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					                « Rhône River Development
                   New Control System»


Date et heure                               Pied de page
                                                              Introduction
                1934: the government entrusted the concession for developing and
                operating the Rhône to the Compagnie Nationale du Rhône (CNR),
                giving it 3 main missions:
                                 missions

                                   Electricity production (certified 100% renewable)
                                   Navigation development
                                   Irrigation and other agricultural uses


                On a day to day basis, in addition on its historical interdependent
                missions, CNR ensures the application of its voluntary environmental
                preservation and rehabilitation policy.


                Today CNR is part of the international industrial and services SUEZ
                group and their policy about sustainable development are in synergy.


Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                              Pied de page
                                                           Engineering

                Technical expertise for CNR projects:
                      Public utility missions
                      Telecontrol (Remote-control)
                      PCH (small hydro power plants)
                      locks on the upper Rhône


                A centre of expertise, both competent and competitive in several
                areas :
                      Navigable waterways
                      Hydroelectric facilities
                      River course developments
                      Hydraulic and hydrological studies
                      Environment.

Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                          Pied de page
                CNR’s development schemes
                                     ASSETS
                       19 Dams
                       19 Hydro Power Plants
                                3% of French electricity
                         production,
                               25% of French hydropower
                         production,
                       14 Broad-gauge locks
                       3000 MW of installed power
                       400 km of dikes
                       32 Pumping stations
                       300 km of broad-gauge navigable
                      waterways
                       29 Industrial and port sites
Date et heure
24/04/2009                                       Pied de page
                                           CNR’s development schemes

Counter canal


  Dam
                                            Head race canal

                                                 Hydroelectric power station        Harbours and industrial areas



     By-passed river
                       Islands and lônes
                                                                               Pump station
                                                              Tailrace canal

                                           Marinas




A detention dam raises the level of the Rhône and creates a head of water on which the power plant and
the lock are situated. From the dam, built on the natural course of the river, the water follows the diversion
channel and is turbined by the plant by the force of the current (no storage option). The water is returned
to the Rhône via the tailrace canal downstream of the plant.

Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                                       Pied de page
                                       New Control System
                                of Rhône river developments

                                       Objectives




            1.   Optimisation of the production (working with flow programs),

            2.   Improvement of flow management (controlling levels, flood
                 management, flows regulation, etc…),

            3.   Improvement of telecommunication system reliability,

            4.   Reduction of stress on devices (turbine units, gates),

            5.   Replacement of old and obsolete computers



Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                   Pied de page
                                       New Control System
                                of Rhône river developments
                                          Means of
                                       implementation

            1.   New regulation modes : « flow program » with level monitoring
                 synchronised with regulation, and a « Local Operation» mode.
            2.   More efficient predictive type level regulation with embedded
                 mathematical models, detection of measurement errors, and
                 standardisation of dam flows with measurements downstream of
                 dams.
            3.   Replacement of « LS » by the CNR Ethernet network (optic fibre):
                 high flows, redundancy , internal technical control.
            4.   Use of a predicted level within a tolerance range, taking into account
                 constraints (gradient level, gradient flow, tolerance range, inlet flows,
                 tributaries, etc.)
            5.   Installation of PLCs and computers servers

Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                     Pied de page
                                            New Control System
                                     of Rhône river developments
                           Ancien système
                                            PB
                                                         Old System
                                            VS
                                                 Regulation : PID control
                                            PR


                                            SV   Connections : line Specialized point to
                                                 point
                                            BV


                                            BE



                                            LN
       Poste de sécurité
       hydraulique                          MO
                     PSH


                                            DM


                                            CA



                                            AV


                                            VA


Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                      Pied de page
                                                New Control System
                                         of Rhône river developments
        Local operation station   VA
                                                                                    Telecontrol station
                     GE


                SY                      AV


           CE                                CA


         BY                                   DM       PLANT :
                     Closed loop                       Structure of local control
                                                       devices
        BC             optical                    MO                                   Regulation : model
                        fibre                                                          predictive control
         SB            network                LN       DAM :
                                                       Structure of local control
                                                       devices
           PB                                BE

                VS                      BLV

                     PR            SV




Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                                    Pied de page
                                                                     New Control System
                                                              of Rhône river developments
                          PLANT                                                                                                                                                                                                    DAM



                                                                                                             SCADA locaux
                                                                                                                                  Hist. local




2ème LEVEL :                                       Vers ACE et PA
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top vers
                                                  Top vers automates
                                                                                                                                                                                                 automates
Operation computer
                                                                                                              PA
                                                                                                                                                                                       Horloge
Server exchanging with                  Horloge
                                        HARPES
                                                                       XCELL 4100                                                                                                      HARPES
                                                                       1   2   3   4                                                                        switch CISCO
Rhône control centre
                                                                                                                                                                                                           ACE
Status recorder                                                                              PC de
                                                                                             suivi
                                                                                                                                                                                 XCELL 4100
                                                                                                                                                                                                         DEPORTE
                                                            ACE                                                                                 Réseau Ethernet
                                                                                                                                                     CNR
Ethernet Network
                                                                                                                                   switch CISCO                                         APB

                                                                                                                                                                                                              IHM
                                                                                                                                                                           Top                               Monitor
                                                                                             Passerelle                      Pass. LAC-TCP               Pass. LAC-TCP                                        Pro
Interface with 1er 2ème                                                                      EtherLAC
                                                                  Réseau LAC                                    DNU                                                              DNU
LEVEL :
PLCs of exchange units                                                                                                                                              AEB1                             AEB2
                                         APSAG1            APSAG2              APG1               APG2             APG3             APG4
General operating PLCs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Mesures
LAC Network                                                                                                                                                                                                            niveaux
                                  Top         Top              Top                                                                                                 Top                                   Top           (voies 2)
                                                                                       Top             Top             Top
                                                                                                                                                                                       Boucle
                                                                                                                                                                                   Ethernet locale
                                                                           Groupe             Groupe          Groupe            Groupe
1er LEVEL :                                                                   1                  2               3                 4                                              APV1            APV2                  APV6
                                                                                                                                                                   GR
Turbine unit controls
and commands
                                                                                                                                                                                 Vanne 1         Vanne 2           Vanne 6




Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                                                                                                                                                   Pied de page
                                New Control System
                         of Rhône river developments
CONTROL OF A             = flows of tributaries
                         = disturbance
DEVELOPMENT ON                         Qp                  ZC = Reference
                                                           Z = measured Level
THE RHONE                                                                            Dam
                       Qp
                                                                     Plant
                   = upstream flow
                   = disturbance
                                                                                            Qc
                                                                                 = Controlled flows
                                                       Set point



                               Qp       upstream flow
                                           tributary
                                                                         Qp     upstream flow
                                                                                tributary


                 Reference                                                                      Measured
                                                  Controlled flows
                   level                                               Hydraulic                 Level
                                 PFC              (Plant or Dam)
                                                                        Process
                   ZC                                  Qc             development                     Z



Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                                  Pied de page
                                                     New Control System
                                              of Rhône river developments
                “FI2LO” mode - Run of the river
 R                     Regulation ensures that operating instructions are monitored as a function of
 E                     the flow rate entering the development (tolerance on height: +/-3cm).
 G              “CRUE” mode - FLOOD
 U                      Regulation monitors the operating instructions as a function of the flow
 L                      rate entering the development with greater precision (tolerance on
                        height: +/-2cm).
 A
 T              “VISEE” mode - TARGET


 I                      This entails reaching the level demanded by the operator within a given
                        time.
 O
                “PGQ” mode - Flow rate program
 N                       Regulation distributes the regulated flow between the hydropower plant
                         and the dam.
 M                       Regulation controls the progression of the level measured proactively.
 O              “IL” mode - Local operation
 D                         Mode consecutive to PGQ
 E                         Mode imposed by regulation on the discharge and the real level of the
 S                         fluctuation zone.
Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                              Pied de page
                                        New Control System
                                 of Rhône river developments
           Definition of a future objective at   PAST   FUTURE      Predicted Level
           any moment, (instruction,…)

           Choice of a reference                                    Reference
           trajectory to reach target        Target                 trajectory

           Research of the command
           that permits approaching        Process
           the coincidence point
           located on the reference
           trajectory

          Use of mathematical
          models for estimate of
          the future behaviour of
          the process                                     Coïncidence
                                                             point
          Sliding horizon
          strategy

Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                   Pied de page
                                                                                                     New Control System
                                                                                              of Rhône river developments
   E                                                                                                Traitement Z(t)Q(t) du 05/11/07 0:00 au
                                                                                                    Traitement Z(t)Q(t) : du: 07/09/08 au 09/09/08 06/11/07 0:00
   X                                                                                                                     Pierre Bénite
                                                                                                                                     Pierre Bénite
                               161.75
   P                             162.05
                                                                                                                                                                              PK3

   L
                 Niveaux




                                                                                                                                                                         ZSelZone Usi PB
                      Niveaux



                               161.50
                                             162.00
   O                                                                                                                                                                          QPi


   I                                         161.95
                                                                                                                                                                             Saone

                                                                                                                                                                             Rhone
   T
                           Débits entrant




                                             2000
                                                                 300                                                                                                      QMax Usi PB
                                               Débits entrant




   A                                         1000                                                                                                                       QObj BARRAGE PB
                                                200
   T                                                                                                                                                                      BARRAGE PB
   I                                                             100
                                                                                                                                                                         QObj USINE PB
                           Débits sortants




   O                                         2000
                                                                                                                                                                           USINE PB
                                               Débits sortants




   N                                            400
                                             1000
                                                                                                                                                                         QObj brut Amgt

                                                                                                                                                                            Qcor PR1
                                                   100
                                                                 200
   R                                                                                                                                                                     DqContZ Bar PB
                                  Régulation




                                                           50
                                                                                                                                                                         DqContZ Usi PB
   E                                                             0
                                                                            Automatique distance
                                                                     25
   S
                                               Régulation




                                                      -50
                                                                                  Automatique distance
   U                                                                  0
                                                                          Dim 7                                    Lun 8                                     Mar 9
   L            Sep 2008 -25                                                                                       Temps


   T                                                                         Lun 5           3:00        6:00     9:00         12:00         15:00   18:00      21:00     Mar 6
   S              Nov 2007                                                                                                     Temps

Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                                                                                                           Pied de page
                                       New Control System
                                of Rhône river developments

  After an experience feedback of 5 years concerning the 12 developments
  equipped of predictive command, 2 main axes of improvement appear :


            Adjustment of control system on the objective flow rate and not
          on the actual flow rate,



            The use of the mathematical model in the control system.




Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                    Pied de page
                                             Development studied
                      Charmes
                        dam
                                          For the control system:
     Beauchastel
     power plant
                                Mathematical model: CRUE 8

                                                                   Upper flow

R                               Flow measurements                  Lower flow
E
S
E
                                                                   input flow
R       PR1
V
O
I
R

                                Level measured: ZPR1

      Pouzin
       dam
                                Fictive flow for updating model: Qcor
                Logis-Neuf
                Power plant


Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                              Pied de page
                       Model using in control method

                           CRUE8:              Fictive flow
       Boundary
                            States             calculation
      conditions
                         calculations             (Qcor)



                               If it is
                               without        Predicted level
    Open/close gates
                               given bounds
                                                calculation
     of dam and/or
      power plant


                                                scenario free
                          Control inputs         + scenario
                                                   forced

Date et heure
24/04/2009                                            Pied de page
                                            How is calculated Qcor?
 Currently, errors are taken into account by Qcor

                                                                             Charmes
                                                             Beauchastel       dam
                                                    CF124.75 Power plant               P119.9

                              Qam
                              ZavPR
 Continuity of levels
 ZavPR = ZamPR                                       R
                                                     E
                                                     T
                                                     E          PR1
                                                     N
                                                     U
 Discontinuity of flow rate                          E

 Qcor = QavPR - QamPR               ZamPR
                                    Qav
                                                              PR2
                                              AMBAR
                                                             Pouzin
                                                              dam
                                                                                       PK142.0
                                                                      Logis-Neuf
                                                                      Power plant
Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                      Pied de page
                                                             Disturbances
  After 4 to 5 years: study/review points to be performed




                                                                             Control system disturbed
     When there are structures errors:

                  Model do not represent reality


     When there are measurement errors:
                  Faulty sensors
                  Missing measurements

    When the are start-up/shutdown of turbines (variation +/- 400m3/s)
                  Pronounced transitional phenomenon



Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                               Pied de page
                                                     New Method
      OBJECTIVE: Choice of new methodology and algorithm to
      detect and correct:

                         Faulty measurements

                         Missing measurements

                         Faulty model


     Without discontinuity for the flow rate QPR1



                Choice of a Data Assimilation Method : KALMAN
                FILTER


Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                      Pied de page
                        Model using Kalman Filter in
                                     control system
                                              State
       Boundary                               space
                       CRUE8
      conditions                              model

                                                      Kalman Filter


    Open/close gates           If it is
                               without                Predicted level
     of dam and/or             given bounds
                                                        calculation
      power plant


                                                        scenario free
                          Control inputs                 + scenario
                                                           forced

Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                    Pied de page
                                                            FEASIBILITY


     Matlab model:        Hydropower development are modelled by transfer functions.
                          Predictive control scheme.




     Tests:               Faulty measurements
                          Faulty model
                          Faulty model and faulty measurement




                Comparison between currently method and Kalman filter

Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                              Pied de page
                                                                      COMPARISON
                Measurement errors: 200m3/s so 100 m3/s so 500m3/s
                      CNR’s method on the left ; Kalman filter on the right




Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                    Pied de page
                                                                COMPARISON
                                Structure error
                CNR’s method on the left ; Kalman filter on the right




Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                              Pied de page
                                                                  COMPARISON
                Measurement error 200 m3/s + structure error
                  CNR’s method on the left ; Kalman filter on the right




Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                Pied de page
                                                              CONCLUSION

         Feasibility proved by the implementation of a data assimilation technique.




         Technique which has more physical sense than the Qcor method.



         State is corrected in many point not only at PR1.



        More adequate use of the hydraulic software CRUE : Flow rate and water
      level are calculated from estimated measurements (no problem of
      superabundance).


Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                 Pied de page
                                                             Linear model


                  1. Discretization Saint Venant equations
                                     Schéma implicite
 Module of CRUE




                                     de Preissmann


                  2. Taylor approximation around the
                  operating point
                                     Linear system

                  3. State space Model




Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                        Pied de page
                                       Linear model validation
                              State space model:


                            X+ = AX + BU +BpUp
 Avec :                             Y = CX
             X : State vector (Q et Z)
             A : Dynamic matrix
             U : commands (input vector)
             B : Commands matrix
             Up : Perturbations vector (water supply point and unknown
           contribution)
             Bp : Perturbations matrix
             Y : Output vector
             C : Output matrix

Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                        Pied de page
                                                Linear model validation

  Scenario tested (measurements are relative)

    t=0s    Qbarrage_amont = 0 m3/s
    t=1h    Qbarrage_amont =10 m3/s
    t=2h    Qbarrage_amont = 0 m3/s



  State space model
  and software using
  Barré Saint Venant
  equations are fast
       identical




Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                     Pied de page
                                                       KALMAN FILTER




  Tests of :
                Noisy measurements
                Noisy states
                Faulty model (non-linearity visible)
                Measurement biased



Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                    Pied de page
                                                                                                                     KALMAN FILTER
  Noisy measurements

                                                                          débit au PR1
                                300
                                                                                                                             Modèle non bruité
                                                                                                                             Estimation
                                200                                                                                          Données bruitées



                                100
                Débit en m3/s




                                  0


                                -100



                                -200



                                -300
                                       0   0.5   1                            1.5                                2     2.5                       3
                                                                       Temps en secondes                                                         4
                                                                                                                                          x 10




                                                     Ecart en débit entre le modèle non bruité et l estimation
                                  1

                                 0.8

                                 0.6

                                 0.4

                                 0.2
                  m3/s




                                  0

                                -0.2

                                -0.4

                                -0.6

                                -0.8

                                  -1
                                       0   0.5   1                            1.5                                2     2.5                       3
                                                                       Temps en secondes                                                         4
                                                                                                                                          x 10




Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                                                                                           Pied de page
                                                                                                                                              KALMAN FILTER
  Noisy states

                                                                                                   débit au PR1
                                      4000
                                                                                                                                                      Mesures du modèle bruité
                                      2000                                                                                                            Estimation
                 Débit en m3/s




                                                                                                                                                      Mesures non bruitées
                                                   0

                                  -2000

                                  -4000
                                                        0           0.5   1                            1.5                                2     2.5                              3
                                                                                                Temps en secondes                                                                4
                                                                                                                                                                          x 10
                                                               -3
                                                        x 10                  Ecart en débit entre la mesure non bruité et l estimation
                                                   1

                                                   0
                                 m3/s




                                                   -1

                                                   -2

                                                   -3
                                                        0           0.5   1                            1.5                                2     2.5                              3
                                                                                                Temps en secondes                                                                4
                                                                                                                                                                          x 10
                                                                                                   Cote au PR1
                                                   4

                                                   2
                                 Cote en mètres




                                                   0

                                                   -2

                                                   -4
                                                        0           0.5   1                              1.5                              2     2.5                              3
                                                                                                                                                                                 4
                                                                                                                                                                          x 10
                                                                              Ecart en cote entre la mesure non bruité et l estimation
                                                   1

                                                  0.5

                                                   0
                          m




                                            -0.5

                                                   -1
                                                        0           0.5   1                            1.5                                2     2.5                              3
                                                                                                Temps en secondes                                                                4
                                                                                                                                                                          x 10




Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                                                                                                                           Pied de page
                                                                                                                                    KALMAN FILTER
  Faulty Model

                                                                                         débit au P R1
                                       300
                                                                                                                                         M es ures du m odèle linéaire
                                       200                                                                                               E s tim ation
                    Débit en m3/s




                                                                                                                                         M es ures du m odèle non linéaire
                                       100

                                            0

                                      -100
                                                 0   0.5        1                            1.5                               2           2.5                               3
                                                                                     Tem ps en s ec ondes                                                                    4
                                                                                                                                                                     x 10
                                                           E cart en débit entre la m esure du m odèle non linéaire et l es tim ation
                                            4

                                            2
                                    m3/s




                                            0

                                            -2

                                            -4
                                                 0   0.5        1                            1.5                               2           2.5                               3
                                                                                     Tem ps en s ec ondes                                                                    4
                                                                                                                                                                     x 10
                                                                                         Cote au P R1
                                      0.15

                                           0.1
                Cote en mètres




                                      0.05

                                            0

                                     -0.05
                                                 0   0.5        1                              1.5                             2           2.5                               3
                                                                                                                                                                             4
                                                                                                                                                                     x 10
                                                           E c art en c ote entre la m es ure du m odèle non linéaire et l estim ation
                                      0.05




                                            0
                m




                                     -0.05
                                                 0   0.5        1                            1.5                               2           2.5                               3
                                                                                     Tem ps en s ec ondes                                                                    4
                                                                                                                                                                     x 10




Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                                                                                                                       Pied de page
                                                                                                                                                                     KALMAN FILTER
  QPR1 measurement biased (+1000m3/s)

                                                                                                             d éb it au P R 1

                                      1 0 00
                                                                                                                                                                              M o d èle n on bru it é
                Débit en m3/s




                                                                                                                                                                              E s t im at io n
                                                                                                                                                                              D on n é es b ru it é es
                                                 5 00



                                                   0
                                                        0           0. 5   1                                      1.5                                            2      2.5                              3
                                                                                                        Te m ps e n s e c o n d es                                                                       4
                                                                                                                                                                                                x 10
                                                               -4
                                                        x 10                   E c a rt e n d é b it e n tre le m od è le n o n b ru ité et l es t im a t io n
                                                 1 .5


                                                   1
                          m3/s




                                                 0 .5


                                                   0
                                                        0           0. 5   1                                      1.5                                            2      2.5                              3
                                                                                                        Te m ps e n s e c o n d es                                                                       4
                                                                                                                                                                                                x 10
                                                               -8
                                                        x 10                                                 C o te au P R 1
                                                   3

                                                   2
                                Cote en mètres




                                                   1

                                                   0

                                                   -1
                                                        0           0. 5   1                                        1.5                                          2      2.5                              3
                                                                                                                                                                                                         4
                                                                                                                                                                                                x 10
                                                               -8
                                                        x 10                   E c art en c ot e en t re le m o dè le no n bru it é e t l e s tim at io n
                                                   3

                                                   2

                                                   1
                                m




                                                   0

                                                   -1
                                                        0           0. 5   1                                      1.5                                            2      2.5                              3
                                                                                                        Te m ps e n s e c o n d es                                                                       4
                                                                                                                                                                                                x 10




Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                                                                                                                                                   Pied de page
                                                               CONCLUSION
     Good experience feedback on predictive system
            Run of the river mode in period of strong flow rate,
            Reduction of the requests of organs adjusting ,
            Optimisation flexibility of production.


     The axes of improvement
            Adjustment of control system on the objective flow rate,
                 conform to the expected
            Adjustment of mathematical model is now in study and will be exploited in
          2010.


     CNR’s perspectives
            Control system with a cascade of hydropower plant.
Date et heure
24/04/2009                                                                Pied de page
Date et heure   Pied de page

				
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