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                   SOA: Socially Oriented Architecture
                   Technical Opportunities, Social Challenges
                   Hub Vandervoort
                   Chief Technology Officer
                   Progress Software

 Prod Code 7797

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If YOu IgnOred SOA, WhAT WOuld YOu MISS?
Answer: The opportunity to participate in a much larger and more
dynamic social community.                                                        get socially architected.
                                                                                 Join Progress CTO
If you’re surprised by this answer, it’s because SOA’s uniqueness goes           Hub Vandervoort for a
beyond any new technologies. Traditional “latest and greatest” technologies      discussion about your options.
and architectures—such as mainframes, client-server, and even Web                                   click here >
applications—interact point to point with one party.

SOA creates multi-party interactions. Communities of more-or-less
independent service owners collaborate dynamically to deliver a richer
customer experience in response to the immediate context.

Why does this matter? Business success now and, increasingly, in the
future will result from the ability to participate in these new, more dynamic,
federated communities.

This social orientation is driving both new SOA technology needs and
management changes in how technology is delivered and governed—in ways
that may not be immediately apparent.
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Technical OppOrTuniTies, sOcial challenges
Conventional wisdom has focused on the opportunities of SOA: seamless
                                                                                   Opportunity        Challenges
integration, business agility, and service reuse. But there are challenges to
realizing these opportunities.                                                      Integration         Security

> If you knock down silos and open up system borders for                              Agility         Governance
  seamless integration, you create security vulnerabilities. Who will come in?
                                                                                      Reuse            Ownership
  Who can access what information?
                                                                                 Service-oriented   Socially oriented
> Business agility allows you to capitalize on market opportunities. But how       Architecture       Architecture
  do you manage the changes, and who has control? You need governance.

> Deciding what to reuse (and not to reuse)—and when, how, and by whom—
  raises issues of ownership, sovereignty, and control. sOa opportunities are
  about technology, but sOa challenges are about people.

So you need a socially oriented architecture—a way to get people to work
together—to seize the opportunities of service-oriented architecture.
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If you get the technology right and manage it correctly, people will be able to
work together. Interestingly, the critical technology for supporting social and
service interaction are the same. You must:

> Connect interactions freely. The best relationships are built on free, easy
  interaction. The foundation of a successful service-oriented architecture is
  seamless interoperability.

> Mediate policy actively. Strong, trusting personal and business

                                                                                  “If you get the technology
  relationships are based, respectively, on informal or formal contracts with
  unwritten principles or policies about respecting security and sovereignty
  and promises to interact in a certain way. In the best relationships, when
  differences about rules occur, either party can raise and mediate the issue
                                                                                   right and manage it
  directly.                                                                        correctly, people will be
> Control semantics precisely. Whether people or systems communicate               able to work together.”
  freely, they need to make sure meaning is clear. They need a common

If you get these three things right, you will have both a seamless, responsive
technical experience and a protected, regulated community.

Some examples of SOA in action can shed more light on the technology
success factors and new management practices needed for SOA success.
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SOA In ACTIOn: All under One rOOf
For some time now, customers of a major US bank have been seeing an “Add
Accounts” choice on the “My Portfolio” page of the bank’s Web site. Clicking
here reveals a list of two hundred-plus independent credit card, mortgage,
insurance, investment, and even airline companies. Bank customers who
also have accounts with any of these companies can bring information (even
frequent flyer miles) from those accounts into their personal portfolio page of
core banking information. It’s all under one roof.

What’s more, if they visit the Web sites of the companies on the list, they
can find the same capability. In short, a federation of separate companies
now makes it possible to seamlessly integrate all of an individual’s account
information in a number of different contexts.                                    Watch IT executives tell their stories of SOA
                                                                                  in action. >
The result is a rich customer experience and a competitive differentiator for
the federated companies.
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How many times have you purchased a toy or some gadget, started to
assemble it, and discovered you need to go out and get some batteries to
finish the job?

People working in an ERP, lending, or other application have this kind of
disjointed experience every time they need to get a business credit report to
complete their application. They must leave their current application, go to
the site of the leading US credit report provider, and then re-key the credit
information into their current application.

Luckily, the credit report company saw an opportunity to provide the right
information in the right place—and to grow its business. The company created
a set of Web service APIs for licensing to the providers of applications that
require business credit information. Software providers can embed these
APIs in their applications, giving their customers credit information when and
where they need it, within the application they are working on.
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SOA In ACTIOn: The genIe In The BOTTle
Online airline aggregators typically offer ticketing for virtually all the airlines
plus reservations for a number of hotels, car rentals, etc. But one leading
aggregator’s site is building a new SOA community—with affinity sites—to
expand its business. For example, a participating golfing site could have links
to vacation bundles for golfing in Bermuda; a jazz site links to travel packages
to the Newport Festival; and a wine site links to trips to the Sonoma
and Napa Valleys.

For visitors to these sites, the SOA community is the genie in the bottle that
can make it all happen. These links will lead to the aggregator’s site, from
which various reservations can be made via additional links to the sites of
airlines, hotels, car rental agencies, etc.
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A SOA can consist of in-house service owners as well: the subsidiaries of an
enterprise, the divisions of a subsidiary, the departments of a division, and
even the locations of a distributed department, and so forth.

In fact, a major aircraft manufacturer of a revolutionary airplane design
has taken the idea of a SOA community to a new, innovative level in
revolutionizing its manufacturing approach as well.

The company has created a supply chain SOA that includes each of its
internal work cells as an independent, federated service owner as well as
external partners. The goal is to be able to in-source or outsource at any level,
on the fly.

The company is taking just-in-time manufacturing to the next level, providing
flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances, and eliminating some layers of
bureaucracy for the individual units.
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A SeAMleSS end uSer experIenCe
What do these examples have in common? They deliver a seamless, broader
experience for end users, aligned with their context.

In other words, SOA is about relationships, not technology. End users don’t
care how services are delivered. End users do care about what happens
online. Once they have experienced SOA, they come to expect—and               “SOA is about relationships.”
trust—appropriate online services to be there reliably and to adapt to them
continuously with richer experiences.

As a result, there needs to be a change in the way IT is developed
and managed.
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The reSulTIng MAnAgeMenT IMperATIve
SOA success will occur when IT organizations deliver adaptive, ever
broadening SOA experiences that SOA users will come to expect. That means
that IT organizations should…

> Stop thinking about delivering software releases on a
  date-driven deadline.
> Start thinking about delivering a dynamic contextual user
  experience as a continuous service.

Companies need to earn the customer’s business every day. Consider a
leading sales automation vendor that is one of the pioneers of software-as-a-
service (SaaS) solutions. Rather than putting out software version releases,
the company adjusts its service behavior to specific customer needs in the
moment—with ongoing software improvements.
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A vAlue ChAIn…WITh federATed InTerACTIOnS
What else do all of the examples have in common? SOA communities form a
value chain to differing degrees, with each member or service incrementally
adding value by enriching or broadening the end user experience.

In the first example the SOA community of financial services companies,
each account that integrated into the portfolio information page added value.
Subsequent examples build up to a complete vertical value chain: the airline
links into a travel aggregator, which, in turn, is a component of affinity sites.
The value chain results in an incremental experience that gets richer and can
change over time as the context changes.

However, there is one constant, whether community members are various in-
house teams or separate companies: their interactions are federated.

It’s important to understand what federated actions entail to see what
technologies and management practices are essential for SOA success.
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federATed InTerACTIOnS: An OvervIeW
                                                                                     Technical                     Communal
Federated interactions can be viewed from two dimensions: the technical
characteristics of the service-oriented architecture and the communal
                                                                             • Heterogeneous systems       • Copes with diversity
characteristics of the socially oriented architecture.
                                                                             • Loosely coupled transport   • Anticipates and desires
                                                                               bindings                      unexpected relationships
The two align—with the technical characteristics enabling and supporting     • Independent security        • Preserves the sovereignty
the communal dimension or social structure of the SOA, or, conversely, the     domains                       of individuals and
                                                                             • Event-driven processes        members
federation members requiring specific kinds of technology and management
                                                                             • Flexible, standard          • Collaborates as a
practices to work together and succeed.                                                                      “virtual” team
                                                                                                           • New relationships based
                                                                                                             on trust and commitment
                                                                                                           • Shares a common

                                                                                 Service-oriented              Socially oriented
                                                                                   Architecture                  Architecture
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Technically, the service-oriented architecture consists of heterogeneous
systems with independent security domains—because, as a social structure,       get socially architected.
an SOA includes diverse members sovereign in their own domains, including       Join Progress CTO
their choice of platform and security.                                          Hub Vandervoort for a
                                                                                discussion about your options.
Technically, to integrate heterogeneous systems requires standards-based,                          click here >
loosely coupled transport bindings—in runtime. Hardwiring the integration
in design would require re-design and new coding for every change. Loosely
coupled transport bindings support openness in the socially oriented
architecture, allowing it to anticipate unexpected relationships.

However, how do you get these independent domains to collaborate as a virtual
team and share a common vocabulary—to optimize runtime performance while
enforcing SOA-wide security? After all, this is what’s necessary for the SOA
members to execute work efficiently and effectively.
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Given the cross-organizational nature of the SOA, centralized, top-down
                                                                                  Learn more about runtime SOA management. >
command-and-control won’t work. Domains will want to control their piece
of the process (or have been given this control, in the example of the airline
manufacturer’s work cells).

Consequently, the socially oriented architecture needs a consensual form of
governance—by contracts, with security policies and service-level agreements
(SLAs). Relationships of trust will follow from observing and enforcing agreed-
upon contracts.

In other words, in a SOA federation—as opposed to traditional, hierarchical or
top-down IT governance—the domains maintain sovereignty over key functions,
but cede some control to a centralized authority for functions that cross and
mediate SOA boundaries, such as service integration, business process
performance, security, and accurate data exchange.

This balance between central and local control may vary, according to SOA
needs, but there must be some division of power to maintain domain sovereignty
and SOA agility, on one hand, and reliable collaboration on the other.
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The reSulTIng MAnAgeMenT IMperATIve
The concept of federation and the characteristics of federated interactions
have clear implications for a practical SOA implementation. First, SOA
demands a management change.

> Stop thinking about SOA governance in the context of conventional
  hierarchical organizational models…
> Start erasing the traditional lines of power and authority and orient
  towards collaboration, establishing trust and commitment
  with SlAs.

Collaboration based on SLAs allows services to be in-sourced and outsourced
using the same approach—as the manufacturing example shows—providing
optimal agility and productivity. This approach works recursively at the work-
cell level, the department level, the division level, the company level—and
beyond to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, divestures, and partnerships
and alliances.
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frICTIOn-free SOA: CrITICAl TeChnOlOgY
Second, federation also requires key enabling technologies: those that cross
                                                                                 Learn more about using a common data model
the heterogeneous system boundaries to support collaboration and SOA
                                                                                 to mediate semantic inconsistencies. >
governance. As mentioned earlier, this SOA infrastructure must:

> Connect interactions freely. Look for a messaging and event distribution
  platform that is designed to cross platform, network, and organizational
  boundaries. This is a core competency for federation and collaboration.

> Mediate policy actively. Look for a technology that provides visibility into
  business performance and alerts on and enforces compliance for security
  policy and SLAs spanning SOA processes.

> Control semantics precisely. To mediate semantic inconsistencies, look
  for technology that allows you to build and manage a complex, federated,
  common data model—with visual tools—and facilitates deploying those
  semantics in a distributed, runtime environment.

These are core competencies for federation and collaboration. Look for
best-of-breed products that are built from the ground up for integration and
mediation among diverse computing resources.
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These critical technologies and management imperatives matter
because in the future…

Success will…

> depend on your ability to insert what you do into the value chain
  electronically to participate in a service-oriented architecture.
> result from your participation in a new, more dynamic, federated
  community experience—the socially oriented architecture.

The examples of pioneering SOAs show the new, unique opportunities and
resulting gains that SOA makes possible. You can’t afford to ignore it or wait
five years because SOA is happening—fast.
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Research shows a doubling of SOA-based applications in the next two years.*
This shift will include other architectures persisting and being incorporated
into SOAs.

At Progress Software alone, we have more than 350 SOA customers and
more than 100 applications partners embarked on SOA-based software-as-a-
service (SaaS) offerings—with 40% saying SaaS solutions will be more than
half their business by 2010.

Right now, the three critical technologies—connectivity, policy enforcement,
and semantics—are available as capabilities and/or services within the
SOA. The future will see integration-as-a-service infrastructure embedded
in hardware or offered as managed services more, and capabilities, such
as analytics, offered as a real-time service. A major telecommunications
company is now manufacturing an appliance with SOA integration built in.
Attached in your basement, it connects you to services provisioned from
within the company’s network.

So, the future is here. If you’re not part of it, the time to get involved is now.

* Progress Actional Webinar, “Continuous Service Optimization:
  How to Use SOA to Better Serve Your Business Goals,” 2007.
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The best way to start is, in fact, with a practical approach. Begin with a
business change project—in the innovative part of your business—so you
can learn about SOA and mature (not with the big, core enterprise systems
that maintain business continuity and stability).

The innovative areas are also better suited to applying the IT management
changes necessary for successful social federation:

> Continuous delivery of service experience versus date-driven functional
  software releases

> Collaboration with a federated community versus hierarchical, top-down

For successful technical federation, the critical success factors are
connectivity, policies enforcement, and semantic integration. Choose best-
of-breed SOA solutions built to be adaptive, rather than platform or stack
products that lock you in.

With these basics in place, you can participate in the more dynamic
interaction environment of a socially oriented architecture—and its growing
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Learn about the Progress SOA Portfolio
                                                                                                           Get socially architected.
                                                                                                           Join Progress CTO
                                                                                                           Hub Vandervoort for a
                  Enterprise   Enterprise
                 Service Bus   Messaging                                                                   discussion about your options.
                                                                                                                                   click here >
      SOA                                     Data
   Management                           Interoperability

                                                                               Hub Vandervoort, CTO, Progress Software, has more than 20 years
                                                                               of experience as a consultant and senior technology executive in
     Registry/                              Mainframe
    Repository                              Integration                        the networking, communications software and Internet industries.

                                                                               About Progress Software Corporation
                  Business      Complex
                  Process         Event                                        Progress Software Corporation (NASDAQ: PRGS) provides
                 Management    Processing
                                                                               application infrastructure software for the development,
                                                                               deployment, integration and management of business applications.
                                                                               Our goal is to maximize the benefits of information technology while
                                                                               minimizing its complexity and total cost of ownership. Progress can
Progress® SOA Portfolio best-in-class infrastructure products help you build
                                                                               be reached at or 1-781-280-4000.
and manage an SOA in a multi-vendor environment.

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