MARCHANTIOPHYTA Marchantiophyta (Hepaticophyta) or liver moss commonly found attached to rocks, soil, or the old walls of the damp. Body shape in the form of sheet-like form of liver and lots of curves. Her body has a structure that resembles the roots, stems, and leaves. This causes many consider the heart moss is a group of plants Thallophyta transition towards Cormophyta. Moss membered liver more than 6000 species. Body parts moss liver: 1. Apotisis = boundary between seta and sporogonium 2. Spore-producing sporangium = tool 3. Kaliptra = hood sporangium 4. Seta = stalk sporogonium 5. Vaginula = base of the stalk membrane sporogonium Example liver mosses: Polytrichum commune, Pogonatum cirrhatum, Mniodendrom divaricatum, Sphagnum sp., Aerobryopsis longisima. The Marchantiophyta is a division of plants commonly referred to as moss or lichen hepatics liver. Like other bryophytes, they have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, in which plant cells carry only one set of genetic information. It is estimated there are 6000-8000 species liver moss, although when the neotropical regions are better studied this number may approach 10,000. Some species are more familiar grown into talus leaved flat, but most species are leafy with a form very much like the flat moss. leaved species can be distinguished from the apparently similar mosses on the basis of a number of features, including single-celled rhizoids. Moss green liver is also different from most (but not all) mosses in their leaves never have a costa (present in many mosses) and may be subject to marginal cilia (very rare in mosses). Other differences are not universal for all mosses and liver mosses, but the leaves are arranged in three ranks, the presence of lobes in or segmented leaves, or the lack of clearly differentiated stem and leaves all point to the factory became a liverwort. Moss liver is usually small, usually 20-20 mm wide with individual plants less than 10 cm, and therefore often ignored. However, certain species may cover large patches of soil, rocks, trees or any natural substrate of other companies in which they occur. They are distributed globally in almost all the available habitat, most often in humid locations although there are deserts and polar species as well. Some species can be a nuisance in the shade of green-house or grass in the garden Most liver moss small, typically 20-20 millimeters (0.08 to 0.8 in) wide with individual plants less than 10 cm (4) long, so they are often ignored. The most familiar liver moss consists of prostrate, flat, ribbon-like structure called a talus or branching (plant body); this is called liver moss moss thallose liver. However, liver moss most produce flattened stems with overlapping scales or leaves in two or more ratings, the rating was often different from the line of striking out, this is called moss leafy heart or liver moss scale. Moss liver can most reliably be distinguished from the apparently similar mosses by single- celled rhizoids. Other differences are not universal for all mosses and lichens all hearts, but the lack of clearly differentiated stem and leaves in thallose species, or in the presence leaved species highly lobed or segmented leaves, and the presence of leaves arranged in three ranks, all point to the factory to be liverwort. In addition, 90% of liver moss containing oil bodies in at least some of their cells, and cellular structures are absent from bryophytes and most of all vascular plants. Overall physical similarity of some lichen and moss leafy heart means. that confirm the identification of several groups can be made with certainty only with the aid of a microscope or bryologist experienced. Liver has a life cycle of moss gametophyte-dominant, with sporophyte dependent on gametophyte. Cells in a typical liverwort plant each contain only one set of genetic information, so that plant cells are haploid for most of its life cycle. This contrasts sharply with the pattern shown by almost all other animals and plants. In the more familiar plants seeds, haploid generation is represented only by pollen and ovule small, whereas the diploid generation is the familiar trees or other plants. Another unusual feature of the liverwort life cycle is that sporophytes (ie the diploid body) are very short-lived, withering away not long after spore release. Even in other bryophytes,. the sporophyte is persistent and spreading the spores over an extended period. The life of a liverwort spore germination ranging from haploid to produce Prototype, which is one mass of threadlike filaments or a flat talus. Prototype is a transitional stage in the life of a liverwort, from which will grow gametophore adults ("gametes carriers") plants that produce the sex organs. Male organs known as antheridia (singular: antheridium) and produce sperm cells. Clusters of antheridia are enclosed by a protective layer of cells called perigonium (plural: perigonia). As in other land plants, female organs are known as archegonia (singular: archegonium) and are protected by the surrounding perichaetum thin. (Plural: perichaeta) Each archegonium has a slender hollow tube, then the "neck", down which the sperm swim to reach the egg. Liverwort species can be dioicous or monoicous. In moss dioicious liver, and female sex organs of men borne on different gametophyte plants and separate. At the heart monoicious moss, two types of reproductive structures borne on different branches of the same plant. In both cases, the sperm must move from the antheridia where they are produced with the archegonium where the eggs are held. Sperm from liver moss is biflagellate, ie they have two tails flagellae as to enable them to swim short distances, if at least a thin film of water present. Their journey can be assisted by a sprinkling of rain. In 2008, Japanese researchers found that some liver moss sperm capable of containing the fire to 15 cm of water in the air, allowing them to grow a female plant fertilizer is more than one meter from the nearest male. When sperm reach the archegonia, fertilization occurs, leading to the production of diploid sporophyte. After fertilization, the immature sporophyte within archegonium developing three different areas: foot, the sporophyte is a good anchor in place and receive nutrients from the plant "mother", a ball or ellipsoid capsule, where the spores will be produced to spread to new locations, and seta (stem) located between two other regions and connecting them. When the sporophyte has developed all three regions, which extends Seta. Benefits liver moss: 1. Resist erosion 2. Drugs = Marchantia polymorpha (liver inflammation drug) 3. His body was divided into two lobes that look like a lobe of the liver. Moss life cycle is similar to the moss leaf. Inside the cell there spongaria shaped rolls called alatera. Elatera will be released when the capsule is open, so that helped disperse the spores. Moss can also be done by means of asexual reproduction by cells called gemma, which is a bowl-like structure on the surface of the gametophyte. Examples are the liver moss Marchantia polymorpha and porella. Marchantiophyta (Hepaticophyta) or liver moss commonly found attached to rocks, soil, or the old walls of the damp. Body shape in the form of sheet-like form of liver and lots of curves. Her body has a structure that resembles the roots, stems, and leaves. This causes many consider the heart moss is a group of plants Thallophyta transition towards Cormophyta. Moss membered liver more than 6000 species. liver moss commonly found attached to rocks, soil, or the old walls of the damp. Body shape in the form of sheet-like form of liver and lots of curves. Her body has a structure that resembles the roots, stems, and leaves. This causes many consider the heart moss is a group of plants Thallophyta transition towards Cormophyta. Moss membered liver more than 6000 species. Her heart-shaped sheet moss, sticking above the ground, trees or cliffs. There rizoid serves to attach to and absorb nutrients. Not having stems and leaves. Vegetative reproduction by forming gemma (bud), the generative by forming male and female gametes. For example: Ricciocarpus, Marchantia and lunularia. 4. Most live liver moss in damp places, so the body has a structure that higromorf. Another form is rarely found, although some are found in places that very dry, eg in the skins of trees, above ground or rock, so that the body needs to have a structure that xeromorf. In the body there is a store of water, or can be dried without causing death. What are epiphytes exist that can live on leaves of forest trees in tropical regions, and because his life on the leaves that had moss is a special form of ecological called epiphytes. 5. In general plant association kriptogam, liver moss does not take the role of the liver moss penting.Diantara there who do not have chlorophyll, which is classified in the genus cryptothallus and live as a saprophyte. Prototype liver moss mostly developed into a short reed. Most of the moss has liver cells that contain oil. Oil was found in the form of specific, mostly a collection of drops of essential oil. In this form of oil was not found in other plants. 6. Until now already in the know as many as 8000 species. Most of these plants live in a humid environment, bentunya not interesting except in the period, if it appears usually in the mess with a true moss because both Miri once. Creeping plants on the soil surface, pepagan trees, rocks moist, or in large busuk.sebagian wood from this plant is land plants, some species of aquatic life in water as a secondary, meaning they are land plants that are adapted to return to the water environment of his ancestors. 7. Based on the shape talusnya, moss liver was divided into two groups: bertalus liver moss and liver moss leaf. In both groups shaped dorsiventral plant body, ie the upper body upper part is called the dorsal and ventral called the bottom. Sexual organ growth occurs on the dorsal surface. Tumuhan body is covered soil, soil with rizoid interlock in the form of yarn. Rizoid that's kind of the root hair, tall plants, but the opposite denganya, usually grows on the gametophyte generation. 8. The first group of plant body (liver moss bertalus) addressing a particular characteristic that develops slowly than land plants without vessels that are not owned by the plants that are not owned by his ancestors who lived in the water. Among these are rizoid and other parts that adapt to the mainland, sepertihalnya of tissue that closes the cuticle layer of the epidermis, and thick-walled spores that are customized to spread through the air. 9. a. Moss Heart Leaf 10. The largest group of plants that are among the moss heart sometimes also called moss scales. Generally thrives on wooden blocks, moist soil or t7umbuh as epiphytes on tree trunk or branch. Examples of this group is Porella. This typical dorsiventral plant body, and composed of an axis with the forms as in the leaf. There is no or little internal differentiation within its network. Structures such as leaves that grow laterally on both sides of the axis. Lateral world sometimes divided into two parts. 11. The third level leaves emerge from the ventral surface. Sometimes heart-leaved moss sometimes issued with a true moss, but can be distinguished if observed struktu vegetativnya carefully. Moss true shape of radial symmetry, meaning the leaves around the stem attached, as opposed to hearts that have dujelaskan moss on top. In addition, true mosses have middle bone that are not on liver moss. 12. Sexual organ of this kind of moss growing on gametifit generation. Anterida grow in the armpits and arkegonia leaves grow on the edge, on the main shoot apex or its branches. Sporofit equipped with a foot, stalk, and capsule, which opens with four valves. 13. B. Marchantia 14. The structure of this group is more komplrks talus compared with Riciciocarpus. Talusnya (gametophyte) is more specialized, and female sexual organs in many species appear above the talus which stemmed called reseptakel. Anteridia also found on the basis of which stemmed fruit. Marchantia polymorpha is a widespread plant in moist canyons and ternaung. Some of the observations stated that this plant is often grown in areas damaged by fire, especially in humid areas. In such circumstances the plant can flourish into dense carpet over the years, gradually replaced by moss, grass, and woody plants semaiaan. In such conditions, this plant spreads talus ribbon-shaped above ground level and supported by many rizoid. Talusnya surface consists of diamond-shaped plates, which indicate the position of internal air spaces. A slice through the talus shows air space at the top of the protected epidermis. Each space associated with the outside air through a chimney-like pores, analogous to the stoma. From the bottom of this air space appears the chains of cells containing numerous chloroplasts. Talusnya the base consisting of compact cells that normally contain starch grains. 15. Sexual reproduction in Marchantia involves two types of plants, ie male plants, which contain reseptakel anteridium and female plants containing reseptakel arkegonium. Which supports the base of the flower stalk (reseptakel) were grown on vertical branches talusnya. Basic female flowers rather broad and umbrella-shaped, with finger-shaped lobes, usually the number nine and the surrounding suburbs. Arkegonia grow in the furrows between the lobe-lobe with the neck bent down. Basic male flower shapes such as discs, with the edges of the mussel-shaped shells. Anteridia spikes on the top surface. Pollination took place before the base of the flower stalk elongation. Anteridia broke at the ends, and sperm escape with the help of rain water towards the close arkegonia these plants. Pollination further progress as in Ricciocarpus. 16. Sporofit generation starting from the fertilized egg, then base of the flower stalks grow long. Zygotes divide themselves repeatedly to form a multicellular embryo within arkegonium, which increases with fetal growth. During fetal development, kelubung shaped tube grows from the bottom of each arkegonium and surrounds the fetus. A strand of the network also grows downward direction on each side of the line arkegonium. 17. At first, ball-shaped embryo, but soon the base, foot, grow into the tissues reseptakel and serves as an organ for absorption. The bulk of the fetus form a capsule which is separated from the leg by a zone consisting of cells called stem. Capsules containing the stem cells become spores are grouped in vertical grooves, and became elater, namely elongated filaments with the twist wall. After meiosis and tetrad formation of spores, stalks lengthwise, arkegonium a widened so broken, and capsules pushed to the bottom. Mongering and open the capsule and spread the mass of spores such as cotton with the help of the wind. Release of spores from the capsule dibantui by elater, which are hygroscopic. Due to drying of capsules, elater roll, become dry, and held a jolt that threw the movement of spores into the air. 18. In the early stages of development, the generation of Marchantia sporofit whole life depends on the gametophyte tissue in terms of nutrition. However, more then stalk, capsule walls, elater, and even foot sporofit be green. The cells of these tissues contain chloroplasts very much and is able to conduct photosynthesis. Most kloroplasnya contain starch grains. When sporofit was ripe, chloroplasts become whole. 19. In addition to the conduct of sexual reproduction by spores, many of these liver moss species breed in a vegetative. Once the plant is old dead branching talus at the base, then the two branches of existing plants into a separate plant. In some moss heart, thank you Marchantia, there are also special structures called gemma vegetative reproduction. Gemma is grown on top of the talus. In Marchantia, kupula gemmanya shaped and very small bowl-shaped lens attached to a short stalk at the base kupulla. Gemma can be released freely by rain water and can be carried some distance from the parent. When gemma attached to the flat on the ground, then from the bottom out rizoid, lalul new talus will evolve. 20. Some moss is classified in the heart of this nation have a rather complicated arrangement of talus. For example Marchantiales polymorpha. Talus like a ribbon, about 2 cm wide, somewhat thick, fleshy, branching menggarpu, and has a central rib that is not so clearly pronounced. On the down side there is a layer of talus cells that resemble leaves called scales belly or ventral scales. Apart from that on the bottom side there are rizoid- rizoid talus, which is fototrop negative and have a cell wall thickening into a shape such barriers are not perfect. 21. The surface of the talus has a cuticle layer, therefore it is almost impossible to pass by water. When viewed from above, it looks talus checkered. Below each plot within the talus there is a room air, and there is a hole in the middle patch of air that connects the room air with the outside world. Air Liang was shaped like a barrel, and have a more Tinggih talus walls to prevent ingress of water. Burrow wall was there from the four rings, each ring consisting of four cells. In particular clan ring cells are most in, to show the motion to close. At the air base there are the cells that contain chloroplasts and a network of assimilation. Other cells, even PUM epidermal cells have chlorophyll, tetepi not amount to much. For the plant it was an exception, because usually the gametophyte does not have such a perfect assimilation apparatus. 22. Time network talus of cells that do not contain chlorophyll or very poor in chlorophyll and accumulation of substances useful as a food reserve, some contain oil. On the down side parekrim, where the accumulation of reserve food material is covered by a layer of cells. On top usuk sisis middle, generally there are bodies such as the cup with a scalloped edge, which is a cup or basket eram eram, with a number of bud-kuncuperam therein. These bodies are useful as a means of vegetative propagation for the gametophyte. 23. Gametangium Marchantiales supported by a branch of the talus which the body moves. Talus branch section is curled, is a stalk. In support of that there is a channel with a thread- Banang rizoid. The top cabanh had repeatedly entered menggarpu branching, up to akhirnyamembentuk an entity like a star. Place arkegonium anteridium and separate, so Marchantiales married two. Anteridium supporters called anteridiofor. Arkegonium supporters called arkefoniofor. 24. Supporting gametangium bertoreh O resembles an eight-disc at the tip. On the upper side of the disc there are spaces formed bermuarah bottle on the top surface with a small burrow. spaces that contain anteridium and separate from each other by a network that contains spaces udara.dengan intermediary 25. Anteridium at the heart of this moss occurs as follows. One of the cells on the surface splits into several segments with transverse barriers intermediaries. Sigmen each split into four cells by barriers which tagak straight on-screen asekat made first. The cells which were located alongside a wall and then into anteridium, which is located inside the cells which then produce spermatozoid spermatogen. if anteridium been cooked, the cells walls into mucus and swell, until spermatozoid-spermatozoid can come out and collected in a drop of rain water contained above the supporting discs gametangium earlier. 26. Supporting gametangium last ♀ with a star-shaped body. Aspects of ordinary star has 9, the edges folded down, so that the upper part which supports arkegonium them face down, too. As a result arkegonium as if there is on the underside of the star-shaped body earlier. Location arkegonium on his supporters in the direction of adjacent fingers. 27. Each row of teeth covered by a membrane called periketium. On the formation of a cell surface arkegonium becomes two. Cells below will become stalk and the top membalah again lengthwise to become four cells. Three cells have the edge, while the one in the middle and then cut again crosswise, forming cells and cells within the cap. Third cells arkegonium stomach and neck. Of eventually forming cells in the egg, stomach lining cells and cells of the neck line. 28. Fertilization takes place in rainy weather. By splashing rain water that supports spermatozoid liquid thrown from anteridiofor to arkegoniofor, epidermal cells have pendukungarkegonium body papillae and form a capillary system on the water surface, which memudahnkan terpelincirnya spermatozoid into arkegoniofor. Epidermal cells arkegonium subsidiary bodies have papillae and form a capillary system on the surface of the tool, which allows tergelincirnya spermatozoid into arkegonium. Spermatoziod have reacted kemotaksis albumen. 29. After the completion of fertilization, the zygote develops into an embryo consists of many cells, and finally a sporogonium short-stemmed, small oblong-shaped, and colored green, seerti padaes, top cell zygote's first division results, eventually evolved into the foot and stalk sporogonium. Because there parikrinal walls, the cells in the capsule can be distinguished in arkespora cells divide into two cells, a narrow (small) yanglainya width, the width of daughter cells that have a direct a stem cell spores that divide again several times before become the parent spores, small cells that grow into long cells shaped like fiber, soft- walled, but has thickened spiral-shaped thickening of the so-called open spore capsules elatera.setelah, elatera can move with a mechanism of cohesion that helped expenditure spores from the capsule earlier. 30. In Marchantia spore capsule that has a wall consisting of a layer of cells, with thickening of fiber-like thickening. At the end of the capsule, the walls consist of two layers of cells. In that place in time capsule began to rip ripe, split lid, and lined the walls forming the teeth. Spore capsules at first is still shrouded in sporogonium development. Apart from that each capsule also drape a thin membrane that originated from the stalk arkegonium. Marchantiales spore capsule can produce several hundred thousand spores. Spores that if it falls on a suitable place would have grown to Bond in the form of short threads that contain chlorophyll, and then developed to form talus is characteristic for these Marchantiles. 31. Spare Marchantiaeceae with examples: 32. Marchantia polymorpha, was used sebagain drug ingredients liver disease (liver). From this so-called moss moss liver, 33. M. geminatai 34. Reboulia hemispherica. 35. Tribe Ricciaceae, examples Fluitans Riccia, R. nutans, R. trichocarpa. 36. C. Liver moss bertalus 37. The group of plants is interesting because its branches. Every time time talu divide themselves, pembagianya mengarpu into two branches of the same or more. Pertumbuhanya occurs through the activity of one or more cells that exist at the end of indentations talus. This branching talus bentknya similar to mammalian liver, therefore liver or hepaticeae called moss. 38. Examples in this group include Ricciciocarpus natans grows normally float on water or on moist soil. Berbaga Riccia species, more branches, and usually form a raset when grown in moist soil. Recciciocarpus and Riccia are bekerabat near a simple liver moss. This simple nature presumably because of reduction in the form of his fathers far more complex and is not a primitive nature of the decline. 39. Once the spores germinate Ricciciocarpus, heart-shaped talus development occurred that approximately 1 cm wide. big time talusnya floats on the surface of water ponds and small rivers that flow slowly. In the ventral part there are some rizoid and many scales are brownish. Both work for the absorption of water when grown in the ground, rizoid multiplying and the number of scales on the dorsal surface of talus that there are pores that open and an internal air space. 40. Reproduction of this plant is done through the fragmentation of the talus and through spores in the form of the sexual process. Sexual organs on the basis of Ricciciocarpus contained in grooves in the dorsal talusnya. Arkogenium who merupakn female organs, or gourd-shaped bottles. And contains the egg cell at the bottom. On top of the egg there is a kind of stoppers on the ventral canal cell call. Arkegonium neck flask containing a row of cells in the neck canal cell call. Anteridium oval shape with a wall one cell layer. This fence- shaped wall that surrounds the tiny cells that develop into sperm or male cell or also called anterozoid. 41. Egg cell that has been in buahi have an enlarged and is wrapped with a thin cellulose membrane. The result of marriage, that is the zygote, undergoes a series of pebelahan cells and form a cell during a round which is called a fetus (embryo). El-cell embryo in permulaanya same, but finally the outermost layer of cells that become more obvious in comparison with the section on tutupinya. Outermost layer called the capsule wall. When the fetus becomes mature, the cells in a separate capsule to be rounded, and stem cell function become spores. Along with the enlargement of the fetus, the basic arkegonium evolved into two cells thick. 42. Each stem cell spores in spore capsule undergo meiosis, so menjdi 4 spores. In Ricciciocarpus, the number of chromosomes in the egg cell that has been in the stem cell buahi spores, and capsule cells is eight. Therefore the number n of each spore after meiosis is four. On the other liver moss, generally is n = 8 and 2n = 16. 43. Spores in spore form of stem cells tend to form a circular set that consists of four spores, this collection is called tetrad. Along with the ripe spores, capsules are also broken so that the movement of spores become more free. Eventually released because talus rot spores, and germinated in the next season. 44. Ricciocarpus life cycle as shown is an overview of the life cycle of all lichen and moss a true heart. Spores, plant bodies, sexual organs and gametes are all contained in the gametophyte generation or the generation n. after pollination and pengandaan number of chromosomes, the zygote grows into a well developed capsule containing the spores stem cells. This structure is the generation 2n. moss gametophyte generation in all hearts and true lumu is Autotroph. Embryo, capsules, and the parent spores on Ricciocarpus contain chlorophyll, but no starch is formed and no evidence that food made in it. Sporofit generation development depends on the gametophyte generation in terms of water use, and most, perhaps all, food for the formation and maturation of spores. In liver moss and moss leaves the other, sporofit generation can produce some food. Therefore seluuhnya not depend on the gametophyte generation.