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Massacre in Boston Fairview

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									Massacre in Boston
Author: David Lewis
        Boonsboro Middle School
        Washington County, Maryland
Grade Level: 8
Duration of Lesson: 50+ minutes
Curricular Connections:
       Maryland State Department of Education Voluntary State Curriculum—U.S. History
      Standard 5.0 History: Students will examine significant ideas, beliefs, and themes; organize patterns and
                            events; and analyze how individuals and societies have changed over time in
                            Maryland and the United States.
      Topic C:               Conflict between Ideas and Institutions
      Indicator 1:           Examine and explain the role of religious, social and political institutions in
                             America during the American Revolution era.
      Objective C:           Describe how unresolved social, economic, and political issues impacted
                             disenfranchised groups.

      National Center for History in the Schools—Standards in History for Grades 5-12
      Era 3:                 Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s)
      Standard 1:            The causes of the American Revolution, the ideas and interests involved in
                             forging the revolutionary movement, and the reasons for the American victory.

      National Center for History in the Schools—Contents of Historical Thinking Standards for Grades 5-12
      Historical Comprehension:
              Identify the author or source of the historical document or narrative and assess its
              credibility. Students will identify the author of Paul Revere’s Engraving of the Boston
              Massacre. Students will assess the credibility of Paul Revere and his engraving.

               Differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretations. Students will read the
               “historically accepted” version of what occurred at the Boston Massacre and differentiate between
               the facts of the account and the misleading details in Revere’s engraving.
               Appreciate historical perspectives. Students will understand the pro-American and the anti-British
               reasoning behind Revere’s perspective of the Boston Massacre.
      Historical Analysis and Interpretation:
              Consider multiple perspectives. Students will consider both the American and British
              perspective of what occurred in the Boston Massacre.
      Historical Research Capabilities:
              Support interpretations with historical evidence. Students will compare the Revere, pro-American
              perspective of what occurred at the Boston Massacre with the historically accepted account.
Lesson Objective:    Why was the Boston Massacre an important event in the cause for American
                     independence?


Content Narrative:   (Not Yet Completed)




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Primary Source Annotations:

      1. Captain Thomas Preston’s Account of the Boston Massacre, March 13, 1770
         Captain Thomas Preston’s account of what he witnessed on March 5, 1770. This material may be
         used for an extension of this lesson or to gain background knowledge. (Follow link below.)

              From Revolution to Reconstruction: Documents: Preston, Boston Massacre

      2.   John Pufford’s 1856 lithograph depicting the Boston Massacre
              A lithograph by John Pufford depicting his interpretation of the event that occurred in Boston on
              Mach 5, 1770. (Follow link below.)

              John Pufford - The Boston Massacre - African-American History Through the Arts


      3.   Landing of the British Troops, 1770
             A hand-colored engraving by Paul Revere depicting the 1768 landing of the British troops in
             Boston to suppress the disorder following the Townshend Acts. (Follow link below.)

              Paul Revere

      4. The Boston Massacre, 1770
             A hand-colored engraving by Paul Revere depicting his interpretation of the event that occurred
             in Boston on March 5, 1770. (Follow link below.)

              The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History

              GLC Number 02290 The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King-Street...[first edition, second
              issue printed by Edes & Gill.]

      5. The Soldiers Trial: October 24 to 30, 1770: Selected Testimony
            This link includes selected testimony from the British soldiers who are on trial for the events that
            occurred on March 5, 1770. This material may be used for an extension of this lesson or to gain
            background knowledge. (Follow link below.)

              Soldiers

      6. The Trial of Captain Preston: Key Evidence
             This link includes Captain Preston and eyewitness depositions. This material may be used for an
             extension of this lesson or to gain background knowledge. (Follow link below.)

              The Boston Massacre Trial of 1770




                                                       3
Key Terms:

       1.     Massacre-the act or an instance of killing a number of usually helpless or unresisting human
              beings under circumstances of cruelty.
       2.     Propaganda-verbal or visual communication that aims to influence people’s opinions, emotions,
              or actions. Visual propaganda often employs symbols or images to grab attention.

Materials:

       1.     Access to both Revere and Pufford’s Boston Massacre images and the Landing of the British
              Troops image (internet, overhead transparency, document camera copy).
       2.     Student copies of the “Historically Accepted” version of the Boston Massacre.
       3.     Student copies of the “Analyzing Revere’s Engraving of the Boston Massacre” worksheets A & B.

Technology:

       Teacher and students need access to both Revere and Pufford’s pictures of the Boston Massacre and
       Revere’s picture of the Landing of the British Troops.
       Internet access, laptop, and LCD projector will be needed if accessing the pictures online.

Motivation:   (Establish that there was a high level of tension that existed between the colonists and British
              soldiers. The tension level in Boston was at such a high, that the two sides were on the brink of a
              major catastrophe.)

       Display the Paul Revere engraving of the Landing of the British Troops, 1770. Tell students that this is
       an image of 1000 British troops arriving in Boston in 1768 to keep the peace following the disorder after
       the passage of the Townshend Acts.

       Think/Pair/Share: Ask students, Why did the colonists in Boston resent the presence of so many British
       soldiers? [Remind students of the Quartering Act & Soldier employment.]

              Quartering Act-A British law passed by Parliament requiring colonists to provide housing for
                             British soldiers.

              Soldier Employment-Since British soldiers were poorly paid, they hired themselves out as
                                 workers, usually at rates lower than those of Americans workers.

       If students still can’t understand why the Boston colonists would resent the presence of the soldiers, ask
       the students how they would feel if the U.S. government passed a law today requiring citizens in their
       community to provide housing for the military and also a soldier would be posted on every street corner
       in their town to keep a watchful eye on the citizens. Would tensions in your community increase?




                                                        4
Procedures:

   1. Divide class into groups of 3 or 4. Give all the groups one copy of the Revere engraving of the Boston
       Massacre. Tell the class that they are looking at a primary source image of the Boston Massacre, one of
       the most important events that helped lead to the eruption of the American Revolution.
   2. Instruct the groups to carefully study the picture and then make a list of details that they see in the
       picture. The students can record the details that they see on the back side of the picture. Remind students
       that they are to only looking for details, they are not to interpret the picture. The teacher may want to give
       an example of a detail from the picture.
   3. Once students have had time to pull details from the picture, have one person from each group share a
       detail with the class. The teacher can record the details on the chalk board, overhead, etc. for the class to
       view. The students can report the details from their desks or come to the front of the classroom and point
       to the detail on the displayed picture.
   4. The teacher should have the Revere engraving displayed on an overhead projector or LCD projector to
       facilitate discussion.
   5. Tell students now that they have pulled details from this historically important picture of the Boston
       Massacre, they will now need to attack this primary source for more insight.
   6. Instruct the groups to once again study Revere’s engraving & attempt to answer the following questions:
           a. Author (Who created the source?)
           b. Place and Time (Where and when was the source produced?)
           c. Prior Knowledge (What do you already know that would further your understanding of this
                source?)
           d. Audience (For whom was the source created?)
           e. Reason (Why was this source produced at the time it was produced?)
           f. The Main Idea (What is the source trying to convey?)
           g. Significance (Why is this source important?)
   7. When the students have finished studying the picture, give the groups a few minutes to discuss their
       answers to the above questions.
   8. Have a student from each group briefly respond to one of the questions from Step 6. Teacher will
       facilitate the discussion of the questions making sure to cover all seven.
   9. Now that the picture of the Boston Massacre has been analyzed, give each student a copy of the
       “Historically Accepted” version of what occurred at the Boston Massacre. Read the story aloud. Once
       the reading is finished, give the groups a couple of minutes to compare the similarities and differences
       between the reading and Revere’s engraving.
   10. Ask each group to send one of it’s’ members to the front of the classroom to point out a similarity or a
       difference between the two sources. The teacher may need to clarify information about the historically
       accepted account and how it differs from the Revere engraving. Students may not understand at this point
       why the picture doesn’t match the events that occurred but should be aware that there are many
       differences between the two.




                                                         5
Closure:

       Display the Revere engraving and ask students to think about the saying that a picture is worth a 1000
       words. Ask students to think about how the Revere engraving is worth 1000 misleading historical words.
       This does not need to be answered but can be revisited at the end of the assessment. Now that the
       students are again thinking about the Revere engraving, tell them that they will now dive a bit deeper into
       analyzing Revere’s picture. Time for assessment.


Assessment:

       Pass out a copy of the Student Worksheet “Analyzing Revere’s Engraving of the Boston Massacre” to
       each student. Also give each student a copy of the Student Handout that contains Revere’s engraving.
       Students can work individually or with a partner to answer the questions on the worksheet.

       The assessment answers should be reviewed with the entire class so that students properly understand
       how this engraving was used as a piece of anti-British propaganda and that Paul Revere purposely drew
       his picture to stir up anti-British feeling among the colonists.

       When reviewing student answers to question 5, you may use John Pufford’s 1856 lithograph depicting the
       Boston Massacre. Students should see that this picture of the Boston Massacre is less misleading than
       Revere’s version. Students may want to point out details from this picture that match Preston’s
       eyewitness account.

       To determine if the lesson objective was achieved, conduct an exit slip question using the objective: Why
       was the Boston Massacre an important event in the cause for American independence?


Appendix:

       1. Included is a copy of the Student Worksheet “Analyzing Revere’s Engraving of the Boston Massacre.”
          Questions adapted from The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History: Resource Notebook for
          the Founding Era.
       2. Included is a copy of the Student Handout. Engraving taken from the Gilder Lehrman Institute of
          American History.
       3. Included is a copy of the “Historically Accepted” version of what occurred at the Boston Massacre.
          Information adapted from Doug Linder’s “The Massacre Trials: An Account” (2001) and the Boston
          Massacre Historical Society.




                                                        6
                                                                                              Student Worksheet


               Analyzing Revere’s Engraving of the Boston Massacre
1. An eyewitness, James Woodall, described the events of March 5 in the following way:

       “I saw one Soldier knocked down. His Gun fell from him. I saw a great many sticks and pieces of sticks
and Ice thrown at the Soldiers. The Soldier who was knocked down took up his Gun and fired directly…The
Captain, after, seemed shocked and looked upon the Soldiers. I am very certain he did not give the word fire.”

       How does his description compare to Paul Revere’s engraving? ___________________________
       ____________________________________________________________________________________
       ____________________________________________________________________________________
       ____________________________________________________________________________________
       ____________________________________________________________________________________

2. How does Revere indicate that Captain Preston (the figure on the extreme right) ordered his men
   to fire?
        ____________________________________________________________________________________
        ____________________________________________________________________________________
        ____________________________________________________________________________________

3. Paul Revere’s engraving of the Boston Massacre was considered an effective tool of anti-British
propaganda by misleading the viewers and stirring up anti-British feeling among the colonists. What
is propaganda?

       ____________________________________________________________________________________
       ____________________________________________________________________________________
       ____________________________________________________________________________________

4. Given your knowledge of this historical event, why would Paul Revere depict the Boston Massacre
   in such a misleading manner and have these misleading copies sent to each of the thirteen colonies?

       ____________________________________________________________________________________
       ____________________________________________________________________________________
       ____________________________________________________________________________________
       ____________________________________________________________________________________

5. Given your knowledge of this historical event, how would you depict this event if you were doing
   an engraving today?

       ____________________________________________________________________________________
       ____________________________________________________________________________________
       ____________________________________________________________________________________
       ____________________________________________________________________________________


                                                       7
                                                                                Student Handout




*Above image taken from the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History.

                                                                            8
                         Boston Massacre: “Historically Accepted” Version
In the snowy winter of 1770, many residents of Boston harbored deep resentment against the presence of British military in their city.
Two regiments of regulars had been quartered in Boston since September of 1768, when they had landed in response to a call by the
Governor to restore order and respect for British law. Trouble had arisen earlier that summer when Boston importers refused to pay
required custom duties. Some Bostonians disliked soldiers because they competed for jobs, often willing to take part-time work during
their off-duty hours for lower wages.

The tragedy of March 5 began with a simple dispute over whether a British officer had paid a bill to a local wig-maker. The officer was
walking down King Street when Edward Garrick, the wig-maker's apprentice, called out, "There goes the fellow who hath not paid my
master for dressing his hair." The officer with the new hair, Captain John Goldfinch, passed on without acknowledging Garrick. But
Garrick persisted, telling three passers-by that Goldfinch owed him money. A lone sentry named Hugh White overheard Garrick's
remarks. White told the apprentice, "He is a gentleman, and if he owes you anything he will pay for it." Garrick's answer--that there
were no gentlemen left in the regiment--caused White to leave his post and confront Garrick. After a brief, heated exchange of words,
the sentry struck Garrick with his musket, knocking him down.

Soon a small crowd, attracted by the ruckus between White and Garrick, gathered around the lone guard and began taunting him.
"Bloody lobster back! Lousy rascal! Lobster son of a bitch!" they yelled. The crowd grew to about fifty. Some in the mob of mostly
young men threw pieces of ice at White, and he grew fearful. As the crowd continued to increase in size and hostility, White retreated
from his sentry box to the Custom House steps, loaded his gun, and began to wave it about. White knocked on the door and banged the
butt of his gun against the steps. Desperate, White yelled, "Turn out, Main Guard!"

Meanwhile, a few blocks north, another confrontation between civilians and Redcoats broke out. Under a barrage of snowballs and
chunks of ice, a group of soldiers was hustled into its barracks. A third mob, this one about two hundred strong and carrying clubs,
gathered in Dock Square. A tall man with a white wig and a red coat did his best to rile up the crowd. Trouble seemed to be erupting
all over the city. "Let's away to the Main Guard!" someone shouted, and the crowd began streaming down an alley toward King Street.
Someone pulled the fire bell rope at the Brick Meeting House, bringing dozens of more residents out into the restless streets.

In front of the Main Guard, officer for the day, Captain Thomas Preston, paced back in front for nearly thirty minutes, worrying about
what to do. If he did nothing, he thought, White might be killed by the mob. But trying to rescue White carried its own risks, as the
soldiers would be vastly outnumbered by the frightening mob. Finally, Preston made his decision. "Turn out, damn your bloods, turn
out!" he barked at his men.

Preston and seven other men, lined up in columns of twos, began moving briskly across King Street with empty muskets and fixed
bayonets. They pushed on through the thick crowd near the Custom House. Managing to make it to Private White, Preston ordered the
sentry to fall in. Preston tried to march the men back to the Main Guard, but the mob began pressing in. Hemmed in, the soldiers lined
up--about a body length apart--in a sort of semi-circle facing the crowd that had grown to over three hundred. Many in the crowd threw
missiles of various sorts--chunks of coal, snowballs, oyster shells, sticks--at the soldiers. Preston shouted for them to disperse. The
crowd surged to within inches of the fixed bayonets and dared the soldiers to fire. The soldiers loaded their guns, but the crowd, far
from drawing back, came close, calling out, "Come on you rascals, you bloody backs, you lobster scoundrels, fire if you dare, God
damn you, fire and be damned, we know you dare not," and striking at the soldiers with clubs. A large club-wielding man named
Crispus Attucks—a black laborer—moved forward, grabbed one of the soldier's (Hugh Montgomery's) bayonets, and knocked him to
the ground. Montgomery rose, shouting "Damn you, fire!" and unloading his musket in the direction of the crowd. Soon after --
estimates varied from six seconds to two minutes--Montgomery shouted "Fire!", the other soldiers also began firing. A blast from the
gun of Matthew Killroy hit Samuel Gray as he stood with his hands in his pockets, blowing a hole in his head "as big as a hand." From
another gun, two bullets hit Crispus Attucks in the chest. As the mob moved toward the soldiers, more guns fired. Five civilians lay
dying in the streets; another half dozen lay injured. The soldiers loaded their weapons and prepared to fire again when Captain Preston
(according to his own statement) yelled, "Stop firing! Do not fire!"

Captain Preston, the soldiers, and four men in the Customs House alleged to have fired shots from it were promptly arrested, indicted
for murder, and held in prison pending trial for murder.




*Above account adapted from Doug Linder’s “The Massacre Trials: An Account” (2001) and the Boston Massacre Historical Society.



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