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       Marchantiophyta (Hepaticophyta) or liver moss commonly found attached to rocks,
soil, or the old walls of the damp. Body shape in the form of sheet-like form of liver and lots
of curves. Her body has a structure that resembles the roots, stems, and leaves. This causes
many consider the heart moss is a group of plants Thallophyta transition towards
Cormophyta. Moss membered liver more than 6000 species.
Body parts moss liver:
1. Apotisis = boundary between seta and sporogonium
2. Spore-producing sporangium = tool
3. Kaliptra = hood sporangium
4. Seta = stalk sporogonium
5. Vaginula = base of the stalk membrane sporogonium
Example liver mosses: Polytrichum commune, Pogonatum cirrhatum, Mniodendrom
divaricatum, Sphagnum sp., Aerobryopsis longisima.
The Marchantiophyta is a division of plants commonly referred to as moss or lichen hepatics
liver. Like other bryophytes, they have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, in which plant
cells carry only one set of genetic information.

It is estimated there are 6000-8000 species liver moss, although when the neotropical
regions are better studied this number may approach 10,000. Some species are more
familiar grown into talus leaved flat, but most species are leafy with a form very much like
the flat moss. leaved species can be distinguished from the apparently similar mosses on the
basis of a number of features, including single-celled rhizoids. Moss green liver is also
different from most (but not all) mosses in their leaves never have a costa (present in many
mosses) and may be subject to marginal cilia (very rare in mosses). Other differences are not
universal for all mosses and liver mosses, but the leaves are arranged in three ranks, the
presence of lobes in or segmented leaves, or the lack of clearly differentiated stem and
leaves all point to the factory became a liverwort.

Moss liver is usually small, usually 20-20 mm wide with individual plants less than 10 cm,
and therefore often ignored. However, certain species may cover large patches of soil,
rocks, trees or any natural substrate of other companies in which they occur. They are
distributed globally in almost all the available habitat, most often in humid locations
although there are deserts and polar species as well. Some species can be a nuisance in the
shade of green-house or grass in the garden

Most liver moss small, typically 20-20 millimeters (0.08 to 0.8 in) wide with individual plants
less than 10 cm (4) long, so they are often ignored. The most familiar liver moss consists of
prostrate, flat, ribbon-like structure called a talus or branching (plant body); this is called
liver moss moss thallose liver. However, liver moss most produce flattened stems with
overlapping scales or leaves in two or more ratings, the rating was often different from the
line of striking out, this is called moss leafy heart or liver moss scale.

Moss liver can most reliably be distinguished from the apparently similar mosses by single-
celled rhizoids. Other differences are not universal for all mosses and lichens all hearts, but
the lack of clearly differentiated stem and leaves in thallose species, or in the presence
leaved species highly lobed or segmented leaves, and the presence of leaves arranged in
three ranks, all point to the factory to be liverwort. In addition, 90% of liver moss containing
oil bodies in at least some of their cells, and cellular structures are absent from bryophytes
and most of all vascular plants. Overall physical similarity of some lichen and moss leafy
heart means. that confirm the identification of several groups can be made with certainty
only with the aid of a microscope or bryologist experienced.

Liver has a life cycle of moss gametophyte-dominant, with sporophyte dependent on
gametophyte. Cells in a typical liverwort plant each contain only one set of genetic
information, so that plant cells are haploid for most of its life cycle. This contrasts sharply
with the pattern shown by almost all other animals and plants. In the more familiar plants
seeds, haploid generation is represented only by pollen and ovule small, whereas the diploid
generation is the familiar trees or other plants. Another unusual feature of the liverwort life
cycle is that sporophytes (ie the diploid body) are very short-lived, withering away not long
after spore release. Even in other bryophytes,. the sporophyte is persistent and spreading
the spores over an extended period.
The life of a liverwort spore germination ranging from haploid to produce Prototype, which
is one mass of threadlike filaments or a flat talus. Prototype is a transitional stage in the life
of a liverwort, from which will grow gametophore adults ("gametes carriers") plants that
produce the sex organs. Male organs known as antheridia (singular: antheridium) and
produce sperm cells. Clusters of antheridia are enclosed by a protective layer of cells called
perigonium (plural: perigonia). As in other land plants, female organs are known as
archegonia (singular: archegonium) and are protected by the surrounding perichaetum thin.
(Plural: perichaeta) Each archegonium has a slender hollow tube, then the "neck", down
which the sperm swim to reach the egg.

Liverwort species can be dioicous or monoicous. In moss dioicious liver, and female sex
organs of men borne on different gametophyte plants and separate. At the heart
monoicious moss, two types of reproductive structures borne on different branches of the
same plant. In both cases, the sperm must move from the antheridia where they are
produced with the archegonium where the eggs are held. Sperm from liver moss is
biflagellate, ie they have two tails flagellae as to enable them to swim short distances, if at
least a thin film of water present. Their journey can be assisted by a sprinkling of rain. In
2008, Japanese researchers found that some liver moss sperm capable of containing the fire
to 15 cm of water in the air, allowing them to grow a female plant fertilizer is more than one
meter from the nearest male.

When sperm reach the archegonia, fertilization occurs, leading to the production of diploid
sporophyte. After fertilization, the immature sporophyte within archegonium developing
three different areas: foot, the sporophyte is a good anchor in place and receive nutrients
from the plant "mother", a ball or ellipsoid capsule, where the spores will be produced to
spread to new locations, and seta (stem) located between two other regions and connecting
them. When the sporophyte has developed all three regions, which extends Seta.
Benefits liver moss:
1. Resist erosion
2. Drugs = Marchantia polymorpha (liver inflammation drug)
3. His body was divided into two lobes that look like a lobe of the liver. Moss life cycle is
similar to the moss leaf. Inside the cell there spongaria shaped rolls called alatera. Elatera
will be released when the capsule is open, so that helped disperse the spores. Moss can also
be done by means of asexual reproduction by cells called gemma, which is a bowl-like
structure on the surface of the gametophyte. Examples are the liver moss Marchantia
polymorpha and porella. Marchantiophyta (Hepaticophyta) or liver moss commonly found
attached to rocks, soil, or the old walls of the damp. Body shape in the form of sheet-like
form of liver and lots of curves. Her body has a structure that resembles the roots, stems,
and leaves. This causes many consider the heart moss is a group of plants Thallophyta
transition towards Cormophyta. Moss membered liver more than 6000 species. liver moss
commonly found attached to rocks, soil, or the old walls of the damp. Body shape in the
form of sheet-like form of liver and lots of curves. Her body has a structure that resembles
the roots, stems, and leaves. This causes many consider the heart moss is a group of plants
Thallophyta transition towards Cormophyta. Moss membered liver more than 6000 species.
Her heart-shaped sheet moss, sticking above the ground, trees or cliffs. There rizoid serves
to attach to and absorb nutrients. Not having stems and leaves. Vegetative reproduction by
forming gemma (bud), the generative by forming male and female gametes. For example:
Ricciocarpus, Marchantia and lunularia.
4. Most live liver moss in damp places, so the body has a structure that higromorf. Another
form is rarely found, although some are found in places that very dry, eg in the skins of
trees, above ground or rock, so that the body needs to have a structure that xeromorf. In
the body there is a store of water, or can be dried without causing death. What are
epiphytes exist that can live on leaves of forest trees in tropical regions, and because his life
on the leaves that had moss is a special form of ecological called epiphytes.
5. In general plant association kriptogam, liver moss does not take the role of the liver moss
penting.Diantara there who do not have chlorophyll, which is classified in the genus
cryptothallus and live as a saprophyte. Prototype liver moss mostly developed into a short
reed. Most of the moss has liver cells that contain oil. Oil was found in the form of specific,
mostly a collection of drops of essential oil. In this form of oil was not found in other plants.
6. Until now already in the know as many as 8000 species. Most of these plants live in a
humid environment, bentunya not interesting except in the period, if it appears usually in
the mess with a true moss because both Miri once. Creeping plants on the soil surface,
pepagan trees, rocks moist, or in large busuk.sebagian wood from this plant is land plants,
some species of aquatic life in water as a secondary, meaning they are land plants that are
adapted to return to the water environment of his ancestors.
7. Based on the shape talusnya, moss liver was divided into two groups: bertalus liver moss
and liver moss leaf. In both groups shaped dorsiventral plant body, ie the upper body upper
part is called the dorsal and ventral called the bottom. Sexual organ growth occurs on the
dorsal surface. Tumuhan body is covered soil, soil with rizoid interlock in the form of yarn.
Rizoid that's kind of the root hair, tall plants, but the opposite denganya, usually grows on
the gametophyte generation.
8. The first group of plant body (liver moss bertalus) addressing a particular characteristic
that develops slowly than land plants without vessels that are not owned by the plants that
are not owned by his ancestors who lived in the water. Among these are rizoid and other
parts that adapt to the mainland, sepertihalnya of tissue that closes the cuticle layer of the
epidermis, and thick-walled spores that are customized to spread through the air.
9. a. Moss Heart Leaf
10. The largest group of plants that are among the moss heart sometimes also called moss
scales. Generally thrives on wooden blocks, moist soil or t7umbuh as epiphytes on tree
trunk or branch. Examples of this group is Porella. This typical dorsiventral plant body, and
composed of an axis with the forms as in the leaf. There is no or little internal differentiation
within its network. Structures such as leaves that grow laterally on both sides of the axis.
Lateral world sometimes divided into two parts.
11. The third level leaves emerge from the ventral surface. Sometimes heart-leaved moss
sometimes issued with a true moss, but can be distinguished if observed struktu
vegetativnya carefully. Moss true shape of radial symmetry, meaning the leaves around the
stem attached, as opposed to hearts that have dujelaskan moss on top. In addition, true
mosses have middle bone that are not on liver moss.
12. Sexual organ of this kind of moss growing on gametifit generation. Anterida grow in the
armpits and arkegonia leaves grow on the edge, on the main shoot apex or its branches.
Sporofit equipped with a foot, stalk, and capsule, which opens with four valves.
13. B. Marchantia
14. The structure of this group is more komplrks talus compared with Riciciocarpus.
Talusnya (gametophyte) is more specialized, and female sexual organs in many species
appear above the talus which stemmed called reseptakel. Anteridia also found on the basis
of which stemmed fruit. Marchantia polymorpha is a widespread plant in moist canyons and
ternaung. Some of the observations stated that this plant is often grown in areas damaged
by fire, especially in humid areas. In such circumstances the plant can flourish into dense
carpet over the years, gradually replaced by moss, grass, and woody plants semaiaan. In
such conditions, this plant spreads talus ribbon-shaped above ground level and supported
by many rizoid. Talusnya surface consists of diamond-shaped plates, which indicate the
position of internal air spaces. A slice through the talus shows air space at the top of the
protected epidermis. Each space associated with the outside air through a chimney-like
pores, analogous to the stoma. From the bottom of this air space appears the chains of cells
containing numerous chloroplasts. Talusnya the base consisting of compact cells that
normally contain starch grains.
15. Sexual reproduction in Marchantia involves two types of plants, ie male plants, which
contain reseptakel anteridium and female plants containing reseptakel arkegonium. Which
supports the base of the flower stalk (reseptakel) were grown on vertical branches talusnya.
Basic female flowers rather broad and umbrella-shaped, with finger-shaped lobes, usually
the number nine and the surrounding suburbs. Arkegonia grow in the furrows between the
lobe-lobe with the neck bent down. Basic male flower shapes such as discs, with the edges
of the mussel-shaped shells. Anteridia spikes on the top surface. Pollination took place
before the base of the flower stalk elongation. Anteridia broke at the ends, and sperm
escape with the help of rain water towards the close arkegonia these plants. Pollination
further progress as in Ricciocarpus.
16. Sporofit generation starting from the fertilized egg, then base of the flower stalks grow
long. Zygotes divide themselves repeatedly to form a multicellular embryo within
arkegonium, which increases with fetal growth. During fetal development, kelubung shaped
tube grows from the bottom of each arkegonium and surrounds the fetus. A strand of the
network also grows downward direction on each side of the line arkegonium.
17. At first, ball-shaped embryo, but soon the base, foot, grow into the tissues reseptakel
and serves as an organ for absorption. The bulk of the fetus form a capsule which is
separated from the leg by a zone consisting of cells called stem. Capsules containing the
stem cells become spores are grouped in vertical grooves, and became elater, namely
elongated filaments with the twist wall. After meiosis and tetrad formation of spores, stalks
lengthwise, arkegonium a widened so broken, and capsules pushed to the bottom.
Mongering and open the capsule and spread the mass of spores such as cotton with the
help of the wind. Release of spores from the capsule dibantui by elater, which are
hygroscopic. Due to drying of capsules, elater roll, become dry, and held a jolt that threw
the movement of spores into the air.
18. In the early stages of development, the generation of Marchantia sporofit whole life
depends on the gametophyte tissue in terms of nutrition. However, more then stalk,
capsule walls, elater, and even foot sporofit be green. The cells of these tissues contain
chloroplasts very much and is able to conduct photosynthesis. Most kloroplasnya contain
starch grains. When sporofit was ripe, chloroplasts become whole.
19. In addition to the conduct of sexual reproduction by spores, many of these liver moss
species breed in a vegetative. Once the plant is old dead branching talus at the base, then
the two branches of existing plants into a separate plant. In some moss heart, thank you
Marchantia, there are also special structures called gemma vegetative reproduction.
Gemma is grown on top of the talus. In Marchantia, kupula gemmanya shaped and very
small bowl-shaped lens attached to a short stalk at the base kupulla. Gemma can be
released freely by rain water and can be carried some distance from the parent. When
gemma attached to the flat on the ground, then from the bottom out rizoid, lalul new talus
will evolve.
20. Some moss is classified in the heart of this nation have a rather complicated
arrangement of talus. For example Marchantiales polymorpha. Talus like a ribbon, about 2
cm wide, somewhat thick, fleshy, branching menggarpu, and has a central rib that is not so
clearly pronounced. On the down side there is a layer of talus cells that resemble leaves
called scales belly or ventral scales. Apart from that on the bottom side there are rizoid-
rizoid talus, which is fototrop negative and have a cell wall thickening into a shape such
barriers are not perfect.
21. The surface of the talus has a cuticle layer, therefore it is almost impossible to pass by
water. When viewed from above, it looks talus checkered. Below each plot within the talus
there is a room air, and there is a hole in the middle patch of air that connects the room air
with the outside world. Air Liang was shaped like a barrel, and have a more Tinggih talus
walls to prevent ingress of water. Burrow wall was there from the four rings, each ring
consisting of four cells. In particular clan ring cells are most in, to show the motion to close.
At the air base there are the cells that contain chloroplasts and a network of assimilation.
Other cells, even PUM epidermal cells have chlorophyll, tetepi not amount to much. For the
plant it was an exception, because usually the gametophyte does not have such a perfect
assimilation apparatus.
22. Time network talus of cells that do not contain chlorophyll or very poor in chlorophyll
and accumulation of substances useful as a food reserve, some contain oil. On the down
side parekrim, where the accumulation of reserve food material is covered by a layer of
cells. On top usuk sisis middle, generally there are bodies such as the cup with a scalloped
edge, which is a cup or basket eram eram, with a number of bud-kuncuperam therein.
These bodies are useful as a means of vegetative propagation for the gametophyte.
23. Gametangium Marchantiales supported by a branch of the talus which the body moves.
Talus branch section is curled, is a stalk. In support of that there is a channel with a thread-
Banang rizoid. The top cabanh had repeatedly entered menggarpu branching, up to
akhirnyamembentuk an entity like a star. Place arkegonium anteridium and separate, so
Marchantiales married two. Anteridium supporters called anteridiofor. Arkegonium
supporters called arkefoniofor.
24. Supporting gametangium bertoreh O resembles an eight-disc at the tip. On the upper
side of the disc there are spaces formed bermuarah bottle on the top surface with a small
burrow. spaces that contain anteridium and separate from each other by a network that
contains spaces udara.dengan intermediary
25. Anteridium at the heart of this moss occurs as follows. One of the cells on the surface
splits into several segments with transverse barriers intermediaries. Sigmen each split into
four cells by barriers which tagak straight on-screen asekat made first. The cells which were
located alongside a wall and then into anteridium, which is located inside the cells which
then produce spermatozoid spermatogen. if anteridium been cooked, the cells walls into
mucus and swell, until spermatozoid-spermatozoid can come out and collected in a drop of
rain water contained above the supporting discs gametangium earlier.
26. Supporting gametangium last ♀ with a star-shaped body. Aspects of ordinary star has 9,
the edges folded down, so that the upper part which supports arkegonium them face down,
too. As a result arkegonium as if there is on the underside of the star-shaped body earlier.
Location arkegonium on his supporters in the direction of adjacent fingers.
27. Each row of teeth covered by a membrane called periketium. On the formation of a cell
surface arkegonium becomes two. Cells below will become stalk and the top membalah
again lengthwise to become four cells. Three cells have the edge, while the one in the
middle and then cut again crosswise, forming cells and cells within the cap. Third cells
arkegonium stomach and neck. Of eventually forming cells in the egg, stomach lining cells
and cells of the neck line.
28. Fertilization takes place in rainy weather. By splashing rain water that supports
spermatozoid liquid thrown from anteridiofor to arkegoniofor, epidermal cells have
pendukungarkegonium body papillae and form a capillary system on the water surface,
which memudahnkan terpelincirnya spermatozoid into arkegoniofor. Epidermal cells
arkegonium subsidiary bodies have papillae and form a capillary system on the surface of
the tool, which allows tergelincirnya spermatozoid into arkegonium. Spermatoziod have
reacted kemotaksis albumen.
29. After the completion of fertilization, the zygote develops into an embryo consists of
many cells, and finally a sporogonium short-stemmed, small oblong-shaped, and colored
green, seerti padaes, top cell zygote's first division results, eventually evolved into the foot
and stalk sporogonium. Because there parikrinal walls, the cells in the capsule can be
distinguished in arkespora cells divide into two cells, a narrow (small) yanglainya width, the
width of daughter cells that have a direct a stem cell spores that divide again several times
before become the parent spores, small cells that grow into long cells shaped like fiber, soft-
walled, but has thickened spiral-shaped thickening of the so-called open spore capsules
elatera.setelah, elatera can move with a mechanism of cohesion that helped expenditure
spores from the capsule earlier.
30. In Marchantia spore capsule that has a wall consisting of a layer of cells, with thickening
of fiber-like thickening. At the end of the capsule, the walls consist of two layers of cells. In
that place in time capsule began to rip ripe, split lid, and lined the walls forming the teeth.
Spore capsules at first is still shrouded in sporogonium development. Apart from that each
capsule also drape a thin membrane that originated from the stalk arkegonium.
Marchantiales spore capsule can produce several hundred thousand spores. Spores that if it
falls on a suitable place would have grown to Bond in the form of short threads that contain
chlorophyll, and then developed to form talus is characteristic for these Marchantiles.
31. Spare Marchantiaeceae with examples:
32. Marchantia polymorpha, was used sebagain drug ingredients liver disease (liver). From
this so-called moss moss liver,
33. M. geminatai
34. Reboulia hemispherica.
35. Tribe Ricciaceae, examples Fluitans Riccia, R. nutans, R. trichocarpa.
36. C. Liver moss bertalus
37. The group of plants is interesting because its branches. Every time time talu divide
themselves, pembagianya mengarpu into two branches of the same or more.
Pertumbuhanya occurs through the activity of one or more cells that exist at the end of
indentations talus. This branching talus bentknya similar to mammalian liver, therefore liver
or hepaticeae called moss.
38. Examples in this group include Ricciciocarpus natans grows normally float on water or on
moist soil. Berbaga Riccia species, more branches, and usually form a raset when grown in
moist soil. Recciciocarpus and Riccia are bekerabat near a simple liver moss. This simple
nature presumably because of reduction in the form of his fathers far more complex and is
not a primitive nature of the decline.
39. Once the spores germinate Ricciciocarpus, heart-shaped talus development occurred
that approximately 1 cm wide. big time talusnya floats on the surface of water ponds and
small rivers that flow slowly. In the ventral part there are some rizoid and many scales are
brownish. Both work for the absorption of water when grown in the ground, rizoid
multiplying and the number of scales on the dorsal surface of talus that there are pores that
open and an internal air space.
40. Reproduction of this plant is done through the fragmentation of the talus and through
spores in the form of the sexual process. Sexual organs on the basis of Ricciciocarpus
contained in grooves in the dorsal talusnya. Arkogenium who merupakn female organs, or
gourd-shaped bottles. And contains the egg cell at the bottom. On top of the egg there is a
kind of stoppers on the ventral canal cell call. Arkegonium neck flask containing a row of
cells in the neck canal cell call. Anteridium oval shape with a wall one cell layer. This fence-
shaped wall that surrounds the tiny cells that develop into sperm or male cell or also called
41. Egg cell that has been in buahi have an enlarged and is wrapped with a thin cellulose
membrane. The result of marriage, that is the zygote, undergoes a series of pebelahan cells
and form a cell during a round which is called a fetus (embryo). El-cell embryo in
permulaanya same, but finally the outermost layer of cells that become more obvious in
comparison with the section on tutupinya. Outermost layer called the capsule wall. When
the fetus becomes mature, the cells in a separate capsule to be rounded, and stem cell
function become spores. Along with the enlargement of the fetus, the basic arkegonium
evolved into two cells thick.
42. Each stem cell spores in spore capsule undergo meiosis, so menjdi 4 spores. In
Ricciciocarpus, the number of chromosomes in the egg cell that has been in the stem cell
buahi spores, and capsule cells is eight. Therefore the number n of each spore after meiosis
is four. On the other liver moss, generally is n = 8 and 2n = 16.
43. Spores in spore form of stem cells tend to form a circular set that consists of four spores,
this collection is called tetrad. Along with the ripe spores, capsules are also broken so that
the movement of spores become more free. Eventually released because talus rot spores,
and germinated in the next season.
44. Ricciocarpus life cycle as shown is an overview of the life cycle of all lichen and moss a
true heart. Spores, plant bodies, sexual organs and gametes are all contained in the
gametophyte generation or the generation n. after pollination and pengandaan number of
chromosomes, the zygote grows into a well developed capsule containing the spores stem
cells. This structure is the generation 2n. moss gametophyte generation in all hearts and
true lumu is Autotroph. Embryo, capsules, and the parent spores on Ricciocarpus contain
chlorophyll, but no starch is formed and no evidence that food made in it. Sporofit
generation development depends on the gametophyte generation in terms of water use,
and most, perhaps all, food for the formation and maturation of spores. In liver moss and
moss leaves the other, sporofit generation can produce some food. Therefore seluuhnya not
depend on the gametophyte generation.

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