Part 1 The Materials of Music - Download as PowerPoint by pengtt

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									21. Baroque Opera
• New genre of the Baroque era
• Large scale music drama combining
   –   Poetry
   –   Acting
   –   Scenery
   –   Costumes
   –   Singing
   –   Instrumental music

                 The Enjoyment of Music 10th Edition
Forerunners of Opera
• Liturgical Dramas
• Intermedio: Late 15th century Renaissance,
  Italian, performed between acts of a play
  w/ singers, dancers, and instrumentalists.
• Madrigal Cycle




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Florentine Camerata

• Galilei, Bardi, Caccini, Strozzi
• Used Greek Tragedy as model
    – Da capo aria
• Monody
• Monody + Drama + Other Things = Opera



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The Components of Opera

•   Recitative
     –     Secco: accompanied only by continuo instruments
     –     Accompagnato: accompanied by the orchestra
•   Aria
     –     Da capo aria: a ternary (A-B-A) song form
•   Arioso
•   Ensemble numbers: Duet, Trio, Quartet, etc.
•   Chorus
•   Overture/sinfonias
•   Libretto, Librettist


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•   Recitative
    –   Communicates the plot
    –   Musically heightened speech
    –   Mirrors rhythm of speech patterns
    –   Rapidly repeating notes, long notes at the end
    –   Simple recitative
        •   Basso continuo accompaniment
        •   Bass line and chords




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•   Aria
    – Express the character’s emotion
    – Musical style passionate, expansive and tuneful
       •   Clear meter and regular rhythms
       •   Virtuosic melismas
    – A self-contained, independent musical unit
    – Accompanied by basso continuo and orchestra




                     The Enjoyment of Music 10th Edition
                    OPERA                                    CANTATA   ORATORIO

Performance         Theater
location
Purpose             Secular entertainment

Performance style   Fully dramatized
                    (staging, costumes, etc.)

Subject             Classical mythology
                    Ancient history

Musical forms       Recitative
                    Aria
Accompaniment       Orchestra




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Italian Opera Composers
   – Jacopo Peri - early 1600
       • Wrote first opera about Orpheus & Eurydice
   – Claudio Monteverdi - early to mid 1600
       •   Thicker instrumentation
       •   More expressive recitative
       •   Ritornello (rondo-like) arias
       •   Text depiction for expression
   – Francesca Caccini - early to mid 1600
   – Antonio Cesti - mid 1600
       • Rapid dialogue in reciative
       • Created spectacular productions based on 1637 first opera house built in
         Venice
       • More emphasis on aria/recitative pair, choruses removed




                               The Enjoyment of Music 10th Edition
Opera in France

•   Italian opera rejected
•   Developing a national style
•   Tragédie lyrique
•   Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632–1687)
•   Genre won favor with King Louis XIV
•   Created Instrumental Overture


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Opera in England

• Masque
• James I and Charles I
• Stage plays forbidden during the Commonwealth
    – Puritans regarded theater as an invention of the
      DEVIL!!!!!
• Play set to music and called “concert” was
  allowed
• John Blow and Henry Purcell


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Henry Purcell (1659–1695)

• English singer, organist, and composer
• Adopted elements from Italian and French
  opera
• Sacred and secular music




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•   English Opera - Henry Purcell
    –   Dido and Aeneas (1689)
    –   One of the first “operas” written in English
    –   Based on Virgil’s Aeneid
    –   Dido’s Lament “When I am laid in earth”
         •   Begins with a recitative (“Thy hand, Belinda”)
               –     Chromatically descending vocal line
               –     Accompanied by the basso continuo
         •   The aria is based on a basso ostinato (also called a ground bass)
               –     Repeated bass line provides a solid foundation
               –     Technique a common feature of Baroque music
               –     Often used to symbolize grief




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George Frideric Handel (1685–1759)

• German-born composer of Italian, French,
  and German styles catering to English
  audiences
• Wanted to create demand for Italian opera
  in England
• Royal Academy of Music
• Opera Seria
• 1728, Company went bankrupt

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22. Barbara Strozzi
and the Italian Secular Chamber Cantata
Cantata (Italian “to sing”)
• Vocal genre for solo singer(s) and
  instrumental accompaniment
• Composite work consisting of recitative
  and arias
• Sacred or secular
• Large-scale or small-scale
• Staged or not
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Barbara Strozzi (1619–1677)

• Italian singer and composer
• Educated in Venice
• Worked in a male-dominated field
• Prolific composer of madrigals, arias,
  cantatas, and sacred motets
• Expressive melodies reflective of text


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Strozzi: Begli occhi (Beautiful Eyes)
(Listening Guide)

• Short secular cantata
• Two sopranos and continuo
• Shifts between unmeasured and measured
  rhythm
• Abrupt tempo and mood changes
• Text speaks of unrequited love
• Dissonances emphasize bitterness

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23. Bach and the Sacred Cantata

  • Large-scale multimovement work
  • A work for one or more solo vocalists with
    instrumental accompaniment, chorus, and a
    sacred theme.
  • Contains arias, recitatives, and duets
  • Lutheran church service
  • Based on (polyphonic) Lutheran chorale
      – Unifies all the movements together
  • Bach composed 300
  • Similar to opera
                     The Enjoyment of Music 10th Edition
                      OPERA                        CANTATA           ORATORIO

Performance        Theater                  Church
location
Purpose            Secular                  Part of a Church
                   entertainment            service
Performance style Fully                     Concert style
                  dramatized                (staging, costumes
                  (staging,                 omitted)
                  costumes, etc.)
Subject            Classical                Gospel reading
                   mythology
                   Ancient history
Musical forms      Recitative               Recitative
                   Da capo aria             Da capo aria
                                            Chorus
Accompaniment      Orchestra                Orchestra


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Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)
•   German composer, organist, educator
•   Culminating figure of the Baroque Style
•   Career in Northern Germany
•   Musical family
•   Organist and composer
•   Devout Lutheran
•   Took Baroque trends to extremes
•   Expanded forms and techniques
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Compositions reflect labor context
• Weimar 1708
    – Court organist
    – Fugue & keyboard music
    – Renowned organ virtuoso
• Coethen 1717
    – Kapelmeister for excellent court orchestra
    – Orchestral music--concertos, solo sonatas, dance
      suites
• Leipzig 1723
    – Cantor of St. Thomas
    – Sacred Cantata, Mass, Passion

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Bach: Last Years
•   Very Introspective
•   Blind
•   Obsessed with music theory and philosophy
•   Focused on refining Baroque musical form
•   Wrote educational documents that encompassed
    these ideals:
     – The Well-Tempered Clavier
         •   Argued for a different keyboard tuning system
     – The Art of the Fugue
         •   Spun out all contrapuntal possibilities on a single melodic
             subject

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    Reputation
• Renowned as an organ virtuoso
• Most famous for cantatas and fugues
• Greatest composer of counterpoint
• Died unappreciated because his modus operandi was
  considered outdated by 1750
• Not until mid-19th century until Romantic composers
  recognized his genius and revived his works for
  adulation and study



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Bach: Cantata No. 80, A Mighty Fortress
is Our God, Nos. 1, 2, 5, 8 (Listening Guide)

• Set to Martin Luther’s chorale
• I: Choral movement in D major
    – Fugal
    – Embellishment of chorale
    – Trumpets and drums added




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Bach: Cantata No. 80, A Mighty Fortress
is Our God, Nos. 1, 2, 5, 8 (Listening Guide)
II: Depicts Christ’s struggle with evil
• Duet for soprano and bass soloists
• Soprano melody is variation of chorale
• Middle movements: freely composed
    recitatives and arias
• VIII: chorale sung in D major by full
    chorus with orchestral accompaniment
• Homophonic texture
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24. Handel and the Oratorio

•   Something sung in “oratory”
    – Oratory: hall or chapel used for prayer
•   Oratorio: large-scale dramatic genre with
    religious or Biblical, typically old
    testament, text
    – Performed by solo voices, chorus, orchestra
    – No staging, acting, or costumes


                  The Enjoyment of Music 10th Edition
                        OPERA                             CANTATA       ORATORIO
Performance         Theater                      Church
Location
Purpose             Secular                      Part of a Church     Sacred
                    entertainment                service              entertainment
Performance         Theater                      Church
location
Performance style   Fully dramatized             Concert style        Concert style
                    (staging,                    (staging, costumes
                    costumes, etc.)              omitted)
Subject             Classical                    Gospel reading       Biblical subjects
                    mythology
                    Ancient history
Musical Forms       Recitative                   Recitative           Recitative
                    Da capo aria                 Da capo aria         Da capo aria
                                                 Chorus               Chorus
Accompaniment       Orchestra                    Orchestra            Orchestra
                                The Enjoyment of Music 10th Edition
George Frideric Handel (1685–1759)

•   International career
•   German-born
•   Studied and composed in Italy
•   Career in England
•   Sought to bring Italian opera to England
•   Wrote orchestral suites, 40+ operas,
    oratorios

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Handel: Messiah, Nos. 1, 14–18, 44
(Listening Guide)

• Premiered in Dublin in 1742
• Written in 24 days
• Libretto: compilation of Old and New
  Testament




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Handel: Messiah, Nos. 1, 14–18, 44
(Listening Guide)
Three-part form:
• I: Christmas
    – French overture
    – Recitatives: secco and accompagnato
• Chorus: contrasts homophony and
  counterpoint
• Soprano aria “Rejoice greatly” (da capo
  aria)

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Handel: Messiah, Nos. 1, 14–18, 44
(Listening Guide)

II: Easter
• “Hallelujah Chorus”
• Homophony/imitation

III: Redemption of the world through faith



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