Health by saifulida

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									Health
Health is the general condition of a person in all aspects. It is also a level of
functional and/or metabolic efficiency of an organism, often implicitly human. From
Google dictionary: "The state of being free from illness or injury".[1]




The Caduceus.

At the time of the creation of the World Health Organization (WHO), in
1948, health was defined as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-
being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity".[2][3]
Only a handful of publications have focused specifically on the definition of health
and its evolution in the first 6 decades. Some of them highlight its lack of operational
value and the problem created by use of the word "complete." Others declare the
definition, which has not been modified since 1948, "simply a bad one."[4]
In 1986, the WHO, in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, said that health is "a
resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept
emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities."
Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications
(WHO-FIC), which is composed of the International Classification of Functioning,
Disability, and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
also define health.
Overall health is achieved through a combination of physical, mental, and social
well-being, which, together is commonly referred to as the Health Triangle.
                             CONTENTS
                                   [hide]

       1 Determinants of health
        2 Maintaining health

     o             2.1 Observations of Daily Living

     o             2.2 Social Activity

     o             2.3 Hygiene

     o             2.4 Stress management

     o             2.5 Health care

                            2.5.1 Workplace wellness programs

        3 Public health

        4 Role of science in health

     o             4.1 Sources

     o             4.2 Application

        5 See also

        6 Notes

        7 References

        8 External links

[EDIT]DETERMINANTS                       OF HEALTH
See also: Social determinants of health
The LaLonde report suggests that there are four general determinants of health
including human biology, environment, lifestyle, and healthcare services.[5] Thus,
health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and
application of health science, but also through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle
choices of the individual and society.
The Alameda County Study examines the relationship between lifestyle and health. It
has found that people can improve their health via exercise, enough sleep,
maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol use, and avoiding smoking.[6]
A major environmental factor affecting health is water quality, especially for the
health of infants and children in developing countries.[7]
Studies shows that developed countries, the lack of neighborhood recreational space
that includes the natural environment leads to lower levels of neighborhood
satisfaction and higher levels of obesity; therefore, lower overall well
being.[8] Therefore, the positive psychological benefits of natural space in urban
neighborhoods should be taken into account in public policy and land use.
According to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health
include the social and economic environment, the physical environment and the
person's individual characteristics and behaviors.[9] Generally, the context in which
an individual lives is of great importance on his life quality and health status. The
social and economic environment are key factors in determining the health status of
individuals given the fact that higher education levels are linked with a higher
standard of life as well as a higher income. Generally, people who finish higher
education are more likely to get a better job and therefore are less prone to stress by
comparing to individuals with low education levels.[citation needed]
The physical environment is perhaps the most important factor that should be
considered when classifying the health status of an individual. This includes factors
such as clean water and air, safe houses, communities and roads all contribute to
good health.[9]
Genetics are also part of the system based on which the health of the population can
be established. Genetics are closely related to the habits and behaviors individuals
develop during their life, particularly in terms of lifestyle choices. For instance,
people who come from families whose members had a more active lifestyle and
followed healthier diets, non-smoking and non-drinking are more likely to follow the
same pattern in their life. The example set by the family as well as the relationship
with friends and family can have a great impact on one's general health. Nonetheless,
genetics may play a role in the manner in which people cope with stress.
Moreover, the World Health Organization lists a wide range of other factors that can
influence the well being of a person. According to WHO, the gender, social support
networks and health services in terms of both quality and access to them are to be
considered as health determinants. Access to health care is one of the large issues of
the nowadays society, maybe even greater than the quality of the service. Individuals
in developing countries are more prone to suffer from different health conditions
because their access to the health care system is restricted mostly from financial
reasons.
Although many individuals are often criticized for not taking good care of their
health based on the presumption that the mirror's of one's personality is one's
health.,[10] it is now accepted that there are many factors that have a significant
impact on one's health and which cannot be controlled.
[EDIT]MAINTAINING            HEALTH
Main article: Self care
Achieving and maintaining health is an ongoing process. Effective strategies for
staying healthy and improving one's health include the following elements:
[edit]Observations          of Daily Living
Personal health depends partially on one's active, passive, and assisted observations
about their health in their everyday life. The information gleaned from such
observations may be used to inform personal decisions and actions (e.g., "I feel tired
in the morning so I am going to try sleeping on a different pillow"), as well as clinical
decisions and treatment plans (e.g., a patient who notices his or her shoes are tighter
than usual may be having exacerbation of left-sided heart failure, and may require
diuretic medication to reduce fluid overload) for patients who share their
observations with their health care providers.[11]
[edit]Social      Activity
Main article: Social relation
Personal health depends partially on the social structure of one person`s life. The
maintenance of strong social relationships is linked to good health conditions,
longevity, productivity, and a positive attitude. This is because positive social
interaction as viewed by the participant increases many chemical levels in the brain
which are linked to personality and intelligence traits.
Volunteering also can lead to a healthy life. To be a volunteer, while gaining plenty of
social benefits, people also take their mind off their own troubles.[citation
needed]   Volunteering could even add years of life. According to a university study,[citation
needed]   compared with people who did not volunteer, senior citizens who volunteered
showed a 67% reduced risk of dying during a seven-year period.
[edit]Hygiene
Main article: Hygiene
Hygiene is the practice of keeping the body clean to prevent infection and illness, and
the avoidance of contact with infectious agents. Hygiene practices
includebathing, brushing and flossing teeth, washing hands especially before eating,
washing food before it is eaten, cleaning food preparation utensils and surfaces
before and after preparing meals, and many others. This may help prevent infection
and illness. By cleaning the body, dead skin cells are washed away with the germs,
reducing their chance of entering the body.
[edit]Stress      management
Main article: Stress management
                            This section does not cite any references or sources.
                            Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may
                            be challenged and removed. (May 2009)


Prolonged psychological stress may negatively impact health, and has been cited as a
factor in cognitive impairment with aging, depressive illness, and expression of
disease.[12] Stress management is the application of methods to either reduce stress
or increase tolerance to stress. Relaxation techniques are physical methods used to
relieve stress. Psychological methods include cognitive therapy, meditation,
and positive thinking which work by reducing response to stress. Improving relevant
skills and abilities builds confidence, which also reduces the stress reaction to
situations where those skills are applicable.
Reducing uncertainty, by increasing knowledge and experience related to stress-
causing situations, has the same effect. Learning to cope with problems better, such
as improving problem solving and time management skills, may also reduce stressful
reaction to problems. Repeatedly facing an object of one's fears may also desensitize
the fight-or-flight response with respect to that stimulus—e.g., facing bullies may
reduce fear of bullies.
[edit]Health   care
Main article: Health care
Health care[13] is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the
preservation of mental and physical well being through the services offered by
themedical, nursing, and allied health professions.
[edit]Workplace wellness programs
Main article: Workplace wellness
Workplace wellness programs are recognized by an increasingly large number of
companies for their value in improving the health and well-being of their employees,
and for increasing morale, loyalty, and productivity.[citation needed] Workplace wellness
programs can include things like on-site fitness centers, health presentations,
wellness newsletters, access to health coaching, tobacco cessation programs and
training related to nutrition, weight and stress management. Other programs may
include health risk assessments, health screenings and body mass index monitoring.
Wellness programs may also be found in such places neighborhood community
centers and schools. These typically require participants to have a greater degree of
commitment to themselves, as they are voluntary.[citation needed]
[EDIT]PUBLIC      HEALTH
Main article: Public health
Postage stamp, New Zealand, 1933. Public health has been promoted - and depicted - in a wide variety of ways.

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and
promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society,
organizations, public and private, communities and individuals." (Winslow,
1920)[citation needed] It is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community
based on population health analysis. The population in question can be as small as a
handful of people or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance,
in the case of a pandemic). Public health has many sub-fields, but is typically divided
into the categories of epidemiology, biostatistics and health services.Environmental,
social and behavioral health, and occupational health, are also important fields in
public health.
The focus of public health intervention is to prevent rather than treat a disease
through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors. In addition to
these activities, in many cases treating a disease can be vital to preventing it in
others, such as during an outbreak of an infectious disease. Vaccination
schedules and distribution of condoms are examples of public health measures.
Unlike clinical professionals, public health is more focused on entire populations
rather than on individuals. Its aim is preventing from happening or re-occurring
health problems by implementing educational programs, developing policies,
administering services, and conducting research.[14]
Public health also takes several actions to limit the health disparities between
different areas of the country, continent or world. The great issue this system is
trying to solve is the access of individuals to health care which has always been
restricted for those who did not dispose of the necessary financial means. Other
academic disciplines that are comprised by this field include maternal andchild
health, health services administration, global health, public health practice, public
health policy and nutrition.
The great positive impact of public health programs is widely admitted. Because of
the health policies and the actions public health professionals develop, the 20th
century has registered a decrease of the mortality rates in infants and children and a
constant increase in life expectancy. It is estimated that the life expectancy for
Americans has increased by thirty years since 1900.[15]
[EDIT]ROLE           OF SCIENCE IN HEALTH
Main article: Health science
Health science is the branch of science focused on health, and it includes many
subdisciplines. There are two approaches to health science: the study andresearch of
the human body and health-related issues to understand how humans (and animals)
function, and the application of that knowledge to improve health and to prevent and
cure diseases.
[edit]Sources

Health research builds primarily on the basic sciences of biology, chemistry,
and physics as well as a variety of multidisciplinary fields (for example medical
sociology). Some of the other primarily research-oriented fields that make
exceptionally significant contributions to health science
are biochemistry, epidemiology, and genetics.
[edit]Application

Applied health sciences also endeavor to better understand health, but in addition
they try to directly improve it. Some of these are: health education, biomedical
engineering, biotechnology, nursing, nutrition, pharmacology, pharmacy, public
health (see above), social work, psychology, physical therapy, and medicine. The
provision of services to maintain or improve people's health is referred to as health
care (see above). Irene
[EDIT]SEE        ALSO
     Health and fitness portal


                       Book: Health


    Wikipedia Books are collections of articles that can be
    downloaded or ordered in print.
   Behavioural change theories
   Healthy narcissism
   Leveraging Agriculture for Improving Nutrition and Health
   Nutrition
[EDIT]NOTES

     1.      ^ Anderson, James. "What is Health".

     2.      ^ WHO.int, Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by

     the International Health Conference, New York, 19–22 June 1946; signed on 22 July 1947 by the

     representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100); and
     entered into force on 7 April 1948.

     3.      ^ WHO.int Constitution of the World Health Organization- Basic Documents, Forty-fifth
     edition, Supplement, October 2006.

     4.      ^ Jstor.org

     5.      ^ Lalonde, Marc. "A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians." Ottawa: Minister of
     Supply and Services; 1974.

     6.      ^ Housman, Jeff (September/October 2005). "The Alameda County Study: A Systematic,

     Chronological Review" (PDF). American Journal of Health Education(Reston, VA: American

     Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance) 36 (5): 302–308. ISSN 1055-6699.

     ERIC document number EJ792845. Retrieved 7 June 2010. "The linear model supported previous

     findings, including regular exercise, limited alcohol consumption, abstinence from smoking,

     sleeping 7-8 hours a night, and maintenance of a healthy weight play an important role in

     promoting longevity and delaying illness and death." Citing Wingard DL, Berkman LF, Brand RJ

     (1982). "A multivariate analysis of health-related practices: a nine-year mortality follow-up of the
     Alameda County Study". Am J Epidemiol 116 (5): 765–775.PMID 7148802.

     7.      ^ The UN World Water Development Report | Facts and Figures | Meeting basic needs

     8.      ^ "Recreational Values of the Natural Environment in Relation to Neighborhood
     Satisfaction, Physical Activity, Obesity and Wellbeing."

     9.      ^ a b "The determinants of health". Retrieved 2010-06-24.

     10.     ^ "Health". Retrieved 2010-06-24.

     11.     ^ Health in Everyday Living Robert Wood Johnson Foundation primer

     12.     ^ McEwen BS (2006). "Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators: central role of
     the brain". Dialogues Clin Neurosci 8 (4): 367–81. PMID 17290796.

     13.     ^ "Health Care UK". National Health Service (NHS). March 11, 2010. Retrieved March 11,
     2010.
       14.     ^ "What is Public Health?". Retrieved 2010-06-24.

       15.     ^ "Impact of Public Health". Retrieved 2010-06-24.
[EDIT]REFERENCES

      BMJ.com, Jadad, AR and O'Grady L. How should health be defined? BMJ
2008; 337:a2900
      WHO (1979) Health for all.
      WHO (1980) WHO Chr., 34(2)80
      WHO (1986) Concepts of Health Behavior Research, Reg. Health Paper
No.13, SEARO, New Delhi
      WHO (1978) Health for all.
      UNDP, Human Development Report 1999, Oxford University Press
      UNICEF (2001) State of world's children, 2001
      WHO (1979) Health for all.
      Evang, K. (1967); In health of mankind; Ciba foundation; 100th symposium,
Churchill, London
      Last, J.M (1983) A Dictionary of Epidemiology, Oxford University Press
      Raska, K (1966), WHO Chr., 20, 315
[EDIT]EXTERNAL             LINKS

             Look
             up health in Wiktionary, the
             free dictionary.


      World Health Organization
      National Health Service
      Health On the Net Foundation
      OECD Health Statistics
      Health and Medical Information from UCB Libraries GovPubs
      Health-EU Portal the official public health portal of the European Union
      Google.co.za, Google dictionary

Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health

								
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