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MACHINE GUARDING CORPORATE SAFETY TRAINING 29 CFR 1910.211-222 WELCOME COURSE OBJECTIVES (Continued) Accident Prevention. Introduce Machine Guarding and Establish Its Role in Today’s Industry. Introduce Basic Concepts and Techniques of Machine Safeguarding. Provide Machine Safeguarding Skills for Maintenance Workers and Floor Supervisors. APPLICABLE REGULATIONS 29CFR - Safety and Health Standards 1910 - Industrial Safety 212 - General Requirements for All Machines 213 - Woodworking Machinery 214 - Cooperage Machinery 215 - Abrasive Wheel Machinery 216 - Mills and Calenders in the Rubber Industry 217 - Mechanical Power Presses 218 - Forging Machines 219 - Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus INDUSTRY CONSENSUS STANDARDS ANSI - B11.2 Hydraulic presses B11.3 Power Press Brakes B11.10 Metal Sawing Machines B11.11 Gear Cutting Machines B11.12 Roll-Forming and Bending Machines B11.14 Coil Slitting Machines B11.15 Pipe, Tube, and Shape Bending B11.16 Metal Powder Compacting Presses B11.17 Horizontal Hydraulic Extrusion B11.18 Coiled Steel Processing INDUSTRY CONSENSUS STANDARDS ANSI - B11.19 Machine Tools, Safeguarding B11.20 Manufacturing Systems/Cells PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS ALL EMPLOYERS MUST: Install Machine Safeguards Review Job Specific Hazards Implement Corrective Actions Conduct Hazard Assessments Conduct Accident Investigations Provide Training to All Required Employees Control Workplace Hazards Using PPE As a Last Resort MACHINE GUARDING IS IMPORTANT A GOOD PROGRAM WILL HELP: Improve Quality. Improve Absenteeism. Maintain a Healthier Work Force. Reduce Injury and Illness Rates. Acceptance of High-Turnover Jobs. Workers Feel Good About Their Work. Reduce Workers’ Compensation Costs. Elevate SAFETY to a Higher Level of Awareness. PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION IMPLEMENTATION OF A MACHINE GUARDING PROGRAM REQUIRES: DEDICATION PERSONAL INTEREST MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT NOTE: UNDERSTANDING AND SUPPORT FROM THE WORK FORCE IS ESSENTIAL, WITHOUT IT THE PROGRAM WILL FAIL! MANAGEMENT’S ROLE Considerations: 1. Support the Machine Guarding Effort. 2. Ensure Your Support Is Visible. 3. Get Involved. 4. Attend the Same Training As Your Workers. 5. Insist on Periodic Follow-up & Program Review. 6. Implement Ways to Measure Effectiveness. THE SUPERVISOR’S ROLE Considerations: 1. Treat All “Near-Misses” As an Accident. 2. Get Involved in the Guarding of Machines. 3. Complete the Paperwork (Work Orders, Policy Changes, Etc.) To Make Guarding Improvements. 4. Get Your Workers Involved. 5. Never Ridicule Any Injury or Near Miss. 6. Be Professional - You Could Save a Life Today. 7. Attend the Same Training As Your Workers. 8. Follow-up on the Actions You Took. THE EMPLOYEE’S ROLE Considerations: 1. Report All Accidents and Near-Misses Immediately. 2. Contribute to Make Corrective Actions. 3. Always Provide Complete and Accurate Information. 4. Report All Machine Guarding Problems or Deficiencies 5. Follow-up With Any Additional Information. SAFETY COMMITTEE Safety Committees Should: Hold Regular Guarding Accident Review Meetings. Document Meetings. Encourage Employee Involvement. Bring Employee Guarding Complaints, Suggestions, or Concerns to the Attention of Management. Provide Feedback Without Fear of Reprisal. Analyze Statistical Data Concerning Accidents, and Make Recommendations for Corrective Action. Follow-up Is Critical. REMEMBER Any machine part, function, or process which may cause injury must be safeguarded. When the operation of a machine or accidental contact with it can injure the operator or others in the vicinity, the hazards must be either controlled or eliminated. BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Where Mechanical Hazards Occur The Point of Operation: Power Transmission Apparatus: Other Moving Parts: BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Where Mechanical Hazards Occur The Point of Operation: Where work is performed on the material, such as: Cutting Shaping Boring Forming of stock LATHE BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Where Mechanical Hazards Occur Power Transmission Apparatus: All components of the mechanical system which transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work. 300 RPM BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Where Mechanical Hazards Occur Other Moving Parts: Any part of the machine which moves while the machine is working. Rotating parts Feed mechanisms Reciprocating parts Transverse moving parts Auxiliary parts of the machine BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Motions and Actions A wide variety of mechanical motions and actions may present hazards to the worker: Rotating members Reciprocating arms Moving belts Meshing gears Cutting teeth Any parts that impact or shear BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Motions and Actions Recognition of these hazards is the first step toward protecting workers from the danger they present. BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Motions Motions Rotating Reciprocating Transversing NIP POINT BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Actions Actions Cutting Punching SHEARITE Shearing CUTTING BLADES Bending BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Motions Rotating Motions - Collars - Couplings - Cams - Clutches - Flywheels - Shaft ends - Spindles - Meshing gears - Horizontal shafts - Vertical shafts BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Motions Rotating Motions Rotating motions can grip clothing, and through mere skin contact force a limb into a dangerous position. The danger increases when projections such as set screws, bolts, nicks, abrasions, and projecting keys or set screws are exposed on rotating parts. BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Motions Reciprocating Motions NIP POINT NIP POINT RECIPROCATING MOTION BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Motions Reciprocating Motions RECIPROCATING MOTION CAUGHT “IN-BETWEEN” OR “STRUCK-BY” BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Motions Transversing Motions TRAVEL IN-RUNNING NIP POINTS BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Motions Rotating Motions NIP POINTS BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Actions Cutting Actions - Rotating motions - Reciprocating motions - Transversing motions The danger of cutting action exists at the point of operation where finger, arm and bodily injuries can occur and where flying chips or scrap material can strike the head, particularly in the area of the eyes or face. BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Actions Cutting Actions Bandsaws Circular saws Boring machines Drilling machines Turning machines (lathes) Milling machines BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Actions Punching Actions Power presses 20 TON Iron workers The principle hazard occurs PRESS PRESS ACME at the point of operation PRESSES where stock is inserted, held or withdrawn. BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Hazardous Mechanical Actions Shearing/Bending Actions DANGER Mechanical shears CUTTING EDGE Hydraulic shears Pneumatic shears PRESS PRESS SHEARITE The principle hazard occurs POWER SHEARS at the point of operation where stock is inserted, held or withdrawn. SHEAR TERROR BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Requirements for Safeguards Be securely attached Create no new hazards Withstand operational conditions Allow for safe routine maintenance Allow for safe operator adjustments Withstand environmental conditions Provide protection from falling objects Prevent contact with hazardous conditions Create no interference in the conduct of work BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Nonmechanical Hazard Considerations: Power sources are potential sources of danger How will guarding affect equipment operation? Ensure proper grounding of systems Replace frayed, exposed , or old wiring Consider effects of - High pressure systems - Extreme temp. conditions - Pulsation, vibration, or leaks - Noise or unwanted sounds - Cutting fluids and coolants HOT SURFACE BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Operator Training Considerations: Provide instruction and or hands-on training Discuss the purpose of safeguards Cover associated hazards thoroughly Involve guard designers in the training Describe how to properly use safeguards Describe how safeguards provide protection Describe circumstances for safeguard removal Explain what to do if safeguards are damaged Explain what to do if safeguards are missing BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Operator Training Considerations: Defeating, altering, or removing safeguards can cause injury to co-workers and can leave the person performing such actions liable under the OSHA Act of 1970. BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Protective Clothing and Equipment Considerations: ENGINEERING CONTROLS FIRST CHOICE Work Station Design Tool Selection and Design Process Modification Mechanical Assist ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS SECOND CHOICE Training Programs Job Rotation/Enlargement Pacing Policy and Procedures PERSONNEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LAST CHOICE Gloves Wraps Shields Eye Protection Non-Slip Shoes Aprons BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING Protective Clothing and Equipment Considerations: Appropriate for the particular hazard(s) Maintained in good condition Properly stored when not in use Kept clean, fully functional, and sanitary METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Guarding Method Dependant on: Type of material Type of operation Method of handling Size or shape of stock Physical layout of the work area Production requirements or limitations METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Manufacturers Recommendation: Before beginning the process of guard procurement, design, or installation, the equipment manufacturer should be consulted for advice. METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Generally: Power transmission apparatus is best protected by fixed guards that enclose the danger areas Point of operation hazard guarding will vary METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Safeguards Are Grouped Under 5 Classifications: Guards Devices Locations/Distance Feeding and ejection methods Miscellaneous aids METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING GUARDS METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Guards: Guards are barriers which prevent access to danger areas, there are four general types: Fixed guards Interlocked guards Adjustable guards Self-Adjusting guards METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Fixed Guards: Fixed guards are a permanent part of the machine and not dependent upon moving parts to perform its intended function. METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Fixed Guards: ADVANTAGES Can be constructed to suit many different applications In-plant construction is often possible Can provide maximum protection Usually requires minimum maintenance Can be suitable to high production operations Can be suitable to high repetition operations METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Fixed Guards: LIMITATIONS May interfere with visibility Can be limited to specific operations Machine adjustments and repair often require guard removal, thereby necessitating other means of protection for maintenance personnel METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Interlocked Guards: Interlocked guards are designed to automatically shut off or disengage the machine if the guard is opened or removed AUTOMATIC AUTOMATIC VISUAL ALARM AUDIBLE ALARM METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Interlocked Guards: Interlocked guards may use: Electrical power Mechanical power Hydraulic power Pneumatic power OR ANY COMBINATION OF POWER SOURCES METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Interlocked Guards: Interlocks should not prevent “inching” by remote control if required Replacing guards should not automatically restart the machine IMPORTANT METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Interlocked Guards: ADVANTAGES Can provide maximum protection Allows access to machine for removing jams without time consuming removal of fixed guards LIMITATIONS Requires careful adjustment and maintenance May be easy to disengage jams METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Adjustable Guards: Typically adjusted by the operator Accommodate various sizes of stock May require additional operator training Adjustable guards are typically used on: Bandsaws Tablesaws Power presses Routers Similar equipment METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Adjustable Guards: ADVANTAGES Can be constructed to suit many specific applications Can be adjusted to admit varying sizes of stock LIMITATIONS Hands may enter danger area Protection may not be complete at all times May require frequent maintenance and or adjustment The guard can be defeated by the operator May interfere with visibility METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Self-Adjusting Guards: Adjusts automatically to the work Accommodate various sizes of stock May require additional operator training Self-Adjusting guards are typically used on: Radial arm saws Tablesaws Circular saws Routers Jointers Similar equipment METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Self-Adjusting Guards: ADVANTAGES Off-the-shelf guards are often commercially available LIMITATIONS Protection may not be complete at all times May require frequent maintenance and or adjustment May interfere with visibility METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING DEVICES METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Devices: Devices fall into four general types: Presence-Sensing devices Pullback devices Restraint devices Safety trip controls METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Devices: Devices may perform one of several function: Stop a machine if a body part is in danger Restrain or withdraw a hand if it is in danger Require activation by the use of both hands Provide a barrier synchronized to the operation METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Presence-Sensing: Photoelectric Radiofrequency Electromechanical PRESS PRESS ACME PRESSES METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Presence-Sensing: Before beginning the process of procurement, design, or installation, the equipment manufacturer should be consulted for advice. METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Presence-Sensing: Photoelectric Radiofrequency Electromechanical 20 TON PRESS PRESS ACME PRESSES METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Pullback Devices: Attached to Wrists Positioning Critical Adjustment Critical Maintenance Critical Training Critical Must Stop Machine Immediately! NYLON PULLBACK STRAPS ATTACHED TO WRISTBANDS METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Restraint Devices: Uses Cables or Straps Affixes to Hands May Need Feeding Tools Adjustment Critical Positioning Critical Maintenance Critical Training Critical Must Restrain Body Part From Hazard! METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Safety Trip Controls: Body Trip Bars Hand/Arm Trip Bars Tripwire Cables Positioning Critical Adjustment Critical Maintenance Critical Training Critical Manual Reset Needed Must Stop Machine Immediately! METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Two-Hand Control: Needs Constant Pressure Needs Concurrent Pressure Positioning Critical 20 TON Adjustment Critical Maintenance Critical PRESS PRESS Training Important ACME Must Stop Machine PRESSES Immediately! METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Location/Distance Safeguarding: Position Dangerous Areas of Machines So That They Are Not Assessable During Normal Operations. Examples Include: Position Hazard Areas Against a Wall Locate Hazards Out of Reach of Operators Add Enclosures or Fences to Restrict Access Design Stock Feeding Openings Away From Hazards Position the Operators Control Station Away From Hazards METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Feeding and Ejection Methods: Automatic Feeds - Fed From Rolls, Indexed by Machine Semiautomatic Feeds - Fed by Chutes, Movable Dies, Dial Feed, Plungers, or Sliding Bolsters Automatic Ejection - Air or Mechanical Ejection Semiautomatic Ejection - Air or Mechanical Ejection Initiated by The Operator Robotics - Perform Work Usually Performed by Operator METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Feeding and Ejection Methods: Manufacturers Should Be Consulted to Determine: Feeding and Ejection Add-on Options Latest Technology Available Best Available Technology Operator Training Requirements Maintenance Staff Training Requirements Cost Estimates for Upgrades Feasibility Assessment Information METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Miscellaneous Aids: Examples of Possible Applications: Awareness Barriers - (Not adequate for continuous hazards) Color coding of hazard areas Signage Shields (i.e. splash, eye protective, thermal etc.) Holding and Positioning Tools METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Guard Construction: Many Machines Come With Safeguards Many Older Machines Now Have Safeguards Available Manufacturers Are Increasingly More Concerned With Liability Companies Not Specialized in Guarding Issues METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Builder Designed and Installed Guards: Usually Conform to Design and Function of Machine Better Can Be Designed to Strengthen the Machine in Some Way or to Serve Some Additional Functional Purposes METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING User Designed and Installed Guards: Often the Only Practical Solution for Older Equipment Can Be Designed and Built to Fit Unique & Changing Situations Can Be Installed on Individual Dies and Feeding Mechanisms Can Help Promote Safety Consciousness in the Workplace Sometimes Do Not Conform As Well As “Builder Designed” Depending on Talent and Resources May Be Poorly Designed METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Point-of-Operations Guards : Defined as: “The area on a machine where work is actually performed upon the material being processed.” Complicated by the Number and Complexity of Machines in Use Must Fully Safeguard the Employee Must Allow Production to Continue Hazard Analysis Is Usually Required If Poorly Designed, Built, or Installed Guards May Create a Hazard Rather Than Eliminating One. METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus Guards: The only openings usually needed are for: Lubrication Adjustment Repair Inspection 300 RPM METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING Guard Material: Under Many Circumstances, Metal Is the Best Material for Guards. Guard Framework Is Usually Made From Structural Shapes, Pipe, Bar, or Rod Stock. Filler Material Generally Is Expanded or Perforated or Solid Sheet Metal or Wire Mesh. It May Be Feasible to Use Plastic or Safety Glass Where Visibility Is Required. Guards Made of Wood Generally Are Not Recommended Because of Their Flammability and Lack of Durability and Strength. However, in Areas Where Corrosive Materials Are Present, Wooden Guards May Be the Better Choice. LOCKOUT TAGOUT OVERVIEW 29CFR - 1910 - 147 29CFR - SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS 1910 - GENERAL INDUSTRY 147 - LOCKOUT TAGOUT STANDARD LOCKOUT TAGOUT OVERVIEW TITLE - CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS ENERGY SEPTEMBER 1, 1989 - FINAL RULE ISSUED JANUARY 2, 1990 - FINAL RULE TOOK EFFECT LOCKOUT TAGOUT OVERVIEW Authorized Employee The Person Who Locks or Tags Out Machines To Perform Servicing or Maintenance. Affected Employee An Employee Whose Job Requires Him or Her To Operate or Use a Machine or Piece of Equipment On Which Servicing or Maintenance Is Being Performed. LOCKOUT TAGOUT OVERVIEW DANGER LOCKED OUT DO NOT OPERATE This Lock/Tag may only be removed by NAME: _______________ DEPT : _______________ EXPECTED COMPLETION DATE: ________________ TIME: _________________ LOCKOUT TAGOUT OVERVIEW Normal Operations 1. Covered If an Employee Must Remove or Bypass Guards or Devices 2. Covered Where Employees Are Required to Put A Body Part in a Machine Process Area 3. Covered Where Employees Are Required to Put A Body Part in a Machine Having a Danger Zone TIPS FOR USING CONTRACTORS REMEMBER, YOU CONTROL YOUR FACILITY OR AREA! REVIEW THEIR PROCEDURES WITH THEM BEFORE STARTING THE JOB! DETERMINE THEIR SAFETY PERFORMANCE RECORD! DETERMINE WHO IS IN CHARGE OF THEIR PEOPLE! DETERMINE HOW THEY WILL AFFECT YOUR EMPLOYEES!
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