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					Qualitätssicherung
von Software

     Prof. Dr. Holger Schlingloff

     Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
                  und
           Fraunhofer FIRST
Ein Hinweis von Microsoft




H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE   16.2.2005   Folie 2
SPICE (ISO 15504)

SPICE: Software Process Improvement Capability
  Determination

• SPICE ist ein Projekt der ISO zur Entwicklung eines Standards
    für Software Process Assessments
      erstmals 1998 als technischer Bericht publiziert
      Standard aktuell überarbeitet: ISO IEC 15504:2003 (Juli 2003)
• Dokumente
      http://www.sqi.gu.edu.au/spice/
      http://www.isospice.com


• Zielsetzung: Umfassender Rahmen, Integration verschiedener
    vorhandener Ansätze (ISO, CMM, Bootstrap, …)
      Stark an CMM angelehnt
      Bewertung von Prozessen, nicht von Organisationen
H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE   16.2.2005   Folie 3
Charakteristika von SPICE

• Abdeckung einer weiten Spanne von SW-Organisationen und
    Anwendungen
•   Referenzmodell
•   Vergleichbarkeit, Wiederholbarkeit, Objektivität
•   keine weiteren Voraussetzungen
•   praktische Durchführbarkeit, Effizienz

• „can be used by organizations involved in planning, managing,
  monitoring, controlling and improving the acquisition, supply,
  development, operation, evolution and support of software“
• Aspekte
      Bewertung (Assessment),
      Verbesserung (Improvement)
      Beurteilung (Determination)




H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE   16.2.2005   Folie 4
Dokumente im Standard
• Standard
      Part 1: Concepts and
                                                                                            Part 1                                       Part 9


       introductory guide                                        Concep ts an d Introductory Gui de                                    Vocabu lary


      Part 2: A reference model
       for processes and
       process capability                Part 7
                                   Gu ide for use i n
                                                                               Part 8
                                                                         Gu ide for use i n
                                                                                                                        Part 6
                                                                                                         Qu ali fi cati on and traini ng
      Part 3: Performing        process improvement                   determi ning suppli er                  of assessors
       an assessment                                                    process capabi li ty


      Part 4: Guide to
       performing assessments                               Part 3                                   Part 4

      Part 5: An assessment model                    Ratin g Processes                       Gu ide to conducting

       and indicator guidance
                                                                                                 assessment


      Part 6: Guide to
       competency of assessors              Part 5                           Part 2
      Part 7: Guide for use in
                                  Construction , sel ection
                                                                         A mo del for
                                  and use of a ssessment
       process improvement        i nstru ments and tools            process man ageme nt


      Part 8: Guide for use in
       determining supplier
       process capability
      Part 9: Vocabulary
• Nur wenige normative Teile (2,3,5), sonst Leitfäden
H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung                   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE                        16.2.2005                    Folie 5
Struktur des Modells




H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE   16.2.2005   Folie 6
Prozess-Kategorien

 Process category Brief description
 Customer-Supplier             Processes that directly impact the customer
 Engineering                   Processes that specify, implement, or maintain a system
                               and software product
 Project                       Processes that establish the project, and co-ordinate and
                               manage its resources
 Support                       Processes that enable and support the performance of the
                               other processes on the project
 Organization                  Processes that establish the business goals of the organi-
                               zation and develop process, product, and resource assets
                               which will help the organization achieve its business goals

 > 200 einzelne Prozesse in diesen Kategorien, die bewertet werden


H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE   16.2.2005   Folie 7
Prozesse Kundenkategorie
• CUS.1 Acquire software product and/or service
        CUS.1.1       Identify the need                                       Customer-Supplier

        CUS.1.2       Define the requirements
        CUS.1.3       Prepare acquisition strategy                                      Engineering    S
                                                                                                        u
        CUS.1.4       Prepare request for proposal                                                     p
        CUS.1.5       Select software product supplier                           Project               p
• CUS.2 Establish contract                                                                              o
                                                                                                        r
        CUS.2.1       Review before contract finalization                Organization                  t
        CUS.2.2       Negotiate contract
        CUS.2.3       Determine interfaces to independent agents
        CUS.2.4       Determine interfaces to subcontractors
• CUS.3 Identify customer needs
        CUS.3.1       Obtain customer requirements and requests
        CUS.3.2       Understand customer expectations
        CUS.3.3       Keep customers informed
• CUS.4 Perform joint audits and reviews
        …
•   CUS.5 Package, deliver, and install the software
•   CUS.6 Support operation of software
•   CUS.7 Provide customer service
•   CUS.8 Assess customer satisfaction

H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE         16.2.2005              Folie 8
Prozesse Entwicklungskategorie
•   ENG.1   Develop system requirements and design
•   ENG.2   Develop software requirements                                      Customer-Supplier

•   ENG.3   Develop software design
•   ENG.4   Implement software design                                                    Engineering    S
                                                                                                        u
•   ENG.5   Integrate and test software                                                                 p
                                                                                                        p
•
                                                                                  Project
    ENG.6   Integrate and test system                                                                   o

•
                                                                                                        r
    ENG.7   Maintain system and software                                  Organization                  t


• ENG.1.1 Specify system requirements. Determine the required functions and
    capabilities of the system and document in a system requirements specification.
     Note: the system requirements specification describes such things as
     – functions and capabilities of the system;
     – performance of the system;
     – safety;
     – reliability;
     – security;
     – human engineering;
     – interface;
     – operations, and maintenance requirements;
     – design constraints and qualification requirements.
     See CUS.3 for discussion of customer requirements used as an input to system requirements analysis.

H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE         16.2.2005              Folie 9
Prozesse Projektkategorie
•   PRO.1   Plan project life cycle
•   PRO.2   Establish project plan                                             Customer-Supplier

•   PRO.3   Build project teams
•   PRO.4   Manage requirements                                                          Engineering    S
                                                                                                        u
•   PRO.5   Manage quality                                                                              p
                                                                                                        p
•
                                                                                   Project
    PRO.6   Manage risks                                                                                o

•
                                                                                                        r
    PRO.7   Manage resources and schedule                                 Organization                  t
•   PRO.8   Manage subcontractors

• Beispiel:
        PRO.5.1        Establish quality goals. Based on the customer's requirements for quality, establish
         quality goals for various checkpoints within the project's software life cycle.
        PRO.5.2        Define quality metrics. Define metrics that measure the results of project activities
         to help assess whether the relevant quality goals have been achieved.
        PRO.5.3        Identify quality activities. For each quality goal, identify activities which will help
         achieve that quality goal and integrate these activities into the software life cycle model.
        PRO.5.4        Perform quality activities. Perform the identified quality activities.
        PRO.5.5        Assess quality. At the identified checkpoints within the project's software life cycle,
         apply the defined quality metrics to assess whether the relevant quality goals have been achieved.
        PRO.5.6        Take corrective action. When quality goals are not achieved, take corrective action.



H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE         16.2.2005              Folie 10
Prozesse Unterstützungs- und Organisationskategorie

•   SUP.1              Develop documentation
•   SUP.2              Perform configuration management
•   SUP.3              Perform quality assurance
•   SUP.4              Perform problem resolution
•   SUP.5              Perform peer reviews
                                                                          Customer-Supplier

•   ORG.1              Engineer the business                                                  S

•
                                                                Engineering
    ORG.2              Define the process                                                     u
                                                                                              p

•
                                                                                              p
    ORG.3              Improve the process
                                                            Project
                                                                                              o
                                                                                              r

•   ORG.4              Perform training
                                                   Organization                               t


•   ORG.5              Enable reuse
•   ORG.6              Provide software engineering environment
•   ORG.7              Provide work facilities
H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE     16.2.2005         Folie 11
Varianten und Erweiterungen

• Der Standard stellt ein Metamodell für die
    Bildung von Varianten zur Verfügung
      Erweiterungen dürfen die Basis nicht
       beeinträchtigen
      Varianten sind ausgewählte wohldefinierte
       Teilmengen
      Rückverfolgbarkeit, Dokumentation,
       Abhängigkeiten


H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE   16.2.2005   Folie 12
Pause!




H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE   16.2.2005   Folie 13
Reifegrade




     Unterschied zu CMM? Wieso?

•   http://www.q-labs.de/images/user/Management_SW_Lieferanten_VW.pdf

H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung            8. Prozessqualität: SPICE   16.2.2005   Folie 14
Modellarchitektur

• Jeder Prozess gehört zu einer                                                   Model

    Kategorie und definiert bestimmte
                                                                                  Architecture


    Praktiken
•   Prozesse werden eingeteilt in
                                                                     Process
                                                                     Category
                                                                                                 Capability
                                                                                                 Level

    Reifegrade (capability levels) auf
    Grund der Erfüllung von                                          Process                     Common
    gemeinsamen Merkmalen                                                                        Feature


•   Gemeinsame Merkmale (common
    features) sind Gruppen von                                       Base
                                                                     Practice
                                                                                                 Generic
                                                                                                 Practice

    Praktiken, die einen Aspekt der
    Prozessimplementierung umfassen
•   Jedes gemeinsame Merkmal basiert
    auf generischen Praktiken für dieses
    Merkmal
H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE         16.2.2005           Folie 15
Gemeinsame Merkmale (1)

• Level 1:             Performed-Informally Level
      Common Feature 1.1: Performing Base Practices
           1.1.1       Perform the process.
• Level 2:             Planned-and-Tracked Level
      Common Feature 2.1: Planning Performance
           2.1.1       Allocate resources.                2.1.4      Provide tools.
           2.1.2       Assign responsibilities.           2.1.5      Ensure training.
           2.1.3       Document the process.              2.1.6      Plan the process.
      Common Feature 2.2: Disciplined Performance
           2.2.1       Use plans, standards, and procedures.
           2.2.2       Do configuration management.
      Common Feature 2.3: Verifying Performance
           2.3.1       Verify process compliance.
           2.3.2       Audit work products.
      Common Feature 2.4: Tracking Performance
           2.4.1       Track with measurement.
           2.4.2       Take corrective action.


H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE       16.2.2005   Folie 16
Gemeinsame Merkmale (2)
• Level 3: Well-Defined Level
        Common Feature 3.1: Defining a Standard Process
           3.1.1       Standardize the process.
           3.1.2       Tailor the standard process.
        Common Feature 3.2: Performing the Defined Process
           3.2.1       Use a well-defined process.
           3.2.2       Perform peer reviews.
           3.2.3       Use well-defined data.
• Level 4:             Quantitatively-Controlled Level
        Common Feature 4.1: Establishing Measurable Quality Goals
           4.1.1       Establish quality goals.
        Common Feature 4.2: Objectively Managing Performance
           4.2.1       Determine process capability.
           4.2.2       Use process capability.
• Level 5: Continuously-Improving Level
        Common Feature 5.1: Improving Organizational Capability
           5.1.1       Establish process effectiveness goals.
           5.1.2       Continuously improve the standard process.
        Common Feature 5.2: Improving Process Effectiveness
           5.2.1       Perform causal analysis.
           5.2.2       Eliminate defect causes.
           5.2.3       Continuously improve the defined process.




H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung       8. Prozessqualität: SPICE   16.2.2005   Folie 17
2D-Architektur von SPICE
                                                                                                                            Process category/pro cess
                                                                                             Cu stomer-sup pl ie r          En gin eeri ng      Proj ect       Su pport      Organ izatio n
                                                                                                    Cu s to me r
                                                                                           CU S.1   n ee ds
                                                                                                                   CU S.8 EN G.1     EN G.7 PR O.1   PR O.8 SU P.1    SU P.5 OR G.1   OR G.7


                                                   CL 5 CF5.2
              Capability level / Common fe ature




                                                        CF 5.1
                                                   CL 4 CF 4.2
                                                        CF4.1
                                                                           CF
                                                   CL 3                          3.2
                                                                           CF 3.1
                                                                                                                                             Process - common f eature
                                                                           pe rforman ce




                                                                                                                                                    intersection
                                                     Planned-and-tracked
                                                                           Tracking




                                                                                                                                       - represents the base practices
                                                                                                                                       f or the process and the generic
                                                                                                                                       practices of the common f eature
                                                                           CF2.3



                                                                           CF2.1

                                                   CL 1 CF 1.1

                                                   CL 0


H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung                                                                             8. Prozessqualität: SPICE                         16.2.2005            Folie 18
Prozessbewertungen (Assessments)
        From process improvement
    or process cabapility determination

                                             Assessment input
                                                   Assessment purpose
                                                   Assessment scope
                                                   Assessment constraints
                                                   Assessment responsibilities
                                                   Extended process definitions
                                                   Additional information to be collected

                Assessment instrument
                      Process indicators
                      Process management indicators

                                                                       Process Assessment




                                          Process model                                     Assessment output
                             (Part 2 of this International Standard)                            Generic practice adequacy ratings
                                            Process purpose                                     Process capability level ratings
                                            Practices                                           Assessment record


                                                                                                                    To process improvement
                                                                                                         or process capability determination

H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung                   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE                16.2.2005                    Folie 19
Durchführung von Assessments
                                                                     Review ing the            Aligned to              Presenting

• Definition der Eingabedokumente                                    assessment
                                                                     input
                                                                                                                       assessment
                                                                                                                       output


• Festlegung von Verantwortlichkeiten                                     Selecting the
                                                                          process
                                                                                          Validating the sample   Validating
                                                                                                                  the

• Bewertung von Prozessinstanzen                                          instances                               ratings


      Beurteilung der Basispraktiken                                         Preparing
                                                                              for
                                                                                                             Determining
                                                                                                             derived
           -   vorhanden, angemessen?                                         assessment                     ratings


      Angemessenheit der generischen Praktiken                                   Collecting             Determining

           -
                                                                                  and verifying          actual
               nicht angemessen, teilweise angemessen,                            information            ratings

               weitgehend angemessen, vollständig angemessen                              Assessment stages
      Beurteilung der Gesamtprozessreife
           -   Gleichgewichtung der generischen Praktiken!
• Dokumentation der Ergebnisse
      sämtliche relevanten Informationen (auch: Beteiligte, Werkzeuge,
       Begründungen, Kommentare, …)
      Abgleich mit DB

H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE               16.2.2005                    Folie 20
SPICE vs. ISO 9000

• Etwas anderer Fokus (Verbesserung vs. Zertifizierung)
• SPICE etwas detaillierter und spezifischer, ISO allgemeiner
                ISO 9001 requirements                Process categories and processes
                4.1 Management responsibility        Engineer the business
                                                     Manage quality
                                                     (build project teams)
                                                     Assess customer satisfaction


                4.2 Quality system                   Manage quality
                                                     Perform quality assurance
                                                     Define the process
                                                     (Improve the process)


                4.3 Contract review                  Establish contract
                                                     Identify customer needs
                                                     Develop system requirements and design
                                                     Manage risks
                                                     (Perform joint audits and reviews)

H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung     8. Prozessqualität: SPICE                 16.2.2005   Folie 21
SPICE vs. CMMI

• CMMI und SPICE sind ähnlich aufgebaut
• CMMI erfüllt die Vorgaben von SPICE bzgl. der Methodik und
    Strukturen, um Bewertungen von Softwareprozessen
    durchzuführen

• Das Prozessmodell von SPICE ist feiner gegliedert
• Die Detaillierungstiefe und Ausführlichkeit ist bei CMMI größer
    (ca. 1000 Seiten gegenüber 360 Seiten)

• SPICE enthält Inhalte, die bei CMMI nicht enthalten sind (z.B.
    „Identify Interfaces“ in Project Management)
•   CMMI enthält Inhalte, die bei SPICE nicht enthalten sind (z.B.
    Intergroup Coordination)
H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE   16.2.2005   Folie 22
Erweiterungen von SPICE

• OO-Spice
      Komponentenbasierte Entwicklung
      Objektorientiertes Lebenszyklus-Modell
      Wiederverwendung
• Automotive SPICE
      AutoSPICESIG („Automotive Spice Special Interest Group“)
      Process Reference Model (PRM) und Process Assessment
       Model (PAM) für Automotive-Software angepasst
      Kritikalität von Software (SIL, Process Capability Level)
      Realzeit, Steuergeräte, Mechatronik
      Zuliefererproblematik
H. Schlingloff, Software-Qualitätssicherung   8. Prozessqualität: SPICE   16.2.2005   Folie 23

				
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