered - with applications where a swimming pool is involved
still considered the most viable. The key issue remains how to make use of the low grade heat especially during the summer months.

Three types of CHP solution are now listed with the traditional one being the 'Gas, Diesel, Gasoil Engine' followed by Biomass & Gas Turbine with both
these supported with further information.

As the calculation requires both an electrical saving and a gas consumption we would recommend that a proper business case to a recognised
Combined heat undertaken. In addition when entering on SERS the multiple work type options can be used.
methodology be& power             Gas, Diesel, gasoil engine CHP                                      17.60 V0 Aug 06 GPG312
Traditional CHP solution.
Combined heat & power           Biomass CHP                                                                 8.80   V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
The main conversion process for Biomass CHP is direct combustion or gasification.

Direct combustion is where biomass is combusted in a boiler to directly produce steam. The steam is then used in a steam turbine with a generator to
produce electricity. Heat can be recovered from the condenser, steam taken directly from the boiler or a bleed line from the steam turbine.

Gasification turn the biomass to a gas, this is referred to a producer gas or syngas depending on the temperature of conversion. The gas can then be
used in a spark ignition engine or gas turbine to generate electricity. Heat can then be recovered from the exhaust gas and the engine cooling circuit.
Note that Gasification covers a number of sub technologies e.g. updraft gasifier, fluidized bed etc.

There are other technologies that can be used with Biomass combustion, for example Stirling engines and the Organic Rankine Cycle.

Any project is likely to be very specific and would require an individual assessment as Biomass CHP is currently not an off the shelf package and in some
cases still at the late stages of development. Key problems are the fuel supply contract and fuel specification to meet equipment manufactures
guarantees.

The selection of technology would again be dependent on the site as each site will have different heat and power demands and each manufactures
equipment has different power to heat ratios hence payback will also be site specific and need to be assessed on a case by case basis e.g. will the site
be buying biomass or do they have a waste wood supply at no cost.

Fully commercial systems with contractual guarantees are currently few and far between in the UK.
Combined heat & power             Gas Turbine                                                          13.20 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
Gas turbines are an end-use technology used to convert a flammable gas to rotational mechanical energy and heat. Gas turbines can be used with
natural gas or synthetic gas and can vary in size from micro turbines <100kW to large turbine > 100MW.

Payback will be site specific and dependent on the application, energy costs and a constant demand for heat.
Micro turbines are used in applications such as large hotels, leisure centres with swimming pools and greenhouses.

Payback will be site specific and dependent on the application, energy costs and a constant demand for heat. However under current market conditions
payback periods in most applications would be from 4 years upwards.
Compressor
Compressor                        Compressed Air: air compressor upgrade                               16.72 V18E Jun07
We consider this to be relevant to HE sector with Science & Engineering Depts. Typical examples are the use of low loss high efficiency air
compressors, air receivers to reduce compressor cycling.

The new PF is based on Pumps CIBSE life of 20 years. There is considered to be no deterioration. The flow may be slightly impeded by corrosion on
the internal surfaces. Operational degradation is 88%.
Computers & IT solutions
Computers & IT solutions       Network PC power management                                              5.00       V18E Jun07
The new PF is based on Energy Star computers, printers & office equipment - 5 year life no degradation.
Computers & IT solutions          CRT to flat screen LCD                                                   5.00 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is passive and creates images on a flat surface by shining light through a combination of liquid crystals and polarised glass,
whereas CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) displays have beams of electrons projected through a large glass tube to create images.

The main advantages of LCD over CRT are lower power consumption and less heat generation. The latest generation of LCD monitors is now equal to,
or better than, CRT specifications in terms of luminance, viewing angle, aliasing, brightness, etc.

LCD monitors use, on average, 50% to 70% less energy in on-mode than conventional CRT monitors. A recent LBNL study* on new monitors and
personal computers reports that, in their sample, 15" LCD monitors consume 30% as much power when on as 15" CRTs; and 17" LCDs consume 51%
as much power when on as 17" CRTs.

The new PF is based on Energy Star computers, printers & office equipment - 5 year life no degradation.

* LBNL stands for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. They are a US Department of Energy Laboratory based at the University of California. This
shows that the results obtained are likely to be reliable. The study was conducted on "Energy Use and Power Levels in New Monitors and Personal
Computers". Part of this was to compare the power of CRT and LCD screens when switched on.

The link to the full study is http://enduse.lbl.gov/Info/LBNL-48581.pdf
Computers & IT solutions          Virtualisation                                                           5.00 V21 Nov 08
Virtualisation is a means of consolidating to fewer, higher-performing servers. This approach not only reduces the amount of equipment needed, but also
lowers power consumption, cooling requirements and data centre square footage. This can be employed to get as much performance per watt as
possible from the server hardware.

Virtualisation is achieved by partitioning one physical server computer into multiple “virtual” servers, giving each the appearance and capabilities of
running on its own dedicated machine. This allows multiple applications and operating systems to be independently run on a single server. Additionally,
administrators can quickly move workloads from one virtual workspace to another - easily prioritising business needs while maximising server resources.
Each virtual server functions as a fully-fledged server and can be independently rebooted.

The new PF is based on Energy Star computers, printers & office equipment - 5 year life no degradation.
Computers & IT solutions            Thin computers                                                            5.00 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
A thin client is a client computer or client software in client-server architecture networks which depends primarily on the central server for processing
activities and mainly focuses on conveying input and output between the user and the remote server. This contrasts to a thick client, which does as much
processing as possible and passes only data for communications and storage to the server.

The new PF is based on Energy Star computers, printers & office equipment - 5 year life no degradation.
Cooling
Cooling                              Cooling - plant replacement/upgrade                                     15.80 V15 Feb 07
We consider this technology to have limited applications - probably relevant to the HE sector with Science & Engineering Depts and NHS sector where
there is often the need for a lot of cooling. Originally recorded as 'Chilling - plant replacement upgrade' but renamed in V15 - Feb 07.

The new PF is based on in the case of air conditioning we have a single category for air conditioning and then a subcategory for the equipment which
makes it up: chillers condensers, evaporators, cooling towers, distribution systems, fans, free cooling, heat recovery, controls, and insulation. It is difficult
to allocate an energy saving technology or technique to this. Based on CIBSE lives, stainless steel types of wet tower will last 30 years while other
materials such as GRP or galvanised steel will only last 12 years. Dry condensers have a 20 year life. There will be significant inherent deterioration due
to scale or corrosion at heat transfer surfaces in places difficult for maintenance to rectify. This is assumed to result in an overall 20% performance loss at
end of life. Operational degradation is planned or controls maintenance.
Cooling                            Free cooling                                                               60.00 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
Free cooling is where you utilise the low outside air temperature for chilling water in your process or air conditioning, rather than part or all of your air-
cooled chiller plant.

PF is based on CIBSE lives of a building air conditioning system (compressor and dry condenser) with 20 years assigned. However these could
potentially be broken into three classes.
i. Those that exploit thermal mass such as earth tubes and night cooling could be considered longer lasting and more reliable.
ii. Those based on ambient air dry bulb temperature could actually reduce compressor use and enhance its life.
iii. Those based on the difference of ambient air wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures are likely to involve introduction of moisture to metal and therefore
will suffer failure modes related to corrosion.
There will be inherent deterioration due to scale or corrosion in places difficult for maintenance to rectify. We assume a 20% deterioration at end of life.
Operational degradation is planned or controls maintenance.
Cooling                           Replacement of air conditioning with evaporative cooling               15.84 V20 Jul 08
The new PF is based on - evaporator systems, earth coupled systems (earth tubes), compressor bypass, adiabatic cooling, night cooling, desiccant
cooling, heat recovery ...Based on CIBSE lives of a building air conditioning system (compressor and dry condenser), we have assigned 20 years. Those
that exploit thermal mass such as earth tubes and night cooling could be considered longer lasting and more reliable.
Hand driers
Hand driers                    Hand driers - replacement to more efficient type                                 4.18    V22 Aug 09 - wording change
The work type wording has been corrected in Version 22 to make it more supplier neutral
Energy from waste
Energy from waste                Anaerobic digestion                                                 17.60 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
Generally, waste that has a water content of > 70% (e.g. Animal wastes/sewage sludge/biodegradable wastes) will use an aqueous process such as
anaerobic digestion.

Historically in the UK, Anaerobic digestion (AD) has mainly been used at water treatment works with sewage sludge as it reduces the volume of waste.
Different applications are being developed, such as the treatment of food waste from households and biodegradable waste from supermarkets. The
composition of the waste stream needs to be within set limits and fed to the digester at a constant rate to achieve reliable results. The intermediary
product from AD is methane gas, this can be used in a spark ignition engine or gas turbine. A proportion of the heat that is generated is used to keep the
digester at a constant temperature.

Use of AD other than on sewage sludge / industrial waste is still at early commercial stages and very few plants have been built / are operational in the
UK. Payback will be dependent on local factors and is likely to take longer than 5 years.

A feasibility study carried out in North America on anaerobic digesters concluded that the payback period ranges from 5 to 16 years when operated under
optimum and worst conditions.
Energy from waste                   Incineration                                                            17.60 V0 Aug 06
While not a typical Salix project this is considered an established technology with no further explanation provided.
Heating                            Electric to Gas - heating using CHP                                     17.60 V22, UoEdinburgh QQFP-0192-PS
This work type is given when a client is moving from an existing electric heating system to a conventional wet type. In this case the heating supply is
from an existing district heating CHP scheme.

In this context the predominant energy saving activity is the change from the combination of electric convectors or panel heating system with
supplementary gas heaters under occupant control to a LPHW system connected to a fully monitored and controlled gas fired CHP system. Since the
CHP system is the dominant technology the appropriate PF is 17.6, as shown for gas CHP systems. The steel panel radiators are a subsidiary
component of the system, and as such will require maintenance and replacement as and when, but the PF is governed by the system level assessment.

As the calculation requires both an electrical saving and a gas consumption we would recommend using SERS or an alternative calculation to that of the
Project Compliance Tool. The efficiency of the gas engine or boiler should also form part of the calculation.

Heating                            Electric to Gas - heating using condensing boilers                           16.70   V22, UoEdinburgh QQFP-0192-PS
Evaluation completed at the same time as the above work type and in this case the heating supply is from a new or nearly new condensing boiler.

In this context the predominant energy saving activity is the change from the combination of electric convectors or panel heating system with
supplementary gas heaters under occupant control to a LPHW system connected to a fully monitored and controlled condensing boiler. Since the boiler
system is the dominant technology the appropriate PF is 16.7, as shown for replacement condensing. The steel panel radiators are a subsidiary
component of the system, and as such will require maintenance and replacement as and when, but the PF is governed by the system level assessment.

As the calculation requires both an electrical saving and a gas consumption we would recommend using SERS or an alternative calculation to that of the
Project Compliance Tool. The efficiency of the gas engine or boiler should also form part of the calculation.

Heating                            Electric to Gas - tumble driers                                       8.40 V22 Aug 09- wording change
The original 'Heating - replace electric with gas' V0 - Aug 06 has now been segmented as set out above to allow more appropriate PFs for wet heating
systems. Therefore the third and original application - tumble driers has now its own work type.

As the calculation requires both an electrical saving and a gas consumption we would recommend using SERS or an alternative calculation to that of the
Project Compliance Tool.
Heating                          Heat recovery                                                         11.88 V0 Aug 06 GPG312
We consider that this work type should be more generalised than for just swimming pools. As an example, hospitals can have operating theatres that
use 100% fresh air make up and can, therefore, benefit from using heat recovery systems that recover heat from the exhaust air stream.

Heating                          Heating - controls in leisure centres / swimming pools                         8.28 V15 Feb 07
We consider the concept here is that if the controls fail or fall out of calibration the public would complain and hence the systems would be repaired in a
timely manner. Most of these facilities will have ready access to maintenance staff who can carry out these changes. That is why the PF is higher than
say a school where they would just open some windows.

The new PF therefore assumes better system maintenance by skilled staff so 92% operational degradation instead of 88% for normal controls.
Heating                         Heating - direct fired system                                             8.40 V1 Aug 06
We consider this as replacement of "wet systems" with direct fired warm air blowers or overhead gas fired radiant systems.

The new PF assumes gas radiant heating & controls.
Heating                            Heating - discrete controls                                             7.04 V5 Sept 07
We consider discrete controls as those that are 'stand alone' and not linked into any type of network. An example of a discrete control is a heating
controller in a house. Essentially, these are 'non BMS' type controls.

The new PF therefore assumes that it is not linked to any control systems: 80% inherent degradation as more prone to mismanagement.
Heating                          Heating - distribution improvements                                   18.00 V15 Feb 07
We consider this as preventing overheating due to poorly balanced systems, revising pipework to generate new heating zones, improving the balance of
air based HVAC systems.

The new PF assumes CIBSE 20 years service life; 90% inherent degradation factor; 100% operational factor.
Heating                              Oil to Gas - boiler fuel switching                                       7.92 V22, UniCFalmouth QPF-0337-DM
The principal element for the conversion of an existing boiler running on oil to running on gas is the replacement of the burners with those suitable for the
different fuel type. The fuel supply system will of course need replacement and the boiler set-up for running on the different fuel. Any energy efficiency
gains will be marginal; the chief benefits being lower maintenance costs with gas as it is a cleaner fuel, reduced carbon emissions as gas is less 'carbon-
intensive' than oil fuels, and fuel cost savings depending on the relative prices of the oil and gas.

It can be argued that the persistence factor will in part be dictated by the remaining serviceable life of the boiler as a whole. However, burner
replacement rather that whole boiler replacement will only be economic if the existing boiler is in good condition with significant remaining life.
Furthermore we can presume that at the time of the conversion, the boiler is also given a thorough service/overhaul including cleaning of heat-transfer
surfaces.
Heating                            Thermal Stores                                                              18.00 V22, UoWarwick QPF-0312-DM
The idea behind this technology is to stockpile surplus heat from a typical CHP system during off-peak times, which can then be released during peak
times.

The thermal stores work by storing surplus heat from the CHP system in large water vessels, which is then released during peak times. When there is
less demand for heat, the surplus heat will be stored by charging up large vessels of water. Then during peak times, the heat can be used to provide
heating for buildings, as well as hot water for washing and showers.

The detailed persistence factor model includes an entry for DHWS Calorifier (Building Related Technologies-Building Services Distribution Systems)
with a life of 20 years based on indicative life expectancy factors given in CIBSE guide M, Appendix 13.A1. The inherent degradation factor is 90%, this
appears to have been applied because of calcification, the operational degradation factor is 100%. This gives a Persistence Factor of 18.0.
Heating                           Replace steam calorifier with plate heat exchanger                        18.00   V22, Addenbrookes ABC-151-PS
The replacement of old calorifier technology with new plate heater exchanger technology can give savings in 3 areas:
i. Reduced heat loss from the appliance;
ii. Improved control;
iii. Improved efficiency of energy conversion in the heat exchanger.
Heating                             Heating - TRVs                                                             7.92 V0 Aug 06 GPG312
Thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs) are available for supply as manually operated or with tamper-proof options. Tamper proof TRVs would be the
recommended choice in a non residential building. They would be set to the desired level during commissioning and then locked to avoid tampering by
occupants. Tamper proof TRVs could be adjusted at a later date by the facility's management as required. It is also possible to provide TRVs with a
limited level of control to the occupants (i.e. the occupants can adjust the valve setting but only by a small temperature variation from the set level).

In a non-residential building tamper proof TRVs would be preferable as they also allow the heating system to operate more efficiently without creating
such uneven distribution of loads on the radiators within a room or heating zone. This results in greater consistency and predictability of operation,
meaning that the building management system will operate closer in tune with the desired levels of control and increasing boiler plant efficiency. This
also results in more occupants being comfortable more of the time.

This new PF assumes fixed setting devices with no user controls.
Heating                          Heating - zone control valves                                                 13.50    V0 Aug 06 GPG312
Only motor driven zone control valves to be considered.

We see this as being applicable to both 'wet' heating systems and 'dry' HVAC systems. More usually it applies to wet systems such as in schools where
the whole school has to be heated just because a few classrooms are holding night school classes.

The new PF is based on 16 year CIBSE life: 90% inherent deterioration; 88% operational degradation.
Hot water
Hot water                         Hot Water - distribution improvements                                        18.00    V1 Aug 06
As per heating distribution improvements.
Hot water                         Hot Water - point of use heaters                                              9.50    V0 Aug 06 GPG312
Point of use water heaters to avoid long runs of distribution pipework.

The new PF is based on 13 year CIBSE life: 90% inherent degradation; 88% operational degradation.
Industrial kitchen equipment
Industrial kitchen equipment      Steriliser to dishwasher replacement                                      10.80 V20 Jul08, Warwickshire CoC
There is no readily related Carbon Trust persistence factor for dishwashers. The closest fit is Building Related Technologies; Operation & Maintenance;
Maintenance issues; Machines and Maintenance.

The new PF is based on 13 year life CIBSE electrical water heaters; inherent degradation 90%; operational degradation 0%.
Insulation
Further work types have been added in this section to support draught lobby options.
Insulation                         Radiator reflective foil (external walls)                           8.00             V0 Aug 06 GPG312
The PF assumes a 10 year life (no reference); inherent degradation 80% and no operational degradation.
Insulation                         Automatic/revolving doors                                           18.00            V22, Brent QPF-0218-MR
Similar to Draft Lobby with - see axplanation below.
Insulation                         Automatic speed doors                                                  6.00 V23, Carmarthenshire QPF-0378-RS
The proposal was to infill two openings (approximate size 4.5 x 4m each) with high speed roller automatic doors. These offer automated, high speed
opening and shutting, and thereby reduce heat loss and save energy. They also offer improved security and more comfortable working conditions. The
door is constructed of multilayer PVC and textile. The doors comply with PR EN 12453 and PR EN 12444 in respect of power operated doors - safety
operation. This is a well established technology with many competing manufacturers.

The nearest equivalent estimate of service life was found in the Building Life Plans database. This gives fast action traffic doors a service life estimate of
10 years, provided the frame is sufficiently robust and of galvanised steel. Various different specifications are provided, but all entail a flexible material, as
does this proposal. This estimate is dependent on annual inspection and maintenance of subsidiary components (such as maintenance of electric motor).
Neither CIBSE nor RICS have any similar specification with a published service life estimate. The description in this case would be "Replace openings
and/or manually operated doors with high speed fabric automatic industrial traffic doors". The PF for the doors would be Service Life 10 x Inherent
Degradation 60% x Operational Degradation 100% = PF 6. The 60% operational degradation is based on the degradation of close fit and seals during
operation and on the degradation of the fabric door. It is a fairly cautious (pessimistic) estimate. It is likely that the doors would continue to function
satisfactorily beyond this period, but energy savings would be reduced.

Energy savings would vary depending on factors such as whether the high speed door replaced an opening or a manual door (leading to varying
reductions in heat lost) and on typical operating hours of the facility and differential temperatures, wind speeds etc. It appears likely that the operating
costs in the business case provided with this query are an under-estimate, and this may affect the specific payback calculation. The supplier may be able
to provide a typical annual maintenance inspection and repair cost. Note that metal industrial shutter doors have a higher service life( typically 20 - 25
years) and therefore would be a separate category for PF.
Insulation                         Draught Lobby (internal)                                                     17.10 V22, Brent QPF-0218-MR
In principle, the nearest equivalent persistence factor appears to be "secondary glazing" with a persistence factor of 7.92. This is derived from a service
life of 8 years (based on Building Life Plans (BLP) service life for draught proofing and/or retrofit single glazed units (SGU's)) and an operational
degradation factor of 90%.

However, this would be an inappropriate service life starting point for a solution which includes permanent installation of a new lobby. But also an
optimistic degradation factor to cover the heat losses due to opening of the door, risk of it being jammed open, gradual deterioration of seals etc. The
principle is similar, and therefore it should be admissible as a carbon saving investment. However assessment of service life starting point would
probably be closer to 30 years (typical SL for entrance / exit door and frame). It may be preferable to assess the risk of heat losses during use better by
the assessment of the carbon saving potential than through use of an operational degradation factor. If the PF methodology is to be used for this it would
have to be a significant reduction, in the order of 30 or 40% to cover the risk.
Insulation                      Draught Lobby (external)                                                 14.25 V22, Brent QPF-0218-MR
Evaluation completed at the same time as for the above with a further decrease due to it being an external solution.
Insulation - building fabric
Insulation - building fabric    Cavity wall insulation                                                    60.00 V0 Aug 06 GPG312
The Persistence Factor Model predicts 60 years, but a truer PF is more based on building lifetime as insulation lasts until building demolished.

Clients are therefore asked to give careful consideration to selecting lifetime of building for this technology in particular.
Insulation - building fabric        Dry wall lining                                                           35.00 V22, UoEdinburgh QPF-0184-PS
For this work type a check was made on the "insured lives" for wall and ceiling linings in the Building Life Plans (BLP) database - which is the appropriate
source of published service lives for building fabric components of this type. This indicates that subject to appropriate installation an insured life is
expected of between 30 and 35 years, with an adjustment factor of +10 years if a plasterboard skim is provided. This is on the assumption that the
proposed dry lining is of an insulation backed plasterboard. However, it should be noted that the BLP insured lives are described as cautious, and that in
practice a greater service life would be expected in this case for new build installation (say 60 years). In the case of a refurbished building of this age
(1970's) however, the refurbishment would be expected to have a service life of no more than 35 years, and therefore this is taken as the defining
reference service life - as the insulation would not be expected to be retained at any future refurbishment or at the end of the building life.

Insulation - building fabric   Loft insulation                                                         27.00 V0 Aug 06 GPG312
The new PF assumes 30 years lifetime due to accessibility; 90% inherent degradation; no operational degradation.
Insulation - building fabric      Double glazing new frames & single glazing units - metal or plastics 24.00 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
The PF assumes heat loss through windows accelerates as the seals break down and could lead to an open-ended deterioration due to cold air
infiltration and heated air loss.
Insulation - building fabric      Double glazing new frames & single glazing units - wood              12.00 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
The PF assumes 16 year life based on Building Life Plan for wooden frames; 80% inherent degradation; no operational degradation.
Insulation - building fabric    Retrofit single glazing units                                         8.00           V21, Atkins PF review
The PF assumes 11 year life based on BLP figures; 80% inherent degradation; no operational degradation.
Insulation - building fabric   Roof insulation                                                            24.30 V0 Aug 06 GPG312
The PF based on non-accessible flat roof insulation - 30 year life (no reference); 90% inherent degradation; 90% operational degradation.
Insulation - building fabric    Solar film                                                            24.00 V21 Nov 08, Torbay DC
The PF assumes 11 year life based on Building Life Plan figures; 80% inherent degradation; 92% operational degradation.
Insulation - building fabric      Secondary glazing                                                 7.92 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
The PF assumes heat loss through windows accelerates as the seals break down and could lead to an open-ended deterioration due to cold air
infiltration and heated air loss.
Insulation - draught proofing
Insulation - draught proofing   Insulation - draught proofing                                                9.00    V0 Aug 06 GPG312
The new PF is based on Building Life Plans.
Insulation - pipework
The number of work types was expanded in V21 to cater for external applications as well as cooling.
Insulation - pipework               Heating pipework insulation (internal)                                   22.50   V0 Aug 06 GPG312
For clarity, pipework insulation also includes insulation for valves and flanges.

The new PF is based on the fact that if pipe insulation was in such a poor state that it was missing from as much as 20% of the pipework and pipe fittings,
it would be readily apparent that it required attention and would be an obvious place for maintenance and energy investment.
Insulation - pipework               Heating pipework insulation (external)                                   9.00    V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
For clarity, pipework insulation also includes insulation for valves and flanges.

The new PF is based on the fact that If pipe insulation was in such a poor state that it was missing from as much as 20% of the pipework and pipe
fittings, it would be readily apparent that it required attention and would be an obvious place for maintenance and energy investment.
Insulation - pipework               Cooling pipework insulation (internal)                                   22.50   V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
For clarity, pipework insulation also includes insulation for valves and flanges.

The new PF is based on the fact that if pipe insulation was in such a poor state that it was missing from as much as 20% of the pipework and pipe fittings,
it would be readily apparent that it required attention and would be an obvious place for maintenance and energy investment.
Insulation - pipework               Cooling pipework insulation (external)                                   9.00    V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
For clarity, pipework insulation also includes insulation for valves and flanges.

The new PF is based on the fact that If pipe insulation was in such a poor state that it was missing from as much as 20% of the pipework and pipe
fittings, it would be readily apparent that it required attention and would be an obvious place for maintenance and energy investment.
Lighting controls
Lighting controls                 Lighting - discrete controls                                                 10.30 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
Under the new PF evaluation, it is presumed that even good local controls can be over-ridden so, in place of „tamper proof‟ controls, a modern control
system should revert to „auto‟ automatically and if it is set up correctly should not cause the user to wish to override it; dimming will be gradual and
presence detection more reliable. Safety is the only reason that controls should be tampered with by local users.

The new PF is based on less than luminaire life: 15 years. If ballasts are replaced in the course of the installation of lighting controls then ballasts will
dominate the saving and lifetime of the measure. There is assumed to be no inherent deterioration of the performance of ballasts, although the so-called
maintenance factor is used by designers to capture the diminution of light output of the lamps with age, they design in some initial over illumination to
compensate and the energy consumption is the same. Operational degradation is based on Controls Maintenance.

Lighting controls                     Lighting control system centralised                                     11.88 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
A computerised central lighting control system can make use of pre-programmed 'scenes' that configure the lighting levels in different areas for a
particular activity or daylight level or occupancy status in the energy efficient manner. It should also be able to control for time, presence and daylight.
This system should only be manually overridden from a safety perspective. A centrally controlled system will be able to identify and rectify faults quickly
and efficiently.

The PF is based on CIBSE electronic controls in general: 15 years. Controls are assumed to exhibit inherent degradation through sensor drift, and
undetected electronic failure down to 80% of their initial performance level. However, a centralised system will be more likely to be rectified when it
malfunctions and will be more flexible in adapting to changes of use. Operational degradation is based on Controls Maintenance.
Lighting upgrades
The number of work types had been expanded for lighting upgrades in V21 and due to continued client interest and developments with this technology,
further segmentation has taken place giving Street lighting, LED lighting and Traffic lights their own project types.

In addition, Salix has relaxed its position on accounting for capital so clients can now decide whether they wish to undertake lighting projects where the
same fitting can be utilised.
Lighting upgrades                  Electronic ballast with dimming control                                  13.20 V22, Oxford CiC QPF-0230-SM
This work type is to support the use of an electronic capsule (ballast) to replace an existing magnetic capsule, and it also incorporates dimming capability.

This allows energy saving through using the improved lumen maintenance and dropping lamp wattage from 400W to 350W. As such the technology is
fundamentally "Lighting upgrade - change of ballast from magnetic to electronic with dimming control" but we have shortened it to fit on the Project
Compliance Tool and SERS.

The persistence factors model covers very similar technology under lighting controls (ballasts + PIR and/or day lighting dimming on/off). The life is 15,
the inherent degradation is 100%, the operational degradation is 88% (controls maintenance) giving a PF of 13.2. It is noted that the original CT PF
report includes this as a specific technology (page 30) and gives the following note "No deterioration of the performance of ballasts – although the so-
called maintenance factor is used by designers to capture the diminution of light output of the lamps with age, they design in some initial over illumination
to compensate and the energy consumption is the same."

Lighting upgrades                    Replace halogen with HID metal halide                                  20.00 V22, UoBirmingham QPF0249-PS
This work type concerns changing from halogen uplighters to ceramic halide lamps. There are two cases:
i. Where the replacement lamp is a ceramic metal halide lamp (HCI - TC type) with fitting and control gear also changed;
ii. Where a ceramic discharge lamp (CDMT type) replaces the existing fitting. Since CDMT lamps require specialist fittings it is assumed that the
existing fittings are suitable and that adequate enclosure for the lamps is provided and therefore no adjustment has been made for adaptors.

The generic persistence factor technology is that of lighting upgrades, but none of the previous descriptions fitted this situation. Note that this excludes
mercury vapour or sodium lamps. The service life will depend on usage conditions, but generally these lamps appear to share the improved
maintenance characteristics of other high efficiency lamps, and therefore the PF of 20 is assumed (as per compact fluorescent lamps). Both degradation
factors are 100% as per PF assessment of high efficiency luminaire / lamp.
Lighting upgrades                Compact Fluorescent including changing the fitting                         20.00   V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
This is considered an established technology with no further explanation provided.
Lighting upgrades                Compact Fluorescent using same fitting                                     20.00   V22 Salix relaxation
No change to fitting and 50% of new fitting life time assumed.
Lighting upgrades                Induction Fluorescent including changing the fitting                       20.00   V23, UoWinchester QPF-0543-PS
The category should be: “Lighting Upgrades: Induction fluorescent including changing the fitting”

PF should be 20 (life 20 years, 100% degradation factors for both inherent and operational degradation). Same as for high efficiency compact fluorescent
lamps.

The rationale is as for QPF – 0249-PS in July 09, which was on metal ceramic halide lighting upgrade. The technology appears to be similar to
fluorescents, but with improved performance towards the end of life.
Lighting upgrades                 T5 lighting including changing the fitting                            20.00 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
This is considered an established technology with no further explanation provided.
Lighting upgrades                T5 lighting retrofit using adaptors                                        10.00   V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
This is considered an established technology with no further explanation provided.
Lighting upgrades                T8 lighting including changing the fitting                                 20.00   V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
This is considered an established technology with no further explanation provided.
Lighting upgrades                T8 lighting retrofit using adaptors                                        10.00   V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
This is considered an established technology with no further explanation provided.
LED lighting
With increased interest in this area of technology (predominately still for external display applications and replacing halogen or equivalent spots), LED
lighting has now been given it own project type. The following eight work types support the different options available.

It should be noted that not all LEDs will deliver the same quality of light and that clients should undertake their own thorough product testing before
selecting final solution.
LED lighting                       Halogen to LED including changing the fitting                           25.00 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
The PF for LED lighting originally assumed a service life of 30 years with degradation of 100%.

However on further assessment Atkins now advise that this appears somewhat optimistic. The lamps will perform longer than CFL equivalents
but they are more expensive to replace when they require it. Since the CT and Salix assessments are based on both the PF and the economic
assessment of carbon saving the PF should reflect, but not duplicate, the economic issues dealt with elsewhere in the evaluation. They therefore
propose a useful life of say 25 years for internal use (reflecting the assessment for CFL‟s used internally for 20 years) or 20 (for external use). This
represents approximately two periods of “useful life” of the LEDs themselves. The methodology indicates that no degradation factors are required, so
these would also be the PFs. This therefore assumes that individual lamps are replaced as and when required or on a rolling programme based on
actual hours of use.
LED lighting                       Halogen to LED using same fitting                                      12.50 V22 Salix relaxation QPF-0342-PS
Salix have relaxed their position on how clients should be accounting for capital items. Clients can now upgrade to LED technology where the same
fitting can be used.

Retrofit LEDs appear to have the same issues as other retrofit high efficiency luminaires. While the lamps may continue to function, the systems are
already part way through their useful lives. This would indicate useful lives, and PFs, of say 12.5 years (internally) or 10 years (externally). One
implication of this is that the older the existing system is, the less likely it is to be cost-effective to undertake the upgrade.
LED lighting                       Flood lighting to LED including changing the fitting                       20.00   V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
The PF for LED lighting originally assumed a service life of 30 years with degradation of 100%.

However on further assessment Atkins now advise that this appears somewhat optimistic. The lamps will perform longer than CFL equivalents
but they are more expensive to replace when they require it. Since the CT and Salix assessments are based on both the PF and the economic
assessment of carbon saving the PF should reflect, but not duplicate, the economic issues dealt with elsewhere in the evaluation. They therefore
propose a useful life of say 25 years for internal use (reflecting the assessment for CFL‟s used internally for 20 years) or 20 (for external use). This
represents approximately two periods of “useful life” of the LEDs themselves. The methodology indicates that no degradation factors are required, so
these would also be the PFs. This therefore assumes that individual lamps are replaced as and when required or on a rolling programme based on
actual hours of use.
LED lighting                       Compact Fluorescent to LED including new fitting                          25.00 V22 UoManchester QPF-0219-SM
See 'Halogen to LED including changing the fitting' note with an internal application assumed.
LED lighting                       Compact Fluorescent to LED using same fitting                             12.50 V22 Salix relaxation QPF-0342-PS
Salix have relaxed their position on how clients should be accounting for capital items. Clients can now upgrade to LED technology where the same
fitting can be used.

See 'Halogen to LED using same fitting' note with an internal application assumed.
LED lighting                   Incandescent to LED including new fitting                                      25.00   V22 UoManchester QPF-0219-SM &
                                                                                                                      QPF-0342-PS
See 'Halogen to LED including changing the fitting' note with an internal application assumed.
LED lighting                       Incandescent to LED using same fitting                                 12.50 V22 Salix relaxation QPF-0342-PS
Salix have relaxed their position on how clients should be accounting for capital items. Clients can now upgrade to LED technology where the same
fitting can be used.

See 'Halogen to LED using same fitting' note with an internal application assumed.
LED lighting                   T12/T8 to LED including new fitting                                            25.00   V22 UoManchester QPF-0219-SM &
                                                                                                                      QPF-0342-PS
See 'Halogen to LED including changing the fitting' with internal application assumed.
Street lighting
With increased interest is this area of technology, mainly by our county council clients, street lighting has now been given its own project type. The
following six work types support the different options available.
Street lighting                     Replace fitting, controls with electronic ballasts                       13.20 Added in for V22 Aug 09
This includes the replacement of the luminaire complete with an electronic ballast and/or dimming device included. This would normally be conducted
upon life expiry of the existing luminaire and the opportunity taken to replace with a more energy efficient solution.
Street lighting                     Replace fitting with LED                                                   12.42 Added in for V22 Aug 09
For LED street lighting there is insufficient track record to establish unique lifetime or degradation rates. Therefore the CIBSE external luminaires lifetime
of 15 years applies with 90% inherent deterioration, 92% operational degradation giving a PF of 12.42.
Street lighting                      Replace controls including electronic ballasts                          13.20 Added in for V22 Aug 09
This includes the installation of a retro fit part night or dimming device. Photocells can be configured to give a variety of burning hours which can be for
fixed periods e.g. midnight to 5.00am or adaptive to switch off for a set period during the middle of the night. For the latter case the precise switch off time
will vary with the seasons.

Retrofit dimming devices are capable of dimming to a preset level which may be either factory or user defined. Monitoring of lamp condition and burning
hours is not included and energy savings are based on UMSUG codes.
Street lighting                     Replace controls but not ballasts                                         10.30 Added in for V22 Aug 09
This includes for the installation of a photo cell to permit part night burning. Photocells can be configured to give a variety of burning hours which can be
for fixed periods e.g. midnight to 5.00am or adaptive to switch off for a set period during the middle of the night. For the latter case the precise switch off
time will vary with the seasons.
Street lighting                     Fit centralised controls with electronic ballasts                      13.20 Added in for V22 Aug 09
The installation of a centralised control system along with replacement electronic ballast to permit dimming. System can be configured to permit part
night burning and/or dimming.

Centralised control may be either mains borne or airborne. A suitable electrical network will be required for the mains borne systems. Airborne systems
are susceptible to radio frequency interference or other atmospheric conditions.

Switch or dimming times can be varied and therefore energy usage may be by means of a virtual meter to realise the potential energy savings.
Street lighting                     Fit centralised controls but not ballasts                              11.88 Added in for V22 Aug 09
Assumes the replacement of photocell control to permit part night burning where centralised control is already present. The centralised control system
can be configured to control dimming and/or part night burning and the replacement of the photocell would not therefore be appropriate. System can be
configured for dimming or part night switch off and lamp condition may be monitored to identify those lamps about to fail. Lamp replacement policy can
therefore be proactive to the likely lamp failures and the need for reactive maintenance visits reduced.
Traffic lights
Again with increased interest in this technology, traffic lights are a separate category to other street lighting or flood lighting on major columns. The
market for supply, demand and performance is much smaller, and therefore the likelihood is high that replacements will remain available over the longer
term. This factor overrides the similarity in external environment to street lighting. The lamps are replaceable without having a separate PF. The whole
head (including the optics) is a potential retrofit item, as is replacement of the optic only with integral transformer. The whole system has a useful life of
about 30 or 35 years, the heads and optics and/or head replacement as retrofits should follow the same general rationale, i.e. that they have
approximately half the useful life of the system as a whole. The following two work types support the different options available.
Traffic lights                      Replace with LED including new fitting                                       30.00
Taking a conservative approach in the absence of any track record the traffic light PF new fitting is set at 30 years and retrofit of heads and optics as 15
years.
Traffic lights                      Replace with LED using same fitting                                          15.00
Taking a conservative approach in the absence of any track record the traffic light PF new fitting is set at 30 years and retrofit of heads and optics as 15
years.
Motor controls
Motor controls                   Fixed speed motor controls                                                    19.00    V0 Aug 06 GPG312
This is considered an established technology with no further explanation provided.
Motor controls                    Variable speed drives                                              15.84 V0 Aug 06 GPG312
We consider that the term "larger" from notes within GPG312 can now be ignored as this was prepared when VSDs were only economically available for
motors above say, 20kW. Now the costs have come down considerably and products can be purchased at a reasonable cost for very small motors.

The new PF assumes a CIBSE life of 20 years for electric controls. There is considered to be no deterioration generally. Some of the less common types
have thyristor controls which may fail. If, in the unlikely event that they fail, it may be difficult to detect unless monitored. However, this rare occurrence is
factored into the 90% deterioration at end of life. Operational degradation is 88% based on fans/pumps lifetime.
Motor controls                    Motors - flat belt drives                                                12.50 V0 Aug 06
We consider the typical application as being a fan being driven by a motor using V-belts. This is a technique that replaces the V-belt with a flat belt. You
need to change the pulleys as well. Energy is saved because you do not have losses associated with the pulley grooves rubbing against the belt side.

Motor replacement
Motor replacement                 Motors - high efficiency                                                 15.00 V0 Aug 06 GPG312
Consideration given to funding the additional cost relative to a standard motor. This is considered an established technology with no further explanation
provided
Office equipment
Office equipment                   Office equipment improvements                                                5.00    V1 Aug 06
As ICT equipment now has their own specific work type, we see this applying to equipment such as a replacement printer or a photocopier with a lower
energy demand or a better insulated drinks dispenser. In some cases the Energy Star logo may still be considered a useful reference.
Renewable energy
Renewable projects, for the majority of cases, remain non-core to the main Salix model/compliance criteria. The aim of the notes below is to give some
approximations on typical paybacks. In V21 with the additional information from the PF review, renewables have been segmented into the following
seven work types.

Also critical for renewable projects is the fact that Salix is required to count the Carbon on all projects undertaken by our clients so the selling of ROCs
to obtain financial payback cannot be considered as an option.
Renewable energy                 Biomass boilers                                                      17.51             V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
For clarity, the work type Biomass has been corrected to Biomass boilers for V22 of the compliance tool.

A number of significant factors can affect the return on investment of biomass boilers. These include size of project, what fuel it is displacing (Mains gas,
oil, LPG); type of boiler (woodchip, log burners); complexity of install; and price and type of fuel used. A dominant opportunity could be when the
applicant can obtain the fuel for free - for example when it is part of the requirement to remove waste wood etc from their parks or estates.

Further complexity is added as prices of both biomass and the displaced fuel fluctuate, although it is more likely that the displaced fuel will fluctuate more.
Research and experience has shown that paybacks are very project specific and can range from 3 to 15 years.

In conclusion, it is recommended that each project is looked at individually in order to determine payback with the figures used being actual quotes from
installers and fuel suppliers.

The new PF is based on CIBSE lives of heavy duty cast iron sectional and shell and tube boilers is 25 years. However biomass boilers are likely to last
less than this and 20 years is proposed. There will be only a slight efficiency drop or inherent deterioration due to fall off in performance over time as the
boilers would be maintained accordingly. There may be tar deposits on heat transfer surfaces. In any case the efficiency is not important for carbon
savings as they are close to zero carbon. Operational degradation is related to fouled heat transfer surfaces and failures of screw feeds and controls
systems. However these would only require extra fuel rather than a loss of carbon savings. The main reason for failure to deliver carbon savings would
be in cases where the biomass boiler is the lead boiler and gas the backup. Where failure or control problems lead to greater reliance on gas than
anticipated, then carbon savings are not realised. To capture this possibility controls degradation is chosen.


Renewable energy                  Heat Pump (Air source)                                                     12.54 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
Factors affecting the payback on this technology include the price of the fuel to be displaced; price of electricity; type of install; boreholes vs trench vs
water; heat delivery means; and the amount of work required to install the infrastructure.

In addition, older buildings will require additional insulation and improvement works to reduce air changes. If this is also included in the project cost then
it is unlikely to meet the return criteria. Typical installations have a payback period ranging from 10 to 20+ years. Some trade association calculators
show shorter paybacks, but these should be treated with caution.

As this would probably be a 'multiple fuel type' project we would recommend that existing clients use SERS pipeline or alternatively a fuller individual
calculation is done on a tailored spreadsheet.

The new PF is based on CIBSE commercial air to air heat pump of 15 years. There will be slight inherent deterioration due to scale or corrosion at heat
transfer surfaces. Operational degradation is planned maintenance.
Renewable energy                  PV                                                                     22.50 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
Payback of this technology is typically perceived to be 30 to100 years depending on the complexity of the install and the panels chosen. It should be
noted that new PV technologies are being developed all the time and production costs are being reduced as a result of these and the increased global
production capacity. Some claims are for 10 to 15 years on small installations which seem very optimistic.

The new PF is based on a CIBSE life of 25 years. There will be efficiency drop or inherent deterioration due to fall off in performance over time, some of
which is due to de-lamination of the modules. As an example, BP Solar modules are guaranteed at 80% output at year 20. Operational degradation is
zero as they are substantially maintenance free. However, inverter failures would need to be found and rectified promptly.
Renewable energy                    Solar thermal                                                            19.80 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
The main factors affecting payback with solar thermal are: type of technology (flat plate vs evacuated tubes); location (potential output); infrastructure
required (flat roof require frame to attain optimum angle); and internal works required (length of pipe runs, secondary heating source). Again typical
paybacks range from 6 to 18 years.

As this would probably be a 'multiple fuel type' project we would recommend that existing clients use SERS pipeline or alternatively a fuller individual
calculation is done on a tailored spreadsheet.
Renewable energy                    Small hydro power                                                       26.40 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
Little is known about this technology as it is quite rare in the UK. Wales and Scotland have a higher number of small hydro installs. It is recommended
that each of these projects is evaluated individually once quotes have been received and basic location and resource assessment has been undertaken.
The resource (flow rates and drop) are key to the output of any installation. If possible, a seasonal average flow should be calculated in order to estimate
potential output from an installation.

Typical paybacks encountered are between 5 to 13 years. Most projects will not meet the criteria, but all should be evaluated in order to determine if any
can meet criteria.
Renewable energy                   Building integrated wind power (0-50kW)                                  17.60 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
From experience it is unlikely that any of the current wind technologies will attain a payback of under 5 years. 'Building Mounted Wind Turbines' have the
advantage that they do not require a pole/mast to attain height so reducing the infrastructure costs. However, working at heights often incurs additional
costs due to skills and safety equipment requirements.

The major factors affecting payback is the available wind resource which is generally not good in urban environments and the price of electricity (current
high prices have reduced paybacks). Typical paybacks stated by manufacturers are 8+ years with other authors predicting 20+ years. The low end
estimates seem quite ambitious. As a result this technology is unlikely to meet the repayment criteria.

The new PF based on CIBSE life of 20 years. Bearings and blades are maintenance items, there will be insignificant efficiency drop or inherent
deterioration due to operation in wind and rain and operational degradation is chosen as controls maintenance which could involve bearing or inverter
servicing or replacement.
Renewable energy                   Industrial scale wind power (>50kW)                                   26.40 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
As with small wind, large wind turbines performance is dependant on the available wind resource. Research has indicated that typical paybacks are
5 to 10 years. There are good well established calculators to estimate paybacks.

The new PF is based on a CIBSE life of 30 years. Bearings and blades are maintenance items. There will be insignificant efficiency drop or inherent
deterioration due to operation in wind and rain and operational degradation is chosen as controls maintenance which could involve bearing or inverter
servicing or replacement.
Swimming
Swimming                           Swimming pool covers - liquid                                            8.80 V15 Feb 07
Projects are based on liquid film dosed into pool manually or by dosing device when pool closed. Careful consideration needs to be given by client to
the initial investment and length of time product is being purchased for when making payback calculations. As Salix has relaxed its position on capital
projects, the end decision on whether this is a suitable technology in which to invest now remains with the client.

Savings can be based on both a reduction in heating the water e.g. Gas and a reduction in having to remove humidity out of the pool area e.g. Electricity.
When entering on SERS the multiple work type option can be used.

The new PF assumes 10 year CIBSE life for water dosing equipment; no inherent degradation; and 88% operational degradation.
Swimming                             Swimming pool covers - manual                                         7.92 V0 Aug 06 GPG312
Other than that savings can be based on both a reduction in heating the water e.g. gas and a reduction in having to remove humidity out of the pool area
e.g. electricity, this is considered an established technology and no further explanations are provided. When entering on SERS the multiple work type
options can be used.

The new PF assumes a 15 year life (CIBSE sliding PVC doors); 60% inherent degradation (loss of seals etc); and 88% operational deterioration.
Swimming                             Swimming pool covers - motorised                                      8.73 V15 Feb 07
Other than that savings can be based on both a reduction in heating the water e.g. gas and a reduction in having to remove humidity out of the pool area
e.g. electricity, this is considered an established technology and no further explanations are provided. When entering on SERS the multiple work type
options can be used.

The new PF assumes a 15 year life (CIBSE sliding PVC doors); 60% inherent degradation (loss of seals etc); 92% operational deterioration.
Swimming                            Perlite based surface filtration                                            10.00 V22, Haringey BC QPF-0353-RS
The technology is for water filtration within a leisure centre, that uses perlite instead of sand to clean the water. The processing of the back washed water
is reduced leading to savings in heating and pump operation costs. The persistence factor is for the filtration system alone and not the perlite. So the
concept may be similar to a liquid pool cover, where we fund the new filtration system and possibly a year‟s supply of perlite. The useful life appears to
be a minimum of 10 years. No apparent degradation (inherent or operational) is to be applied. Therefore the persistence factor should also be 10 years.

Note that this is a recent technology, and the useful life is based on the manufacturers' warranty. The useful life may therefore be longer than this, but a
cautious approach has been taken. There is a very good economic case for undertaking such an upgrade. There is however one issue of some
concern, which is the useful life of the swimming pool into which the technology is installed. Leisure centres incorporating pools probably have a useful
life of approximately 30 to 35 years maximum. If a very major refurbishment is undertaken at this point it is technically possible to prolong the life of the
facility, but this may not be economically or practically reasonable. The remaining useful life of the facility therefore acts as a limit on the maximum
service life to be applied to the technology. In this case the facility is about 20 years old and appears to be in the process of undergoing a fairly major
refit, but it is at the limits of the point where a 10 year life for the technology should be applied.

Time switches
Time switches                     Time switches                                                            9.70 V19 Oct 07, GPG312
This work type was originally contained within office equipment but due to popular application has been given an individual project type in October 07.
This is considered an established technology and no further explanations are included.
Ventilation
Ventilation                      Ventilation - distribution                                              25.00 V0 Aug 06
We consider this mainly as 'redesigns' of systems to reduce pressure loss or excess air volume. Use of low loss air diffusers for system balancing. This is
considered an established technology and no further explanations are included.
Ventilation                      Fans - air handling unit                                                     23.80   V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
This is considered an established technology with no further explanation provided.

The new PF is based on CIBSE lives which have 8 kinds of fan. We propose the adoption of two types - heavy duty such as centrifugal fans for AHUs (25
years), and others (15 years) including destratification fans, extract fans, boiler fans, axial fans and roof mounted fans. There will be small inherent
deterioration due to scale, dirt build-up, or corrosion. End of life efficiency proposed at 90%. Operational degradation does not occur as breakdowns
would be fixed on a callout and we presume associated degradation such as dirty filters and leaks in the air distribution system to be 88%.


Ventilation                          Fans - install destratification fans                                       14.25 V21 Nov 08, Atkins PF review
Stratification is an effect that occurs in rooms with high ceilings. Hot air rises and collects near the ceiling, causing a significant temperature difference
between the ground level (where temperature is required) and the ceiling (where it is not). Heat loss through the roof is increased and there is significant
energy wastage.

The effect can be reduced by insulating the roof well, but can also be further reduced by the installation of de-stratification fans. It is worth measuring the
temperature difference between the roof and the ground level to get an idea of the extent of the stratification effect in your building. However, as a rule of
thumb, if your ceiling is higher than around 5m it is likely that you have a measurable stratification effect. The higher the temperature difference and the
higher your ceiling, the greater energy savings can be achieved with de-stratification fans.

The new PF is based on CIBSE lives which have 8 kinds of fan. We propose the adoption of two types - heavy duty such as centrifugal fans for AHUs (25
years), and others (15 years) including destratification fans, extract fans, boiler fans, axial fans and roof mounted fans. There will be small inherent
deterioration due to scale, dirt build-up, or corrosion. End of life efficiency proposed at 90%. Operational degradation does not occur as breakdowns
would be fixed on a callout and we presume associated degradation such as dirty filters and leaks in the air distribution system to be separate issues.


Ventilation                           Ventilation - presence controls                                          7.92 V0 Aug 06
This is considered an established technology. Regarding the possibility of interference, a technology which is prone to this probably should not be
installed at all. Also is it could be prone to control overrides / physical bypasses such as out-of-hours not controlled by run-down timer, unskilled staff with
access to temperature controls then again these investments are not recommended.
Voltage Reduction
Voltage reduction                Voltage reduction equipment                                           14.72 V0 Aug 06
Voltage reduction remains a significant technology spend for Salix clients and these comments are aimed at trying to give clients a better understanding
of where and where not optimum savings may be achieved.

If the client has their own on-site distribution transformer then this could be checked for adjustment. Distribution transformers usually only have off-load
or off-circuit tapping changing with a +/- 2.5% and +/-5% tapping range and these may be adjusted to reduced the secondary voltage.

Alternatively the client my purchase a specialist device which sits on the LV side of the incoming supply and reduces the voltage to a pre-calculated level.

Voltage reduction savings depend on the balance of load equipment. High frequency equipment will not see any energy savings from voltage reduction.
This includes most ICT equipment and all high frequency fluorescent ballasts.
There will be energy savings when using tungsten or conventional wound ballast fluorescent lighting, although the light output will be reduced.

Resistive loads, which will comprise a relatively small part of many office environments, will see a power saving. But in controlled heating applications
(e.g. kettle, toaster or thermostatically controlled electric heater) then the energy will be similar as it will need to be powered for longer.

Motors that are under-loaded (most of them) will slightly benefit from a reduced voltage. But those that are fully loaded will see a slight increase in power
consumption. A reduced voltage will reduce the speed of the motor, and so an apparent power saving might actually be due to a reduction in work.
Again, in a controlled situation, the motor would need to stay on for longer in order to do the work.

For Variable Speed Drives there is no accepted position on the impact of reduced voltage operation on a VSD and in fact there is no agreed way of
assessing VSD efficiency. However, a low input voltage is likely to reduce the efficiency of the combined VSD: motor system, but the extent of this is
unknown. But because the output waveform is electronically regulated, the additional losses from reduced voltage operation are likely to be less than
when a motor is driven direct on line (without a VSD).
Project Type                    Work Type                                                              New PF
Boilers                         Boilers - control systems                                                7.92
                                Boilers - replacement condensing                                        16.70
                                Boilers - replacement combination                                        8.40
                                Boilers - replacement modular                                           12.50
                                Boilers - burner management                                              7.92
                                Boilers - retrofit economiser                                           12.50
Building management systems     BEMS - bureau remotely managed                                           9.00
                                BEMS - not remotely managed                                              7.90
                                BEMS - remotely managed                                                  8.30
Combined heat & power           Gas, Diesel, gasoil engine CHP                                          17.60
                                Biomass CHP                                                              8.80
                                Gas Turbine                                                             13.20
Compressor                      Compressed Air: air compressor upgrade                                  16.72
Computers & IT solutions        Network PC power management                                              5.00
                                CRT to flat screen LCD                                                   5.00
                                Virtualisation                                                           5.00
                                Thin computers                                                           5.00
Cooling                         Cooling - plant replacement/upgrade                                     15.80
                                Free cooling                                                            60.00
                                Replacement of air conditioning with evaporative cooling                15.84
Hand Driers                     Hand Driers - replacement to more efficient type                         4.18
Energy from waste               Anaerobic digestion                                                     17.60
                                Incineration                                                            17.60
Heating                         Electric to Gas - heating using CHP                                     17.60
                                Electric to Gas - heating using condensing boilers                      16.70
                                Electric to Gas - tumble driers                                          8.40
                                Heat recovery                                                           11.88
                                Heating - controls in Leisure Centres / Swimming pools                   8.28
                                Heating - direct fired system                                            8.40
                                Heating - discrete controls                                              7.04
                                Heating - distribution improvements                                     18.00
                                Oil to Gas - boiler fuel switching                                       7.92
                                Replace steam calorifier with plate heat exchanger                      18.00
                                Thermal Stores                                                          18.00
                                Heating - TRVs                                                           7.92
                                Heating - zone control valves                                           13.50
Hot water                       Hot Water - distribution improvements                                   18.00
                                Hot Water - point of use heaters                                         9.50
Industrial kitchen equipment    Steriliser to dishwasher replacement                                    10.80
Insulation                      Radiator reflective foil (external walls)                                8.00
                                Automatic/revolving doors                                               18.00
                                Automatic speed doors                                                    6.00
                                Draught Lobby (internal)                                                17.10
                                Draught Lobby (external)                                                14.25
Insulation - building fabric    Cavity wall insulation                                                  60.00
                                Dry wall lining                                                         35.00
                                Loft insulation                                                         27.00
                                Double glazing new frames & single glazing units - metal or plastics    24.00
                                Double glazing new frames & single glazing units - wood                 12.00
                                Retrofit single glazing units                                            8.00
                                Roof insulation                                                         24.30
                                Solar film                                                              24.00
                                Secondary glazing                                                        7.92
Insulation - draught proofing   Insulation - draught proofing                                            9.00
Insulation - pipework           Heating pipework insulation (internal)                                  22.50
                                Heating pipework insulation (external)                                   9.00
                                Cooling pipework insulation (internal)                                  22.50
                                Cooling pipework insulation (external)                                   9.00
Lighting controls               Lighting - discrete controls                                            10.30
                                Lighting control system centralised                                     11.88
Lighting upgrades               Electronic ballast with dimming control                                 13.20
                                Replace halogen with HID metal halide                                   20.00
                                Compact Fluorescent including changing the fitting                      20.00
                                Compact Fluorescent using same fitting                                  10.00
                                Induction Fluorescent including changing the fitting                    20.00
                                T5 lighting including changing the fitting                              20.00
                                T5 lighting retrofit using adaptors                                     10.00
                                T8 lighting including changing the fitting                              20.00
                                T8 lighting retrofit using adaptors                                     10.00
LED lighting                    Halogen to LED including changing the fitting                           25.00
                                Halogen to LED using same fitting                                       12.50
                                Flood lighting to LED including changing the fitting                    20.00
                                Compact Fluorescent to LED including new fitting                        25.00
                                Compact Fluorescent to LED using same fitting                           12.50
                                Incandescent to LED including new fitting                               25.00
                                Incandescent to LED using same fitting                                  12.50
                                T12/T8 to LED including new fitting                                     25.00
Street lighting                 Replace fitting, controls with electronic ballasts                      13.20
                                Replace fitting with LED                                                12.42
                                Replace controls including electronic ballasts                          13.20
                                Replace controls but not ballasts                                       10.30
                                Fit centralised controls with electronic ballasts                       13.20
                                Fit centralised controls but not ballasts                               11.88
Traffic lights                  Replace with LED including new fitting                                  30.00
                                Replace with LED using same fitting                                     15.00
Motor controls                  Fixed speed motor controls                                              19.00
                                Variable speed drives                                                   15.84
                    Motors - flat belt drives                                                   12.50
Motor replacement   Motors - high efficiency                                                    15.00
Office equipment    Office equipment improvements                                                5.00
Renewable energy    Biomass boilers                                                             17.51
                    Heat Pump (Air Source)                                                      12.54
                    PV                                                                          22.50
                    Solar thermal                                                               19.80
                    Small hydro power                                                           26.40
                    Building integrated wind power (0-50kW)                                     17.60
                    Industrial scale wind power (>50kW)                                         26.40
Swimming            Swimming pool covers - liquid                                                8.80
                    Swimming pool covers - manual                                                7.92
                    Swimming pool covers - motorised                                             8.73
                    Perlite based surface filtration                                            10.00
Time switches       Time switches                                                                9.70
Ventilation         Ventilation - distribution                                                  25.00
                    Fans - air handling unit                                                    23.80
                    Fans - install destratification fans                                        14.25
                    Ventilation - presence controls                                              7.92
Voltage reduction   Voltage reduction equipment                                                 14.72

Key                 Red mean new text or change
                    Highlight means that often multiple energy types or a change in energy type is
                    involved.
Energy Source           kg CO2/kWh         Notes                                                                                               Previous Values
Electricity                0.544           Updated 11/01/10    GCV basis Ref 1                                                                      0.537
Gas                        0.184           Updated 11/01/10    GCV basis Ref 1                                                                      0.185
Gas oil                    0.277           Updated 11/01/10    GCV basis Ref 1                                                                      0.252
Fuel pil                   0.266           Updated 11/01/10    GCV basis Ref 1   Heating oils other than gas oil or burning oil                     0.268
Burning oil                0.247           Updated 11/01/10    GCV basis Ref 1   Also known as kerosene or paraffin used for heating systems        0.245
Coal                       0.313           Updated 11/01/10    GCV basis Ref 1                                                                      0.330
LPG                        0.214           Updated 11/01/10    GCV basis Ref 1                                                                      0.025
Wood pellets               0.025           Updated 11/01/10    GCV basis Ref 1   Figure originates from SAP2005, Table 12                           0.214
Renewable                   n/a                                                                                                                      n/a




        Ref 1:   Defra: Current GHG conversion factors - updated September 2009
                 http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/business/reporting/conversion-factors.htm
                              PROJECT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA


Projects must deliver both CO2 and revenue benefits and must also offer long term CO2
savings. As an example cavity wall insulation will deliver CO2 savings far more consistently
over a very long period compared to discreet user adjustable heating controls whose
performance tends to diminish after just a few years. Domestic housing and transport
projects are not covered by the fund since they are covered by other Government schemes.

The following guidelines should be borne in mind when evaluating projects for funding:

1.     There is no minimum size for a project. It is up to the discretion of the client, should
they wish to bundle a number of smaller projects together providing they do not exceed the
criteria for maximum project size.
2.   A minimum of four projects should be targeted from the first Fund tranche

3.     Any project with a value larger than £50k will require prior approval by Salix. The
application must be accompanied with a business case that has been prepared with
sufficient detail to facilitate ready assimilation of the proposed project and its viability,
without recourse to a site visit.

4.     To ensure that the Fund is used for projects that deliver long term energy and CO2
savings, all compliant projects must be prioritised on the basis of their capital cost per tonne
of CO2 saved on a lifetime basis (£/tCO2 LT[1]).
Projects must comply with either of the following two criteria:
a. Maximum 5 year payback period and £100/tCO2 lifetime basis for technologies covered
in the Technology Support Notes worksheet.
b. Maximum 7.5 year payback period and £50/tCO2 lifetime basis again for technologies
covered in the Technology Support Notes worksheet.

Salix reserve the right to introduce additional project approval criteria on the basis of
operational feedback.

To evaluate the £/tCO2 LT, a “persistence factor” is used to derive the lifetime CO2 savings
for different technology types. The “persistence factor” multiplied by the annual CO2 savings
derives the lifetime CO2 savings i.e.
                £/tCO2 LT =                  Project Capital Cost
                                 Annual CO2 savings X Persistence Factor
A background to persistence factors and a list of values for typical Salix projects is provided
in the next worksheet titled Note on Persistence Factors and also repeated in Appendix I of
the Salix Fund Manual.

Examples of pre-approved energy efficiency projects can be found in the Technology
Support Notes worksheet. Additionally reference can be made to the Carbon Trust
publication „Invest to Save?‟ GPG312 obtained from www.thecarbontrust.co.uk/energy.
Additional technologies will be considered where there is strong evidence to support their
inclusion.

5.    Proposals may be submitted for energy saving measures in new build or major
refurbishment schemes, when funding is not available within the original budget. However,
the Fund support will only be awarded where such measures are included in the original
specification and the proposals go beyond existing relevant buildings regulations.
Supporting evidence will be required.

6.   Investment cannot be made to those projects which cannot prove energy saving
enhancements that would not have otherwise been implemented. If an investment were to
be made (under an ongoing maintenance programme or wider building project), the fund
can only support the additional investment to select a higher energy saving option.


7.    A maximum of 20% non-repayable contribution can be made by the client, with the
qualifying payback period calculated on just the capital from the ring-fenced fund providing
that 100% of the CO2 savings can be attributed to the Scheme.


8.    In submitting proposals for CHP or Renewable Energy Technologies (RET), the client
must demonstrate that an energy audit or feasibility study have been carried out according
to a recognised methodology (the Fund will not meet the costs of these studies )
9.   Funding will not be offered for projects where an alternative source of funds is available
6.   Investment cannot be made to those projects which cannot prove energy saving
enhancements that would not have otherwise been implemented. If an investment were to
be made (under an ongoing maintenance programme or wider building project), the fund
can only support the additional investment to select a higher energy saving option.


7.    A maximum of 20% non-repayable contribution can be made by the client, with the
qualifying payback period calculated on just the capital from the ring-fenced fund providing
that 100% of the CO2 savings can be attributed to the Scheme.


8.    In submitting proposals for CHP or Renewable Energy Technologies (RET), the client
must demonstrate that an energy audit or feasibility study have been carried out according
to a recognised methodology (the Fund will not meet the costs of these studies )
9.    Funding will not be offered for projects where an alternative source of funds is available
for the full project cost.
10. The method for determining the payback period for projects is a simple calculation
based on revenue savings. Where there is a known increase in energy unit cost due within
the payback period, this increase can be factored into the revenue savings analysis.
Supporting evidence for the energy cost increase should be held within the Project File for
audit purposes.

11. The qualifying payback period is calculated before the addition of any Fund
Management Fee.

12. All associated costs should be included in determining the payback period, e.g. capital
costs, project management costs and ongoing maintenance cost.

13. Improvement projects related to reducing water usage will also be allowable if the
technology has an energy saving element, e.g. reducing the amount of hot water wasted.

14. Unless Salix have been notified of extenuating circumstances all projects must be
completed with nine months.
[1]   LT - Lifetime
                                           INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY
                                         FOR CALCULATIONG PERSISTENCE FACTORS

Salix Finance uses persistence factors to calculate the lifetime energy savings achieved by a technology or process. The
methodology was changed in 2008 and is now based on a “useful life”, which is adjusted to reflect deterioration by inherent
and operational degradation. The factors are applied cumulatively to the useful life to give the Persistence Factor.

1) USEFUL LIFE
The initial estimate of useful life is based on published data sources wherever possible (such as CIBSE Guide M). Failures over
time are based on a Weibull distribution. Initial “burn in” failures within the first year are assumed to be rectified under
contractual arrangements. Useful lives are grouped by main technology area as follows:

       •      Building Fabric – generally assumed to be 60 years, with exceptions.
       •      Building Instruments and Controls – mostly 10 years, but software is 5 years.
       •      Building Services Distribution Systems – 10 to 30 years.
       •      Air conditioning and Cooling – 10 to 30 years.
       •      Space Heating – 10 to 30 years.
       •      Ventilation – mostly 10 to 25 years.
       •      Lighting – mostly 10 to 20 years.
       •      Office Equipment – 5 years.
       •      Carbon / Energy Management – 2 to 7 years.
       •      Process Heating & Cooling, Design and Instrumentation / Control Systems – mostly 10 to 30 years.
       •      Refrigeration – mostly 20 to 30 years.
       •      Compressed Air – mostly 10 to 30 years.
       •      Materials Handling – 15 years.
       •      Motors & Drive - 10 to 5 years.
       •      Waste minimisation – 5 years.
       •      Renewable energy sources – 10 to 30 years.

Note that a few technologies may have their useful life determined by either the remaining life of the building, or the
remaining life of the component to which they are fixed (e.g. insulation, SGUs and solar film)

2) INHERENT DEGRADATION FACTORS
Inherent degradation measures loss of energy efficiency due to changes in underlying material or components affecting
either the end of life and/or the energy efficiency. The inherent degradation factor includes both aspects. There are four
main groups. Losses are measured cumulatively at the end of the service life as follows:

       •      100% - minimal loss in energy efficiency expected, although appearance may degrade.
       •      95% - efficiency loss due to e.g. corrosion, wear and tear and fouling not corrected by maintenance.
       •      90% - efficiency loss generally due to sensor drift or components deteriorating over time through e.g. loss of
              integrity of insulation.
       •      80% - efficiency loss for small group including glazing (deterioration due to loss of close fit) and Steam traps
              (failure due to corrosion and leaking, where failure mode may be “open”).


3) OPERATIONAL DEGRADATION FACTORS
Operational factors also increase the loss of energy efficiency, but the impact depends on whether the loss will be rectified
by intermittent maintenance, which is assumed to be in accordance with good practice. Degradation may therefore be
arrested, and then re-started throughout the life of the technology. There are four main groups which each have different
energy efficiency loss profiles:

       •      Controls (88%) – this applies to 60% of the total list. Adjustments to the user face and routine maintenance
              are covered, through annual, 6-monthly and 3-monthly intervals. Tasks include software controls algorithm
              checks, software matched to changes in use, set points adjustment, calibration, check time schedules, cleaning
              of filters and heat transfer surfaces, checking sensors for drift, linkages, burner adjustment.
       •      Skills (92%) – these are tasks which require skilled staff, such as meter reading, energy data entry, M&T
              systems analysis, reporting carbon management, BMS day to day operation, checking for schedules, alarms,
              warning signs etc.
       •      Inspection / Maintenance (97%) – relevant to locally controlled time clocks.
       •      No deterioration (100%) – passive measure.

Note: A factor dealing with interference – i.e. measures prone to control overrides / physical bypasses such as out-of-hours
   Date     Ver   Change                                                                                       By
21-Aug-06    00   First version
29-Aug-06    01   Additional projects types added and descriptions rationalised                                RAH
29-Aug-06    02   Error in technology selection corrected                                                      RAH
31-Aug-06    03   Cell F5 was blank                                                                            RAH
25-Sep-06    05   Persistence descriptors refined                                                              RAH
12-Feb-07    15   Drop down box for selecting fuel & power costs added                                         RAH
14-Feb-07    16   Additional technology type                                                                   RAH
12-Mar-07    17   Start date column added
19-Mar-07    18   Corrupt values corrected and 4 new types added                                               RAH
12-Apr-07   18A   Range for PF data table increased to pick up voltage reduction                               RAH
9-May-07    18B   Changes to BMS categories                                                                    RAH
25-May-07   18C   Air compressor uprgade added                                                                 RAH
14-Jun-07   18D   Presence detection removed                                                                   RAH
15-Jun-07   18E   Network Power Management added                                                               RAH
13-Aug-07   18F   CO2 factors revised to reflect new figures from DEFRA                                        RAH
 2-Oct-07   19    Major revision with rationalised technology list                                             RAH & PS
 1-Jul-08   20    Major revision with new technologies & latest CO2 figures. Price range for p/kWh increased   RS
17-Nov-08   21    New PFs released after Atkins assessment work                                                PS & RS
28-Sep-09   22    New project & work types added along with technical support notes                            PS

				
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