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					Vol. 5, No. 2                                                               SEPTEMBER 1978




                       A N INTERDISCIPLINARY J O U R N A L O F




                      INTERDISZIPLINÄRE ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR




                          J O U R N A L INTERDISCIPLINAIRE D E




                 EDITORS:                            P. Michel, Strasbourg
                                                     R. B. Morrison, Denver
                 F. Ahnert, Aachen                   D.Newson, Wallingford
                 G . Bartels, Köln                       R.Paepe, Brüssel
                 L. Berry, Worcester, Mass.              H.Paloc, Orleans
                 J.J.Bigarella.Curitiba                  M.Pecsi, Budapest
                 B. Bunting, Hamilton, Ont.          J.dePloey.Leuven
                 K.Butzer, Chicago                       R.Pullan, Liverpool
                 G.Castany, Orleans                  #   R. V. Ruhe, Bloomington, Ind.
                 J.Demek.Brno                            A.Ruellan.Rennes
                 I. Douglas, Armidale, N. S. Wales       A. P. Schick, Jerusalem
                 G . H. Dury, Madison, Wlsc.             A. Semmel, Frankfurt
                 A. R. Eschner, Syracuse.N.Y.            O. Slay maker, Vancouver
                 H. Föteter, Göttingen                   L.Starkel, Krakow
                 H.Faure, Marseille                      A. Velichko, Moskva
                 R. Herrmann, Bayreuth*-                 J.Vogt, Orleans
                 P.D. Jungerius, Amsterdam               R. Webster, Oxford
                 J.Kukla.Palisades                       D. H. Yaalon, Jerusalem
                 L. B. Leopold, Berkeley                 A.Young.Norwich
                 J . A. Mabbutt, Kensington
                 B. Messerli,Bem                         CHIEF EDITOR:
                 B. Meyer, Göttingen                     H. Rohdenburg, Braunschweig




ISSN 0341-8162                        CATENA VERLAG
                              CATENA
     A N INTERDISCIPLINARY J O U R N A L O F      PEDOLOGY - HYDROLOGY - GEOMORPHOLOGY
    INTERDISZIPLINÄRE ZEITSCHRIFT F Ö R          HYDROLOGIE - GEOMORPHOLOGIE - PEDOLOGtE
      J O U R N A L INTERDtSCIPLINÄlRE D E      GEOMORPHOLOGIE - PEDOLOGtE - HYDROLOGIE


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               C A T E N A                        VOL. 5, 145 - 149                       BRAUNSCHWEIG 1978




                             RADIOCARBON CHRONOLOGY OF LATE QUATERNARY LAKES
                                     IN THE KALAHARI, SOUTHERN AFRICA



                                                         K. Heine
         Geographisches I n s t i t u t der Rheinischen F r i e d r i c h - W i l h e l m s - U n i v e r s i t ä t
             F r a n z i s k a n e r s t r a ß e 2, D-5300 Bonn 1, Bundesrepublik Deutschland
                        (manuscript       accepted      for publication         June 12,       1978)


SUMMARY

Some radiocarbon dates concerning the l a t e Quaternary development of the southern
K a l a h a r i and the Ngami-Makgadikgadi area are g i v e n . The southern K a l a h a r i i s c h a r -
a c t e r i z e d by p l u v i a l c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g the l a s t g l a c i a l maximum ( c a . 19,000 to
12,000 y r b . p . ) and r e l a t i v e l y a r i d c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g the Holocene and before c a .
19,000 y r b . p . . A very high lake l e v e l i n the Makgadikgadi depression occurred
d u r i n g c a . 30,000 to 19,000 y r b . p . ; here the l a s t g l a c i a l maximum was a r i d ; a
second p l u v i a l p e r i o d w i t h l e s s high l a k e l e v e l s i s dated c a . 12,000 y r b . p . .
Minor f l u c t u a t i o n s o f the Makgadikgadi l a k e l e v e l e v e n t u a l l y occurred d u r i n g the
E a r l y Holocene. The p r e l i m i n a r y c h r o n o s t r a t i g r a p h y i s shown i n t a b l e 1.


ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

E i n i g e C - D a t e n zur spätquartären Entwicklung der s ü d l i c h e n K a l a h a r i und des
          14



Ngami-Makarikari-Gebietes werden v o r g e s t e l l t . Die s ü d l i c h e K a l a h a r i w i r d durch
p l u v i a l e Bedingungen während des l e t z t e n H p c h g l a z i a l s ( c a . 19 000 b i s 12 000 B.P.)
und durch r e l a t i v a r i d e Bedingungen während des Holozäns und vor c a . 19 000 B.P.
c h a r a k t e r i s i e r t . In der M a k a r i k a r i - D e p r e s s i o n bestand e i n sehr hoher Seespiegel
während c a . 30 000 b i s 19 000 B . P . ; h i e r war das l e t z t e H o c h g l a z i a l a r i d ; e i n e
z w e i t e p l u v i a l e Phase mit weniger hohem Seespiegel w i r d auf c a . 12 000 B.P. da-
t i e r t . Geringere F l u k t u a t i o n e n des M a k a r i k a r i - S e e s p i e g e l s gab es v e r m u t l i c h im
Frühholozän. Eine v o r l ä u f i g e C h r o n o s t r a t i g r a p h i e w i r d i n T a b e l l e 1 wiedergegeben.


The recent i n c r e a s e i n o b s e r v a t i o n a l evidence f o r l a t e Quaternary moist p e r i o d s i n
North A f r i c a , East A f r i c a , A r a b i a , and A u s t r a l i a (R0GN0N & WILLIAMS 1977, BUTZER
e t a l . 1972, GASSE 1977, McCLURE 1976, B0WLER 1975), d e r i v e d l a r g e l y from d a t i n g
and a n a l y s i s of l a k e Sediments, has been accompanied by l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n on f o s s i l
lake beds i n the K a l a h a r i of southern A f r i c a , although f o s s i l lakes have long been
known to e x i s t i n the K a l a h a r i r e g i o n (PASSARGE 1904, JAEGER 1939, LANCASTER 1974).
The r e s u l t s o f a p r e l i m i n a r y attempt to e s t a b l i s h the age o f a s e r i e s o f l a t e Qua-
t e r n a r y Sediments and f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s i n the K a l a h a r i r e g i o n are r e p o r t e d here.
The K a l a h a r i a n zone i s s i t u a t e d on a p l a t e a u g e n e r a l l y more than 1,000 m above sea
l e v e l i n Botswana, e a s t e r n South West A f r i c a (Namibia), and north western Trans-
v a a l , s t r e t c h i n g from the Okavango R i v e r i n the north to c l o s e to the Orange R i v e r
i n the Republic of South A f r i c a i n the south ( F i g . 1 ) . I t i s f l a t or g e n t l y un-
d u l a t i n g , w i t h sand dunes more f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g i n the south west. The t r u e
K a l a h a r i os a huge s a n d - f i l l e d b a s i n (DE V0S 1975). The zone i s s e m i - a r i d . R a i n -
                                                                        f a l l i s e r r a t i c , c o n f i n e d mainly to
                                                                        the p e r i o d November to A p r i l and de-
                                                                                                                   m
                                                                        c r e a s i n g from about 500 m a n n u a l l y
                                                                        i n the north and east to about 200 m                      m
                                                                        i n the south west. From 22° l a t i t u d e
                                                                        southward the zone i s dry g r a s l a n d and
                                                                        savanna, r e c i e v i n g o n l y l i t t l e and un-
                                                                        r e l i a b l e r a i n f a l l (DE VOS 1975, DIEM
                                                                        1977). The summer c l i m a t e i s dry and
                                                                        C o n t i n e n t a l . S c a r c i t y of s u r f a c e water
                                                                        and poor s o i l s are the main l i m i t i n g
                                                                        f a c t o r s to v e g e t a t i v e growth (COLE &
                                                                        BROWN 1976). Ground waters i n the
                                                                        northern K a l a h a r i are d i r e c t l y , and
                                                                        i n some cases r a p i d l y , recharged by
                                                                        r a i n (VERHAGEN e t a l . 1974). Surface
                                                                        water i s a v a i l a b l e i n o n l y a few areas
                                                                        f o r a Short time a f t e r the r a i n s , when
                                                                        i t c o l l e c t s i n pans or s h a l l o w depres-
                                                                        s i o n s . These pans p l a y an important
                                                                        r o l e i n the ecology of the area (DE
                                                                        VOS 1975).
                                                                      L a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
                                                                      s p r i n g t u f a s and other r e l a t e d depo-
                   @?3                 ..5 / * \ 6 ,"v7 —-8           s i t s , p a l e o s o l s , a e o l i a n and a l l u v i a l
                                                                      d e p o s i t s and hold the key to the l a t e
F i g . 1: L o c a t i o n map o f p l a c e s mentioned
                                                                      Quaternary geomorphological and c l i m a -
i n the t e x t . 1, Swamp; 2, Lake; 3, Pan;
                                                                      t i c e v o l u t i o n of the a r e a . The l a c u s -
4, P e r e n n i a l r i v e r ; 5, V a l l e y w i t h e p i s o d -
                                                                      t r i n e deposits c o n s i s t of calcareous
i c a l r u n - o f f ; 6, F o s s i l l a k e shore d u r i n g
                                                                      and sometimes f o s s i l i f e r o u s m a r l s ,
the most e x t e n s i v e l a t e Quaternary t r a n s -
                                                                      c l a y s , and s i l t s and sometimes c o n t a i n
g r e s s i v e phase; 7, Minor f o s s i l l a k e shore;
                                                                      s n a i l s and S h e l l s . M o r p h o l o g i c a l , s t r a -
8, I n t e r n a t i o n a l b o r d e r .
                                                                      t i g r a p h i c a l , and p a l a e o n t o l o g i c a l c r i -
                                                                      t e r i a i n d i c a t e the presence of two
main g e n e r a t i o n s of l a k e beds i n the Ngami-Okavango-Makgadikgadi r e g i o n . The o l d e r
l a k e may on one or more occasions have formed a very l a r g e and continuous body o f
water w i t h the Okavango-Mababe-Ngami depression (GREY & C00KE 1977), estimated t o
have been about 60,000 km i n a r e a . A e o l i a n sands antedate the Sediments of the
                                          2



younger l a k e . The ' c o n t o u r i n g ' of the slopes of dunes of the Ntwetwe pan i n the
Makgadikgadi i s b e l i e v e d to have been caused by the r e t r e a t i n g waters o f the
younger lake t h a t f l o o d e d the pan a f t e r the formation o f the dunes (GR0VE 1969).
In the southern K a l a h a r i the f o s s i l bearing f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s o f the Molopo R i v e r
are u n d e r l a i n by a e o l i a n sands; modern dune sands o f l i g h t c o l o u r cover the f l u v -
i a l Sediments of the V a l l e y s , whereas the sand r i d g e s o f the neighbouring areas
show the b r i g h t red c o l o u r which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the K a l a h a r i dunes.
Radiocarbon d a t i n g o f the l a k e beds from the Ngami-Makgadikgadi basins and of the
f l u v i a l Sediments of the Molopo Supports the hypothesis t h a t two main p e r i o d s of
high water l e v e l occurred i n the n o r t h e r n and middle K a l a h a r i d u r i n g the l a t e
Quaternary whereas the southern K a l a h a r i i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by o n l y one p l u v i a l pe-
r i o d (Table 1 ) . In the t r o p i c a ! p a r t of the K a l a h a r i the dates p l a c e the f i r s t
p l u v i a l l a k e between 31,000 (or o l d e r ) and 19,000 y r b . p . , and the d i f f e r e n t stages
of the second p l u v i a l l a k e between c a . 12,000 and 9,000 y r b.p. (and y o u n g e r ) . An
a r i d p e r i o d between c a . 19,000 and 12,000 y r b.p. separates the two p l u v i a l l a k e s .
In the s u b t r o p i c a l southern p a r t of the K a l a h a r i as w e l l as i n the Cape p r o v i n c e
(VAN ZINDEREN BAKKER 1976) the p e r i o d between c a . 19,000 and 12,000 y r b.p. shows
f a i r l y wet c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s ( p l u v i a l ) .
Table      1: THE MAIN STAGES IN THE LATE QUATERNARY EVOLUTION OF THE NGAMI-MAKGADIKGADI BASINS AND THE MOLOPO RIVER VALLEY

                                                            o
Ngami-Makgadikgadi b a s i n s (19                                21~S)                                            Molopo R i v e r V a l l e y (ca. 27 S)
lk
    C Age (yr b.p.)                                     Sedimentary          facies                 Humidity       14C Age (yr b.p.)                Sedimentary          facies           Humidity
                                                                                  fr w
                                                                                  Ö rH                                                                                     0)
                                                        a e o l i a n sand       -H     Q)          alternating                                     aeolian                fr         ^   very dry
                                                                                 •p         >                                                                               S n
                                                                                                                                                                           T c
                                                        and                       (d        <d      from                                            sand                                  w i t h wet
                                                                                  C     i—l                                                                                 r )
                                                                                                                                                                           •H Q
                                                                                  u
                                                        calcrete
                                                                                   D
                                                                                  C 0)
                                                                                                    wetter                                                                 u c            intervals
                                                                                 -P M               to d r i e r                                                           TS        TS
                                                                                 rH rd



        8,720195            (Hv 8383)
                                                        calcrete                                    wetter
        9,390180            (Hv 8378)


                                                                               £1 w          TS
                        (   H   V   8   3   6   7   )
                                                        lacustrine              fr rH
                                                                                                    wet/
M       11,9201^°
                                                        Sediments              •H (ü            -   v e r y wet
                                                                                       (ü 4»
                                                                                           -
C+ 13,2751110               (Hv 8380)                                              rH m                            Mf 12,4801220      (Hv 8372)     fluvial
C+ 14,3001190               (Hv 8386)                   Dune sand,                                                                                  deposits
C+ 14,620190                (Hv 8381)                   f l u v i a l sand i                        dry                                             (sand, s i l t ,
                                                                                       CD                                                                                  c              wet
                                                        near t h e         '                                       Mf 15,5801350      (Hv 8368)     clay)                  >
                                                                                                                                                                           L
                                                                                                                                                                           < -
                                                                                                                                                                           H
                                                                                                                                                                           r
                                                        Okavango d e l t a I                                                                        gravel                 Q)




   19,1701660               (Hv 8366)
   20,8351355               (Hv 8365)                   lacustrine               Q) Q)
   20,99011100              (+)                         Sediments                rH     c
                                                                                       •H
   24,3301270               (Hv 8364)                   (chalk, m a r l ,         Q)   rH
                                                                                 M      Q)
          12lO                                                                                                                                                                  Q)
                h                                                                fd U                                                                                           fr
                                                                                 -&
M 25,9101,                  (Hv 8371)                   silt,   clay)           rH O                v e r y wet                                     a e o l i a n sand                    dry
          "1000                                                                                                                                                             TS


L  27,0501450               (Hv         8379)                                    fr                                                                                         •H
                                                                                                                                                                                rH
M 27,3501550                (Hv         8370)                                                                                                                               TS


L  30,2501520               (Hv         8382)
C+ 31,7501500               (Hv         8387)
                                                                                                                                                                    .1.

 (4-)   High Makgadikgadi l a k e l e v e l dated by A.T. Grove, see r e f . 17 and r e f . 1, p. 306.
L       Lacustrine chalk, i n d i c a t i n g high lake l e v e l .
M       M o l l u s c a , i n d i c a t i n g h i g h l a k e l e v e l and/or f r e s h water s u p p l y .
Mf      Mollusca, i n d i c a t i n g a perennial r i v e r .
C-      C a l c r e t e w i t h o u t f o s s i l c a l c i t e fragments.
                                                                                                    1 4
C+      C a l c r e t e w i t h f o s s i l c a l c i t e fragments; t h e C d e t e r m i n a t i o n does n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e t r u e age o f t h e c a l c r e t e                 formation
The p r e l i m i n a r y c h r o n o s t r a t i g r a p h y (Table 1) confirms the assumption t h a t the ma-
j o r environmental changes along the temperate and t r o p i c a ! margins o f the K a l a h a r i
seem to be i n phase w i t h the v a r i a t i o n s i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n and e v a p o r a t i o n i n North
and East A f r i c a as w e l l as i n A r a b i a and A u s t r a l i a . V a r i a t i o n s i n temperature seem
t o be synchroneous worldwide; v a r i a t i o n s i n humidity depend on a s h i f t i n g of the
c l i m a t i c b e l t s during the l a t e Quaternary and t h e r e f o r e do not occur synchroneously
i n v a r i o u s regions of southern A f r i c a . In the K a i a h a r i a n zone, as i n North and
East A f r i c a , A r a b i a , A u s t r a l i a , and Mexico (HEINE 1974, 1977), we have to d i s t i n -
guish between the f o l l o w i n g p e r i o d s w i t h d i f f e r e n t c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s : (1) the
high g l a c i a l p e r i o d (19,000 to 12,000 y r b . p . ) c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a cool and a r i d
c l i m a t e i n the n o r t h e r n , w e s t e r n , m i d d l e , and e a s t e r n K a l a h a r i and a c o l d and hu-
mid c l i m a t e ( w i n t e r r a i n s ) i n the southern K a l a h a r i , (2) the i n t e r s t a d i a l p e r i o d
(> 31,000 - 19,000 y r b . p . ) and the l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e / e a r l y Holocene (12,000 -
9,000 y r b . p . ) , both p e r i o d s are c h a r a c t e r i s e d by p l u v i a l s i n the K a l a h a r i , and
(3) the p o s t g l a c i a l p e r i o d (< 9,000 y r b.p. = Holocene) w i t h a warm and semihumid
c l i m a t e ( t r o p i c a ! summer r a i n s ) i n the n o r t h e r n , w e s t e r n , m i d d l e , and e a s t e r n Ka-
l a h a r i and a warm and s e m i - a r i d c l i m a t e ( s u b t r o p i c a l a n t i c y c l o n e ) i n the southern
Kalahari.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

These i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were sponsored by the DEUTSCHE FORSCHUNGSGEMEINSCHAFT. Spe-
c i a l acknowledgement i s due to P r o f e s s o r Dr. M.A. GEYH (Hannover) f o r radiocarbon
d a t i n g and to P r o f e s s o r Dr. R. HUCKRIEDE (Marburg) f o r p a l a e o n t o l o g i c a l determina-
t i o n s of S h e l l s and s n a i l s .


BIBLIOGRAPHY

B0WLER, J . M . (1975): D e g l a c i a l Events i n Southern A u s t r a l i a : T h e i r Age, Nature,
        and P a l a e o c l i m a t i c S i g n i f i c a n c e . Quaternary S t u d i e s , The Royal S o c i e t y of
        New Z e a l a n d , B u l l . 13, 75 - 8 2 , W e l l i n g t o n .
BUTZER, K.W., ISAAC, G . L . , "RTCHARDSON, J . L . & WASHBOURN-KAMAU, C. (1972): Radio-
        carbon d a t i n g of East A f r i c a n lake l e v e l s . Science 175, 1069 - 1076.
COLE, M.M. & BROWN, R.C. (1976): The Vegetation of the G h a n z T a r e a of western
        Botswana. Journal of Biogeography 3, 169 - 196.
DE VOS, A. (1975): A f r i c a , the Devastated Ü o n t i n e n t ? W. Junk, The Hague.
DIEM, M. (1977): Ein weiträumiger extremer R e g e n f a l ! i n der K a l a h a r i . M e t e o r o l o g i -
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VOL. 5, No. 2                      CONTENTS                      SEPTEMBER 1978



E.W. ANDERSON & N . J . COX
        A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT INSTRUMENTS FOR MEÄSURING
        SOIL CREEP                                                           81

ANN R.M. YOUNG
        THE INFLUENCE OF DEBRIS MANTLES AND LOCAL CLIMATIC VARIATIONS
        ON SLOPE STABILITY NEAR WOLLONGONG, AUSTRALIA                                   95

A . C . IMESON
           SLOPE DEPOSITS AND SEDIMENT SUPPLY IN A NEW ENGLAND
           DRAINAGB BASIN (AUSTRALIA)                                        109

W. SYMADER & W. THOMAS
        INTERPRETATION OF AVERAGE HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN
        FLOWING WATERS AND SEDIMENT BY MEANS OF HIERARCHICAL
        GROUPING ANALYSIS USING TWO DIFFERENT ERROR INDICES                         131

K. HEINE
        RADIOCARBON CHRONOLOGY OF LATE QUATERNARY LAKES IN THE
        KALAHARI, SOUTHERN AFRICA                                                 145

I . D . L . FOSTER
             SEASONAL SOLUTE BEHAVIOUR OF STORMFLOW IN A SMALL
             AGRICULTURAL CATCHMENT                                          15.1

R. HERRMANN
        REGIONAL PATTERNS OF POLYCYCLIC ARQMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN
        NE-BAVARIAN SNOW AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO ANTHROPOGENIC
        INFLUENCE AND AIR FLOW                                               165

A.M. HARVEY
        DISSECTED ALLUVIAL FANS IN SOUTHEAST SPAIN                                177

P. MICHEL
        LA VALLEE ALLUVIALE DU SENEGAL (AFRIQUE DE L'OUBST).
        RELATIONS GBOMORPHOLOGIE - SOLS - APTITUDES CULTURALES
        ET LEUR CARTOGRAPHIE AU 1/50 OOO                                      213
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