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 Dr. Ardini S Raksanagara,dr.,MPH
   Sri Yusnita Irda Sari, dr., MSc
     Public Health Department
        Faculty of Medicine
      COURSE: Occupational Health

NUMBER OF CREDIT           :     2 SCU
ALLOCATED TIME             :     14 sessions x 50 minutes
SEMESTER                   :     IV

The subject covers basic concept of occupational health. This
course will cover learning subjects Occupational Health e.g.
Introduction to Occupational Health, Workplace Hazard and
Occupational Diseases.

This course in occupational health is designed to develop an
 awareness and understanding of concept in occupational health

After completing this course the students will able to:
       Identify some problems in occupational health area
       understand some diseases related to the occupational
       underline occupational health problems in the future
       recognize some prevention methods in occupational health
       understand some risk factors related to the occupational
        health problems
       practice evaluation in occupational health area
METHOD         : mini lecture
MEDIA          : multimedia
The course of Occupational Health is
    presented in 14 sessions.
    There are required readings for each
    session and it might be useful to read
    it before beginning the course.
Assessment is to be as follows:
 Mid Semester Examination    (30%)
 Final Examination           (30 %)
 Comprehensive Test          (40%)
Required and Recommended readings
1.   Suma’mur, Higene Perusahaan dan Kesehatan Kerja, CV Haji
     Masagung, Jakarta, 1994
2.   Levy & Wegman, Occupational Health, Recognizing and
     Preventing Work Related Disease. Third Edition. Little Broan
     and Company, Boston / NewYork/Toronto/London,2006
3.   Joseph LaDou, Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Third
     Edition, Lange, USA,2004
4.   Rosenstock, Textbook of Clinical Occupational and
     Environmental Medicine, Second Edition, Saunders, 2005,
5.   Depkes RI: Pedoman Pengendalian Nosokomial di Rumah
6.   Bennet,Brachman ed., Hospital Infections,Little Brown,1992
7.   WHO, Practical guidelines for infection control in health care
     facilities, 2003
8.    Danggur Kondarus, Keselamatan Kesehatan Kerja, Litbang
      Danggur & Partners, 2006,
9.    Prüss A, Giroult E, Rushbrook P, eds. Safe Management of
      Wastes from Health-care Activities. Geneva: World Health
      Organization, 1999.
10.   WHO,Pruss,Giroult,Rushbrook, ed., Safe Management of
      wastes from health-car activities, Geneva, 1999,
11.   Health care waste and its safe management :
12.   Harrington, Occupational Heath , Pocket Consultant, Blackwell
      Scientific Publications,1987
13.   Related website

The major goals are: learning and understanding the
      occupational health concepts
This course is designed to introduce the scientific basis
      of occupational health, especially the relevant
      principles and concepts of workplace hazards,
      toxicology and ergonomics.
      The nature of common occupational health
      hazards and their effect upon the human body
      are examined. Examples of common protective
      measures and controls are also reviewed.
The course will involve a 14 sessions of teaching

Session                                  Topic

  1       Overview of Occupational Health
  2       Workplace Hazards
  ¾       Physical and Chemical Hazards at the Workplace

 5/6      Biological and Psychosocial Hazards at the Workplace

 7/8      Ergonomics & Accident

 9/10     Hospital waste and Health care facilities based infections

11/12     Occupational Health, Occupational diseases and occupational
          related diseases
13/14     Regulation and Control in occupational health and safety.
          Applying Occupational health and safety in several occupational
          environment and aspect
                Topic 1.1
Overview of Occupational health
   Occupational Health,
   Occupational Medicine,
   Occupational Hygiene

The student will be able :
 to understand and describe
 Occupational health problems (C2)
   Levy & Wegman, Occupational Health,
    Recognizing and Preventing Work Related
    Disease. Third Edition. Little Broan and
    Company, Boston /
    NewYork/Toronto/London,2006. Chapter :1
   Rosenstock, Textbook of Clinical Occupational
    and Environmental Medicine, Second Edition,
    Saunders, 2005. Chapter : 1,2, 11
   Workers of today go to their
    jobs confident that they will
    return safely, and in good
   While hazards may be
    encountered on the job, for the
    most part these risks have
    been controlled.
   WHO :
   Workplace fatalities, injuries and illnesses remain at
    unacceptably high levels and involve an enormous
    and unnecessary health burden, suffering, and
    economic loss amounting to 4–5% of GDP.
   According to the latest ILO estimates for the year
    2000 there are 2.0 million work-related deaths per
   WHO estimates that there are only 10-15% of
    workers who have access to a basic standard of
    occupational health services.
   A recent study in the United States estimated that
    there are 60,300 job-related deaths caused by
   The legal responsibility for identifying and
    correcting health and safety hazards rests on
    the shoulders of
        the workplace parties
              contractors, owners,
              self-employers persons,
              owners and suppliers).
   Physicians who are employed by
    management, worker and community
    right to know about occupational and
    environmental hazards
Occupational Medicine :
-a branch of medicine concerned
  with the prevention and treatment
  of occupational diseases

- is primarily a branch of preventive
  medicine, with some therapeutic
The Occupational Health and
Safety Act, 1993, and Regulations
require everyone in the
workplace to work together to
identify and control health and
safety hazards.
Occupational health
   Is the multidisciplinary approach to the
    recognition, diagnosis, treatment, and
    prevention and control of disease,
    injuries, and adverse health condition
    resulting from hazardous environmental
    exposures in the workplace
Occupational Health
 is a specialization in Health Science with its
practice with the aim for workers to achieve the
highest degree of health, physically, mentally
and socially with preventive and curative
measure against diseases or illnesses caused by
work factors or work environment, or common
Occupational Health
   ILO & WHO define :
   As the promotion and maintenance of
    the highest degree of physical, mental
    and social well being of workers in all
Occupational health
   Is a multidisciplinary activity aimed at :
    the protection and promotion of the of
    workers by preventing and controlling
    occupational diseases and accidents
    and by eliminating occupational factors
    and conditions hazardous to health and
    safety at work
   Occupational health is the total health
    of all at work
   Occupational health services is seen as
    a mechanism to achieve its objective
   OH  is the recognition of a two way
    relationship between work and health
           WORK                  HEALTH

   Work may not only have an adverse impact
    on health, but it may beneficial to health and
    well being
   The health status of the worker will have an
    impact on work
   Healthy >< un healthy  more productive
   Worker with impaired health  less
    productive, danger to themselves, other
    workers and the community
Occupational Health

1.   Concern with People
2.   Concern with Medical
Occupational Hygiene
   is the environmental science of
    anticipating, recognizing,
    evaluating, and controlling health
    hazards in the working
    environment with the objective of
    protecting workers’ health and well
    being and safeguarding the
    community at large.
Occupational Hygiene
 Definition from The British Occupational Hygiene
  Society :
Occupational hygiene is the applied science
  concerned with identification, measurement,
  appraisal of risk and control to acceptable
  standards of physical, chemical and biological
  factors arising in or from the workplace which
  may affect the health or well-being of those at
  work or in the community
Industrial Hygiene
   Is the science and art devoted to the
    recognition, evaluation and control of
    those environmental factors or stresses,
    arising in or from workplace, which may
    cause sickness, impaired health and
    well being, or significant discomfort and
    efficiency among workers or among the
    citizens of community.
Occupational Health and Safety
An occupational health and safety program is
 a specific plan of action to prevent
 workplace accidents, injuries and
 occupational diseases.
Occupational health and safety program

The program is a framework for all
 occupational health and safety activities,
 plans and procedures at the place of
      Work Productivity
Factors related to work productivity:
1.     Common Diseases
2.     Work Related diseases
3.     Nutritional conditions
4.     Work Environment
5.     Planning and designing the relationships
       between people and machines
6.     Mental or psychological condition
7.     Workers welfare
8.     Health Promotion
9.     Health Facility
10.    Supervision
   Worker
   Work environment
   Environmental Hazard
The responsibilities of doctor
working in industry :
 1.    knowledge of the work environment
 2.    pre-placement, periodic and special medical examinations
 3.    administrative responsibility for nurses and first-aiders
 4.    treatment
 5.    health education
 6.    rehabilitation
 7.    teaching and research
 8.    advice to individuals, management, organized labor and
       safety representatives
 9.    efficient record keeping
 10.   group surveillance of those at special risk, e.g canteen staff
 11.   liase with outside organizations-Government, Universities,
       other industries
 12.   reassurance
Additional Challenges in
Developing Countries
1.   Export Hazards
2.   Inadequate infrastucture and human
3.   Transnational problems
4.   Relationship between the workplace and the
     home environment
5.   Economic development
6.   Occupational and Environmental Health
     Services and Primary Health Care
Disciplines and careers in occupational
and environmental health
   Physicians (preventive medicine, public health,
    occupational and environmental medicine, aerospace
   Nurse (occupational health nursing)
   Public health practitioners (epidemiology,
    biostatistics, environmental health, health services
    administration, health education, behavioral sciences,
    sanitarians, environmental technicians, food safety
    professionals, hazardous substance professionals
   Industrial hygienist, ergonomists, environmental
Related disciplines
   Toxicology
   Epidemiology
   Environmental chemistry
   System engineering
   Sociology
   Psychology
   Anthropology
   Communication science
   Environmental law, economics, policy, management
   Ecology,agronomy, chemistry, physics an geology
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