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					  MACHINE GUARDING

CORPORATE SAFETY TRAINING
     29 CFR 1910.211-222



  WELCOME
     COURSE OBJECTIVES
                    (Continued)



 Accident Prevention.
 Introduce Machine Guarding and Establish Its
  Role in Today’s Industry.
 Introduce Basic Concepts and Techniques of
  Machine Safeguarding.
 Provide Machine Safeguarding Skills for
  Maintenance Workers and Floor Supervisors.
     APPLICABLE REGULATIONS

29CFR - Safety and Health Standards
        1910 - Industrial Safety
               212 - General Requirements for All Machines
               213 - Woodworking Machinery
               214 - Cooperage Machinery
               215 - Abrasive Wheel Machinery
               216 - Mills and Calenders in the Rubber Industry
               217 - Mechanical Power Presses
               218 - Forging Machines
               219 - Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus
INDUSTRY CONSENSUS STANDARDS

ANSI - B11.2 Hydraulic presses
       B11.3 Power Press Brakes
       B11.10 Metal Sawing Machines
       B11.11 Gear Cutting Machines
       B11.12 Roll-Forming and Bending Machines
       B11.14 Coil Slitting Machines
       B11.15 Pipe, Tube, and Shape Bending
       B11.16 Metal Powder Compacting Presses
       B11.17 Horizontal Hydraulic Extrusion
       B11.18 Coiled Steel Processing
INDUSTRY CONSENSUS STANDARDS

ANSI - B11.19 Machine Tools, Safeguarding
       B11.20 Manufacturing Systems/Cells
   PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS
ALL EMPLOYERS MUST:

 Install Machine Safeguards
 Review Job Specific Hazards
 Implement Corrective Actions
 Conduct Hazard Assessments
 Conduct Accident Investigations
 Provide Training to All Required Employees
 Control Workplace Hazards Using PPE As a Last Resort
        MACHINE GUARDING IS
            IMPORTANT
A GOOD PROGRAM WILL HELP:
   Improve Quality.
   Improve Absenteeism.
   Maintain a Healthier Work Force.
   Reduce Injury and Illness Rates.
   Acceptance of High-Turnover Jobs.
   Workers Feel Good About Their Work.
   Reduce Workers’ Compensation Costs.
   Elevate SAFETY to a Higher Level of Awareness.
  PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

IMPLEMENTATION OF A MACHINE GUARDING
PROGRAM REQUIRES:

 DEDICATION
 PERSONAL INTEREST
 MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT

NOTE:
UNDERSTANDING AND SUPPORT FROM THE WORK FORCE
IS ESSENTIAL, WITHOUT IT THE PROGRAM WILL FAIL!
     MANAGEMENT’S ROLE
 Considerations:
   1. Support the Machine Guarding Effort.
   2. Ensure Your Support Is Visible.
   3. Get Involved.
   4. Attend the Same Training As Your Workers.
   5. Insist on Periodic Follow-up & Program Review.
   6. Implement Ways to Measure Effectiveness.
   THE SUPERVISOR’S ROLE
 Considerations:
   1. Treat All “Near-Misses” As an Accident.
   2. Get Involved in the Guarding of Machines.
   3. Complete the Paperwork (Work Orders, Policy
      Changes, Etc.) To Make Guarding Improvements.
   4. Get Your Workers Involved.
   5. Never Ridicule Any Injury or Near Miss.
   6. Be Professional - You Could Save a Life Today.
   7. Attend the Same Training As Your Workers.
   8. Follow-up on the Actions You Took.
     THE EMPLOYEE’S ROLE

 Considerations:
  1. Report All Accidents and Near-Misses Immediately.
  2. Contribute to Make Corrective Actions.
  3. Always Provide Complete and Accurate Information.
  4. Report All Machine Guarding Problems or Deficiencies
  5. Follow-up With Any Additional Information.
      SAFETY COMMITTEE
 Safety Committees Should:
   Hold Regular Guarding Accident Review Meetings.
   Document Meetings.
   Encourage Employee Involvement.
   Bring Employee Guarding Complaints, Suggestions,
    or Concerns to the Attention of Management.
   Provide Feedback Without Fear of Reprisal.
   Analyze Statistical Data Concerning Accidents, and
    Make Recommendations for Corrective Action.
   Follow-up Is Critical.
              REMEMBER

Any machine part, function, or process
which may cause injury must be
safeguarded.    When the operation of a
machine or accidental contact with it can
injure the operator or others in the vicinity,
the hazards must be either controlled or
eliminated.
 BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Where Mechanical Hazards Occur

 The Point of Operation:
 Power Transmission Apparatus:
 Other Moving Parts:
 BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Where Mechanical Hazards Occur
 The Point of Operation: Where work is performed
  on the material, such as:
   Cutting
   Shaping
   Boring
   Forming of stock
                                       LATHE
  BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Where Mechanical Hazards Occur
 Power Transmission Apparatus: All components
  of the mechanical system which transmit energy
  to the part of the machine performing the work.



                           300 RPM
 BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Where Mechanical Hazards Occur
 Other Moving Parts: Any part of the machine
  which moves while the machine is working.

  
  
      Rotating parts
      Feed mechanisms                   
                                        
     Reciprocating parts
     Transverse moving parts

                                        
     Auxiliary parts of the machine
 BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Hazardous Mechanical Motions and Actions
A wide variety of mechanical motions and actions
may present hazards to the worker:
   Rotating members
   Reciprocating arms                             
   Moving belts                                   


    Meshing gears
    Cutting teeth
                                                   
   Any parts that impact or shear
 BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Hazardous Mechanical Motions and Actions


Recognition of these hazards is the first step
toward protecting workers from the danger
they present.
BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Hazardous Mechanical Motions
Motions

 Rotating
 Reciprocating
 Transversing        NIP POINT
 BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Hazardous Mechanical Actions
Actions
   Cutting
   Punching                  SHEARITE
   Shearing               CUTTING BLADES
   Bending
 BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Hazardous Mechanical Motions
 Rotating Motions
- Collars         - Couplings     - Cams
- Clutches        - Flywheels     - Shaft ends
- Spindles        - Meshing gears - Horizontal shafts
- Vertical shafts
BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Hazardous Mechanical Motions
 Rotating Motions

Rotating motions can grip clothing, and through
mere skin contact force a limb into a dangerous
position. The danger increases when projections
such as set screws, bolts, nicks, abrasions, and
projecting keys or set screws are exposed on
rotating parts.
 BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING
Hazardous Mechanical Motions
 Reciprocating Motions



NIP POINT                               NIP POINT



            RECIPROCATING      MOTION
BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Hazardous Mechanical Motions
 Reciprocating Motions




                  RECIPROCATING   MOTION




        CAUGHT “IN-BETWEEN”
          OR “STRUCK-BY”
BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Hazardous Mechanical Motions
 Transversing Motions

                TRAVEL




            IN-RUNNING NIP POINTS
 BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING
Hazardous Mechanical Motions
 Rotating Motions
                               
                               
NIP POINTS




                               
  BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Hazardous Mechanical Actions
 Cutting Actions
   - Rotating motions
   - Reciprocating motions
   - Transversing motions
   The danger of cutting action exists at the point of
   operation where finger, arm and bodily injuries can
   occur and where flying chips or scrap material can
   strike the head, particularly in the area of the eyes or
   face.
BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Hazardous Mechanical Actions
 Cutting Actions
   Bandsaws
   Circular saws
   Boring machines
   Drilling machines
   Turning machines (lathes)
   Milling machines
 BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Hazardous Mechanical Actions
 Punching Actions
   Power presses                         20 TON
   Iron workers
 The principle hazard occurs
                                  PRESS             PRESS
                                           ACME
  at the point of operation               PRESSES
  where stock is inserted, held
  or withdrawn.
 BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

Hazardous Mechanical Actions
 Shearing/Bending Actions
                                            DANGER
    Mechanical shears                    CUTTING EDGE
    Hydraulic shears
    Pneumatic shears             PRESS                  PRESS
                                            SHEARITE
 The principle hazard occurs             POWER SHEARS
  at the point of operation
  where stock is inserted, held
  or withdrawn.
                                  SHEAR TERROR
 BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Requirements for Safeguards
   Be securely attached
   Create no new hazards
   Withstand operational conditions
   Allow for safe routine maintenance
   Allow for safe operator adjustments
   Withstand environmental conditions
   Provide protection from falling objects
   Prevent contact with hazardous conditions
   Create no interference in the conduct of work
  BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Nonmechanical Hazard Considerations:
   Power sources are potential sources of danger
   How will guarding affect equipment operation?
   Ensure proper grounding of systems
   Replace frayed, exposed , or old wiring
   Consider effects of - High pressure systems
                        - Extreme temp. conditions
                        - Pulsation, vibration, or leaks
                        - Noise or unwanted sounds
                        - Cutting fluids and coolants
       HOT SURFACE
  BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Operator Training Considerations:
   Provide instruction and or hands-on training
   Discuss the purpose of safeguards
   Cover associated hazards thoroughly
   Involve guard designers in the training
   Describe how to properly use safeguards
   Describe how safeguards provide protection
   Describe circumstances for safeguard removal
   Explain what to do if safeguards are damaged
   Explain what to do if safeguards are missing
  BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Operator Training Considerations:

 Defeating, altering, or removing safeguards
 can cause injury to co-workers and can leave
 the person performing such actions liable
 under the OSHA Act of 1970.
  BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Protective Clothing and Equipment Considerations:
ENGINEERING CONTROLS                     FIRST CHOICE
   Work Station Design     Tool Selection and Design
   Process Modification    Mechanical Assist

 ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS                  SECOND CHOICE
   Training Programs       Job Rotation/Enlargement
   Pacing                  Policy and Procedures

 PERSONNEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LAST CHOICE
   Gloves                  Wraps
   Shields                 Eye Protection
   Non-Slip Shoes          Aprons
 BASICS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Protective Clothing and Equipment Considerations:
   Appropriate for the particular hazard(s)
   Maintained in good condition
   Properly stored when not in use
   Kept clean, fully functional, and sanitary
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Guarding Method Dependant on:
   Type of material
   Type of operation
   Method of handling
   Size or shape of stock
   Physical layout of the work area
   Production requirements or limitations
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Manufacturers Recommendation:

Before beginning the process of guard
procurement, design, or installation, the
equipment      manufacturer should     be
consulted for advice.
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Generally:
   Power transmission apparatus is best protected
    by fixed guards that enclose the danger areas
   Point of operation hazard guarding will vary
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Safeguards Are Grouped Under 5 Classifications:
   Guards
   Devices
   Locations/Distance
   Feeding and ejection methods
   Miscellaneous aids
METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING




  GUARDS
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Guards:
   Guards are barriers which prevent access to
    danger areas, there are four general types:
       Fixed guards
       Interlocked guards
       Adjustable guards
       Self-Adjusting guards
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Fixed Guards:
   Fixed guards are a permanent part of the
    machine and not dependent upon moving parts
    to perform its intended function.
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Fixed Guards:
   ADVANTAGES

   Can be constructed to suit many different applications
   In-plant construction is often possible
   Can provide maximum protection
   Usually requires minimum maintenance
   Can be suitable to high production operations
   Can be suitable to high repetition operations
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Fixed Guards:
   LIMITATIONS

   May interfere with visibility
   Can be limited to specific operations
   Machine adjustments and repair often require guard
    removal, thereby necessitating other means of protection
    for maintenance personnel
  METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Interlocked Guards:
    Interlocked guards are designed to automatically
     shut off or disengage the machine if the guard is
     opened or removed



 AUTOMATIC                                AUTOMATIC
VISUAL ALARM                            AUDIBLE ALARM
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Interlocked Guards:
   Interlocked guards may use:
        Electrical power
        Mechanical power
        Hydraulic power
        Pneumatic power

   OR ANY COMBINATION OF POWER SOURCES
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Interlocked Guards:
   Interlocks should not prevent “inching” by
    remote control if required
   Replacing guards should   not   automatically
    restart the machine



              IMPORTANT
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Interlocked Guards:
   ADVANTAGES
   Can provide maximum protection
   Allows access to machine for removing jams without time
    consuming removal of fixed guards

   LIMITATIONS
    Requires careful adjustment and maintenance
    May be easy to disengage jams
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Adjustable Guards:
     Typically adjusted by the operator
     Accommodate various sizes of stock
     May require additional operator training
     Adjustable guards are typically used on:
       Bandsaws
       Tablesaws
       Power presses
       Routers
       Similar equipment
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Adjustable Guards:
   ADVANTAGES
    Can be constructed to suit many specific applications
    Can be adjusted to admit varying sizes of stock

   LIMITATIONS
    Hands may enter danger area
    Protection may not be complete at all times
    May require frequent maintenance and or adjustment
    The guard can be defeated by the operator
    May interfere with visibility
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Self-Adjusting Guards:
     Adjusts automatically to the work
     Accommodate various sizes of stock
     May require additional operator training
     Self-Adjusting guards are typically used on:
         Radial arm saws
         Tablesaws
         Circular saws
         Routers
         Jointers
         Similar equipment
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Self-Adjusting Guards:
   ADVANTAGES
    Off-the-shelf guards are often commercially available

   LIMITATIONS
    Protection may not be complete at all times
    May require frequent maintenance and or adjustment
    May interfere with visibility
METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING




  DEVICES
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Devices:
   Devices fall into four general types:

        Presence-Sensing devices
        Pullback devices
        Restraint devices
        Safety trip controls
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Devices:
   Devices may perform one of several function:
        Stop a machine if a body part is in danger
        Restrain or withdraw a hand if it is in danger
        Require activation by the use of both hands
        Provide a barrier synchronized to the operation
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Presence-Sensing:
   Photoelectric
   Radiofrequency
   Electromechanical

                        PRESS             PRESS
                                 ACME
                                PRESSES
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Presence-Sensing:

  Before beginning the process of
  procurement, design, or installation, the
  equipment manufacturer should be
  consulted for advice.
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Presence-Sensing:
   Photoelectric
   Radiofrequency
   Electromechanical
                                20 TON

                        PRESS             PRESS
                                 ACME
                                PRESSES
  METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Pullback Devices:
     Attached to Wrists
     Positioning Critical
     Adjustment Critical
     Maintenance Critical
     Training Critical
     Must Stop Machine
      Immediately!



                             NYLON PULLBACK STRAPS ATTACHED
                             TO WRISTBANDS
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Restraint Devices:
     Uses Cables or Straps
     Affixes to Hands
     May Need Feeding Tools
     Adjustment Critical
     Positioning Critical
     Maintenance Critical
     Training Critical
     Must Restrain Body Part
      From Hazard!
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Safety Trip Controls:
      Body Trip Bars
      Hand/Arm Trip Bars
      Tripwire Cables
      Positioning Critical
      Adjustment Critical
      Maintenance Critical
      Training Critical
      Manual Reset Needed
      Must Stop Machine
       Immediately!
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Two-Hand Control:
     Needs Constant Pressure
     Needs Concurrent Pressure
     Positioning Critical                20 TON
     Adjustment Critical
     Maintenance Critical
                                  PRESS             PRESS
     Training Important                   ACME
     Must Stop Machine                   PRESSES
      Immediately!
  METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Location/Distance Safeguarding:
   Position Dangerous Areas of Machines So That They Are
    Not Assessable During Normal Operations. Examples
    Include:

     Position Hazard Areas Against a Wall
     Locate Hazards Out of Reach of Operators
     Add Enclosures or Fences to Restrict Access
     Design Stock Feeding Openings Away From Hazards
     Position the Operators Control Station Away From Hazards
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Feeding and Ejection Methods:
   Automatic Feeds - Fed From Rolls, Indexed by Machine

   Semiautomatic Feeds - Fed by Chutes, Movable Dies, Dial
    Feed, Plungers, or Sliding Bolsters

   Automatic Ejection - Air or Mechanical Ejection

   Semiautomatic Ejection - Air or Mechanical Ejection Initiated
    by The Operator

   Robotics - Perform Work Usually Performed by Operator
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Feeding and Ejection Methods:
   Manufacturers Should Be Consulted to Determine:
     Feeding and Ejection Add-on Options
     Latest Technology Available
     Best Available Technology
     Operator Training Requirements
     Maintenance Staff Training Requirements
     Cost Estimates for Upgrades
     Feasibility Assessment Information
 METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Miscellaneous Aids:
   Examples of Possible Applications:
     Awareness Barriers - (Not adequate for continuous hazards)
     Color coding of hazard areas
     Signage
     Shields (i.e. splash, eye protective, thermal etc.)
     Holding and Positioning Tools
  METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Guard Construction:
     Many Machines Come With Safeguards
     Many Older Machines Now Have Safeguards Available
     Manufacturers Are Increasingly More Concerned With Liability
     Companies Not Specialized in Guarding Issues
  METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Builder Designed and Installed Guards:
   Usually Conform to Design and Function of Machine Better
   Can Be Designed to Strengthen the Machine in Some Way or
    to Serve Some Additional Functional Purposes
    METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 User Designed and Installed Guards:
   Often the Only Practical Solution for Older Equipment
   Can Be Designed and Built to Fit Unique & Changing Situations
   Can Be Installed on Individual Dies and Feeding Mechanisms
   Can Help Promote Safety Consciousness in the Workplace
   Sometimes Do Not Conform As Well As “Builder Designed”
   Depending on Talent and Resources May Be Poorly Designed
     METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Point-of-Operations Guards :
     Defined as: “The area on a machine where work is actually
                 performed upon the material being processed.”

     Complicated by the Number and Complexity of Machines in Use
     Must Fully Safeguard the Employee
     Must Allow Production to Continue
     Hazard Analysis Is Usually Required
     If Poorly Designed, Built, or Installed Guards May Create a
      Hazard Rather Than Eliminating One.
  METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus Guards:
 The only openings usually needed are for:

    Lubrication
    Adjustment
    Repair
    Inspection



                               300 RPM
  METHODS OF MACHINE GUARDING

 Guard Material:
   Under Many Circumstances, Metal Is the Best Material for
    Guards. Guard Framework Is Usually Made From Structural
    Shapes, Pipe, Bar, or Rod Stock. Filler Material Generally Is
    Expanded or Perforated or Solid Sheet Metal or Wire Mesh.
    It May Be Feasible to Use Plastic or Safety Glass Where
    Visibility Is Required.

   Guards Made of Wood Generally Are Not Recommended
    Because of Their Flammability and Lack of Durability and
    Strength. However, in Areas Where Corrosive Materials Are
    Present, Wooden Guards May Be the Better Choice.
  LOCKOUT TAGOUT OVERVIEW

          29CFR - 1910 - 147

29CFR - SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS

      1910 - GENERAL INDUSTRY

            147 - LOCKOUT TAGOUT STANDARD
   LOCKOUT TAGOUT OVERVIEW


 TITLE - CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS ENERGY

 SEPTEMBER 1, 1989 - FINAL RULE ISSUED

 JANUARY 2, 1990 - FINAL RULE TOOK EFFECT
 LOCKOUT TAGOUT OVERVIEW

 Authorized Employee

  The Person Who Locks or Tags Out Machines To Perform Servicing
  or Maintenance.


 Affected Employee
  An Employee Whose Job Requires Him or Her To Operate or Use a
  Machine or Piece of Equipment On Which Servicing or Maintenance
  Is Being Performed.
LOCKOUT TAGOUT OVERVIEW


                  DANGER
                  LOCKED
                    OUT
                DO NOT OPERATE
                 This Lock/Tag may
                 only be removed by

                NAME: _______________
                DEPT : _______________
                EXPECTED COMPLETION
                DATE: ________________
                TIME: _________________
 LOCKOUT TAGOUT OVERVIEW

 Normal Operations
  1. Covered If an Employee Must Remove or Bypass Guards
      or Devices

  2. Covered Where Employees Are Required to Put A Body
      Part in a Machine Process Area

  3. Covered Where Employees Are Required to Put A Body
      Part in a Machine Having a Danger Zone
   TIPS FOR USING CONTRACTORS

 REMEMBER, YOU CONTROL YOUR FACILITY OR AREA!

 REVIEW THEIR PROCEDURES WITH THEM BEFORE
  STARTING THE JOB!

 DETERMINE THEIR SAFETY PERFORMANCE RECORD!

 DETERMINE WHO IS IN CHARGE OF THEIR PEOPLE!

 DETERMINE HOW THEY WILL AFFECT YOUR EMPLOYEES!

				
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