The KATRIN Experiment direct measurement of neutrino masses in by sanmelody

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									                                                Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
                             HVT-TLK            in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft

                       The KATRIN Experiment – direct measurement
                          of neutrino masses in the sub-eV region

                                     Beate Bornschein on behalf of the KATRIN collaboration




               Introduction

               Tritium β-decay experiments (basic ideas)

               KATRIN – the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment

               Summary




AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                                Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   #1
                                             Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
                             HVT-TLK         in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft

                                   Absolute values of neutrino masses
                            Fundamental ν-mass scale of key importance for
 Cosmology (ν hot dark matter) & particle physics (hierarchical/quasi-degenerate models)


             ‚indirect‘ approaches                                 direct measurements
          Cosmology: LSS & CMBR                                  Supernova ToF
          analysis depends on priors                             details of ν-emission, SN20xx?

          0νββ                                                   Kinematics of particle decays
          Majorana-mee(ν), CP phases                                    W 2 = m 2c 4 + p 2c 2




AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                         Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   #2
                                             Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
                             HVT-TLK         in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft

                     Absolute neutrino masses – the ‚traditional‘ way
                m(νe) : tritium ß-decay      3H   → 3He + e- + νe
                                                                                 kinematic phase
                m(νµ) : pion-decay            π+ →    µ+ + νµ
                                                                                  space studies
                m(ντ) : tau hadr. decay τ →           5π + ντ




                                                                    m(νµ) < 170 keV (90% CL.)


                                                                    m(ντ) < 18 MeV (95% CL.)


                                                                    m(νe) < 2.2 eV (95% CL.)


AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                           Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   #3
                                             Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
                             HVT-TLK         in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft

                     Absolute neutrino masses – the ‚traditional‘ way
                m(νe) : tritium ß-decay       3H   → 3He + e- + νe
                                                                                  kinematic phase
                m(νµ) : pion-decay            π+ →     µ+ + νµ
                                                                                   space studies
                m(ντ) : tau hadr. decay τ →            5π + ντ


                                                                                 -
                                                                            gles
                                                                        g an
                                                                           in
                                                                    e  mix                  ns
                                                                larg               ill atio
                                                      ns  with               y osc
                                             ill atio                 test b
                                         osc                   o ligh
                                   trino                  ed t
                              neu                re li
                                                       nk                 m(νµ) < 170 keV (90% CL.)
                                               a
                                       as ses
                               all ν -m
                                                                          m(ντ) < 18 MeV (95% CL.)


                                                                     m(νe) < 2.2 eV (95% CL.)


AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                            Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   #4
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                                               Fermi theory of β-decay and ν-mass
       recoil energy and excitation neglected
                                                      2
      N ( E ) = const ∗ M F ( Z , E ) p( E + me c 2 )( E 0 − E ) ( E0 − E ) 2 − mν2 c 4

                                                                                             experimental observable
                                                                                             mν2 = Σ |Uei2| mi2
                                     tritium β-spectrum
                                  1.2                                   10
              count rate [a.u.]




                                  1.0
                                                                            8
                                  0.8                            N [a.u.]
                                                                            6
                                  0.6                                                                               m ν = 0 eV
                                                                            4
                                  0.4
                                                                            2                                               ∼2 * 10 -13
                                  0.2                                                m ν = 1 eV
                                                                            0
                                   0
                                        0    5 10 15 20                         -3    -2.5   -2     -1.5 -1     -0.5            0         0.5
                                            energy E [eV]                                           E - E0 [eV]
AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                                                    Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   #5
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                               Measurement of ν-mass: basic requirements
                                                                                very high energy resolution
              10
                                                                                very high luminosity
              8
                                                                                    L = ASeff ∆Ω/4π
   N [a.u.]




              6
                                                m ν = 0 eV                          - large source area
              4

              2                                          ∼2 * 10 -13                - large accepted solid angle
                       m ν = 1 eV
              0
                                                                                high β-decay rate
                  -3    -2.5    -2    -1.5 -1     -0.5      0          0.5
                                      E - E0 [eV]                               very low background



                                Best solution: tritium source & MAC-E filter

AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                                   Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   #6
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                                                            Why tritium?
       recoil energy and excitation neglected
                                             2
      N ( E ) = const ∗ M F ( Z , E ) p( E + me c 2 )( E 0 − E ) ( E0 − E ) 2 − mν2 c 4
                       nuclear matrix            Fermi
                       element                   function                Tritium: E0 = 18.6 keV,
                                                                                  TH = 12.3 a


           Superallowed transition:                         matrix element M is not energy dependent
           Low endpoint energy:                             relative decay fraction at the endpoint is
                                                            comparatively high
           Short half life:                                 specific activity is high
                                                            low amount of source material
                                                            low fraction of inelastic scattered electrons
           Hydrogen isotope:                                simple atomic shell
                                                            final states precisely calculable
AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                                  Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   #7
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                                Principle of an electrostatic filter with
                               magnetic adiabatic collimation (MAC-E)

                                                                   MAC-E Filter:

                                                                        adiabatic guiding of β particles
                                                                        along the magnetic field lines

                                                                        large accepted solid angle

                                                                             ∆Ω ≈ 2π

                                                                        inhomogeneous B-Field:
                                                                             adiabatic transformation




AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                         Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   #8
                                             Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
                             HVT-TLK         in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft

                                Principle of an electrostatic filter with
                               magnetic adiabatic collimation (MAC-E)

                                                                   MAC-E Filter:

                                                                        adiabatic guiding of β particles
                                                                        along the magnetic field lines

                                                                        large accepted solid angle

                                                                             ∆Ω ≈ 2π

                                                                        inhomogeneous B-Field:
                                                                             adiabatic transformation

                                                                        electrostatic retarding field:
                                                                             high pass filter !
                                                                        ∆E = Bmin/Bmax E0

AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                         Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   #9
                                                    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
                             HVT-TLK                in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft

                  Principle set-up of a tritium β-decay experiment


             Tritium                              (Magnetic)               Spectrometer
             Source                               Transport                (Energy Filter)                         Detector
                                                  System



        1) Very high                         1) No disturbance of         1) Very high                        1) Very low
           source strength                      kinetic energy of            energy resolution                   background
                                                beta decay electrons
        2) Very good                            (adiabatic transport)     2) Very low                         2) Segmented
           understanding                                                     background
           of systematic                     2) No loss of electrons
           effects
                                             3) Elimination of residual
                                                tritium molecules




AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                                    Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 10
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                             HVT-TLK         in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft

                              Two running neutrino mass experiments

                               Mainz                                                                    Troitsk
           quench condensed T2 source:                                   windowless gaseous T2 source
                                 QCTS                                                                    WGTS
               140 ML, A=2 cm2, T=1.9 K                              3 m long tube, d=50 mm, T=26-28 K
                                                                                 T2 purification




                                                                                                                   Ti pump
                                                                                              Hg pump
                                                                                                                                  MAC-E-Filter




                                                                                                                             8T    0.5-1 mT      2.6 T
                                                            e-gun          5T     0.8 T                  5T


                                                                                                                                                         Detector
                                                                    Windowless Gaseous
                                                                    Tritium Source         Magnetic Transport System
                                                                                           + Differential Pumping Section                         0      1m   2m


             Both experiments: electrostatic retarding spectrometer: ∆E=3-4 eV

             mν2 = -1.2 ± 2.2 ±2.1 eV2/c4                                    mν2 = -2.3 ± 2.5 ±2.0 ±1.5 eV2/c4
             mν ≤ 2.2 eV/c2 (95% CL.)                                        mν ≤ 2.2 eV/c2 (95% CL.)

AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                                   Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany                     # 11
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                   Scaling factors for next-generation T2 experiment
  Experimental observable in β-decay is mν2

       Aim:               improve mν by one order of magnitude (2 eV → 0.2 eV)
       Requires: improve mν2 by two orders of magnitude (4 eV → 0.04 eV)
       Problem: count rate close to β-endpoint drops very fast (~δE3)

        Improve statistics:
        - stronger tritium source (factor 80) & larger analysing plane (∅ = 10 m)
        - longer measuring period (~100 days → ~1000 days)
        Improve energy resolution:
        - large electrostatic spectrometer with ∆E = 1 eV (factor 4 improvement)
        Reduce systematic errors:
        - better control of systematics (reduce to less than 1/10)

AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                        Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 12
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                          KATRIN – the next-generation T2 experiment




               WGTS                     QCTS   pre-spectrometer         main spectrometer                                    detector




    5m           10 m                 25 m        4m                              20 m                                   5m

         Molecular T2 Sources                     Pre-Filter      Energy Analysis with MAC-E Filter
               Electron Transport and T2 Eliminating Line




AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                              Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 13
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                       KATRIN at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK)

                                                                       KATRIN will be located on
                                                                       the site of FZK at the
                                                                       Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

                                                                        Start of tritium operation 1994

                                                                        TLK task (since 1994):
                                                                        Development of a closed
                                                                        tritium fuel cycle for a fusion
                                                  TLK
                                                                        reactor (ITER)

                                                                        TLK license: 40 g T2

                                                                        On site: 25 g T2

                                                                        Ideal place for KATRIN!


AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                        Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 14
                                                         Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
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                                             WGTS source characteristics
                     longitudinal source profile (length 10 m)
      T2 molecules




                                        3.6 T
                                                                        5.6T

                           30K                   e   -

    tritium                           tritium                           tritium
      out                            injection                            out


                        Column density: 5∗1017 molecules /cm2
                        Injection rate:          1019 molecules /s ≈ 1 Ci /s
                        Source content: high-purity molecular tritium (> 95%)
                        Source stability: better than 1%

AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                                        Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 15
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                                             KATRIN WGTS and TLK

      Requirements of KATRIN WGTS

            Injection rate: 1 Ci/s ≈ 10 g T2 / d

           Tritium purity: better 95%

            60 days/run, 3 - 5 runs/year
            TLK Inventory: 25 g T2


      => Closed tritium cycle is
         absolutely necessary!

 TLK is the only scientific tritium lab, which
  a) is licensed to handle the required amount of tritium and
  b) can provide the infrastructure necessary to accomplish such a challenging task
 All T2 bearing parts of KATRIN will be installed in the TLK
AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                         Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 16
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                    Reference setup of source and transport system
                        WGTS                                                        TRANSPORT SYSTEM


                                                 DPS1-F                 DPS2-F                         CPS1-F                   CPS2-F

                                                                                                                                      V4-F




                                                                                                                            Pre-spectrometer

                           4.2 - 150 K                          V1-F                        V2-F                 V3-F
                           80 K
                           4.2 K                                                                              Split coil magnet
                           RT

                                                                       Maximal allowed tritium flow rate into
          REAR SYSTEM                                 WGTS             pre-spectrometer: 10-11 mbar l/s
                                         V1-R
                                                                       Status:
      V2-R
                                                                         WGTS (10 m): Specification started
                                                                         DPS2-F:                   Tender action started
     CMS-R          DPS2-R                   DPS1-R

AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                                       Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany     # 17
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                           Electrostatic spectrometers: tandem design
         electrostatic pre-filtering & analysis of tritium β - decay electrons
                                                                                         air coil




                             transport
             B=2 x10-2 T     solenoids

                                                                  B=3 x10 -4 T


                             spectrometer
     10 e /s
        10   -
                           solenoids B=4.5T

                                103 e-/s



        pre-spectrometer                                    main spectrometer

                 pre-filter: 10-7 decay fraction              energy analysis: ∆E = 1 eV
                 energy resolution: ∆E = 50 eV                high luminosity: L = ASeff ∆Ω/4π = 20 cm2
AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                         Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 18
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                                             KATRIN pre-spectrometer

                                                           UHV pumping system:
                                                           TMP‘s, getter strips
            Inner electrode




                                                                                                        s.c. magnet

        s.c. magnet




                                                                         Length: 3.42 m (flange – flange)
                                                                         Diameter: 1.70 m
                                                                         Vessel on high voltage potential
AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                           Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 19
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                                       Status KATRIN pre-spectrometer




                                                                  Vessel:          on site of FZK
                                                                  Magnets: manufactured,
                                                                           delivery soon




AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                        Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 20
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                         Main spectrometer – electromagnetic design

           elm. design fairly advanced
           transported flux 191 Tcm2




                                                                 optimization of homogeneity of
                                                                 electric potential of analyzing plan
AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                        Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 21
                                             Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
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              KATRIN main spectrometer: industrial design study

                Stainless steel vessel (∅ = 10 m, l = 22 m) on HV potential (-18.6 kV)
                Minimization of background rate: p < 10-11 mbar (XHV!)




AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                        Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 22
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                             HVT-TLK         in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft

                                                KATRIN detector




             Detection of β-electrons                ⇒    high efficiency (>90%)
             Monitoring of source density ⇒               pixel detector (400 pixel)
             Background suppression                  ⇒    good passive and active shielding
                                                     ⇒    high energy resolution (∆E < 600 eV)
             MAC-E-TOF Mode                          ⇒    high time time resolution: ∆t < 1 ms
             Calibration measurements                ⇒    high count rate: ≤ 1 MHz
AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                        Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 23
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                                      KATRIN: systematic uncertainties

          Vibrational excitations of final states
          Inelastic scattering
          El. potential distribution along source
          Solid states effects (only QCTS)
          Stability of parameters
         (e.g. HV, T2 purity, T2 injection rate)



      If small energy intervall (25 eV) is used:
            One well defined final state
            Excited final states negligible (∆Eexc > 27 eV)
            Only small fraction of inelastic scattered electrons (25 eV intervall: 2%)

AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                        Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 24
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                                             KATRIN sensitivity (1/2)


                                                                            MC spectra for 3 years

                                                                            10 mHz background

                                                                            Comparison of 2 spectra:

                                                                            m(ν) = 0 eV & m(ν) = 0.5 eV




AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                         Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 25
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                                             KATRIN sensitivity (2/2)
                    Monte Carlo: 3 years                           KATRIN 4th collaboration
                                                                     meeting in Prague, June 2003
                                                                   - optimized measuring point
                                                                     distribution
                                                                   - smaller systematic uncertainties

                                                                   KATRIN: σstat(m2) ≈ σsys(m2)

                                                                        no ν-mass signal,
                                                                        sensitivity:
                                                                                  mν < 0.2 eV/c2 (90% CL.)

                                                                       evidence for ν-mass signal,
                                                                       discovery potential:
                                                                                  mν = 0.35 eV/c2 (5σ)
                                                                                  mν = 0.30 eV/c2 (3σ)

AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                         Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 26
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                                                     KATRIN collaboration
  K. Essig, B. Müller, T. Thümmler, C. Weinheimer
        University of Bonn, Helmholtz Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphhysik (Ger)
  J. Herbert, O. Malyshev, R. Reid
        ASTeC, CCLRC- Daresburey Laboratory, Daresbury (UK)
  I.N. Meshkov, Y. Syresin
        JINR*, Dubna (RU) (* assoc. member)
  A. Osipowicz
        University of Aplied Sciences Fulda, FB Elektrotechnik (Ger)
  T. Armbrust, H. Blümer, L. Bornschein, F. Eichelhard, J. Reichenbacher, J. Wolf
        University of Karlsruhe, Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik (Ger)
  G. Drexlin, K. Eitel, R. Gumbsheimer, H. Hucker, P. Plischke, F. Schwamm, H. Skacel, M. Steidl
        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Kernphysik (Ger)
  A. Beglarian, H. Gemmecke, S. Wüstling
       Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Prozeßdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik (Ger)
  S. Bobien, C. Day, R. Gehring, V. Hauer, K.-P. Jüngst, P. Komarek, A. Kudymov, X. Luo, H. Neumann, M. Noe
       Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Technische Physik (Ger)
  B. Bornschein, L. Dörr, M. Glugla
       Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (Ger)
  J. Bonn, F. Glück, B. Flatt, C. Kraus, E.W. Otten, S. Sanchez Majos
       University of Mainz, Institut für Physik (Ger)
  V.N. Aseev, E.V. Geraskin, O. Kazachenko, V.M. Lobashev, B.E. Stern, N.A. Titov, S.A. Zadorozhny, Y. Zakharov
        Academy of Sciences of Russia, INR Troitsk (RU)
  O. Dragoun, J. Kaspar, A. Kovalik, M. Rysavy, A. Spalek, D. Venos, M. Zboril
        Czech Academy of Sciences, NPI, Rez / Prague (CZ)
  D.L. Wark
        CCLRC – Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (UK)
  T. Burritt, P.J. Doe, J. Formaggio, T. Gadfort, G. Harper, M. Howe, S. McGee, A. Myers, R.G.H. Robertson, T. Van Wechel, J.F. Wilkerson
        University of Washington, Seattle (USA)
  M. Charlton, A.J. Davies, H.H. Telle
        University of Wales, Swansea (UK)
AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                                                Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 27
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                                             KATRIN time schedule
      2001                First presentation (internat. workshop Bad Liebenzell)
                          Formal founding of KATRIN collaboration

      2002                Submission of Letter of Intent (hep-ex 0109033)
                          BMBF funding astroparticle physics
                          Very positive report of International KATRIN Review Panel

      2003                Proposal submission, pre-spectrometer tests
                          Tender action for transport section & cryo supply
                          Background investigations in Mainz




AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                        Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 28
                                             Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
                             HVT-TLK         in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft

                                             KATRIN time schedule
      2001                First presentation (internat. workshop Bad Liebenzell)
                          Formal founding of KATRIN collaboration

      2002                Submission of Letter of Intent (hep-ex 0109033)
                          BMBF funding astroparticle physics
                          Very positive report of International KATRIN Review Panel

      2003                Proposal submission, pre-spectrometer tests
                          Tender action for transport section & cryo supply
                          Background investigations in Mainz

      2003/4              Funding applications & reviews: HGF, DOE, PPARC, RAS

      2004-6              Set-up of T2 loop, transport section, spectrometer, detector

      2007                Commissioning & start of data taking
AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                        Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 29
                                              Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
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                                                    Conclusion
           β-decay:                 the only model-independent method for
                                    measuring sub-eV neutrino masses

                                    MAC-E filter most sensitive technique


           KATRIN:                  next generation tritium β-decay experiment

                                    no signal: mν < 0.2 eV/c2 (90% CL.) sensitivity

                                    signal:     mν = 0.35 eV/c2 at 5σ discovery potential


           Implications: cosmology: neutrino hot dark matter, Ων?

                                    particle physics: neutrino mass models?


AHEP 2003, 14.-18.10.2003, Valencia, Spain                         Beate Bornschein, Tritiumlabor Karlsruhe (TLK), Germany   # 30

								
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