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THE KINGDOM OF ANIMALIA

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THE KINGDOM OF ANIMALIA Powered By Docstoc
					THE KINGDOM OF ANIMALIA



      Animals are the group of
eucaryotic organism from the
kingdom of animalia which have
multicelluler property and have the
ability to move from one place to
another.
The kingdom of animal,include the most
 living organism and occupy the region of
 land and water. In the sea and ocean,the
 region where animal diversity level is biggest
 is coral reef. While in land habitat,the biggest
 animal diversity is located in the region of
 tropical and subtropical forests.
Different from the plant,all of animal can
 move the parts of their body and have ability
 to move their body. The ability to move in
 animal related to the activity to find
 food,finding pair and avoiding danger.
   The movement organ in the group of
    invertebrate can be cilia/hairlike
    projection,parapodia,and tentacle. The
    group of vertebrate in general as
    movement organ of fin,leg and wing.
 Animal reproduce by sexual or asexual
 way. Sexual reproduction in general
 happens because the meeting of egg
 cell/ovum and sperma to form zygote.
 While asexual reproduction happens by
 several methods, such as fragmentation
 (formation of the new individual from the
 cut of body organ),binary fission,and the
 formation of bud.
The Kingdom of animalia consist of 9 phyla,
that is :

 1.Porifera phylum
 2.Coelenterata phylum
 3.Platyhelminthes phylum
 4.Nemathelminthes phylum
 5.Annelida phylum
 6.Mollusca phylum
 7.Arthropoda phylum
 8.Echinodermata phylum
 9.Chordata phylum
Animal can also be grouped into two big
 groups based on the presence or absence of
 the spinal column,that is :
1.Invertebrates
2.Vertebrates
 Habitats of vertebrate are in the water and
  land.Fertilization happens outside of the body
  (external) and inside of the body (internal).
  Reproduce by oviparous,viviparous,and
  ovoviviparous method.

 All of vertebrates have inter skeleton
  (endoskeleton) and have center nervous
  system which develop well that is brain and
  spinal cord.
   Invertebrate is the group of animal which has
    not spinal column.Eventhough sometime
    harmful,several invertebrate have high
    economic value for human,such as
    cuttlefish,shell,and crab.

   In the food chain,invertebrate plays role
    primary and secondary consumer also
    decomposer.Invertebrate occupy all of habitat
    which exist on earth.Sea is the place of
    mostly occupied.
     PORIFERA

Porifera is aquatic invertebrate animal which has many
  water er is also called sponge.
Porifera live in the habitat of fresh water,salty water,and
  sea water.Some live in the river and lake.
The body structure of porifera consist of two layers,that
  is outer layer and inner layer.Outer layer is formed by
  pinacocyte cell,while inner layer is formed by
  choanocyte which has flagella.Between outer layer
  and inner layer is found gelatine subtance from
  mesoglea cell with a number of spicule which has
  function as body supporter.Its spicule can be made of
  protein spongin,calsium carbonate,and silicate crystal.
   Porifera has water drain system of certain
    type.The three types of water draination are :
    a.Ascon type
    b.Sycon type
    c.Leucon type

   Based on its fomer skeleton,Porifera is grouped
    into three class,that is :
    1.Calcarea
    2.Hexactinellida
    3.Demospongiae
COELENTERATE
 Coelenterate is the group of diploblastic animal.Its
  shape is almost like bag with some tentacles around
  the mouth.This animal mostly live in the sea
  water,some live in the fresh water.Colenterate has
  two types of the body called polyp and medusa.Polyp
  lives by sticking,can not move freely.This animal can
  live solitary or in the colony.The colony which is
  easily observed is medusa which lives in the sea.
 All kind of colenterate have stinger cells(nematocyst)
  which is located in ectoderm mainly in
  tentacle.Nematocyst has role to defend itself and
  paralyse its victim.
 Medusa in Indonesian language is called jellyfish,its
  shape like umbrella or bell.Medusa has function for
  reproduction by sexual,so has testes,which produces
 Colenterate is divided into three class,that is :
  1.Hydrozoa 2.Scypozoa 3.Anthozoa
PLATYHELMINTHES
 Characteristic of platyhelminthes are as follows.
 1.Triploblastic acoelomate animal,which means has
  three body layers (ectoderm,mesoderm and
  endoderm) but has not yet body cavity (coelom)
 2.Its body structure is long and dorsoventrally flat.Its
  body is bilaterally symmetrical
 3.The part of its body consist of anterior
  part,posterior,dorsal,ventral,and lateral.
 4.Its digestion system is not perfect yet (has only
  mouth without anus )
 5.Has not blood circulation system
 6.Breathe by all of body surface and through
  gastrovascular cavity.
 Platyhelminthes is divided into three class,that is :
 1.Turbellaria
 2.Trematoda
 3.Cestoda
Nemathelminthes
 Nemathelminthes is often called cylindrical worm
  because its body is not divided into segments and
  with cylindrical body shape.The example are
  Ascaris,Ancylostoma/Necator,Wucheria
  bancrofti,and Enterobius
ANNELIDA
 Annelida is called also roundworm
 Annelida is divided into three class,that is:
a.Polychaeta:has many setae which grow in
  parapodia.Example are Palolo worm and Wawo
  worm
b.Oligochaeta:has a little setae in its body segments and
  has no parapodia.The example is
  earthworm(Lumbricus terestris)
c.Hirudinea:has no setae and parapodia in its body.The
  example is Hirudo medicinalis and Pacet
ARTHROPODA
Arthropoda means animal which has
  segmented leg.The group of animal which is
  the most and found in all of habitat
Arthropoda can be separated into five
  class,that is :
a.Crustacea
b.Insecta
c.Diplopoda
d.Chilopoda
e.Arachnida
MOLLUSCA
Mollusca can mean animal which has soft
  body
Based on body symmetry,the shape of leg,the
  shape of shell,mantle,gills,and its nervous
  system.
Mollusca is divided into five class,that is :
a.Amphineura,the example is Chiton
b.Gastropoda,the example is snail
c.Scaphopoda
d.Pelecypoda,the example is pearl oyster
ECHINODERMATA
 Echinodermata means animal which its skin has spiny
 Based on its body shape,Echinodermata is divided
  into five class,that is :
a.Asteroidea:has shape like the star or pentagon
b.Echinoidea:has shape almost round or flat its body has
  no hand.
c.Ophiuroidea:its body has five hand which can be
  moved
d.Crinoidea:its body has five hand which branching,its
  shape can be like lily flower,bakung flower or bird
  feather.
e.Holothuroidea:its body shape enlengthen or like

				
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