DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008

Document Sample
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008 Powered By Docstoc
					          DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008

                 EXAMINERS’ REPORTS
          ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE FOR
               SMALL ENTRY LANGUAGES

                                       Page

ARABIC INTO ENGLISH                    2

ENGLISH INTO ARABIC                    5

ENGLISH INTO BENGALI                   11

CHINESE INTO ENGLISH                   12

ENGLISH INTO CZECH                     17

DUTCH INTO ENGLISH                     21

ENGLISH INTO DUTCH                     26

ENGLISH INTO FARSI                     29

FINNISH INTO ENGLISH                   33

FRENCH INTO GERMAN                     36

GERMAN INTO FRENCH                     42

GERMAN INTO SPANISH                    44

SPANISH INTO GERMAN                    46

GREEK INTO ENGLISH                     51

ENGLISH INTO HINDI                     56

ENGLISH INTO JAPANESE                  59

JAPANESE INTO ENGLISH                  64

ENGLISH INTO KURDISH (SORANI)          67

ENGLISH INTO NORWEGIAN                 71

ENGLISH INTO PANJABI                   75

POLISH INTO ENGLISH                    77

PORTUGUESE INTO ENGLISH                81

ENGLISH INTO ROMANIAN                  87

RUSSIAN INTO ENGLISH                   90

ENGLISH INTO SLOVAK                    94

ENGLISH INTO SWEDISH                   96

SWEDISH INTO ENGLISH                   97

ENGLISH INTO TURKISH                   98

ENGLISH INTO URDU                      100

URDU INTO ENGLISH                      102

                                              1
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ARABIC INTO ENGLISH

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
Candidate performance was mixed, but not unsatisfactory overall.
It would appear that candidates found the text for translation rather long for the time available.
Candidates are reminded that omitting more than 5% of the text will automatically be awarded a
fail. Candidate’s translation showed signs of haste in the last 10 lines). On the evidence of that part
of the translation completed, the candidate awarded a fail would have achieved a pass had the full
text been attempted.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The comprehension and accuracy of all candidates were generally acceptable and coherent and
cohesive translations were produced. All candidates committed a number of lexical inaccuracies
(including, the confusion of “i‘laami”, media or advertising with “aalami”, world-wide). Greater
attention to detail is required, as candidates sometimes failed to translate certain words / phrases:
it is unclear whether these were mere slips or a result of failure of comprehension.
Candidates appeared unfamiliar with certain finance-related terms (e.g. markaz – financial
position).
Register was, in all cases, acceptable and all candidates displayed a sufficient understanding of
English vocabulary.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
In general, the command of English grammar shown by candidates was competent, although there
were some examples of non-agreement between subject / verb and article / noun (e.g. “a banks”)
in the translations. These slips would normally be corrected upon subsequent revision.
All translations were coherent and cohesive, except where failures of comprehension appeared to
intervene. However, all too frequently, clauses were linked by “and…and” / “as well as…as well as”
which, while a literal translation of the Arabic, is inappropriate English style. Consideration could be
given to producing shorter sentences in English than the Arabic might superficially suggest.
Note that the Arabic Haythu often need not be translated into English.
Translations were generally well structured.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were cases of unacceptable omissions of commas. In a few cases, years were rendered in
words rather than numerals.
Greater attention needs to be paid to the preferred, official names of institutions, organisations,
etc., especially of major international organisations.
There was some neglect of appropriate capitalisation, as in the case of “the minister”.

Recommendations to candidates
All candidates could improve their translations by paying greater attention to:
    • the use of appropriate connectors in English;
    • the official names of institutions, organisations, etc.;
    • in general, the detail of, and a more careful approach to, the source text.

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
Candidates produced broadly cohesive translations, but coherence was sometimes affected by a
number of problems of comprehension, some of which were quite serious and gave a distorted


                                                                                                      2
meaning. Sometimes translations appeared to be more first drafts than finished products.
Substantial revision would be required for professional purposes.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There was a number of serious errors of comprehension giving a distorted meaning such as in “A
forth [sic] group will guide you across the road” instead of A fourth group will pay your highway toll
charges or “3 millimetres” instead of one-third of a millimetre.
There were a large number of omissions of individual words in some translations. Nevertheless, a
good grasp of appropriate English vocabulary was displayed. Register was satisfactory.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Command of grammar was barely satisfactory and there were some errors. For example, the
Arabic “qad takhruju” means may / might leave but not “will leave”. Some grammatical mistakes in
English may have been, in reality, spelling errors. More seriously, and quite apart from the
mistakes in translation contained therein, it is not entirely clear what the sentence “Also provide
information and even make them communicate wirelessly all the time” [sic], means.
The Arabic phrase bi al-Suura al-saabiqa yaHtaaju means, requires a priori…, rather than
“previously needed”.
There were signs of confusion over the use of tense, also shown in the example above.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Candidate performance in this aspect was broadly satisfactory. However, there were a few very
elementary spelling errors, e.g. “orning” [sic] instead of morning and a number of lapses in
punctuation (in particular, the absence of commas was not conducive to smooth reading).
The abbreviation “RFID” should have been translated in full upon first occurrence.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates are advised to:
   • pay more attention to the use of appropriate connectors in English;
   • pay much greater attention to the detail of the source text and approach it in a more careful
      and methodical fashion;
   • pay greater attention to the use of tense in English;
   • continue to build up technical vocabulary in both Arabic and English.

UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Translations were accurate and coherent. They contained only a few apparent errors of
comprehension which do not greatly hinder the reader’s understanding. They displayed a grasp of
the semi-technical lexicon but work is required to develop this further. There were a few omissions
from the target text and these were the main caveat.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
While displaying a grasp of the semi-technical lexicon, work is required to develop this further (e.g.
Arabic raqaa’iq here means chips not “particles”).
There were a few cases of omission of source text words (e.g. “…will be seen as good news for
patients with kidney failure”). The failure to translate the underlined phrase led to a slightly
incorrect translation of the sentence as a whole.
Register was appropriate.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The command of English grammar displayed was generally satisfactory, marred by just one or two
minor lapses (e.g. “…are used to accurately transfer” / “…is the currently best option…”).



                                                                                                    3
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
This aspect was generally satisfactory but some care needs to be given to English punctuation,
particularly the use of commas.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates may benefit from:
   • developing a wider range of technical vocabulary in Arabic and English;
   • paying greater attention to punctuation in English;
   • taking greater care to avoid omitting source text from the translation.


                                               -*-




                                                                                            4
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO ARABIC

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
Candidates should be aware of the fact that the criterion for assessing their performance is
whether their translation is professionally acceptable. According to such standard only two papers
deserved a Merit and ten failed (out of fifteen).

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The majority of the candidates showed good to adequate command of the subject matter. Those
who failed had problems with terminology, idioms and register. A few candidates made
inaccuracies and inappropriate choice of language.
A good 40% of the papers showed very good comprehension of the source language text and were
able to convey the message with good accuracy. However, the majority of candidates seemed to
struggle with the comprehension of the original text. The term that posed the major obstacle was
networking. Getting this wrong (whether in comprehension or rendering) directly affected the main
message of the text. Mistakes in this regard cost the candidates dearly. Some took it to mean
working or communicating on the internet (as a “network”). This is very unfortunate, because it is a
very common and non-technical word that appears frequently in English-language newspapers.
Idiomatic language posed a bit of a problem as well. Examples include: give us a break in life (line
25), which was wrongly translated as “give us a holiday and a chance to rest,” certainly changing
the original drastically.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Candidates made some lapses in grammar. There were various degrees of incoherence and
inappropriate sentence structure and re-organisation of information. On the whole, candidates
showed a good command of Arabic.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Candidates did not do very well on the aspect of spelling. The common pitfall is the use (or disuse)
of the “glottal stop” – the Hamza. The mistaken use (or absence) of Hamza is unacceptable at a
professional level.
Spelling in general was the weakest aspect in all papers.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates should be aware that the Diploma in Translation is a professional exam. If the
translation is not good enough for a client, it cannot be good enough to pass. Spelling mistakes
should be seen in this light. Also, a professional translator should be more than familiar with the
source language culture. In that sense, preparation includes reading newspapers, watching TV and
talking to people. It also includes, more technically, the skill (and the habit) of using a dictionary. It
is often the case that Arabic translators-to-be despair or resort to wild guesses when they do not
find a ready-made translation in one of the standard Arabic dictionaries – which is only too often
the case (especially with terms like networking). Candidates should become familiarised with using
monolingual English dictionaries.

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
Most candidates showed an adequate understanding of the subject matter with few inaccuracies
that fall under the three different aspects of the assessment criteria.



                                                                                                       5
Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The majority of mistakes made by the candidates fall under this Aspect of Performance. There
were a number of errors related to comprehension/accuracy and some of them could have been
avoided had the candidates spent a little extra time reading the original text carefully and grasping
its content.
For example, the word grouped (line 24) was incorrectly translated as “Tatajamm’a” (come
together) rather than “Tujamm’a” (bring together). Other examples of inaccuracy were also
noticeable in considering the size of a turbine (which reflects its wattage capacity) as its literal
weight.
The phrase photovoltaic systems (line 27) was inaccurately paraphrased as “or those which
depend on sun light” whereas they are in fact devices that convert solar energy into electricity by
the photovoltaic effect.
The word heating (line 2) was translated as “temperature”.
Further Aspect 1 mistakes were also evident in translating words like techniques (lines 38 and 41)
and recent (line 38) as “Isloob” (style) and “Haliya” (current).
Another Aspect 1 gaffe was made in translating the word irregularities (line 3) as “disturbances”
and as “standard non-coordination”. One slightly more serious mistake was made when the word
dishes (line 26) was imprecisely translated as “satellites”.
One more inaccurate rendering that falls under this criterion was the translation of the phrase
hybrid wind systems (line 28) which was translated in different word order as “wind hybrid
systems”.
The word hybrid, which has a common synonym in the target language, was translated as “mixed”.
The word uneven (line 2) was translated as “changeable” and the words wind power (lines 7, 31
and 32) were rendered as “wind electricity”.
Examples of omissions and additions were also spotted. One candidate missed the first title How
Wind Turbines Work at the very beginning of the passage. Another candidate added unnecessary
information to the original in defining the word megawatts (line 24) which reads: “more than million
megawatt”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Few grammatical errors were made by the candidates in rendering numbers into the target
language. This demonstrates lack of knowledge of the corresponding rules. The word three (lines
19 and 20) should read Thalath rather than “Thalathat” as it describes a feminine word Risha. two
[…] blades (line 19) should be Reeshatain rather than “Reeshatan” because it is a word governed
by a preposition Ala.
The rule of gender should also be observed when translating the word designated (line 33), which
should read Muhadada rather than “Muhada” because the adjective follows the noun in terms of
gender.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Words such as amodiya (horizontal) and maps were misspelled but, on the whole, candidates
made very few spelling mistakes.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates should pay extra attention to accuracy which is vital in texts of this nature. Scientific
terms and technical expressions have specific meanings and any misinterpretation could result in
distorting the original message of the source text.
Basic stylistic and grammatical rules such as those relating to the proper use of the noun in the
nominative (Marfou’a) and the noun in the accusative (Mansoob), and gender should also be
adhered to. The choice of wording should also be considered when rendering phrasal verbs in the
target language by only using the right verb-preposition combination.

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

General Report on Candidate Performance
More than 5% of one of the translations was left untranslated. Additionally, another incident of
serious omission occured, where half a sentence was also left out from the target text.
                                                                                                   6
Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
On the whole translations were inaccurate and incoherent, revealing incomprehensive
understanding of the source text. Furthermore register was not faithful to the source and thus was
not fit to fulfil its purpose and would not complement the professional standards of specialised
business writing intended for a dedicated business website.
As an example of inadequate comprehension of the source text, the translation of buzzword (line
7), literally, as “humming” or “droning” instead of fashion or craze does not make any sense when
aligned with the source text.
In another instance, executives (lines 8, 21 and 31) was mistranslated as “merchants”, and deputy
(line 30) as “leader”. These examples prove that linguistic skills are not up to the standard
expected at the DipTrans level.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were many serious grammatical mistakes. They do not facilitate a coherent reading and
make comprehension difficult.
In one sentence, a candidate used the wrong linguistic sign of feminine gender (relative pronoun)
while referring to marauders (line 4), which is a plural-demonstrative masculine pronoun. In
another sentence, the wrong tense was used (‘imperfect active tense’ instead of using the ‘past
indefinite tense’ as in the source text).

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There was a considerable number of spelling mistakes.

Recommendations to candidates
It is essential for candidates to revise and check through what they have written to see if the
translation makes sense in light of the source text. Bear in mind that the translated text will be
marked on the basis of its effectiveness to communicate the source text accurately, and how much
it would facilitate its reader to act accordingly.
If candidates want to achieve success, they should be able to use a language according to the
conventional rules of Arabic grammar, transferring the translated text correspondingly using
equivalent or identical technical terms.
Finally, before sitting the Dip Trans exam, candidates are recommended to practise extensively,
whenever possible look for impartial professional feedback and act upon it to improve translation
skills.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE
The source was clearly understood by all candidates. The translations produced were varied. By
and large, the candidates’ performance in this unit was the best, in comparison with other units
contested this year.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
All candidates produced translations that facilitate coherent reading.
A few inaccuracies resulted from candidates’ miscomprehension of several phrases. For instance,
one candidate rendered Alice’s astonishment about big factories making Heaven-knows-what (line
5) into “how could we make heaven knows what big factories make?” Again, one other sentence
was malformed in a reverse manner from Perhaps they [the factories] get the recipe from
somebody who’s only recently died? (lines 6-7) into “perhaps heaven gets the recipes from
someone who has recently died”.
One candidate, though, added three words to give poetic rhythm; this could have complemented
the text perfectly if s/he had been the real author: “She yielded to such a delightful sleep”.
Most candidates were not able to choose an equivalent, fitting, expression to oh dear! (line 23) so,
they used options such as “Oh, God!”, “How terrible!” and “How serious is that matter!”.
Most candidates provided translator’s notes with appropriate comments.


                                                                                                  7
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
All target texts were well organised and fittingly coherent. Nevertheless, the syntax suffered many
a time, for example in: a horrible place to live (lines 21-22), But the very worst thing about
Manchester was the fact that it was – oh dear! – always raining (lines 23-24), I wonder how you do
make Heaven-knows-what? (lines 5-6) and Alice now hugged the Celia Doll even closer to her
chest (lines 17-18). Such feeble rendering, though not professional, did not distort the meaning of
the source text.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were very few spelling and punctuation mistakes, and the target texts were legible.

Recommendations to candidates
Future candidates should make every effort to acquire a thorough knowledge of sophisticated and
refined vocabulary, and familiarise themselves with the exclusive formal register that is appropriate
to the option they have chosen.

UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The standard of performance in this option was relatively high compared to the previous year.
Candidates demonstrated a good level of understanding of the source text with minor errors mostly
associated with accuracy and comprehension.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There were a few mistakes made in this Aspect of Performance as a result of inaccurate rendering:
       •   The word Fahrenheit was written in its abbreviated form which could lead to confusion.
       •   The transliteration of the word crystal (line 2) was redundant as it was already
           translated in Arabic as “Ballurat”. The word tumor (line 27) was translated as “cancer”.
       •   A more serious mistake was made when the words very corrosive (line 12) were
           paraphrased and rendered as “to become oxidized and react with the container’s
           elements”.
       •   One case of an alternative translation was made when the word “tariqa” (method) was
           unnecessarily added after the word “wasfa” (recipe).
       •   The translation of the words space shuttles (line 6) was omitted and paraphrased as
           “his spatial journeys”.
       •   Finally the word blend (line 31) was wrongly translated as “mazeej” (which applies to
           liquids only) rather than khaleet.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The word craftsmen (line 4) was rendered as a noun in the accusative (“mansoob”) rather than
noun in the nominative (“marfou’a”).
The word shuttles (line 6) was translated in its singular and not in its plural form.
Another dual Aspect 1 and 2 mistake was made in translating the words fiber optics (line 34) which
is known in Arabic as alyaf dhawieya.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Candidates made a few avoidable spelling mistakes. The word shuttles (line 6) for instance (in the
plural form) was translated as “mawakeek” rather than makakeek. The expression fiber optics (line
34) was also misspelled by some candidates.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates are advised to acquaint themselves with specialised terminology and pay extra
attention to accuracy, grammar and appropriate style.



                                                                                                   8
UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Some vocabulary was rendered inadequately and there were a few grammar and syntax mistakes.
The register was not always rendered faithfully. One candidate provided the readers with a
complete and coherent target text, enabling the reader to act appropriately on the basis of the
translation.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Examples of literal and unsubtle translations include: On the surface (line 1), gangmasters (lines
15 and 21), outdated population (line 37), where candidates failed to find the alternative terms that
could mirror the source rightly. Considering the purpose of the translation carefully would have
helped the candidates to settle on professional substituted terms appropriate for this specific
genre.
The following are some examples of inaccuracies that could have been avoided with a thorough
final check before handing the translation over:
• Using “Foreign Office” instead of Home Office (line 9); and “millions” instead of thousands (line
    2).
• Substituting sophisticated words with colloquial and casual terms, for example,
    entrepreneurship (line 27) was rendered as “getting them lugged into…”.
• Rendering employers (lines 6, 8 and 19) as “employees”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Some candidates failed to maintain a coherent rendering of the source, and by not observing the
correct sequence of tenses in the following cases: with little encouragement from unscrupulous
employers (line 8), untapped resource (line 13), embracing gangmasters (line 21) and there is a
pool of indigenous labour (line 30).

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Names of British corporations and services such as borough (line 1), Home Office (line 9), national
insurance (line 9) were transliterated unnecessarily, in spite of the fact that the Arabic equivalent
was given.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates are advised to read the brief carefully and make sure to follow the guidelines
accurately throughout. They need to pay careful attention to the purpose of the target text which
they are asked to produce. Also, style has to be consistent and faithful to the original register.
All candidates should make sure they have a first-rate command of the structures in both
languages, above all their native language; in particular the use of tenses, word order, stress and
intonation, spelling of words and standard vocabulary. It is always important to keep in mind the
target readers and thus the way target text is intended to be used.

UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
Some candidates demonstrated excellent command of Arabic and submitted superior pieces of
translation. Others demonstrated lack of preparation and showed inadequate command of both
general and legal terminology.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Some candidates showed familiarity and comfort with the legal vocabulary. Candidates who did not
pass showed inadequate understanding of legal vocabulary and style. Mistranslations in this
aspect changed the meaning of the original, and the translation was therefore deemed
professionally unacceptable. Candidates choosing this option should know specialised terms such


                                                                                                   9
as case law (line 27) and right to privacy (line 16) as well as less specialised ones such as the
case was made tricky (line 14) if they want to pursue a career as legal translators.
Candidates failed to translate simple and common words such as fax (line 4), facilities (lines 6 and
24), communications (line 22) and notions (line 28). Essential information and key-words such as
sued the UK government (line 1), in the European Court of Human Rights (lines 1-2), a campaign
back in 1999 (line 10) and According to its own case law (lines 26-27) – all of which were
significant to the text – were sometimes omitted. There were also instances of candidates’ own
suppositions which did not appear in the source text, such as “… in order to raise a doubt about
her testimony in unbelief, defaming and smearing her reputation…” and “…faxing the State’s
solicitor”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
This aspect was in general acceptable. Some candidates did very well, and the final renderings
read like originals, with some occasional and minor lapses. There were some cases of grammatical
mistakes, such as the use of tenses in their wrong forms (present continuous instead of past
simple in England had no general right… [line 16]) or the use of masculine and feminine subject
pronouns in the same sentence at odds with the conventional grammatical rules (in the
surveillance had been legitimate because it only involved the monitoring of the woman’s
communications, not the interception of them [lines 21 – 23]).

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Several candidates mistook Euros (lines 35 and 36) for “pounds”, which increased the value of the
damages given by the court to the claimant in the original text by almost 150%. The lesson: do not
take things for granted. Look long and hard at numbers and currencies.
However, the main problem here was, like in the other options, spelling. Candidates should be
aware of the rules of the “hamza” and be sure to include all the dots in the word, particularly the
“Ta’a Marbouta”. Candidates for the Diploma in Translation should not reproduce common native
speaker spelling mistakes. This is most important in the case of a legal translator. Such spelling
mistakes are taken very seriously by clients and examiners.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates are advised to practise by translating documents and materials related to the subject
matter they anticipate choosing to sit in the DipTrans examination. Additionally, they should test
themselves practically and try to translate some past papers of the anticipated unit, and then seek
objective professional feedback whenever possible.
It is also recommended that candidates acquaint themselves with more formal ways of using
Arabic, in order to pass this postgraduate examination. In preparing for a legal translation exam,
candidates should spare no effort in learning their specialised terminology. There are lists and
books to help with this. Candidates should be aware that mistakes in legal terminology are
weighted heavily in specialised or semi-specialised translations.



                                                -*-




                                                                                                  10
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO BENGALI

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION / UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY / UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
• Translations showed excellent command of subject matter and good choice of language
  appropriate to source text.
• The vocabulary, terminology and register were appropriate and faithful to the source text.
• Translations were well organised with good sentence structure and overall coherence.
• Translations were written with appropriate re-organisation of the information contained in the
  source text.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
• Except for the occasional lapse in decoding words, the transfer of information was almost
    faultless.
• Choice of language, vocabulary and register was entirely appropriate to the subject matter.
• Neat and legible handwriting made reading a pleasure.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
• Translations were well organised, contained good sentence structures and were coherent in
   general. There were a couple of lapses in decoding, which did not affect the overall meaning
   too much.
• Translations were written with appropriate re-organisation of the information contained in the
   source text as necessary. There was very little literal translation.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
• Technical presentation was good, with the exception of a few spelling errors.

Recommendations to candidates
• Do not use transliterated words in translation.
• Pay attention to spelling.
• Pay attention to decoding words.


                                               -*-




                                                                                              11
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

CHINESE INTO ENGLISH

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
The main problem with this text was rendering the theme of dichotomy or dilemma. It seemed that
not every candidate read through the text carefully to the end before beginning to translate, as they
did not manage to make clear the writer’s distinction between a hard and fast judgement on the
one hand, and a compromise on the other. The overall standard of English, however, was better
than in previous years. A few candidates wrote excessive translator’s notes; this text did not
require any notes at all, and some candidates used the notes only to justify their choices.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Not having read through the source text thoroughly led to some rather unclear renditions to do with
understanding, sensibility, etc. Some candidates evidently thought that sensibility had something to
do with being sensible, which is a rather remote connection. This could be due to candidates’
misuse of dictionaries, or to the narrowness of candidates’ English vocabulary. The title presented
the first problem: it is essential to have the notion of choice in the translation of the title – renditions
such as “two into one is better than one into two” do not reflect the theme of the text.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There is, as always, a tendency to follow the Chinese sentence structure, which does not
necessarily convey the same discoursal emphasis as in English. The constant repetition used to
play off contrasting notions does not work well in English if translated literally. To make the text
smooth, pro-forms (it, in this way, etc.) can be used, and this was a skill only shown by very few
candidates.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The major technical problem in this text was the use of quotation marks to highlight lexical items in
the source text. An English text littered with quotation marks makes for very uncomfortable
reading. There are other ways to deal with this, by using italics, for example, and/or not using any
highlighting markers in second and subsequent mentions.

Recommendations to candidates
Thorough reading of the text before beginning to write is strongly recommended. Thorough
proofreading is also recommended.

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
The source text contained no technical expressions which would make sense only to a specialist.
Two candidates presented acceptable translations, albeit with some errors. The cause of failure on
the part of the other candidates was not their inability to understand the Chinese source text but
their inability to render it into correct grammatical English.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Candidates had no difficulty with understanding the source text, and the register used in their
translations was generally appropriate. However, the English used was not always accurate, as in
•   “to enforce inhalation and exhalation” for to maintain an air flow;
•   “make one feel suppressed” for make one feel depressed;
•   “unadulterated materials” for natural materials;
•   “enhanced floorboards” for strengthened flooring.

                                                                                                         12
The following is a typical example of this inaccuracy:
“Many furniture made of synthetic wood use glue which are made by the toxic formaldehyde”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
This aspect was the main cause of failure for some candidates, but was also a problem for those
who passed. The following examples illustrate this weakness on the part of almost all candidates
sitting all options in this combination, who are invariably Hong Kong Chinese translating from their
native language into a foreign language (English), resulting in phrases and sentences which are
‘Chinglish’:
•    “you will want to use” for you will need to use;
•    “noise light” for light pollution;
•    “if many fixated furniture have to be handled” for if many fixed items of furniture have to be
     installed.

All candidates were unable to provide a succinct translation of the heading for the last paragraph,
which for a native English speaker would be simply: Finishing Touches. Translations included “later
stage decorations”, “finishing additions”, “peripherals for final stage”, “decorative accessories in the
final stages”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Spelling, punctuation and the transfer of data were not generally a problem. It was the way that
these accurately spelt words were put into sentences which made them look and sound very un-
English that was the problem. Examples:
•  “If compelled by the desire for better visual effects and lacquer with organic solvents are thus
   used, then the rooms should only be moved into, after the peculiar odour has fully dissipated”.
•  “If the furniture you bought emit a pungent odour, it means that the amount of formaldehyde
   present is too high”.

Recommendations to candidates
Do not attempt this language combination if your English is not of a standard acceptable for
professional use at this level.

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

General Report on Candidate Performance
This was a relatively straightforward and often repetitive source text which presented few
difficulties. All candidates obtained a pass, although in many cases the work was only just
acceptable and there were no scripts which could not have been improved.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Candidates did not have any difficulty in decoding the source text. Encoding, however, represented
more of a challenge, as the following examples show: “under restrictions of the current information-
technology system” instead of, for example, with (or given) the limitations of the current
information-technology systems; “we have no way to guarantee that we could timely discover”
instead of, for example, we have no way of guaranteeing that we can uncover in a timely manner.
The word timely was used incorrectly as a substitute for soon, quickly or in time by almost all the
candidates.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
This aspect was the weakest area for all candidates, and for the usual reason in this combination
(Chinese to English): they did not seem to be translating into their native language. Although the
English displayed is often of a good standard, it can appear very un-English to a native speaker
and this is usually what makes this combination difficult to mark.
The following example will illustrate the point: “In addition, the mistakes make by our employees
may results in claims on us, or action by regulators. Our operations, operating results and financial
performance could be severely impacted by the improper acts carried out by any employees or
third parties, including those in the past that has yet to be uncovered or in future.”
                                                                                                      13
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
This was generally well done.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates living and working in Hong Kong are constantly exposed to business vocabulary in
both Chinese and English in their daily lives and articles like the source text on this occasion
present little difficulty for them.
However, if they want to make a career in translation from Chinese into English they should be
encouraged to develop a fuller competence in the use of English by reading more general articles
in newspapers and magazines, to help bring their English up to a standard closer to that of an
educated native speaker.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The text was well understood, and faithfully and quite vividly rendered.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
每個血肉之軀 was rather inelegantly rendered as “flesh and blood’s” and this did not sit well in a
literary text. The use of the word “albeit” for 儘管 was not appropriate in form or in register. In spite
of would have been better. There is often a tendency to use over-formal language in the belief that
it is ‘literary’.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Generally correct and coherent.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were no serious problems.

Recommendations to candidates
Good work – no special recommendations.

UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
This paper contained technical medical terminology. The main difficulty for all the candidates was
not so much understanding the specialised vocabulary, but rendering the passage into an
acceptable standard of English.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
All candidates understood that the text used the metaphor of an army of bacteria invading the body
to cause death by septicaemia. In all cases, however, they were unable to convey this accurately
in English to an acceptable standard, as the following examples show: “Toxic bacteria, not only
continuously spreading its poison, it also uses a very formidable strategy, that is to activate
thousands of its members in the team charging at the protective parts of the human bodies”; “The
bacteria have only to constrict the central of the human body”; “Septicaemia is bad and so are
diseases which result death”; “Acute diseases are spells ill and death from chronic diseases are
worst”; “… endlessly launching their troops unto the human body and overcoming the bodily
defences, rampaging within the blood vessels and wantonly executing massacres”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
All candidates provided examples of ungrammatical English which was often incoherent, as the
following examples show: “Neither (Septicaemia) nor fatal diseases are good; acute illness is not
good, the chronical diseases is even worse. These are all the symptoms of our body being

                                                                                                     14
attacked by the unhealthy bacteria”; “Hematosepsis can be acute or slightly slow, but both lead to
eventual death. However, it depends on which has stronger fighting strength and perseverance”;
“Although septicaemia may disappeared for a while, the infected person however, may die a
sudden death”; “Although septicaemia has not been seen for some time, patients continue to die
without warning”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
This was generally not well done, as the following examples show: “those found in animals such as
cow and goat”; “found in cows and goats”; “found in cows and sheeps”; “in cows and goats” where
a native English translator would use cattle and sheep. (In Chinese the same character is used for
sheep and goat, or even ram. This explains the various translations of the Chinese animal zodiac
year, which can be any of these).

Recommendations to candidates
The strengths in the understanding of the source text and the weaknesses in the use of English in
translating demonstrate that the candidates are native speakers of Chinese translating out of their
mother language into a foreign language. In other words, they are attempting this combination the
wrong way round. In order to do this, candidates should be absolutely confident that their standard
of English is at a level which enables them to produce a professionally acceptable translation;
otherwise they are doomed to failure.

UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The source text showed that candidates need not only to be able to comprehend at the linguistic
level, but also at the logical level of a text. The source text depended very largely on the
comparison and contrast between two attitudes, and this did not always come across very
coherently in the translations.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There     was     one     small     problem     with   comprehension:     不論是在講臺上扮演講師
,或是在電臺擔任主持人,我都是以。。。The null arguments in this sentence caused one
candidate to render it as “whoever is on the stage…I,” which does not make a lot of sense in the
context.
Choice of lexis was not always accurate, for example, “fluid” is not usually used to describe
speaking skills.
The idioms, such as 千里馬,靜如處子 etc. were quite well rendered. One candidate omitted two
large stretches of text containing idioms, presumably owing to lack of comprehension. Another was
at great pains to produce alternative, equivalent metaphors, when a fairly close rendering would
have done the job.
The candidate who looked for elaborate metaphors also chose to justify the choice in a note.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
This text is characterised by long sentences, some taking up a whole paragraph, punctuated with
commas. This is a common Chinese syntactic pattern, and candidates need to be able to
restructure sentences into a comfortable English pattern. One or two candidates were not only
unable to do this, but appeared to lose track of the Chinese structure. Quotation marks are not
needed to highlight metaphors in English.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Mainly good, only minor points, such as spacing or lack of it. This could have been overcome by
thorough proofreading.
Recommendations to candidates
Thorough reading, in order to ascertain the message of the source text. Thorough proofreading to
avoid unfortunate spelling mistakes.
                                                                                                 15
UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
It is puzzling that this option is not more popular with candidates. The vocabulary is usually
straightforward and it is often repetitive. This passage was more demanding than usual but
candidates coped with it with little difficulty and obtained passes, although there was room for
improvement in the use of English.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Candidates performed satisfactorily in this aspect, although some errors were made as the
following examples show: “past and future revolutions” instead of successive revolutions. The other
rendition was “revolutions that have opened a new era on the basis of an old one”. Also, “flaunting”
was used for emphasising; “the stipulations of” for the establishment of; “the spiritual height of
mankind” for the pinnacle of the human spirit.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Both candidates generally did well in this Aspect. Although one presented a somewhat untidy
script, careful reading showed that it was in fact coherent and contained only minor grammatical
errors. Examples are:
        •   “It is a regret that” for It is to be regretted that;
        •   “One jurist has the following sadly thoughts”;
        •   “Without individual property rights, there will not be lasting creations and genuine
            human rights”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Generally well done. “Independence Declaration” was used by one of the candidates for the
document of 1776 promulgated in the United States, but a native English speaker would call it the
Declaration of Independence. Similarly, the “Sovereignty of Parliament” was used by another
candidate when this British principle would normally be described as Parliamentary Supremacy.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates who present scruffy scripts with many crossings-outs should have confidence in their
first choice of English, which is usually the better one.
The standard of English can be improved with more general reading. The results showed that
English often falls short of educated native standard.



                                                -*-




                                                                                                  16
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO CZECH

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
The majority of translations were not up to the required standard, in most cases due to
miscomprehension of the whole concept of networking. Translators did not seem ready for a piece
of text that initially seemed fairly easy and free from specialist vocabulary, yet on close inspection
contained idioms, fine nuances, complex sentences and phrases that form the core of writing in
English. Writing skills were suitable in most cases, with the majority of candidates being able to
reorganise their work in an appropriate manner.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Most candidates struggled with this aspect, in particular with understanding the concept. The result
was that, in many cases, the whole article gave an incorrect message. Networking was translated
as “cooperation”, “net cooperation”, “communication” or “work in interest groups”, amongst others.
From this point onwards, the whole text took on a different meaning. Idioms also posed a problem
for some candidates. Give us a break in life (line 25) was translated as “give someone a break” or
“make one’s life calmer”. Lessons learned (line 9) was translated as “learn from their lessons” by
most of the candidates. Being generous with your contacts (line 18) was mostly translated as
“being generous [or kind] to your contacts”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
For most candidates, writing skills and organisation of their work was not a problem. Three of them
had a performance worthy of a Distinction in this aspect. Their complex sentences were
reorganised in a coherent and cohesive manner, which meant that the text read like an original
piece of writing. On the other hand, a small number was unable to cope with the complexity of the
original writing and followed the English structure too closely, resulting in stilted, and in places
incoherent, pieces of writing.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
On the whole, this aspect did not pose many problems for the candidates. Most errors appeared in
punctuation. In one case, the number of punctuation errors was completely unacceptable for the
standard of the Diploma in Translation examination.

Recommendations to candidates
Most candidates showed correct writing skills. Candidates should study both source and target
languages in more depth, in order to fully develop the understanding of nuances, idioms and the
slightest changes in word order that can often give sentences a different turn. This cannot easily be
learned from studying dictionaries but through paying close attention to the language usage,
analysing the lexis and discourse. It would also be appropriate to gain more general knowledge
about subjects that may be fairly new to the Czech culture but are definitely becoming subjects of
translation work.

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
The understanding and translation of technical terms and details and the use of appropriate
register were truly outstanding. The candidates obviously know the technical side of the texts and
convey it very clearly. The target texts read like original articles.




                                                                                                    17
Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
One fail was mainly due to the candidate translating wind as “air”. There might be an occasional
overlap in meaning, but one cannot say “air is a form of solar energy”. The translation of fan was
also a challenge. Once it was translated by a word for a “hand-held fan” and another time by a
word that could be used for an “air-extractor”. Otherwise the general performance was extremely
good.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
This aspect was also dealt with very well. Most texts read as if they were originally written in
Czech. The main problem was in the failed papers: Wind flow (…) modified by the earth’s terrain,
bodies of water, and vegetation (lines 4-5) was translated as “Earth’s surface affects wind flow,
state of water and vegetation”. The cause of this mistake seems to be a misunderstanding of the
English syntax.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Most papers were written using word-processors so the presentation was very good. The transfer
of names, dates, figures and spelling were very good. The failed paper was not presented
adequately.

Recommendations to candidates
As mentioned above, there was a problem with translating the word fan (line 13). It is important to
check all the meanings and uses of a word that one is not sure of. So the first recommendation is
to make sure you understand the source text in the first place. It is also necessary to read the
translation several times to be sure that it makes sense.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The candidates dealt with the text fairly successfully. The tone was conveyed well but one
candidate used a bit too much “poetic licence”. This candidate also inserted extra short sentences
or phrases: instead of whilst adding up they wrote “he was managing to add up”, and two sizes
(line 30) was translated as “two types of character”.
On the whole there were some very good phrases, descriptions and one could see a desire to deal
with a literary task - writing a piece that would be a piece of literature rather than just a translation.
Compared to several years ago the standard has improved.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Some English phrases and connections were misunderstood or overlooked. Heaven-knows-what
(line 5) would connect with who’s only recently died (line 7) but if you translate it as “Who-knows-
what”, the connection of the original is lost. The contrast of big in the city (line 28) and he’s really
rather small was translated as “star in the city” and “not a star at home” or “very important” and “not
so important” when the original big/small would have been possible. The most interesting problem
was how to translate pinafore (lines 13 and 18) which is really a dress but most candidates
translated it as “a small apron”. When one reads carefully, the pinafore is described as warm and
having folds in which to hide a doll. This wouldn’t be possible with an apron.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Grammar, cohesion and coherence were handled very well. The only real grammatical problems
were these: how to translate would in she would pronounce (line 16) when it means she says. One
candidate translated even ‘How splendid that must be’ (line 31) as “That would have to be
wonderful” because s/he got so tangled up.
Occasionally the translations adhered too much to the English syntax, but there was a great
improvement in comparison to past performances.
English –ing endings could be translated with Czech adjectival endings formed from verbs –ící but
it is better to choose a normal adjective because that would sound more natural. Otherwise no
problems.
                                                                                                        18
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The spelling, punctuation, transfer of names and dates were handled well. There were occasional
missing commas but not as many as in the past.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates should read the source text thoroughly to become familiarised with it and get a feeling
for the style and mood of the piece. In general, candidates should read English literature as much
as possible to become familiarised with different styles and ways of conveying messages.
Practising literary translation is strongly recommended.

UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
This was mostly a very successful paper with the majority of candidates displaying good skills in all
aspects. Most papers were a pleasure to read and reflected the register of the original.
Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
All candidates displayed excellent knowledge and usage of specialist vocabulary and the ability to
transfer information faithfully in terms of register, lexis and terminology. Any shortcomings would
be in the understanding of more complex sentences and nuances of the English language.
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Other than one fail where the candidate was unable to produce an original piece of writing and
instead followed the English sentence structure too closely, the writing skills displayed by the
candidates were very good or excellent. Most translations read like original pieces of writing with
coherent sentence structure and excellent usage of grammar that would be worthy of publishing
alongside the original.
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
All but one candidate were awarded distinction for this aspect as the transfer of all the technical
aspects, the spelling and punctuation were flawless.
Recommendations to candidates
Most candidates have the correct writing skills and are able to use specialist vocabulary to a high
standard but they need to study the language in more depth, developing their understanding of
nuances, idioms and the slightest changes in word order that often give sentences different
meaning. This cannot just be learned from studying dictionaries but through paying close attention
to the language usage, analysing the lexis and discourse.
UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE
General Report on Candidate Performance
This was a very culture-specific and stylistically challenging source text that posed quite some
difficulty for a number of candidates in terms of comprehension, idioms, terminology and
vocabulary skills and, in two cases, also the ability to produce a well-written text.
Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Some candidates handled this piece with excellent skills, demonstrating understanding of the
culture as well as terminology and English language usage. Others, however, struggled with all
these three aspects. Their errors ranged from lack of knowledge of specialised terminology
(migrants in lines 4, 10, 13, 26, 29 and 33 translated as “emigrants”, migrants represent an
untapped resource in line 13 as “emigrants are a resource of illegal work”, ageing population in line
16 as “population consisting mainly of pensioners”, etc.) to lack of cultural awareness (Merseyside
borough of Sefton in line 1 translated as “Merseyside in the region of Sefton”, gangmasters in lines
15 and 21 as “group leaders on building sites”, etc.) and miscomprehension of more complex
sentences and nuances of the English language.

                                                                                                   19
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The abilities shown in this aspect varied, with some candidates demonstrating good ability to
produce a coherent, well organised text, whilst the others became so embroiled in the complexity
of the original, they were unable to reproduce a grammatically and stylistically acceptable
translation. In cases of complex sentences, they resorted to reproducing the English sentence
structure which made for inappropriate grammar and discourse.
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Apart from one case where a candidate failed because of a large number of punctuation errors, the
transfer of all technical aspects, punctuation and spelling were to a very high standard.
Recommendations to candidates
The same recommendation as for General Translation applies: it seems that the basis of
comprehension of the English language has been built but candidates need to study the English
language in more depth, developing their cultural awareness, as well as understanding of nuances,
idioms and the deeper meaning of word order that often changes the meaning of a sentence.
These are aspects they would not learn from studying dictionaries but through paying close
attention to the language usage, analysing the lexis and discourse.
UNIT 03F: LAW
General Report on Candidate Performance
In a law option, comprehension, accuracy and the right register are of the utmost importance.
Unfortunately, there were serious mistakes in each script; in one there were two serious mistakes
which led to a fail. Although the rest of the papers were of an acceptable standard, the need for
thorough comprehension and the correct register led to a substantial reduction of marks. This
shows that although the candidates’ command of general English was good, their understanding of
different registers was not sufficient.
On the whole, there was an improvement in candidates’ performance compared with previous
years.
Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The following are examples of the mistakes outlined above: judgment (line 26) was translated as
“decision”; according to its own case law (lines 26-27) was translated as “according to its own law
about the case”; the court disagreed in a judgment (line 26) was translated as “the court disagreed
with the judgment”; taken a dislike to (line 5) was translated by a very colloquial term which cannot
be used in a formal text unless it is a quotation.
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The grammar aspect was of a good level; there were no basic grammar and spelling mistakes and
very few mistakes in punctuation. Conjunctions were used appropriately. Perhaps the syntax could
have been occasionally changed so that it flew more naturally but on the whole there were no
major problems.
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The only problem here was legibility when the candidates were not using word-processors. There
were no problems with transfer of names, figures and dates. As in Czech many spelling mistakes
would carry grammatical significance, they were partly dealt with in Aspect 2. There were no
ordinary spelling mistakes.
Recommendations to candidates
The candidates should read all sorts of legal material that could help them to assimilate the
appropriate specialised vocabulary. The candidates should make use of the internet and find texts
relating to the European Union and European Court and analyse whatever problems they can find
in both languages.

                                                 -*-
                                                                                                   20
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

DUTCH INTO ENGLISH

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
The main failure was in the standard of English in the translations; the candidates generally
understood the source text, but often failed to convey the finer points of the meaning to the target
language reader. There were no major translation errors or omissions, although some individual
words were mistranslated. The candidates’ English style was also below publication standard,
although it should be added that the original text was written in rather a colloquial style. One of the
candidates turned in a very untidily presented paper, which presented problems of legibility.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
One of the candidates translated in de eeuwigheid (line 13) by “eternally”, which does not seem the
correct register. forever is what would be expected in this context. The same candidate referred to
“these kinds of arrangements”, when it would be more correct to write this kind of arrangement.
Another candidate referred to “new native country” as a translation of nieuwe vaderland (line 15),
when one can obviously have only one native country, the one where one is born, so this should
have read new homeland. Another reference was to “a touch of smouldering sexism” where an
undertone of sexism without the smouldering would have been more appropriate.
Some candidates had problems with the phrases ik heb me flink drukgemaakt (line 1) (“quite
worked up”) and losgezongen betoog (line 1) (“gratuitous”) in the first sentence. One of the
candidates unnecessarily substituted a metaphor about milk and honey where the original Dutch
reference to only one biscuit with a cup of tea could have been retained.
Some candidates had a problem with the idiomatic first sentence in the paragraph about racism
and produced phrases that made little sense in English.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Some candidates retained the paragraphing of the Dutch text, which adheres to the Dutch practice
of breaking down what would be a single paragraph in English into a number of subparagraphs,
often of a single sentence. These subparagraphs should have been run together. A good example
is the section on Salman Rushdie, which consists of three subparagraphs, two of which consist of
a single sentence and one of two sentences.
An example of lack of coherence in one paper came at the end of the first main paragraph, where
the candidate wrote “as if as a government you do not have the duty to protect your citizens”. This
adheres very closely to the original Dutch. In English we might put as if a government does not
have the duty to protect its citizens. An example of too close an adherence to the Dutch original in
another script was the translation of Geen woord meer (line 6) as “Not a word anymore”. In
translating line 7 the same candidate wrote “If you have a look” where it would be more
grammatical to write If you just look. The translation of lines 13 and 14 reads “can surely be
searched for, like maybe an agreement”, which is neither grammatical nor elegant English.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were no spelling mistakes apart from a couple of typing errors such as “or” instead of of. The
handwriting of one of the handwritten scripts was tolerably legible apart from a sentence on the last
page, where the crossings-out and insertions made it impossible to decipher what the candidate
intended to say. This sentence should have been rewritten in full. Another handwritten script was
very untidy and full of deletions and crossings-out, which affected the legibility of the paper. Yet
another was very neatly presented.



                                                                                                     21
Recommendations to candidates
Candidates should read through their papers a second time, detaching themselves from the source
text to see whether the paper reads like a translation or a text written by a native English language
speaker. Also, candidates should remember that papers should be as legible and tidy as possible
to avoid misunderstandings.

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
Candidates were clearly unfamiliar with the terminology and it is possible that some of the semi-
specialist terms were not found in a non-specialist dictionary.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The gist of the text was understood, but terminology was clearly unfamiliar, so that the wrong term
was often chosen, although it was clear that they knew what was meant. This can be illustrated
from the translation of the last part of the first paragraph (lines 14 to 18). The translation reads
“Each sluice gate consists of two slides, one that can tilt to the seaside and one that can tilt to the
landside.” A more correct version of this would be Each opening holds two tilting gates, one on the
seaward and one on the landward side. In the last sentence of the paragraph, the translation refers
to “sweet water areas without tidal movements”, which is a literal rendering of the Dutch. The
correct English term is fresh water, while tide-free would be neater than “without tidal movements”.
There was also a reference to “professional navigation” instead of commercial shipping.
There were a couple of inaccurate translations, such as “watershed” instead of dam, and
“availability” instead of performance.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Paragraphing was somewhat inaccurate, with paragraph breaks inserted in the wrong place, and a
break omitted where there should have been one. The standard of English was also poor in some
places, partly because the candidate had adhered too closely to the Dutch original. For example,
“Here too there is a … bridge over the locks that the A29 road crosses” rather than … a bridge
over the locks crossed by the A29 road.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were no spelling mistakes or punctuation errors.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates should read through their paper a second time without reference to the Dutch original
to see whether it reads like a script written by a native English language speaker.

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

General Report on Candidate Performance
Candidates produced scripts that were clearly written and well presented. However, there was a
serious translation error referred to below and the English was not always of an acceptable
standard.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There was one serious inaccuracy in the first section (lines 8 and 9), where a candidate referred to
“depreciation in currency values” instead of further falls in share values. There was a less serious
inaccuracy in the second section (line 19). A candidate wrote “… remodelling of the acquired Edah
stores”, where it would be more correct to write remodelling following the acquisition of the Edah
stores. The candidate’s version is a rather literal translation of the Dutch.



                                                                                                     22
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Paper were clearly written, but the English was sometimes below standard, with repetitions of
“among other things” and “based on” literally translated from the Dutch, where more elegant
constructions could have been found.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Candidates performed well in this aspect.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates should read through the paper again to ensure that the English is of an acceptable
standard and to ensure that it reads like a script written by a native English language speaker.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The translation was marred by a number of minor translation errors and an inappropriate choice of
terms. It would require considerable editing to make it acceptable as a piece of literature.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There were a few translation errors: contouren (line 9) was translated as “contours” instead of
outlines, and ladders (line 26) were said to be “too short” when what was meant was that they were
in short supply.
Examples of inappropriate choice of terms include “fading disaster” rather than disaster dying
away, and “lads” rather than young men or youths on scooters.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Grammar was generally acceptable, although the sentence “Seldom was someone so relieved
when walking to a fire” did read rather oddly. A better rendering could be Seldom did anyone walk
with such a feeling of relief to a fire.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There are no particular comments on this aspect, except to say that the translations were neatly
presented in fair copy.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates are advised to read through their work carefully without reference to the original to
check if it “sounds” like a piece of native English prose.

UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Reasonably accurate translations were produced, although one of the scripts would have required
considerable editing to be brought up to a publishable standard.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The candidate who gained a distinction understood and conveyed the message very well. The only
criticism would be where small would have been preferable to “little”, i.e. small rather than “little
frogs and fishes”.
In one script, “Researchers gathered this information…” for lines 2-3 was written, but it would be
more accurate (and scientific) to say Researchers have deduced this …. In translating lines 22 and
23 two short Dutch sentences should have been combined with a conjunction to give a more
flowing result. Instead of “… but their colours are unknown. Colour is usually not preserved in
fossils”, one could have written … but their colours are unknown, since colours are not usually
preserved in fossils.

                                                                                                   23
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
One candidate used the wrong verb tense in paragraph 6: “see” was written instead of saw. In the
final paragraph candidates wrote “Bailes said”, where a native speaker might have written
According to Bailes,… In one of the scripts, grammar was incorrect in some places. For example,
in lines 5 and 6, “these” was used instead of those fish, and “were” instead of was. In paragraph 3,
the definite article was omitted where it shouldn’t have been. This error arose because the
candidate adhered too closely to the Dutch original. Another example of close adherence to the
original generating poor English was the translation of line 15: “…explained researcher Bailes over
the phone”. A better rendering would have been …the researcher [or Helena Bailes] explained on
the telephone.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There are no particular comments on this aspect.

Recommendations to candidates
Although accuracy is important in translating science, candidates should avoid adhering too literally
to the grammar and syntax of the original text to avoid the result reading too obviously like a
translation.

UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Most of the criticism concerns the standard of English, which would not be acceptable in a
publication. In addition, incorrect terms have sometimes been chosen, even where no expert
knowledge of the subject is required.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
In the first sentence one candidate wrote “The approach for the Brugse Poort and Rabot districts in
the town of Ghent”, but it would have been more accurate to write The approach of the city of
Ghent to the …. In addition, throughout the translation the candidate refers to Ghent as a town or a
borough, although historically it is a city.
The candidate translated line 21 by “Rabot is the only nineteenth century district which has been
set up systematically” instead of, for example, Rabot is the only nineteenth century district which
has been built according to a plan. This would retain the plan element in the Dutch planmatig (line
21) and reflect the fact that the original article is on the subject of town planning.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Some of the candidates’ sentences are rather tortuous and could be improved by reordering the
clauses. For example, a candidate wrote “In order to realize these objectives within six years,
“surgical” intervention is applied to the structure of the districts according to urban planner,…”. This
would have read better if “According to urban planner, …” were moved to the beginning of the
sentence, and if “is applied” was replaced by will be applied.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
One candidate appended a useful note on the term instrumentarium (line 28), showing that s/he
was aware that it is a bureaucratic term common in Dutch, but less likely to be used in English.
A note on the term kabinetsattaché (line 5) would have been useful too, as this Belgian office does
not appear to have a parallel in English local government.

Recommendations to candidates
Read through the completed translation carefully and check whether the correct terminology has
been used or whether it strikes an alien note.



                                                                                                      24
UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
Papers were neatly presented and could be compared with “official” translations of the original text.
This showed that candidates had a good grasp of the terminology and of the appropriate register.
There were no serious translation errors or omissions. On the other hand, there were some rather
convoluted sentences where the ideas could have been expressed more concisely.
The translator’s notes showed careful thought had been given to the terminology problems raised.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There was a good grasp of the terminology and of the appropriate register, and there were no
serious translation errors or omissions.
On the other hand, there were some rather convoluted sentences where the ideas could have
been expressed more concisely. For example, in Artikel 25 (line 3), a candidate wrote “for which
purpose the oldest child shall have preference”, instead of in order of seniority. In the next
sentence, a candidate wrote “In the absence of the King’s own descendants” instead of if the King
has no descendants.
One candidate’s rendering of Article 28 (1) (lines 15-16) was not very well expressed: “The King
who enters into a marriage contrary to the permission granted by law shall consequently abdicate
from the throne” is better stated as The King shall be deemed to have abdicated if he contracts a
marriage without having obtained consent by Act of Parliament.
An example of the use of wrong terminology is the translation of voorstel van wet (lines 20-21) by
“legislative proposal” instead of a bill.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
In some instances, the meaning of the original was altered by a reordering of the clauses of a
sentence. An example of this is Article 27, where a candidate wrote “Children and their
descendants born after the abdication shall be excluded…” instead of Children born after the
abdication and their descendants shall be excluded…
One candidate placed the qualifier only in the wrong part of the sentence several times; it should
immediately precede the clause it qualifies, as in Such a Bill shall be passed only if at least two-
thirds of the votes cast are in favour. The candidate wrote “they may only adopt the proposal with a
majority of at least two-thirds of the votes cast”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Papers were neatly presented and there were no spelling or punctuation errors.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates are advised to express ideas succinctly and avoid writing convoluted sentences. An
overlong sentence can sometimes be divided into two sentences.


                                                 -*-




                                                                                                   25
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO DUTCH

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
There were incorrect uses of participles, present tense and imperative endings. Several
expressions were used incorrectly.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Inappropriate use of expressions:
“aan de kaken stellen” instead of aan de kaak stellen;
“een idee aansmeren” instead of een idee aanpraten;
your family background and education does not necessarily mean “the education of your family”,
as translated.
“life experiences” is different to experiences of life (line 9).
The text refers to an entire community, not “the entire community”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
No specific comments on this Aspect.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Incorrect spelling/grammar of participle ending (“belooft hebt”) and third person singular present
tense (“wat het leven toebedeeld”), as well as imperative (“houdt”) is not acceptable in a
professional translation.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidate needs to improve grammar on the use of “t” (after stem in present tense 2nd/3rd person
simple).

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The contents of both translations are quite good but have too many small grammar, spelling and
register and lexis mistakes or awkward translations to deserve a merit.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
It is important to try and get age- and time-appropriate register (girl and great aunt) and to not
introduce the same intensifier all the time if not specifically required (“enorm” for enormously).
Make sense (line 16) is not a reference to common sense but to act normal or, in this case, talk
normal.
Incorrect translation of expressions disables the reader’s grasp of the original intention (Heaven
knows what (line 6) does not mean “which trick you are pulling”).

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
No specific comments on this Aspect.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Current spelling of French words has returned to its original. It should be Cadeautje and not
“kadootje”, which is the spelling of the eighties.



                                                                                                26
UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
A national insurance number (line 9) has a perfect equivalent in Dutch: until last year it was called
the sofi number (social fiscal number), currently it is the burgerservicenummer (Citizens’s service
number). There is therefore no need to leave it untranslated or explain it in brackets.
“A8 migranten” (for A8 migrants in line 10) is not very well put in Dutch (“migranten vanuit de
landen van de A8”).
Home Office (line 9), “ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken”, was left untranslated.
“kan men ervan uitgaan dat het hoger ligt” (“one may safely assume it is higher”) is different from
ST could be higher (lines 10,11).
policing (line 12) are the services of the police, not “policies”.
 “zaakjes” for … (line 14): could be seen as a bit derogatory (“bedrijfjes”) “fondsgelden” does not
exist.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
 “hen aan te melden” (“to register them”) should be zich aan te melden = to register themselves
(line 9).
It should be werk, dat instead of “werk, die”.
it suggests … (line 25): the study requires another pronoun in Dutch : hij or deze.
could was left untranslated.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
“local” is lokaal ; “locale regering” is locale overheid.

UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
There were several Aspect 1 mistakes of which one serious mistake and several anglicism’s and
misrepresentations.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
“met succes voor de rechtbank gedaagd” is succeeded in sueing. “…successfully sued” (line 1)
however, implies winning, which was not expressed in Dutch.
The official name for European Court of Human Rights (line 2) should be Europess Hof voor de
rechten van de mens.
taken a sharp dislike (line 5) is not “had developed a strong aversion”.
For personal use (line 6) is voor persoonlijk gebruik and not “for personal reasons”.
“familieleven” means life of or with the extended family (aunts, uncles etc.) whereas gesinsleven is
family life (lines 9 and 20).
England had no general right to privacy (line 16) is het recht van de privacy, which was used the
second time. However, two lines before the translator used “het recht op de privacy” which shows
inconsistency of translation.
enshrined (line 16) is not “ondergebracht” but vastgelegd.
to favour (line 17) is definitely not “to have a preference for” but to be partial to.
“ineens” means all of a sudden, which is not the idea of the source text in line 19.
In line 25, the expression “publiekelijk gefinancierd” is not used as such in Dutch; it should be met
overheidsgeld gefinancierd.
“sprak tegen” (line 26) means protested, which is something a court never does: it had a different
opinion i.e. disagreed.
“Volgens eigen jurisprudentie” (line 26) should be volgens de eigen jurisprudentie.
are covered by (line 27) should be vallen onder.
“worden bevat” is not proper Dutch.
“telefoongesprekken maken” (line 30) is an Anglicism.
a literal translation of internet received protection (line 31) does not sound right in Dutch. It should
be viel onder dezelfde bescherming.
                                                                                                      27
The standard expression for a law comes into force (line 33) is wordt van kracht.
When the surveillance in question took place (line 33) means the above-mentioned case took
place. It should be plaatsvinden and not “plaats nemen”, which is an anglicism.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
extending to reading faxes (line 13) implies that he read them. In the passive construction in Dutch
that implication is lost.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
governs (Line 9) was wrongly translated. The third person present tense is stem plus –t not “–d”.


                                                 -*-




                                                                                                  28
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO FARSI

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
The general performance was good.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The distinction marks showed accuracy and good understanding of the source text. The choice of
language was appropriate to the subject. There were a few mistakes such as give us the break in
life (line 25) translated as “they give us time to have a rest” or “let us breath a little”; small talk (line
37) was translated as “talking very shortly”.
The pass candidates showed comprehension and used the language accurately. The candidates
who failed provided a translation that was inaccurate and difficult to understand and showed lack of
understanding of both English and Farsi. For example: bad networking (line 22) was translated as
“losing the colour” and without a glance (line 21) as “at disaster, suddenly disappearing”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Grammar and organisation of work were appropriate in the successful scripts. Handwriting should
be improved. The translation of having done your homework (line 30) as “do some work around the
house” shows lack of understanding of the English version.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were some minor technical errors in some scripts. In the failed cases, the Farsi translations
were not quite to the point.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates should be more prepared for the exam. It is their responsibility to seek more
information and to make sure they understand about the subject for which they are sitting the
exam. More training and reading is recommended to be better prepared for the exam. It is also
important to understand the goal of the exam. It is crucial to improve Farsi and Farsi handwriting.

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
Candidates generally showed good performance in this option. The produced translations showed
good and at times an excellent command of the subject matter.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There were entirely comprehensive and accurate translations. In one case there was paraphrasing
that made the final rendering lose parts of the meaning of the source text. The register was
appropriate in both cases.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Generally the grammar in the target language was well observed but in a few cases there was no
translation of the subtitle. This affected the organisation of the target text.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Generally the spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures & dates were fine. There
were overzealous candidates who gave alternatives and added them to the translated text. This
made the reading difficult and unprofessional.

                                                                                                          29
Recommendations to candidates
After long periods of residence outside the country of origin, the mother tongue becomes gradually
influenced by English. In order to keep up candidates’ bilingual skills at a high level, they need to
do plenty of reading in the target language and be aware of the latest developments in both source
and target languages.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The candidates made no major mistakes and there was no real need for translator’s notes in this
option, except for great aunt and great uncle, which could be translated as Ammeh and Ammoo
and then explained in a translator’s note as Khaleh and Daii.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The text was fully and correctly translated, with minor mistakes. For example, big (line 28) should
be translated as Bozorg and not “famous”; pinafore (line 13) is better translated as Sarafone
instead of “Pishband”. whatever is not best translated as “Khareg Az”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Grammar, cohesion and sentences were handled well, with minor mistakes. For example, “Toolani”
is written “Tool “; “Mahe Novembre” is written “Novambre Mah”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Transfer of names, spelling and figures were handled very well. There was only one minor spelling
error.

Recommendations to candidates
   - Time yourself when practising before the examination.
   - Make sure your handwriting is clear.
   - Always try to choose the best equivalent word in Farsi for any word that you are translating.
     This could be done by looking up both English and Farsi dictionaries.
   - Examples of good dictionaries are: English/Persian Persian/English (one volume) Concise
     by Aryanpur, the Concise Oxford Dictionary and the Chambers Dictionary.
   - This particular translation should not only be correct but also beautiful, because it is a piece
     of literature.

UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
There were some major mistakes that made some translations unprofessional. The translator’s
notes could have been useful in some cases. Some English words such as crucible (line 13) could
be used as they are and need not be translated.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Two major mistakes together with other mistakes rendered the translation unprofessional. For
example: Millennia (line 4) was translated as “hundred of years”; was held (line 16) and attacks
(line13) were translated as “was taken out” and “goes down”; Emeritus (line 7) was not translated;
acoustic Levitator (line 17) was translated as “Khizeshe Sowti” when the correct translation should
have been Negahdarandehe Sowti.
Some English words have no equivalents in Farsi dictionaries and, in these cases, the candidate
could have made some translator’s notes.
Suggested references: Concise Oxford Dictionary and Chambers Dictionary; large volumes of
Farsi dictionaries.



                                                                                                   30
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were three main mistakes:
       •  says … Day must come in line 5 of the translation.
       •  “Tavagho Miravad” and “Bar Mahale Tumour Ast” are not good Farsi translations.
       •  Ra is missing (line 3).

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There are no mistakes related to spelling names or figures, but some sentences do not sound
appropriate for a professional scientific article. For example:
       •   “Dar Moghabele Har Noe Zarfi…” is not a good sentence.
       •   “Yaad Meeshavad” should be Naameedeh Meeshavad.

Recommendations to candidates
A good idea would have been to use a translator’s note to introduce Professor Day in the first
paragraph.
Only one mistake is enough to ruin the whole sense of a scientific article. Candidates must also be
very careful with dates and numbers.
The use of the large volumes of the Oxford or the Chambers Dictionary, as well as the Farsi
dictionaries is recommended.

UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Candidates showed a very good knowledge of this option. However, at times there was hesitation
about choosing only one word in Farsi to translate one English word.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Candidates showed a very good knowledge of the chosen subject and all information was
transferred with appropriate terminology. Choice of language at the end of translations was less
good. For example, “Be Rooz Shodeh Neestand” is not commonly used in Farsi.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Sentences were built correctly and grammar was appropriate. In a few cases the two lines of the
last paragraph did not read as good Farsi sentences. “Ra” is missing and “Sai Darand” should be
written Sai Darad.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were cases where two options were shown in the rendering, for example:
“Mahali/Mantaghei”. This is not accepted as a professional level.

Recommendations to candidates
   - Make sure your handwriting is clear.
   - Read your rough work carefully before re-writing it.
   - The translation should read very smoothly, in the same way as reading in a good quality
     Farsi newspaper.
   - Do not write two alternatives for the same word.
   - Make sure you are equipped with the appropriate dictionaries.

UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
The candidates who took this option performed well. They showed good subject knowledge and
good command of the target language. Their translations were professional.



                                                                                                 31
Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Despite the vast lexical differences between Farsi and English, the candidates managed to
produce translations which could read as original target language, conveying the meaning without
keeping too close to English. The register was also appropriately chosen.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Generally the grammar in the target language was well observed and the organisation of work
acceptable as the translation read fluently.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Generally the spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures & dates were fine.
Legibility can always be improved. This prevents misunderstanding in Farsi where the dots on the
letters change the sounds and can cause vast differences in meaning.

Recommendations to candidates
After long periods of residence outside the country of origin, the mother tongue becomes gradually
influenced by English. In order to keep up your bilingual skills at a high level, it is recommended to
do plenty of reading in the target language and be aware of the latest developments in both
languages.


                                                 -*-




                                                                                                    32
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

FINNISH INTO ENGLISH

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
The translation produced was near perfect.
The Finnish original was decoded accurately and encoded into excellent English; the
understanding of the original text was excellent and the rendering of the Finnish structures into
English structures was skilfully handled.
In Finnish a verbal structure is often used where English would use a structure with a noun and a
verb. This was perfectly understood and the source text was rendered into English appropriately.
e.g. line 1 of the source text: kuulu lit. belongs to is translated as “is part of”.
The word order in the Finnish source text is accurately translated into the English equivalent, which
often means starting from the end of the Finnish sentence to render it into the appropriate English
word order.
The candidate also understands the use particles and enclitic endings in Finnish and translates
them appropriately into English using adverbs and conjunctions to convey their meaning and
nuances.
The scripts are a pleasure to read, as the handwriting is very clear. All in all the translation was
very professional.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The translation shows an excellent command of the subject matter, with only one minor omission
and some minor errors but none of them serious.
The register is appropriate.
Line 2 of the translation has the word “often” inserted; this word is not in the source text.
“switch on” on the same line is a good rendering for avaavat of the source text, but there is no
need for the quotation marks (see also Aspect 3 on this point).
In line 16 of the source text, the English “languages” sounds a little odd and the singular in English
would have been better. Not a serious error though, only a point of style.
Line 39 of the source text syrjäytymisen ehkäisemisessä should be more accurately translated as
preventing social exclusion; however “isolation” describes the phenomenon.
Line 58 of the source text nuoret strictly speaking does not mean “adolescents” as translated by
the candidate, but young people or youngsters.
Line 61 of the source text: Suomessa (in Finland) has been omitted from the English. It is
understood from the context that the sentence is about reading skills in Finland and it could be that
the candidate left in Finland out for this reason, but to be accurate to the source text it needs to be
added. This is not a serious omission.
In line 67 of the source text, peruskoulun päättävistä has been translated as “basic school leavers”.
Perus does mean basic, but here the word peruskoulu refers to the Finnish peruskoulu i.e.
compulsory comprehensive education; therefore, the phrase in English should read only 6% of all
those leaving compulsory education had poor reading skills.

The translation shows that the source text was completely understood.
The choice of language and register is correct throughout with one omission and some minor
errors.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The translation reads like a text originally written in English. The sentence structures, grammar
linkages and discourse are all entirely appropriate for English.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There is no need for quotation marks in line 1 of the source text; there are none in the Finnish
source text. There is no need for quotation marks for “kick-start” (line 31) as the equivalent Finnish
                                                                                                     33
sysäävät is not in quotes. The punctuation, spelling, transfer of figures and names are faultless.
Handwriting was clear, very legible and a pleasure to read.

Recommendations to candidates
The translation was handled professionally. Reading widely in Finnish, particularly on current
trends, will increase cultural awareness and help with cultural references like social exclusion and
peruskoulu (compulsory basic education).

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
The translation produced was nearly perfect. The Finnish original was decoded accurately and
encoded into excellent English.
Understanding of the original text was demonstrated completely and the rendering of the Finnish
structures into English structures was very skilfully rendered. In Finnish a verbal structure is often
used where English would use a structure with a noun and a verb. The candidate understands this
and renders the source text into very readable professional translation.

The word order in the Finnish source text is accurately translated into the English equivalent, which
often means starting from the end of the Finnish sentence to render it into the appropriate English
word order.

All in all, candidates demonstrated great professionalism in the translation.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The translation shows an excellent command of the subject matter, with only one omission.
Line 5 of the source text: metalleja edullisempia ja joustavampia should read less expensive and
more elastic than metals. Than metals has been omitted from the English text.
The candidate demonstrates by his/her translation that s/he understands the source text. The
choice of language and register is correct throughout with just the one omission. The candidate
demonstrates excellent skill in decoding and encoding Finnish structures using participles. For
example, in line 38 of the source text: the paragraph is one long sentence with participles and the
candidate has split the sentence into two English sentences, which makes better English than if
s/he has tried to convey the sense by sticking to one sentence in English.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The translation reads like a text originally written in English. The sentence structures, grammar
linkages and discourse are all entirely appropriate for English.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The punctuation, spelling, transfer of figures and names are faultless. The candidate’s handwriting
is a pleasure to read.

Recommendations to candidates
Continue to read in Finnish and in English around the topics you translate to acquire new
vocabulary and to keep up to date on the latest developments. It was an excellent translation,
which shows very good command of the subject.

UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The candidate has produced a near perfect translation of the source text and has accurately
decoded the Finnish original and encoded it into excellent English. The candidate demonstrates
excellent understanding of the original text and is very skilled in rendering the Finnish structures
into English structures. In Finnish a verbal structure is often used where English would use a
structure with a noun and a verb. This was perfectly understood and the source text was rendered
into English.
                                                                                                    34
The word order in the Finnish source text is accurately translated into the English equivalent, which
often means starting from the end of the Finnish sentence to render it into the appropriate English
word order.
The translation was handled with great professionalism.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The translation shows an excellent command of the subject matter, with only a few very minor
errors (see list below). The candidate demonstrates understanding of the source text. The choice
of language and register is correct throughout with just the slight errors listed below.

       •   jo nyt (line 1) which should be already now is not conveyed in the English text.
       •   kiistaton (line 4) is more accurately undisputable or unquestionable rather than the
           slightly ambiguous “cannot be disputed”. This is, however, a matter of interpretation and
           the candidate’s version is correct if you read the English cannot to mean there is no
           disputing the fact.
       •   puulla (lines 19 and 26) would be more accurately translated as wood in English. The
           Finnish puu means both a tree and wood. However, the way the candidate has
           translated the sentence conveyed the meaning; therefore this is not a mistake and it is
           clear that the candidate understands the source text.
       •   Regarding tuhoille (line 14) and again “tuhoja” (line 37) of the source text, tuhot would
           be more accurately translated as damage rather than “disasters”; however, this is again
           a matter of interpretation as climate change often results in storms and weather
           conditions which can destroy i.e. cause disasters (wind damage). The Finnish word
           tuho covers both disease and damage and therefore damage would be the more
           appropriate word here.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The translation reads like a text originally written in English. The sentence structures, grammar
linkages and discourse are all entirely appropriate for English.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The punctuation, spelling and transfer of names are faultless. The candidate’s handwriting is a
pleasure to read.

Recommendations to candidates
Carry on reading around specialist subject areas in Finnish to keep up with the latest terminology.


                                                 -*-




                                                                                                   35
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

FRENCH INTO GERMAN

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATON

General Report on Candidate Performance
The majority of this year’s scripts were not professionally usable. This did not seem to be so much
due to a lack of critical thought as to lack of time.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The word cuisines (2nd sentence and last paragraph) is plural in French but singular in German. If
not, it would mean the kitchens of several restaurants. In the second paragraph, embardées (line
8) posed a problem. The PONS (bilingual dictionary) proposes Ausweichmanöver as the only
possible solution, and the candidates took it. Yet there are other possibilities such as Umweg, or
Brüche. In the sentence in line 22 intrigant was often not translated but left the same; it only seems
to indicate scheming and this does not convey the sense. Then the subject of the subordinate
phrase is quenelle and not one, you or somebody though the turn some candidates found is not a
bad one, for this sentence acquires some sense. It may be translated as …eine virtuelle Wurst, in
der ein Klößchen vom Junghasen in Austernbouillon pochiert wird, bevor es auf einem knusprigem
Bett frischer Linsen den Appetit anregt. Gamin (line 30) is a remembrance of the past in direct
speech by the speaking subject of the sentence. The translation as “Mein Terroir ist jung” is not an
appropriate one: Als ich ein kleiner Junge war, bestand mein Terroir eher aus den Produkten des
Supermarktes als den lokalen Spezialitäten. There a critical thought would have helped.

In the seventh paragraph (lines 34-35) the word-for-word translation is not possible. Either the
formulation of the thought that waves of unemployment/dismissals hit the population has to be
explicitly expressed or the solution is a rather simple one as it is direct speech: …, vor allem wenn
die Leute beginnen, reihenweise ihre Stellen zu verlieren. In the last sentence of this paragraph les
Compagnons du devoir are indispensable and should be translated as Gesellenverein.

In the next paragraph (line 40) préciosité des petits-fours might be translated as subtile Feinheiten
der Petits Fours und Süßigkeiten or Raffinement, a French loanword. Dictionaries only offer words
that come from the social sphere like Geziertheit, or Affektiertheit (PONS, Larousse).

The last sentence starts by talking about the paradoxes of the protagonist’s personality and then
they are quoted. Therefore it has to read: Ein Kämpfer mit geschärfter Sensibilität, ein Weiser mit
dem ständigen Bedürfnis, sich abzureagieren, ein Vegetarier, fähig, sich Gerichte auszudenken
wie das mit Weinreben geräucherte Rinderfilet, dieser Handwerker des Luxus kämpft auf seine
Weise für eine Küche des Volkes. He is not a “Krieger der übersteigerten Sensibilität, klug im
beständigen Bedürfnis sich auszutoben, …” which would mean a fighter for an exacerbated
sensibility etc.. Besides cuisine populaire reminds one of the soupe populaire, the meals for the
poor, and its translation as “Volksküche “of the national socialist vocabulary. Hence, eine Küche
des Volkes.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The following grammar mistakes are mostly slips, an indication of a lack of grammatical reflection:
“…, ohne dabei seine Herkunft oder die Ausweichmanöver (this should be Brüche) seines
Laufbahn (“seines Lebensweges“) zu vergessen.“, instead of ...seiner Laufbahn....; “…Eindruck
von Thierry Marx als charismatischer Anführer einer ’nouvelle vague’…“ instead of ... als
charismatischem...; “…auf den knackigen frischer Linsen.” instead of …auf den knackigen frischen
Linsen; “Dieser zwanghafte Wunsch nach der regionalen Küche hat oft einem reaktionären Aspekt.
”; “Seine Vergangenheit verdienen ebenso wie seine Überzeugungen Respekt” instead of Seine
Vergangenheit, ebenso wie seine Überzeugungen, verdienen Respekt.

Time should be left for re-reading to avoid these grammatical mistakes.

                                                                                                    36
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Candidates did not show good knowledge about which verbs have to written together and which
have to be separated. For example,
In “Dieser von seinen Großeltern groß gezogene Sohn…”, großziehen is written together.
In “…sind da nicht wieder raus gekommen.”, rauskommen, as an informal form of herauskommen
also has to be written together.
In “Gibt es einen Besseren …“ (first sentence) and in “der Erste“ both adjectives are written with
capital letters because they are treated as nouns.

Recommendations to candidates
The effort to deliberate carefully for a couple of minutes about the idiomatic expression when
encoding always pays, and so does rereading of the target text without looking at the source text.
Misinterpretations, incongruent genders and numbers as well as the forgotten zu of an extended
infinitive may catch the reader’s eye. In this case, one should go back to the source text. If a
sentence looks incomprehensible, the same procedure applies. Most translation problems are
soluble by thinking hard before translating. If necessary, the grammatical structure of the source
sentence has to be thoroughly analysed in all parts. Sometimes a sentence in the source text may
not be well formulated. In this case, take the iron and try to write a sentence in the target language
that exactly expresses the information with all nuances intended. Of course, there are cultural
differences and the metaphors change. Double-check dictionaries: sometimes you cannot find the
right solution in a bilingual dictionary, since it might give translations related to other spheres of
activity. Try to think about what you would say when confronted with the fact. And the final check
for the translated text should always be: Do my sentences make sense?

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
Almost all candidates had difficulties with the functioning of a magnet and therefore with the
rewriting in the target language. Their inexact image of the technical processes made them choose
the wrong terms, thus sometimes impeding the adequate transmission of information. As the text is
meant for an educated but not specialised audience, the terms have to be correct and clear.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The choices of language and register were not always appropriate to the subject matter of the
original. In the fourth paragraph (line 17) Pendant des années, des ingénieurs ont beaucoup
travaillé pour éviter ces risques de casse, ce qui réduisait l’efficacité tout an augmentant le coût is
translated as “Ingenieure haben jahrelang daran gearbeitet, diese Bruchrisiken zu vermeiden,
welches die Wirksamkeit reduzieren und gleichzeitig die Kosten erhöhen würde.”, which does not
give the idea of the original sentence. The connecting relative pronoun is not the right one, and the
efficiency was reduced as well as the costs increased. …, was den Wirkungsgrad reduzierte und
gleichzeitig die Kosten in die Höhe trieb.
It has to be a Beugungsbewegung instead of a “Bieguns- or Flexionsbewegung” (mouvement de
flexion, line 26). “Biegung” is a movement like the bending of a wire, a pipe that changes the object
but here it is a temporal effect, a diffraction. It is not correct though this doesn’t really disturb a
reader without a certain technical knowledge and if s/he has it, s/he will understand what is meant.
“gelenkig verbundene Rohre” for joint is comprehensible but not the best of solutions (as “gelenkig”
normally means supple). Mit Gelenken verbundene Rohre would be the appropriate translation
here. 3 modules convertisseurs should be Wandlermodule and the “Energiekonverter” a
Energiewandler.
In “…das besser als ein klassischer, linear funktionierender Generator arbeitet, in dem im Inneren
der Spulen ein Magnet hoch- und runtersaust und dabei den elektrischen Strom erzeugt.” (lines
32-33), the image of the magnet is not quite appropriate as the audience in the target language
sees something running up and down like a person on the stairs. An alternative could be … in dem
im Inneren der Spulen ein Magnet hin- und her bewegt wird und dabei elektrischen Strom erzeugt.
The next critical point is the polarités alternées (line 35): they should be Polungen because the
used word “Polaritäten” makes one think of the social sphere.

                                                                                                     37
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The scripts were well organised with good sentence structures and overall coherence. Whilst not
perfect there were only some slips. The problems were caused by an inadequate understanding of
the facts. No English word order and only very few grammatical mistakes like a forgotten um of an
extended infinitive.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The punctuation, spelling etc. of the translations were mostly faultless. Some candidates have
written “10 Mal” where it should be written out in full.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates choosing the Technology text should be aware of the potential difficulties. Candidates
should choose a text where they are familiar with the matter and the language. For the Technology
text, a solid knowledge of the terminology and some idea of the functioning of technical processes
(for example how a magnet functions) are recommended. Make sure you are equipped with a good
specialised dictionary.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
See specific comments below.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any).
The candidate understood the text though the accuracy and register leave much to be desired.
Already in the first sentence barres du soleil was translated as “Sonnenstrahlen” normally
translated by rayons de soleil into French. Here it is the metaphor of gold ingots.
An adverb (früh) was forgotten and the street of the Jews can be noisy but not “lärmend” (making
noise). A suggestion could be Früh schon warf die Sonne trotz deren Enge Goldbarren in die lange
Straße der Juden, in der es bunt und lämend zuging. The information is conveyed but the text is
literature and therefore the spirit of the original should be perceptible in the translation. The choice
of words makes a difference.
In the second sentence there is the same problem of the choice of words and, even more serious,
the nouns don’t match with the verbs, as in “wo die Wortgefechte wie Kugeln erschallten”. The
bulles (line 5) are bubbles not “balles” (Kugeln) and even if they were “balles” they only could
hochschießen but not “erschallen” as might do the Wortgefechte. A suggestion could be … und
verwandelten sie in einen gefährlichen Weg, wo Wortgefechte aufstiegen wie Blasen und sich
ebenso schnell wieder auflösten.
Often the images evoked in the target language don’t correspond to the spirit or intention of the
original or are simply incomprehensible. For example, the last sentence of the first paragraph,
ending with an impression of the narrator: …Shem avait le sentiment qu’en ce temple d’abondance
s’épandait, des dégagements obscurs du très haut plafond, un ordre souverain... (lines 18–20) was
translated as “... gab Shem das Gefühl, dass in diesem Tempel der Überfülle sich aus einer
unbekannten Strömung von höherer Ebene eine souveräne Ordnung ausbreitete.“ An alternative
could be …dass sich in diesem Tempel des Überflusses aus dem Dunkel der sehr hohen Decke
herab eine souveräne Ordnung ausbreitete.
Dégagements (line 20) is omitted but all words like “Strömungen, Ausdünstungen,
Absonderungen” don’t make sense. One could say aus den undurchschaubaren Verzweigungen
der sehr hohen Decke herab … but there is no “ramification“ and das Dunkel is sufficient for seeing
such a ceiling in one’s mental eye.
There are more inaccuracies, sometimes due to the insufficient offer of the dictionaries, such as
herzliche Pause, which makes no sense but could be a warme/heiße Pause in regard to the
temperature which might have been in the den.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The translation does not read like an original piece of writing though mostly not because of
grammatical errors.

                                                                                                      38
Yet there are some grammatical mistakes, the grammatical subject and the verb don’t match in
respect to the number as in the second sentence “die Konsesrvendosen ragte weit in die Straße
hinein und verwandelte …”, the cans are plural and the verb is singular. Or the subject and the
adjective don’t correspond in “die schnellen Aufnahme der Bestellungen, die schnellen Abfolge der
Ausführungen…” and then the verb is put in the singular (“gab”) though there is “Aufnahme”,
“Abfolge” and “Schreibbewegung”.
In the last sentence the connecting preposition and the article are not appropriate: “Dergestalt war
der Zauber von Sollé, an der sich neben Shem eine ganze Marktbevölkerung …den Mund leckte,
…” It should read nach dem: the preposition isn’t the right one and the article as the verb “lecken”
might be transitive (ein Eis lecken) but the form “an etwas lecken” exists though it is impossible to
lick at a spell. In its reflexive form (“sich den Mund, die Finger nach etwas lecken”) it has the
preposition nach with dative.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The spelling lapses are not too serious. There are no punctuation or other errors.
One “l” was forgotten at the end of “viel” and two words were begun with a capital letter (“des
Langen Vormittags”, “das Innere Fleisch”). These were real typing errors not due to the German
spelling reform.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates should only choose the Literature option if they already have good experience of doing
so, otherwise the risk is very high. As the choice of words evokes a whole image, candidates
should always show what they think is the meaning of the source language. In Technology it is
necessary to understand the procedure, to know the terminology; when translating literature one
has to imagine the situation and rethink in the target language what happens. The audience should
“see” everything just as the author “painted” it.

UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The translation shows a good command of the subject matter, although at times there are some
errors or omitted words. The terminology provided difficulties, as it was not homogenous. The
candidate did not show deep knowledge of geology but wrote fluently and the translation was
pleasant to read.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The information is accurately conveyed and no serious errors impede the comprehension.
The original pretends that Gondwana (line 5) had been in the north and Laurasia in the south of the
Tethys Sea or Ocean (le Gondwana au nord et Laurasie au sud) but it is exactly the opposite. It
might be discussed whether Laurasia belongs to the names or the terminology; anyway, it was in
the north and became Eurasia later on.
Only some slips lessen the very good impression. There is only one example of subtle difference of
adjective which doesn’t affect sense and information (line 22), namely “unterschiedlich” instead of
variable which is preferable there. In the third paragraph the second sentence could be formulated
as desto weniger der Elemente Sodium, Titan oder Lanthan kommen vor, dafür steigt ihr Gehalt an
Chrom, Magnesium etc… umso geringer ist ihr Gehalt an den Elementen Sodium, Titan oder
Lanthan, dafür steigt er an Chrom, Magnesium etc. – it is only “vorkommen” which is not
stylistically appropriate though completely comprehensible. A simply forgotten adverb
(régulièrement in line 28) slightly changes the sense of the verb. The sentence Surtout, ils ont
montré que la fusion évoluait régulièrement le long de l’axe de l’ancienne dorsale (lines 28,29)
should read Vor allem haben sie gezeigt, dass die Verschmelzung entlang der alten dorsalen
Achse sich gleichmäßig entwickelt hat. A forgotten nantais for indicating the place of origin of the
geologists doesn’t change anything at the information level.




                                                                                                   39
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The translation is well organised, with good sentence structures and overall coherence. There are
some grammatical errors but they are not too serious. In the quotation at the end (line 37) à
l’intérieur du manteau, it means inside the mantle and not “up to the interior of the mantle”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Several mistakes were made, mostly not too serious.
There are some minor lapses. Instead of Laurasia, “Eurasien” is used, which appears on a lot of
maps but there are discussions, and for a non-expert it’s not so clear why the differences in
terminology. There is one forgotten e, one too much from the French form of Ophiolit. The Tethys
Sea coming from the Greek – originally a titaness and wife of Oceanus – should have its y. sodium
should have been identified as Natrium.

Recommendations to candidates
In order to choose a topic on geology it is necessary to have already read about it. Having a good
idea of the terminology as well as of the facts is very useful in order to be able to identify Laurasia
as the later Eurasia, that means Europe and Asia and Gondwana as the later South America and
Africa, and know that Laurasia was in the north and Gondwana in the south. They moved a lot but
never to the opposite. Besides you should always take a good and reliable dictionary such as the
Petit Larousse to look up for words such as Tethys.

UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Some of the candidates found brilliant solutions for challenging passages, as was the second
paragraph.
Candidates clearly showed that, while conveying the sense and information of a passage exactly,
they are not required to produce a word-for-word translation, rather to alter sentences when
necessary, e.g., where there are such French formulas with no conjugated verb and a colon at the
end.
All candidates had the same difficulties with certain words that could not be found in the
dictionaries.
Some candidates did not seem to have had the time to reread their scripts and some typing errors
were found. However, with some slight corrections the scripts are professionally usable.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators” notes, if any).
Most of the candidates understood the text quite well, and their translations were rendered
accurately.
All seemed to have difficulty in finding the appropriate term for the commissioning letter the French
president wrote to his minister. It’s a Beauftragungsschreiben. “Auftragsschreiben” comes near but
might also be the letter sent by an entrepreneur to a manufacturer, it’s not something special as
the nomination / appointment of a minister is. Such a lettre de mission (line 3) is the document of
nomination. Every time a government official is nominated, s/he gets such a letter.
Some of the candidates found wonderful formulations for the second paragraph beginning in a
typical French manner with a conjugated verb and ending with a colon. “Nicolas Sarkozy hat
soeben das Wie der Einwanderungspolitik der neuen Regierung vorgegeben.“
engagement a été pris, durant la campagne présidentielle posed a problem: if translated by
“Verpflichtungen” they cannot be “versprochen”, because it is linguistically impossible. They are
eingegangen or übernommen. Though in election campaigns normally promises tend to be made
but not kept later on, an option could be “wurden Verprechungen gemacht”.
Souligne M. Sarkozy (line 14) was translated by all candidates as “unterstreicht” but Sarkozy
stressed his opinion and doesn’t sign anything therefore souligner could instead be translated by
betonen. The PONS, Larousse does not indicate other possibilities; the Langenscheidt offers
hervorheben, betonen.
The translation of politique volontariste and mouvement volontariste both times by “voluntaristisch”
as the dictionaries (PONS: voluntaristisch, Larousse nothing, Langenscheidt only Voluntarismus)
don’t offer anything else. A possibility could be gezielt.
                                                                                                     40
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The majority of texts were well organised, cohesive and coherent. There was a problem several
candidates seemed to have, namely the logic behind the language.
Candidates who rewrote very fine target versions had a problem with “der Anteil von
Familienzusammenführung”. It is impossible to make a part of something like that in the singular.
There are nouns of which we can speak of parts like apple sauce. They might be divided, a
territory could be parcelled but a process like the “Familienzusammenführung” can only be split up
in parts of the temporal course of events. Therefore a suggestion would be to take the plural here
and opt for the definite article in the genitive (der Anteil der Familienzusammenführungen) instead
of “von”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The examples listed below show the following type of mistake:
1. There was the problem of Monsieur Sarkozy, the polite French form of addressing people even
in the written form:
In German, the “polite” form is different: the form of address is taken away when writing about a
person. He might be the president but not Mr. Sarkozy, at best Nicolos if he risks to be mixed up
with other persons like a German with the name Schmidt.

2. The punctuation was faultless.

3. There was confusion about whether to write words together or separately, probably due to the
German Spelling Reform.
In “das Recht, sich in Frankreich niederzulassen”, “niederzulassen” is not separated in three parts
as other verbs.
Those who do not learn the new spelling in school have manifest problems to the extent that some
newspapers adopted the old writing again. Candidates are thus advised to be completely
consistent in their spelling.

Recommendations to candidates
Translation is first thinking and then writing. If a problem appears like the lettre de mission where a
solution might not be found in the dictionaries, it is necessary to think about the whole context in
order to end up with something like Ernennungsschreiben or in seiner Beauftragung which is not
completely wrong. “Auftragsschreiben” was not completely out of order. Think about the character
of the words you use. There is a difference between pebble and gravel. That is linguistic thought.
And read not only French newspapers but also those of your mother tongue. There might be some
differences in how people are mentioned. Practise translation extensively and time yourself to
prepare well for the actual day of the examination.


                                                  -*-




                                                                                                     41
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

GERMAN INTO FRENCH

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
A good performance, as the following notes show.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
No special comments for Aspect 2.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Candidates maintained the familiar tone of the original. One difficult work to translate was peppig,
which was translated for example as “enthousiaste” (not quite right) or as “tape-à-l’oeil” which was
much nearer the mark.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
In Aspect 3, both candidates omitted to translate Schweiz in line 30. One candidate omitted the
sentence Nun entdecken auch in line 8. Otherwise there were only only minor errors.

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
In line 27, a candidate diverged completely from the source text, not translating auf dem ersten
Arbeitsmarkt onwards. In line 39 Kommunal-Kombi was translated with the initials, without
explaining what this was.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
No special comments.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
No special comments. The translator’s notes were useful.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The somewhat fanciful tone of the original was maintained. In line 6, the anthracite turn into grey
instead of the other way round. In line 27 the carriage is described as being held back when it
should have been described as being loaded late.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
No special comments.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
No special comments.

UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Translations were very competent and contained only minor errors. There is therefore no special
comment under any of the Aspects.
                                                                                                  42
UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
Attention should be drawn to the ambiguous nature of the original. In line 5, the phrase neben den
Religionsunterricht implies that religious education is compulsory, on a par with civics. Yet in the
next sentence it states that participation in religious education is voluntary. “à côté de” as a
translation for neben was not penalised.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
No special comment on Aspect 1.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
In line 11, the phrase auprès du tribunal administratif reads less ambiguously if transferred to the
line before.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
No special comments.


                                                -*-




                                                                                                  43
DIPLOMA IN TRANSATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

GERMAN INTO SPANISH

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
The Fail cases were sadly not professionally acceptable either because the source text was not
completely understood or because the level of Spanish grammar was not the required one for the
Diploma in Translation Examination.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were renderings using “Ha probado a obligar”, “desilusionantes”, “pero por contra” which do
not sound Spanish.

Recommendations to candidates
Potential candidates who want to get the Diploma in Translation examination have to make sure
the level of their target language is at a high level of linguistic competence.

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
On the whole, the translation shows comprehension, but some parts are difficult to understand. It
would have been interesting to include some translator’s notes to explain abbreviations such as TC
(“tomografía por computador”) even if they were not included in the original text.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
It is not “estudios” or “exploraciones” but [heart] tests (exámenes de corazón); músculo cardíaco is
more precise than “musculatura”; de manera óptima is better than “óptimamente” and de
diagnóstico is better than “diagnóstica”. In this text, modulación refers to control; adiposo is
different from “obeso”, since the first term refers to the tissue. The sentence that refers to ruido en
la imagen should be se genera una imagen ruidosa/con ruido.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The parts of the source text related to the interview have been written in the present tense but
have been translated in the past tense. There could have been a better use of prepositions. In
some sentences, syntax is not adequate. For example, “exposición a la radiación de los pacientes”
should be la exposición de los pacientes a la radiación.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Technical mistakes were not made. This shows mastery in this aspect.

Recommendations to candidates
When and if sentences in the source language are long and the order changes when translating
into the target language, it is better to break up sentences to make them easier to understand.

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

General Report on Candidate Performance
The Fail case did not show a native language level. There were serious grammar and syntax
mistakes and the text was unidiomatic and unclear.
The successful candidate showed quality in the writing and the text was professionally acceptable.




                                                                                                     44
UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The candidate understood the text very well and used appropriate vocabulary. The translation is
clear and has all the information contained in the original. There is no room for confusion, even in
the most complex sentences.
On a minor scale, there is lack of accuracy when using some words. Although the topic is of a
scientific nature, the style of the text is simple and targets a wide range of public; however, the
translation looks more formal than the original: berichtet was translated as refiere que, erzählt as
“explica”. This article was published in a newspaper, so it is aimed at the general public, hence the
simplicity of its style.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The candidate did not make serious mistakes. Some words could have been chosen more
accurately to reflect the style of the original in a better way. For example, “en humanos” is less
frequently used than en el hombre; molecularmente is less frequently used than de manera
molecular or a nivel molecular. Heavy phrases such as “La búsqueda de las moléculas de los
canales…” could have been avoided. Expressions such as “tres años largos” are difficult to
understand. The exact rendering of gute 3 Jahre should be un poco más de tres años. It is also
more accurate to say that the measurements were carried out usando un láser than “con láser”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were only two mistakes.
   1. One missing preposition, namely, “se da cuenta lo que son capaces” instead of se da
       cuenta de lo que son capaces.
   2. Use of incorrect tense: konnten gemessen werden can be, for example, pudieron ser
       medidos but not “pueden medir”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were no mistakes related to this aspect. This shows mastery in this field.

Recommendations to candidates
As already mentioned in Aspect 1, the main recommendation is to be more faithful to the style of
the source text, since the aim of any accurate translation is not only to give information about what
is written in the source language but also to reflect its style. For this purpose it is always worth
keeping the target readership in mind.

UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
One of the candidates did not seem to have Spanish at his/her native language. The renderings
had serious grammar mistakes and unidiomatic expressions.

Recommendations to candidates
Potential candidates who want to get the Diploma in Translation examination have to make sure
the level of their target language is at a high level of linguistic competence.


                                                 -*-




                                                                                                   45
DIPLOMA IN TRANSATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

SPANISH INTO GERMAN

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
This text did not present many big challenges regarding semantic and/or syntactical complexity.
The main challenge here was - as with every translation - to render it into good German. All
candidates failed to accomplish this task. They seemed to understand the text but were not able to
render it appropriately. This was due to a lack of translation skills and lack of expression in the
target language. Their main challenges were terminology, style and spelling/punctuation.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There were only a few register issues. The main one was [el] divertido término ‘Deroombing’.
Divertido (line 21) was translated by all candidates as “lustig”, a term that is not totally appropriate
in this type of article for the intended audience. originell or einfallsreich are better renderings.

The candidates committed a considerable number of lexical errors. Some terms challenged their
creativity because they had to be interpreted based on the dictionary term they were derived from
and also based on the context. For example, vertiente should be Form; solería (derived from suelo)
should be Bodenbelag; director general, which according to the dictionary is Generaldirektor, a
very old-fashioned term in German only used for certain types of companies. Therefore,
Geschäftsführer should be the appropriate term in this context

The rendering of Si está harto del despertador, de no llegar a tiempo al gimnasio, de comer un
bocadillo delante del ordenador, del atasco nuestro de cada día, de no poder estar con sus hijos,
de su jefe... puede descargar su tensión (lines 9, f.f.) could be, for example, Wenn man den
Wecker satt hat, es leid ist, zum Beispiel nicht rechtzeitig ins Fitness-Studio zu kommen, sein
Brötchen vor dem Computer zu essen, nicht genügend Zeit mit den Kindern verbringen zu können,
oder die Sorgen des Alltags oder den Chef nicht mehr erträgt, kann man seinen Druck (...)

The rendering of una petición del oyente (lines 16,17) should be Anfrage eines Gastes and not
“Hörerwunsch”, which is a literal translation.

The translation of los cánones del spanglish (lines 21,22) is not “gemäß des Kanons/laut des
Kanons des Spanglish“.
Three problems are to be pointed out here:
        •  cánones are Regeln and not “Kanon“.
        •  Both gemäß and laut require the dative, not the genitive case: gemäß/laut dem
           Kanon/den Regeln
        •  spanglish can be rendered in German as Spanglish (leaving the English term) or as
           Spanglisch (the Germanised version). If the Germanised version is used, it is subject to
           the German grammar rules.
The following are correct translations:
laut den Spanglish-Regeln instead of laut den Regeln des Spanglish, which sounds very awkward.
laut den Regeln des Spanglischen (analog to laut den Regeln des Deutschen/Englischen).

A translator’s note could be provided here to explain the term but it is not absolutely necessary
since it can be assumed that the target audience knows this term or can derive it from the following
context. Either way was fine.

ni mucho menos should be keineswegs or alles andere als.

Lack of logical reasoning was also shown in parts. For example:
1. La iniciativa parte de la cadena hotelera española NH, que busca a 30 personas realmente
estresadas para que hagan un trabajito en su Hotel NH Alcalá (lines 12–14) was rendered as ...
                                                                                                      46
der spanischen Hotelkette NH, ..., damit sie in ihrem Hotel NH Alcalá ..... A correct version should
be ..., damit sie in ihrem Hotel Alcalá ...
The correct German translation of Hotel NH Alcalá is NH-Hotel Alcalá. However, in this sentence
NH needs to be omitted since ihrem already expresses the hotel’s relationship with the NH hotel
chain.

2. Una vez superada la prueba (line 42): It should be clear and logical from the context that the
mentioned tests have to be passed - instead of “just taken” - in order to qualify for this initiative.
Thus, “Wenn die Prüfungen erst einmal überstanden sind/Nachdem die Prüfungen absolviert
sind, ...“ is a wrong rendering. A correct one should be Nach bestandener Prüfung.

3. For Las pruebas consisten en un estresómetro (line 41) que mide su nivel de agobio, una
entrevista personal, una prueba de fuerza y un test, “Die Prüfungen bestehen aus einem
Stressmesser, ....” is a wrong translation, whereas Die Prüfungen bestehen aus einer Messung
des Erschöpfungsgrads mit einem Stressmesser, ... is a correct one. A literal translation does not
make sense in German since an appliance (Stressmesser) is not a test component.

“Die Initiative kommt von/stammt von...” is a wrong rendering of La iniciativa parte de ...(line 12),
since the subject noun and verb do not go together. The correct rendering should be Die Initiative
geht von ... aus.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The main challenges of all candidates were a lack of translation competence and considerable
deficiencies in German grammar. There was often too much adherence to the sentence structure,
which led to poor style.

The sentence Si está harto del despertador, de no llegar a tiempo al gimnasio, de comer un
bocadillo delante del ordenador, del atasco nuestro de cada día, de no poder estar con sus hijos,
de su jefe... puede descargar su tensión a golpes y destrozar no una habitación, sino una planta
entera... (lines 9-12) was not translated correctly by the majority of the candidates. The sentence
structure has to be changed and words have to be added for a complete and appropriate German
sentence, such as (added words have been highlighted in bold):

Wenn man den Wecker satt hat, es leid ist, zum Beispiel nicht rechtzeitig ins Fitness-Studio zu
kommen, sein Brötchen vor dem Computer zu essen, nicht genügend Zeit mit den Kindern
verbringen zu können, oder die Sorgen des Alltags oder den Chef nicht mehr erträgt, kann man
seinen inneren Druck auf schlagkräftige Weise ablassen und nicht etwa nur ein Zimmer, sondern
gleich eine ganze Etage zertrümmern.

There were some basic German grammar issues related to prepositions: gegenüber should take
the dative case (gegenüber dem Retiropark) and not the genitive. laut/gemäß should take the
dative case (laut den Spanglish-Regeln) and not genitive.

Knowledge about the active voice in English versus the passive voice in German are basic
translation principles. For example,

.... pruebas que determinarán... (line 40) was wrongly translated as “... Prüfungen unterziehen, die
bestimmen werden, ....” instead of, for example, ... Prüfungen unterziehen, mit denen ermittelt wird,
...., or

...y se liberan endorfinas (line 32) was wrongly translated as “Tätigkeit, die ... Endorphine freisetzt”
instead of Tätigkeit, ... bei der Endorphine freigesetzt werden.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
All candidates made a considerable number of spelling and punctuation errors (between 10 and
20), especially in the use of commas, which is absolutely unacceptable in a professional
translation. A professional translation should not have any spelling and punctuation errors.

                                                                                                      47
Recommendations to candidates
     • Candidates should become familiar with translation theory and translation techniques.
     • They should take courses on German writing.
     • Terms should be looked up in dictionaries more frequently. It is not enough just to
       assume that the meaning of a term is known.
     • Candidates should have a thorough knowledge of German grammar. Grammar rules
       should be reviewed.
     • Being firm and confident in German spelling and punctuation is a basic requirement for
       translators. Practise dictation and have someone correct your dictation tests.

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

General Report on Candidate Performance
This text was very challenging due its semantic complexity and its specialized nature. All
candidates failed to completely understand the text or understand the text at all.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The main challenges were the semantic complexity and the terminology. Working under pressure
within 3 hours and without access to the Internet requires being familiar with the subject matter
(production planning) and related terms as well good knowledge of translation skills.

The candidates committed a considerable number of lexical errors. For example, parte del cuerpo
central de la metodología (lines 4,5) should be zentraler Bestandteil des Konzepts/der Methodik;
planteamiento can be Ansatz or Betrachtungsweise; lote de transferencia is Transportlos, a term
that cannot be found in most technical dictionaries unless they are dictionaries specific to this
subject matter.

Other terminology errors were economías de escala (Economies of Scale, Skaleneffekte),
proponerse (sich vornehmen) and pretender + infinitive (sollen). Thus, El planteamiento de la
metodología para la implementación de un sistema lean que nos proponemos pretende
implantar... (lines 10,11) should be Bei dem konzeptionellen Ansatz zur Implementierung eines
schlanken Systems, den wir uns vornehmen, soll ...

suponer + infinitive should be es wird vorausgesetzt/davon ausgegangen, dass... Thus, Por otra
parte, las características de la implantación, supondrán, eliminar de los procesos las actividades
que no aporten valor añadido que se denominan en la actualidad desperdicios o despilfarros (lines
19-21) should be, for example, Andererseits wird aufgrund der Eigenschaften der Einführung
davon ausgegangen, dass die Vorgänge, die keinen Mehrwert bringen (auch als Verschwendung
bezeichnet), aus den Prozessen eliminiert werden.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The main challenges of all candidates were a lack of translation competence and deficiencies in
German grammar. Throughout the whole text there was too much adherence to the sentence
structure, which led to poor style.

Knowledge about the English active voice versus German passive voice was not always shown.
For example, El planteamiento de la metodología para la implementación de un sistema lean que
nos proponemos pretende implantar... was wrongly translated as “Der konzeptionelle Ansatz ...
beabsichtigt die Einführung ...”, “Der beabsichtigte Gedanke der Methode .... strebt nach ... or “Der
Grundgedanke der Arbeitsweise bezweckt die Einführung ...” instead of, for example, Bei dem
konzeptionellen Ansatz zur Implementierung eines schlanken Systems, den wir uns vornehmen,
soll ... eingeführt werden ...

There were examples of distorted meaning due to failure to recognize the grammatical structure of
the source language. For example, La forma de implantar sus principios no forma parte del cuerpo
doctrinal central de la metodología y la aplicación de estos principios en Toyota es anterior a su
definición formal, por lo que el camino recorrido por ella es irrepetible (lines 4-7) should be, for
example, Die Art und Weise, wie die Prinzipien des Lean Management, die bei Toyota schon vor
                                                                                                   48
ihrer formaler Definition angewandt wurden, eingeführt wurden, ist nicht zentraler Bestandteil des
Konzepts, weshalb der von Toyota zurückgelegte Weg auch nicht mehr nachvollziehbar ist...
instead of “... und die Anwendung dieser Prinzipien bei Toyota fand vor deren offizieller Definition
statt, weswegen der von ihr zurückgelegte Pfad nicht mehr nachzuvollziehen ist.“, since ihr refers
to Anwendung, not to Toyota.

En concreto, ha de minimizarse el stock debido a ... (lines 27-28) should be [Anhäufung aller Arten
von Beständen, die bei der Implementierung und Organisation der Industrieprozesse angefallen
sind und minimiert werden müssen.] Konkret handelt es sich bei diesen zu minimierenden
Beständen um Bestände aufgrund von ... This could not be translated literally following the
Spanish sentence structure. It was translated wrongly by all candidates.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
All candidates made a considerable number of spelling and punctuation errors (between 8 and 10),
which is absolutely unacceptable in a professional translation. For example, lean management
(line 1) was rendered as “...Anwendung des Lean Managements...” instead of ... des Lean
Management ... or des Lean-Managements
The rule says that, if you leave the English term, you do not decline it. If you use a Germanised
version, you have to join the components by hyphens and decline it.

A professional translation should not have any spelling or punctuation errors.

Recommendations to candidates
•  Candidates should become familiar with translation theory and translation techniques.
•  They should take courses on German writing.
•  Candidates should have a thorough knowledge of German grammar. Grammar rules should be
   reviewed.
•  Being firm and confident in German spelling and punctuation is a basic requirement for
   translators. Practice dictation and have someone correct your dictation tests.

UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
General legal knowledge was indispensable. Unfortunately, it seems that the candidates were not
very familiar with basic legal terms (c.f. the difference between the German Rechtsbehelfe
Rechtsmittel, Berufung, Revision, Einspruch as equivalent for the Spanish recursos) and with the
organisation of justice in Spain – both prerequisites for a good rendering.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The name of the institution the text is about (El Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Andalucía) is a
proper noun and should have been indicated in the translated text (or at the beginning of the text
itself or as a translator’s note).
         •   : … es el órgano jurisdiccional en que culmina la organización judicial en Andalucía
             (lines 2 and 3) was translated as ”…ist das rechtsprechende Organ, bei dem die
             Rechtsordnung in Andalusien endet…” which is a real miss-interpreting, not to say
             nonsense.
         •   line 3: Instead of the clumsy “ist durch die in dem entsprechenden
             Gerichtsverfassungsgesetz festgelegten Bestimmungen zuständig...“ it would be better
             (and more appropriate) to write: ist gemäß den Bestimmungen des GVG zuständig...:
         •   en los distintos órdenes jurisdiccionales (line 5) was translated as “bei/in den
             verschiedenen         Instanzen“,     instead     of      in   den      verschiedenen
             Gerichtsbarkeiten/Sachgebieten/Rechtsgebieten.
         •   The Spanish recursos (line 5ff) is quite a general term for appeal, and the candidates
             should have chosen a general term in German too, such as Rechtsbehelf or
             Rechtsmittel. “Einspruch” is a special kind of appeal in German Law and does not fit in
             the context.

                                                                                                  49
       •   El Tribunal … es la última instancia (line 10) should be rendered as …ist die oberste
           (Rechts-)Instanz (and not ”die letzte Instanz“).
       •   sea cual fuere el derecho invocado como aplicable (lines 12-13) was wrongly rendered
           as ”wie das als anwendbar angeführte Recht … auch sein mag“, which does not sound
           legal. A possible rendering could have been ohne Rücksicht auf das anwendbare
           Recht.
       •   La Ley Orgánica del Poder Judicial determinará el alcance … de los … recursos (line
           15) would mean in German Das GVG bestimmt über Reichweite (not
           “Geltungsbereich“) und Inhalt der Rechtsmittel (not “Einsprüche“).
       •   Competencia (line 23) in the legal context is Zuständigkeit and not
           ”Entscheidungsbefugnis“ or ”Kompetenz“).
       •   All candidates have omitted extraordinario in la resolución de los recursos
           extraordinarios de revisión … (line 18) although it is essential in this context. The
           German term is außerordentliche Rechtsmittel.
       •   “Rechtsorgane” for órganos judiciales (line 29) is not appropriate. Gerichtsbehörden
           would have been a good choice.
       •   Las Comunidades Autónomas in Spain (line 37ff) are Autonome Gemeinschaften and
           nothing else.
       •   The mentioned conflictos de jurisdicción (art. 142.3) (line 38) are widerstreitende
           Rechtsprechung der Organe or Zuständigkeitsstreit (zwischen Gerichtsbehörden). The
           best rendering could be Lösung von eventuell auftretenden Streitigkeiten zwischen den
           Gerichtsbehörden der Gemeinschaft.
       •   La Junta de Andalucía (line 44) is die Regierung von Andalusien.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
      •   Inappropriate use of the definite article. It should be … zuständig, über die Einsprüche
          zu entscheiden, zuständig für die Entscheidungen bei Zivilverfahren... Entscheidung
          über die Einsprüche... Vermittlung bei der Konfliktlösung, Verfahren zur Beilegung bei
          den Konfliktlösungen...
      •   Los conflictos de competencia … se resolverán conforme a lo establecido en la Ley
          Orgánica del Poder judicial… (line 29f) was rendered as: “… sind im Einklang mit dem
          im Gerichtsverfassungsgesetz Festgelegten zu lösen”, which sounds clumsy and
          inappropriate in a legal context. A better choice would have been: … sind gemäß den
          Bestimmungen des Gerichtsverfassungsgesetzes zu lösen.
      •   Resolver las cuestiones de competencia entre órganos judiciales de Andalucía (line 40)
          was rendered as “Lösung der Kompetenzfragen unter den Rechtsorganen [Aspect1]
          Andalusiens“, instead of zwischen den rechtsprechenden Organen.
      •   con arreglo a lo establecido en la legislación estatal (line 25) was translated as “in
          Übereinstimmung mit dem in der staatlichen Gesetzgebung Festgelegten...“, which
          sounds clumsy and is not appripriate to a legal text.
      •   The rendering “Entscheidung über Einsprüche [Aspect 1], die im Zusammenhang mit
          den Wahlvorgängen stehen in Übereinstimmung mit dem Gesetz in der autonomen
          Region [Aspect 1] Andalusien.“ (lines 36-37) shows the same kind of problem. A
          suggested redering could be Entscheidung über Rechtsbehelfe im Zusammenhang mit
          Wahlvorgängen in der Autonomen Gemeinschaft Andalusien laut Gesetz.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were only some minor lapses, especially in punctuation. It is important to beware of the
AutoCorrect in Microsoft Word.

Recommendations to candidates
Only choose the option Law option if you have a certain level of legal knowledge and if you are
able to understand and to write characteristic legal texts. If not, the challenge is a great one.


                                               -*-


                                                                                                50
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

GREEK INTO ENGLISH

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Comprehension was mostly good. Some difficulty, however, in rendering culture-specific
neologisms such as Νεοέλληνες, ІΧ and Λεκανοπέδιο.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
This Aspect was mostly appropriate. Difficulties occurred in the translation of longer sentences:
most candidates followed the source text punctuation and had trouble in paragraphs 3, 6 and 9.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Difficulties occurred in the transliteration of the Greek name (Κ. Χρεωτάκη) and in the translation of
names of Institutions (Οικονοµικό Πανεπιστηµιο Αθηνών, Μόνιµη επιτροπή περιβάλλοντος της
Βουλής, Ευρωβαρόµετρο).

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
The quality of the answers varied. One serious problem, as always, was the candidates’
unfamiliarity with how to put things into the appropriate kind of English. It still needs to be said that
the ability to produce a text in fluent and appropriate English is important in meeting the
requirement of professional acceptability. Understanding the Greek is a necessary but not
sufficient condition for success.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Accuracy is important. Επιτυχηµένος is successful rather than “effective”. In some contexts this
substitution might work, but here we have the phrase technologically and commercially successful;
“commercially effective” is not an appropriate phrase.
Inappropriate choice of register in English can obscure the sense of what is meant. Easy to carry
would be better rendered in this type of text as (easily) portable/transportable [given we may not
know the size or weight of a biosensor].
Η απόκριση πρέπει να έχει επαναληψιµότητα is badly translated by “the response should have
repetitiveness (literal, ‘unEnglish’); better is should be replicable.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Candidates can be unduly influenced by the syntactic patterns of Greek: “useful for the analysis
range of values” should be range of values useful for the analysis. English does not permit this kind
of embedding found in formal Greek.
Regular forms of expression in English can get supplanted by more literal renderings from the
Greek: “a minimum or no preparation at all” is simply (very) little or no preparation.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Now that candidates’ scripts can be word-processed in some centres, we are seeing what are
apparently mistypings (“ocidity” for acidity, for example). These have to be penalised as much as
other spelling errors. Checking is no less important.
Candidates should stop and think about whether Greek punctuation conventions should be
transposed directly into English. The perennial mark-loser is inverted commas, which Greek writers
often put around a word used metaphorically. In this case, noise [in the system] is a perfectly
regular technical term in English, and it is misleading to use inverted commas with it. The Greek
use of inverted commas is a signal that the word is being used not in the everyday sense. The use
                                                                                                       51
of the word in English would suggest that the writer is distancing themselves from the use of the
word. This is not the same message.

Recommendations to candidates
The main problems in translating this kind of text are generally unfamiliarity with the topic and the
concepts, rather than problems caused by the Greek, and ignorance of the appropriate vocabulary
and phrases in English.
Candidates are recommended to study a journal such as New Scientist (which is generally the type
of equivalent publication implied in the rubric), which is also available online as part of their
preparation for the Diploma. It is important to develop an awareness of the language and
phraseology used as it is to understand the concepts behind an article.

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

General Report on Candidate Performance
This was a difficult text insofar as it deals with aspects of Greek regulations relating to house
valuations for tax purposes, and the vocabulary carries connotations that would be unknown to an
English reader with no experience of the practice – a bit like trying to explain the rating system of
council tax in another language. The key is the αντικειµενική αξία (literally objective value), which
is used for taxation purposes, and contrasts with the πραγµατική αξία, literally, real/actual value,
the actual price paid by a purchaser to the seller. An ideal translation would have glossed it or
added a short explanation. A translator’s note might have been useful here.
A second problem was the way in which προϋπολογισµός, budget, was used by the writer of the
original text. The Greek says η κάµψη του ρυθµού αύξησης των εσόδων του κρατικού
προϋπολογισµού, literally, the change/downturn of the rate of increase/growth of income of the
state budget. Any translation that is close to this will not make sense. The sense of it is, in
everyday language, that money actually coming in through taxation is falling behind the budget
targets [so the tax people are beginning to crack down]. This can be manoeuvred linguistically into
other forms of expression in English, but the meaning which comes out has to be basically that.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The budget proved a stumbling block. “decline in the growth rate of the Greek budget” is
misleading: the amounts in the budget might grow year by year, but we are concerned here with
targets being missed within a financial year.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
“If the seller is in debt to the tax office” is not a common way of expressing the idea in English. If
the seller owes tax/has tax debts is a more natural way of putting it.
“Planning permission was granted after 1/1/2006 and is therefore subject to V.A.T.”: failure here to
put in a subject before “is” results in misinformation. It is not the permission which is subject to VAT
but the building costs.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
This Aspect was generally well handled, though there were a couple of problems: “were” for where,
and once again, the inappropriate use of inverted commas in English where Greek has them
around the word όπλο, [weapon], used metaphorically.

Recommendations to candidates
This text dealt with aspects of Greek house purchase and the applicable tax regime. As such, it
would cause problems for anyone unfamiliar with what happens on the ground there. While it is
impossible to predict what will come up in any individual exam text, candidates should be
reasonably familiar with aspects of Greek law, custom and practice. Greek newspapers are
generally available on line, and it is worth occasionally reading Νέα, Καθηµερινή, Βήµα, Έθνος,
Ελευθεροτυπία and others. Καθηµερινή also has an English edition, which often reprints leaders
from the previous day’s Greek edition. The translations are fluent, and can be studied alongside
the originals.

                                                                                                      52
UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
It is difficult to generalise with such a small number of entries of such differing quality. The text
was a straightforward mix of narrative and interior monologue, with quite a lot of small
observational detail. It was possible to provide a somewhat colourless paraphrase without much
difficulty; the difficulty lay in capturing the detail.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Good translations included “deftly” for µε επαγγελµατιξή δεξιοτεχνία and “with not a trace of hurry”
for χωρίς να βιάζεται καθόλου.
There were some problems of confusion of similar Greek words, and of finding the English
equivalent for a Greek item. Γόβα is not “thigh” (= γοφός), but high-heeled shoe – γόβα στιλέτο
stiletto shoe/heel. While an individual small omission might not be important, systematic omission
of details had the cumulative effect of draining the text of colour. Πιο λεπτό, µικρό, καχεκτικό κλειδί
is a smaller, thin(ner), sickly-looking key. The third adjective is the most powerful here and cannot
justifiably be omitted.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The English rendering was sometimes odd where the Greek was everyday: “Leda did not know the
use for it “ should be Leda did not know what it was for (Η Λήδα δεν ήξερε σε τι χρησίµευε), or, at a
pinch, what it was used for.
Η ταυτότητά της στο Κέντρο ήταν κάπως ρευστή, οµολογουµένως¨ is not “frankly, her identity was
rather unstable”, but Admittedly her identity/position in the group was rather fluid. It is not a matter
of her mental health, but of the nature of her relationship to the others in the group. In the group is
important, and should not be omitted.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
...της µικρής επίλεκτης οµάδας ψυχολόγων: the small select group of psychologists. “Handpicked”
might be all right for select, but to enclose it in inverted commas is quite unjustified.

Recommendations to candidates
It is not easy to do such justice to literary texts as will earn a merit or distinction. To get a sense of
how this works in the Greek to English direction, candidates should familiarise themselves with
Greek originals and their English translations. A number of translations into English have been
published by Kaktos publishers, and other titles. It is not possible here to provide a definitive list,
but an Internet search can produce details.

UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Most candidates performed well on the technical terminology of this text – peripheral nervous
system, oligodendrocytes, and the like. The problems often lay rather with the sub technical
vocabulary; words like site compared to place, or was found to be compared to was proved to be.
This is a problem of register or appropriacy.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The first word was a trap: πρώιµο βήµα here is not “premature step” (which is negative and
suggests it should not have been taken), but an early step, a first step. C.f. πρώιµος µεσαίωνας:
early middle ages.
Problems were largely with the sub technical vocabulary. Πειραµατόζωα, yes, “guinea-pigs”,
metaphorically. When we are talking about unspecified animals used in experiments, it is not a
good choice, as it implies, or perhaps even states, that this was the species used. Experimental
animals or lab(oratory) animals were better expressions. ∆υναµική is potential, not “dynamics”.
Ιδιότητες is properties, not “abilities” (which is ικανότητες). Ανεπιστρεπτί in this text is irrevocably;

                                                                                                        53
“Cells are charged with transmitting a message” is better rendered as are responsible for
transmitting…

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The main problem was the influence of Greek showing itself syntactically or structurally in the
English. Συγκεκριµένα is a signalling word in Greek which takes us from a general to a more
specific level. Typically it does not need translating into English. “The research team has taken a
first step. Συγκεκριµένα what they did was …”; to say “more specifically” takes the reader in the
wrong direction.
“Pointed out” that cannot be followed by direct speech. “Above” or “above-mentioned” is redundant
when it simply means what was said in the previous sentence. “The above-mentioned experiment“
is simply this experiment once we are in the following sentence.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Problems here were sporadic rather then systematic. Reduced forms like “it’s” are best avoided.
spinal cord rather than “chord”, though Google shows many examples of the latter from scientific
journals! As a consequence, this was not regarded as a serious error. To affect is not the same as
“to effect”.

Recommendations to candidates
Greek newspapers such as Βήµα have a Sunday science pull-out section. This has regular articles
originating in Greek, and from time to time translations (or adaptations) from New Scientist. A lot of
popular science books that originate in English also have Greek translations. It is well worth
studying the original and the translation side by side to see how the translator has coped. There is
not much translation of original Greek science texts into English.

UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Candidate performance was generally weak in this option. The subject matter was abstract, and
the Greek way of putting things (διατύπωση) is often quite different from the English. Typically, for
example, a list of items given in brackets may only have a weak grammatical or syntactic
relationship to the rest of the sentence, where English requires a closer one; and what may be
elided may be different in the two languages. A good translation would have needed (in exam
conditions) quick decisions about possibly extensive reformulations. Concepts such as first,
second and third generation rights are well established in the field, and there is an accepted
terminology for them in English. Thus, δικαιώµατα του συνέρχεσθαι και του συνεταιρίζεσθαι is the
rights to free assembly and association.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Ηθική semantically covers both ethics and morals. A good English text might well have switched
from one term to the other in the course of this text. Some leeway was allowed here. Problems
varied with candidates. Following the Greek too closely resulted in English like “in today’s reality of
life”, whereas it would have been better, given the heavy information load of the rest of the text, to
lighten things here and just write as things are today or the position today is that…. Other
mistakes were often from inattentive reading of the Greek. Ο µέσος χώρος is the middle ground,
not “the middle class” or “the status quo”.
Επιθέσεις των κουκουλοφόρων caused problems: a gloss was needed here. Attacks of hood-
wearers, literally, but these are equivalent to violent protesters, and in a UK context might be
described in the papers as wearing balaclavas. Not “hoodies”, because the Greek protesters have
a political dimension. Hooded protesters [involved in] violent [clashes] is how the idea might appear
in English. But certainly not Ku-Klux-Klan, as one candidate ventured.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
“Minimum wage” should be preceded by a or the. Πρόκειται για is not “it is about”, or “there will be”
but, in this context, what we are talking about here is, or it is a matter of. The context is all-
important in deciding how to translate frequent signalling items like this.
                                                                                                     54
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The standard spelling in English of the Greek historian’s name is Thucydides. There is more
misuse of inverted commas (see the more extensive analysis at Aspect 3 of paper 02A above).

Recommendations to candidates
Greek newspapers regularly contain a lot of social-science related materials. Some of it may be
translation into Greek from an acknowledged English-language source. Putting an original and its
translation side by side can help to see how experienced translators carry out the process. In the
Greek to English direction there is very little available. Editorials inΚαθηµερινή sometimes appear
in the English edition the following day; the translations are of good quality. Another possible
source is European Union documents. Web pages are available to varying degrees in the different
official EU languages, and there may be suitable, if rather dry, topics. It is usually not possible with
EU texts to be sure what the source language was.

UNIT 03F: LAW

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Comprehension, accuracy and register were mostly appropriate. The translation of λιµάνι as “port”
and “harbour” was not clarified. On p.3 ναυτικοί was misunderstood (translated as “marines”
instead of seamen or mariner).

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Grammar and organisation of work are appropriate to the target language. Some minor lapses do
not affect the organisation of information and accuracy in transfer.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The technical points are very good.


                                                  -*-




                                                                                                      55
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008

EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO HINDI

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
The overall performance of the candidates was not up to the standard required to pass the
Diploma in Translation examination. One of the main difficulties seemed to be providing a
translated text with a proper and fluent structure. Sometimes it resulted from the candidates trying
to follow the English syntax too closely, with clause by clause translation, thus resulting in awkward
and inauthentic sentences in the target language. There was also a tendency to rely too much on
dictionaries and picking a word which may be listed as one of the options but is not appropriate in
the context e.g. using “quality” instead of skill in the translation; or “making a claim” instead of
monopolise. At this level, it is crucial to understand the nuances of the language, which would lead
to proper word choice.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Some of the difficulties have been pointed out above. Another incorrect Hindi word choice, which
may be listed under the same English word in a dictionary, is using “bodily” for physical. In Hindi
there are two distinct words bhautic for physical and shareerik for related to body. But since
physical in English is used for both, such as physical proximity and physical fitness, both Hindi
words could be listed against it in a Hindi dictionary. Physical proximity has also been translated as
“real closeness” (the distinction between proximity and closeness is confusing for some). Other
examples of inappropriate word choice were in the translation of words such as phrase, respond,
self-defeating, etc.
Lack of clear understanding of the source text was also demonstrated in many places such as in
line 1, which was translated by one candidate as “through networking it has become easy for most
people to meet others for their own benefit”.
The sentence making sure you leave with contact details… had been misinterpreted as “leaving
your details”. This showed a lack of understanding of the use of the word leave in the sentence.
Forwarding an e-mail address has been translated as “sending an e-mail”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Inability to grasp the meaning of complete sentences and to translate them into Hindi led to
cumbersome clause by clause (or sub-clause) translations in many places. This was obvious in the
sentence which states that today we are defined by the company we keep.
Hindi verbs, possessive pronouns and adjectives are gender specific. There seemed to be a
distinct lack of understanding of this in several of the translations. It may have been due to some
candidates’ mother tongue being other than Hindi (which is primarily a north Indian language but
understood and spoken in various forms throughout the country). Such misunderstandings could
be the influence of the L1. It is important to emphasise that even though a certain form of Hindi
may be acceptable in some regions of the country, candidates are required to use the
grammatically correct form when attempting qualifications such as the Diploma in Translation.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were numerous examples of incorrect spelling scattered throughout the translations.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates need to pay extra attention to the meaning of the source text and not go for verbatim
translations or even clause by clause translations, which could lead to distorted meaning and
cumbersome sentence structure. It is important to use correct gender-specific words.



                                                                                                    56
UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
Translations were generally poor due to lack of command of the target language required for the
task. There were problems with the use of gender-specific words and some words/phrases have
been used that were not appropriate in the context.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Words such as terrain, flow pattern, horizontal, range and resource, etc. were translated
incorrectly. Vertical-axis design and fan were omitted. Lines 23-29 were poorly translated and the
second sentence (larger turbines...) was left out. typically was translated as “ideally”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Overall sentence structure was very poor and cumbersome. Gender-specific words in sentences
such as wind is a form of solar energy read poorly due to such errors. Instead of creating a
naturally flowing sentence in Hindi, the attempt to follow the English syntax sometimes rendered
the Hindi translations quite cumbersome in places such as in the fifth paragraph and in the section
about types of turbine.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Hindi words for words such as surface, caused by, flying a kite, purpose were misspelt and
incorrect phrases have also been used.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates need to do some focused study of Hindi and also to improve translation skills
especially by making the correct choice of words/phrases appropriate to the context and paying
special attention to gender-specific grammar in Hindi.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Good overall performance apart from minor errors in all three Aspects.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Although overall translations were good, candidates left various target text words in English. A
Hindi reader will not necessarily be able to read any English and words such as proper nouns
should have been transliterated. There were also minor inaccuracies such as the translation of
great aunt as “big aunt”. Strict has been translated as “angry”. currently wearing was omitted.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were minor errors such as in the sentence slumped down deeper, where an incorrect tense
was used.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were occasional minor spelling mistakes in Hindi words.

Recommendations to candidates
To take note of the comments above.

UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Translations were good except for a few repetitive errors that did not distort the meaning.


                                                                                                 57
Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There were minor errors that did not distort the meaning, for example the last sentence of the
penultimate paragraph (you can just mold or cast it) has been left out.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Minors errors in using the correct gender-specific adjectives and verbs in a few places as in the
sentence Day had hoped...

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Some minor spelling errors such as in the Hindi word in ceramics experts. This does not distort the
meaning.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates should pay extra attention to gender-specific verbs and adjectives; they should also
make sure that no source text words or sentences are omitted.

UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Translations were of poor quality overall. Many English words were left untranslated such as
migrants’ labour, welfare, housing, benefit, review, etc. There were many inaccuracies, errors in
grammatical structures and also spelling mistakes.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There were many inaccuracies leading to difficulty in following the translations. Apart from many
words being left in English, there are serious inaccuracies in several places. For example in
paragraph 2, Sefton commissioned…parts is translated as “how to use migrants to population to
improve old, jobless public in the city”. The last sentence was translated as “But because the
formula of the money is based on old population it reduces the number of people coming again.”
There are several examples of mistranslations.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The sentence structures were sometimes cumbersome and confusing. Lines 20-28 proved
challenging for some and renderings were convoluted and did not reflect the original text in any
meaningful way.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Many Hindi words such as for capacity, health centre, council, etc. were misspelt. Punctuation
marks were inappropriately used or not used at all.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates should improve their understanding of the English text by reading extensively. When
finishing a translation, it must be read as a whole to make sure that it flows.


                                                -*-




                                                                                                 58
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO JAPANESE

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
The candidates overall encountered some difficulty translating key words and sentences such as
good / bad networking (lines 1, 18, 19, 22), encourage (lines 8 and 13), we’re defined by (line 16),
generous with (line 18), Bad networkers / lesser mortals (lines 19-21), a break in life (line 25),
hapless (line 29), homework (line 31), debrief (line 34), dive in (line 39) and take it gently (line 40).
The translations show insufficient comprehension of the source text in phrases and vocabulary
such as a break in life (line 25), hapless (line 29), debrief (line 34).

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The candidates were expected to select the most appropriate translation for key expressions,
giving careful consideration to the context of the text, in particular for key expressions such as
good / bad networking, hapless, homework, debrief and take it gently.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Most of the candidates showed good understanding of the sentence structures of the original text.
However several candidates encountered some difficulty translating sentences that included
hyphens (lines 12-13 and 37-38).

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were no serious errors. However, the candidates would be advised to avoid making careless
typing errors.

Recommendations to candidates
The translation should be accurate, rendering the meaning of the original piece faithfully. The
translation should read naturally, matching the tone and nuances of the original text.
Another key point is to make more effective use of the unique features of the Japanese language.
For example, it is not strictly necessary to adhere to translating you, your, we and our into
“anata(no)” and “watashitachi(no)”, as many of these personal pronouns can be replaced with jibun
and aite. Omitting the subject and using te kureru and te morau can also be effective. These types
of approaches would lead to more natural, professional translations.

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
Whilst translations were well organised, there were a few very serious errors present and it
seemed that the precise meaning of the source text was not adequately conveyed. Awkward
rendering of some of the basic technical terminology did not demonstrate that the meaning of the
source text was fully grasped, and the target audience would find the style somewhat loose and
imprecise. In addition, a few translation omissions could have been avoided if more attention had
been paid to what was actually written in the source text.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The accuracy and intended meaning of the source text should be maintained in the translation.
Example:
<Source> Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities
of the earth's surface, and rotation of the earth.
<Translation> “The atmosphere is heated by the sun, but how it heats up varies depending on the
irregularities of the earth's surface and rotation of the earth.”
Although the topic of the source text is wind, this fact was ignored in the translation.
                                                                                                       59
Mistranslation indicates a lack of fundamental understanding of the subject.
Example:
<Source> mechanical power
<Translation> 2 variations present – “mechanical power” “mechanical energy”: Power and energy
are not interchangeable terms.

The choice of terminology should be precise and maintained for the sake of clarity. Whilst
background research may be necessary in some instances, the translator should have sufficient
knowledge and understanding of the field to avoid making basic errors. For example:

In some cases, transliteration is not the preferred choice: “electrical grid”, “utility grid”.
There are more commonly used translations for wind energy resource and wind resource. The
translations registered (“wind energy source of supply” and “wind source of supply” respectively)
are not the most appropriate.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were no serious grammatical errors found in the translations and some well-organised
translations were present.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were a few minor errors in punctuation, spelling and transfer of figures, which could have
been avoided with a thorough proofreading of the translation before submission.
Generally, inconsistency in spelling (kanji or hiragana) should be avoided (e.g. connection was
rendered in two different ways).

Recommendations to candidates
First and foremost, it is important to read the source text carefully to get a full understanding of its
core meaning and nuance. Accuracy must not be sacrificed for the sake of flow. It is essential to
consider that a translation should be of suitable quality to be read by an expert in that field.
Therefore, it is essential for the candidate to have a solid background in the subject. Ensure that
proofreading is thoroughly performed against the source text.

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

General Report on Candidate Performance
The translations showed thorough understanding of the source text. Very impressive work indeed.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The candidates selected good, appropriate vocabulary and completed the translation in a highly
professional manner. The translation faithfully renders the meaning of the original piece and shows
good understanding of the source text.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The candidates showed a good grasp of the sentence structures and the translation reads
naturally, matching the tone and nuances of the original text.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
It was a good decision not to translate the brand names. However, candidates needed to
demonstrate greater care especially with the spellings.

Recommendations to candidates
Nothing further to recommend. Very impressive and professional work.


                                                                                                      60
UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Candidates do not seem to pay extra attention to detail. They also need to think that this is an
updated version of the children’s classic Alice in Wonderland. It needs to have a sense of
presence, not a boring explanation.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The candidates seem to have difficulty in translating Heaven-knows-what, pronounce and the
sentence beginning with Alice thought that….

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
1. Heaven-knows-what
   big in the city
   he’s really rather small
   The candidates show their efforts to find the right words for these.
2. Choice of words:
   Some English words have just been replaced to Japanese characters without finding the
   proper Japanese words, which would not be understood in Japan.
   E.g. flashing フラッシュ

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were some mistakes:
1. Instead of using proper Japanese full stops ( 。), English ones are used.
2. There are two Kanji mistakes.
     instead of 全然, candidates wrote 全々 .
      instead of 複製, candidates wrote 複制 .
3. The name of the doll Celia was transferred wrongly, as “Celica”.

Recommendations to candidates
• Avoid technical errors.
• Try to read the translation and think if it reads like a text originally written in Japanese.
• Do not use an easier option. To just transfer English words to Japanese characters as it
   sounds is the worst option.
• Try to contain a sense of presence if it is a novel/story.

UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Whilst the candidates produced some well-organised translation, there were a few critical errors
that gave the opposite meaning of the source text, therefore misleading the target audience. There
were also a few sentences that were rather awkward and did not adequately reflect the nuance of
the source text.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The translation must convey the precise meaning of the source text.
Example:
<Source> we could melt and cool and melt and cool
<Translation> “we could melt and heat up and melt and heat up”
This is arguably the most serious type of mistake that a translator can make.

The choice of terminology should be precise. Whilst background research may be necessary in
some instances, the translator should have sufficient knowledge and understanding of the field to
avoid making basic errors.

                                                                                                61
Example:
<Source> bioactive glass
<Translation> “bio-action glass”

<Source> chemical compositions
<Translation> “chemical compounds”

<Source> fluoride glass
<Translation> “fluoric glass”

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were no serious grammatical errors found in the translation and some well-organised
translations were present. However, the nuance of the source text was not accurately conveyed in
places. For example:

<Source> And you don't need to machine it into the precise, intricate shapes needed, say, for a
motor. You can just mold or cast it.
<Translation> “It is indeed not necessary to machine it into the exact, intricate shapes needed (eg.
motor parts). It is fine to just mold and cast it.”
The awkwardness of the second sentence of this example is difficult to convey by back translation
but it does not give the same impression of something being possible that is contained in the
source text.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were a few errors in spelling, paragraphing and transfer of names. Some words (e.g. cool,
another) could be written using kanji instead of hiragana for this kind of target audience.

Recommendations to candidates
First and foremost, it is important to read the source text carefully to get a full understanding of its
core meaning and nuance. Accuracy must not be sacrificed for the sake of flow. It is essential to
consider that a translation should be of suitable quality to be read by an expert in that field.
Therefore, it is essential for the candidate to have a solid background in the subject. Ensure that
proofreading is thoroughly performed against the source text.

UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Many candidates made the same mistakes/mis-decoding (Aspect 1). A big gap was shown
between better performers and poor performers. While the better ones seem to understand
reasonably well and they score around the border line, the poor ones seem to struggle and did not
seem to have time to organise their final translated version.
Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There are some common mistakes.
1) A8 translated as “these migrants are called A8”;
2) gangmasters translated this as “gang”, “gangster”;
3) Sarah...says they inevitably… where they was taken to be “migrants”.
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence
The candidates whose decoding is mostly satisfactory perform well in this aspect, whilst the
candidates whose decoding is poor perform poorly in this aspect as well.
Choice of words:
Some English words have just been replaced by Japanese characters without finding the proper
Japanese words, which would not be understood in Japan. For example,




                                                                                                      62
        potential:            ポーテンシャル

        primary care trust:   プライマリー・ケア・トラスト

        skill:                スキル

        policy director:      ポリシー・ダイレクター

        target:               ターゲット

        support:              サポート

        to match:             マッチする

        advice:               アドヴァイス、アドバイス

        task:                 タスク

        supplier:             サプライヤー

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
1) There were some Kanji mistakes:
   instead of 雇用, some candidates wrote 顧用 and 頭用.
2) Error of transfer of figures:
   instead of 600,000, some candidates wrote “60,000”.
   instead of tens of thousands, some candidates wrote “thousands”.
3) Punctuation problems:
   • too many commas,
   • no proper full stops,
   • one comma which is placed wrongly changes the meaning of a sentence, and also makes it
       ambiguous.
Recommendations to candidates
   • Be more aware of news in Britain in order to know what is written about in the source text.
     For example, the mistranslations of A8 and gangmasters could be avoided.
   • Aspect 3 errors can easily be avoided with thorough proofreading and extra care.
   • Try to read the translation and think if it reads like a text originally written in Japanese.
   • Do not use an easier option. To just transfer English words to Japanese characters as it
     sounds is the worst option.


                                               -*-




                                                                                                63
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

JAPANESE INTO ENGLISH

UNITS 01 / 02A / 02B / 02C / 03D / 03E

General Report on Candidate Performance
For foreign, i.e. non-Japanese translators even if reasonably fluent in reading the language, the
main difficulty was what to them appears to be the “vagueness” of written Japanese: this arises
primarily from the difficulty in turn of always being sure how or what words are to be associated
with those that follow: Japanese proceeds from the particular to the general but which particular
words qualify which more general words was often not obvious, partly because there was no
number in inflected words (i.e. verbs and adjectives) and no inflections for nouns, with no helpful
gender to pinpoint what adjectives qualify them: moreover the subjects of verbs and adjectives
(which are semi-verbed) are often unspecified. This last problem, for example, seems to have
misled one candidate, in the General Paper, into picking the wrong subject for what appeared to be
a passive verb which in fact was a “passive form” used in the “active sense”, merely to show that
the unspecified subject was the Crown Prince and was the subject.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
This, as might be expected, proved to be the testing Aspect of the three. One passage, in the
General paper, about the present Emperor’s dealings with his fellow countrymen, turned out to be
rather a snare. In the Japanese the passage reads, say, Doubts about whether the Emperor’s
behaviour [an unspecified subject in the Japanese text] conflicts with the limits set in Article 4 of
the Constitution for his role as the Symbol Emperor. In one otherwise first-rate performance, the
candidate translates the passage after conflicts with as “the restrictions outlined in Article 4 of the
Constitution of Japan – the part which holds that the Emperor is to be a symbolic figurehead only.”
Unfortunately, it is Article 1 that declares the Emperor is to be the Symbol of the State and of the
unity of the [Japanese] people, and also that this position is to be based on the general will of the
people with whom resides sovereign power. Article 4 prescribes how this role was to be
implemented, i.e. by a declaration that the Emperor’s powers in matters of state are limited to what
the Constitution allows and cannot extend to governance. Some candidates successfully avoided
this snare but the fourth seems to fall foul of it by writing “Article 4 of the Constitution which limits
the Emperor to a symbol.” The lesson to be learnt from this problem was that candidates should be
cautious over passages that refer to matters they are not familiar with and stick as far as possible
to the source text. The candidates that did stick to that text got it right.
Another kind of mistake that can be avoided if on one’s guard arises from inconsistencies in one’s
translation. In the Science paper a candidate writes “this theory is uncertain” when the theory has
already been implicitly “disavowed” (which is what the Japanese word translated wrongly as
“uncertain” means) earlier in the same sentence and more expressly is disavowed in the next
sentence.
An example of a very serious mistake, which arises from failing to consider carefully the meaning
of a word in its context, was to be found in the Literature paper, where one candidate wrongly
translated a passage as “After many years of this, I was married and I used the same when I
became a mother myself” which should have been, for example, This was the same when I grew
up, after I married and after I became a mother. The Japanese for when I grew up was toshigoro
no koro. Toshigoro’s more usual meaning seems to be puberty, marriageable age (for women) but
toshigoro can also mean for many years: however it was followed by no koro meaning at a time
when and the expression was followed by a particle which aligns it with getting married and
becoming a mother.
Another snare was a word in the source language that has two similar but different meanings in the
target language, one of which may nowadays be more usual but was not that used in the source
text (and so was misleading in the target text). An example was to be found in the Social Science
paper where the securitisation of sub-prime mortgages was described as due to a development of
                                                                                                       64
financial techniques. The word in Japanese for technique is more often used technology which
would seem not to be suitable in this case. Two candidates settled for “technology” and one for
“techniques”.
Despite these failings none of the candidates should lose heart, even when inaccuracies of the
kind described, or other kinds, lead to a “Fail”. One of the strongest candidates had a “Fail” in the
Business paper. This was probably due either to a time constraint or to fatigue. In describing
statistics it was failed to mention that they included comparisons of recent figures with those of an
earlier period. The reason for these omissions (which made nonsense of the passages in question)
was difficult to understand except for time constraint or fatigue. The only way to avoid such
damaging gaps in translating was to check the work after its completion by careful comparison with
the source text.
Good sentences include: “An especially vital role is played by the ‘Common Rail System’, a
combustion injection device which shoots the fuel at high pressure into the combustion chamber as
efficiently as possible”; the candidate then added a translators’ note about the need to check with
experts whether the expression “Common Rail System” for the Japanese “Komon Reeru
Shisutemu” would be used by the motor industry.
In the Literature paper, one candidate correctly translated “baby language” used by a grown-up
when asking a child its age by “I am how old” and another wrongly made the I (better would be we)
by “Billy darling”, an invented name, not in the Japanese text, and missed the point.
Unfortunately a generally good translation may be let down by inaccuracies that arise not from a
failure to see what the Japanese is really about, but from a failure to attend to small but significant
details. In the examination room it may be more difficult to check such details but if checks are
routine on the part of the candidate (especially if s/he regularly engages in written translation of
Japanese texts) the practice should easily be followed in the examination.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
On the whole every candidate seemed able to turn a Japanese text into sound, coherent and
cohesive English. Many mistakes were of the careless kind such as single nouns with plural verbs
and the opposite. For example, in the General paper “…these past couple of years has been…”.
Or in the same paper, “the range of duties have increased…”. Of a similar kind are missing words,
usually prepositions or articles such as (in the General paper) “I will abide with everyone else […]
the Constitution” where by has been omitted, or, in the same paper “This is something […] must be
very difficult to overcome”, where that has been omitted before must.
Another kind of what was probably a careless mistake may be found in the Business paper where
a candidate wrote “saw its sales figures for international travel decline by 0.3% since last year”:
has seen (the subject was the “Japan Travel Agency”) should replace “saw”.
Only occasionally was incoherence to be found, for example, in the General paper the phrase “in
order to provide this feeling of what it means to be an Emperor again” could easily be
misunderstood to mean that the feeling referred to being “an Emperor again” whereas in the
Japanese, the again goes with provide (it immediately precedes it in the Japanese text) and can
mean restore.
The standard of cohesion was also high, with a lapse in the Technology paper where a new
paragraph begins in the translation as “Seven car manufacturers, including Toyota added on the
day that…”. To be cohesive with the previous paragraph this should read These seven companies,
including Toyota, added, on the same day, that… (“added” does not appear in the Japanese text
but same day does).
Apart from some other minor mistakes all the candidates performed reasonably well, despite the
two more serious mistakes of incoherence and lack of cohesion recorded, respectively, above.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were minor mistakes such as either the failure to insert commas, or their insertion where
they should not be. For example, in the Technology paper “has made diesel cars more popular
                                                                                                     65
with sales of new cars in Europe now at half of total car sales” needs a comma after “popular”. In
the General paper “but, he cannot” seems a mistake for “, but he cannot”.
Any misspelling seems due to carelessness, for example “filers” for filters in the last line of a
candidates’ Technology paper translation. In the Social Science paper “knock on effect” would be
better with a hyphen, i.e. knock-on effect, unless in a Churchillian dislike of hyphens knockon as
one word was preferred. In the Business paper a candidate, in the same paragraph, wrote “labor
market” and “labour market”. None of the mistakes mentioned above would mislead a reader but
the “transfer” of Japanese names was a different matter. This was difficult in translating Japanese
because the Chinese characters used (and names are mostly written by using them) have many
different pronunciations, many in turn not commonly used in other cases.
The problem took a particularly difficult form in the General paper where a quotation was ascribed
to a 16th century Emperor, an “Emperor Gonara”. One candidate called him “a previous Nara
Emperor”, another “An Emperor from the late 8th century” and another “An Emperor of the late
Nara Period”. The nara in Gonara was written with the same Chinese characters as those used for
the Nara Period (710-794 AD), and that used for Go can mean after, its usual meaning in fact.
However, a name plus Tenoo (Emperor) usually denotes a particular Emperor, whilst in a much
used Japanese monolingual dictionary the Gonara Emperor’s details are to be found under his
name. The candidates were “guessing” whereas, when faced with names that they are not sure of
they would be advised to make their uncertainty known to the reader and undertake to find out
what the correct name should be; it would be a suitable subject for a translator’s note (see also
below).
There were also some difficult names in the Literature paper not to be found, with the Chinese
characters used, in a dictionary of over 30,000 Japanese names, intended for English readers.
One candidate indicated his/her uncertainty in a translator’s note for one but not for the other really
difficult name, whilst another candidate did not indicate any doubts at all: both candidates chose
different names.
Despite these mistakes, only one just failed this Aspect, in the General paper.


                                                  -*-




                                                                                                     66
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO KURDISH (SORANI)

General Report on Candidate Performance
The performance was average.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The text has been affected due to:
   •   Inaccuracies, such as:
       “symbol” for gestures, “lessons learned” for lessons to be learned, “in my opinion” for many
       counts, “sometimes” for often, “project” for idea, “politics” for political, “mixture” for
       networking, “light” for tiny, “benefit” for value, “tests” for experiences, “change” for replace,
       “share” for network, “environment” for boundaries, “behave” for keep company, “kind” for
       generous, “to each other” for others, “attached” for monopolised, “miss goals” for self-
       defeating, “factor” for break, “throwing” for pitching, “quickly” for relentlessly, “idea” for
       impression, “book” for article, “change” for exchange and “others” for each other.
   •   Omissions, such as: it is really as simple as that, to take time, Small talk can be your secret
       networking weapon, unexpected, the hint, physical and respond.

   •   Additions, like: “anyway”, “a factor”, “but”, “handsome”, “promise” and “try”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Grammatically speaking, the text was coherent enough in spite of some minor grammatical/order
problems, such as: “suggest” for suggest you and the use of “for me” at the beginning of the
sentence instead of the end.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Examples of technical problems are:

   •    Misspelling: there are spelling mistakes (and sometimes lack of space between two words),
        such as:
        “meet”, “meeting”, “value”, “gesture”, “internet”, “background”, “profession”, “many”, “how”,
       “promise”, “religion” and “internet”.

   •   Illegibility: the text was sometimes illegible, which makes it difficult for the reader to follow.

Recommendations to candidates
   • The produced work needs to be as accurate as possible, i.e. without any addition or
     omission, but taking into consideration that literal translation was avoided.
   • Familiarisation with general terms and expressions in both languages (source and target) is
     important.
   • Spelling should be checked by looking up the word in the dictionary.
   • Handwriting needs to be as legible as possible.

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

General Report on Candidate Performance
The performance was not satisfactory.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Overall the text has been distorted due to lots of inaccuracies, as in:


                                                                                                            67
Greed and lured: lack accuracy; Gordon Gekko: a note should have been used; “best” for better;
“method” for package; “property” for equity; “a lot of” for piles; “you understand it” for
understandable; “attackers” for marauders; “Pepsico”s Martin Glenn” & “Coca Cola”s Mary
Minnick”: a note should have been used; “information” for advertising; M & C Saatchi: a note
should have been used; “circumstance” for opportunity; “throw away” was wrongly translated;
“equal” for bespoke; “designed” was literally translated; “fast” for faster; “behaviour” for approach;
“reduce” for cull; “Cadbury Schweppes”: a note should have been used; “which is” for equivalent to;
“time has come” lacks accuracy; “questioning” for question; “unclean” for unfair; ”words/speech” for
comments; “general supervisor” for chairman; “discrepancy” lacks accuracy; “pay tax at a lesser
rate” for break; “in order to” for than; the choice of word for investment was difficult to understand;
“dependent” for committed; “driving greater efficiencies” and “tends to be taken seriously” lack
accuracy; “in the mean time” for while; “keeping an eye on” for obsessed with; “company” for
brands; “to ignite any interest” lacks accuracy; king was just transliterated.
Also, there are some additions, such as “whereas”, “experience”, “money”, “allowing”, “matter”,
“related to” and “previously”.
And omissions, such as: though, now, a means, and and break.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Grammatically, the text was ok, but there are mistakes, such as:
   • the use of plural form instead of the singular, as in: “industries”, “industry”, “millions”, “they
      demanded” for “she demanded”;
   • subject-verb agreement;
   • preposition “with” for and;
   • lack of indefinite article, as in “a cleaning lady”;
   • lack and addition of relative pronoun “that”;
   • the use of adjective instead of adverb or noun, as in “primarily”, “responsibility”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Although the handwriting was not always neat, it was legible enough. However, there are spelling
mistakes, such as in the translations of “greed”, “need”, “spell out” “private”, “stock”, “industry”,
“without a job”, “stripping”, “equivalent”, “made”, “drinks”, “now”, inquiry”, “buying out”, “system”,
“labour” and “show”.

Recommendations to candidates
   • The translated text needs to be as accurate as possible, i.e. without any addition or
     omission, but taking into consideration that literal translation should be avoided.
   • Candidates should get familiarised with business terms and expressions in both source and
     target languages.
   • Candidates should do further work on grammatical points, such as: singularity/plurality,
     subject-verb agreement, prepositions, definite/indefinite articles, relative pronouns and the
     appropriate use of adjectives, adverbs/nouns.
   • Spelling should be checked by looking up the word in the dictionary.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The performance was satisfactory.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The text was accurate in spite of some problems such as:
For factory, shiver and tantrum, more common words should have been used; how you do make
Heaven-knows-what was wrongly translated; recipe, clutched, despite that fact and sizes lack
accuracy; “desired” for favourite; “this one” for one; “sometimes” for often, “dangerous” for horrible,
“in fact” for the fact, “breathed” for sighed, “astonish” for make laugh and “grove” for vegetable
garden.
                                                                                                     68
The notes for November and funny are not essential.
There are also some omissions, such as: so, only, even, folds and hooves.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The text was coherent, but there are some grammatical problems, such as:
   • the use of the pronoun you in “you slumped” instead of she slumped;
   • lack of the verb to be (is) in a frightful city;
   • the use of past tense instead of present tense and vice versa as in called, hugged and
       wrapped;
   • the use of the plural form instead of the singular, as in: “factories”;
   • the word order as in “very indeed angry”;
   • lack of the preposition in’ as in “hugged”;
   • the use of the noun “rain” instead of the verbal form was raining.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The text was legible, but there are some minor spelling mistakes, such as in the renderings of
Alice, Didsbury, Celia, pattering, city and whatever.

Recommendations to candidates
   • The translated text needs to be as accurate as possible, i.e. without any addition or
     omission, but taking into consideration that literal translation should be avoided.
   • The use of more common words for the benefit of the readership.
   • Candidates should get familiarised with business terms and expressions in both source and
     target languages.
   • Candidates should do further work on grammatical points, such as the proper use of
     pronouns, verb to be, complete/incomplete tense, singularity/plurality, word order,
     prepositions and the appropriate use of nouns/verbs.
   • Spelling should be checked by looking up the word in the dictionary.

UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
The performance was satisfactory.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The text was satisfactorily accurate in spite of some wrong choices of words such as:
“complain” for sue, “say” for claim, “Europe” for European, “personal” for private, “informed” for
alleged, “black name” for discredit “in order to” for in an attempt to; “favour” lacks accuracy;
“shows” for argued, “right” for legitimate, “attempt” for pursue, “disputed” for disagreed, “a simple
decision” for judgment, “the first time” for prima facie (a note should have been used to explain it),
“bored” for low mood’ “Wales” for Welsh, “at times” for while; “to have taken” was literally
translated; “too often” lacks accuracy; “destroy credibility” for discredit, “moreover” for extended,
“trickier” for tricky, “exchange of conversation” for correspondence, “argue” for pursue, “furniture”
for facilities (a note should have been used to avoid the inaccuracy), “decision” for judgement,
“understanding” for expectation.
Also there are some additions, like: “because of that”, “who she had been calling”, “previous”, “in
advance”, “her behaviour” and “thus”.
And there are some omissions of words such as fact, funded, case and notions.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The text was coherent, but there are some grammatical problems, such as:
   • lack of the preposition of in European Court of Human Rights.
                                                                                                    69
   •   word order problem, as in usage and to reading faxes,
   •   the use of plural form instead of the singular for judges, employers and communications.
   •   the use of a definite noun in “the campaign” for an indefinite one.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures, dates,
legibility etc.)
The text was legible, but there are sometimes minor misspellings, such as in the renderings of
Welsh, successfully, Carmarthenshire, extended, received, according to, appear, dislike and fact.
Besides, Welsh was just transliterated.

Recommendations to candidates
   • The translated work needs to be as accurate as possible, i.e. without any addition or
     omission, but taking into consideration that literal translation should be avoided.
   • Familiarisation with legal terms and expressions in both source and target languages.
   • Candidates should do further work on grammatical points, such as prepositions, word
     order, singular/plurality and definite/indefinite articles.
   • Spelling should be checked by looking up the word in the dictionary.


                                               -*-




                                                                                                  70
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO NORWEGIAN

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
The candidates performed well, producing coherent texts that conveyed the spirit of the original
text and had few errors and omissions of any seriousness.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
On the whole the candidates had a good understanding of the subject matter and employed
appropriate vocabulary and register. At times, however, both candidates used inappropriate or
inaccurate terms (e.g. words and phrases such as “effekt” to translate impact instead of virkning;
“lekser vi har lært” instead of lærdom vi har fått to translate lessons learned; “smyger seg inn i” to
translate slide into rather than glir inn i).
Although comprehension of the text was basically good, there were some small misunderstandings
(eg, “generous with your contacts” was not the same as “generous towards your contacts”) and
some omissions (“whatever topic is under discussion” is not the same as the topic under
discussion; the really before contentious qualifies the adjective and should be expressed in the
Norwegian text).
However, there are a number of examples of excellent choice of language and suitable idioms
(“samtaler på tomannshånd”, “kringkaster sin visdom”, “gå hodestups inn i”, “i egen person eller
on-line”, and the overall impression of the text in both cases was that they are a fairly accurate
rendering of the original text.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Again, candidates performed well, their work only occasionally being spoiled by the use of English
sentence structure (or perhaps word for word translation), e.g. it is really is as simple as that
translated by “det er virkelig så enkelt” rather than så enkelt er det, or “arrangere en avtale” instead
of avtale et møte. Other small errors of language were found (mixing subject and object forms of
personal pronouns – “man/deg” instead of du/deg – in one sentence, but - on the whole - sentence
structure was sound and the translations were well-organised and clear.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The translations were correct in all major technical elements, but there were one or two minor
spelling and punctuation mistakes (“hande” instead of handle, “mester” instead of mestrer,
rennomé instead of renommé, a missing comma). Accents were included where necessary.

Recommendations to candidates
Try to avoid allowing English to influence your Norwegian.

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
Candidates performed well, producing a fairly close rendering of the original text, with only a few
errors of language or translation.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
On the whole, a good understanding of the subject matter was shown and appropriate vocabulary
and register were employed. At times, however, there were inappropriate, inaccurate or incorrect
terms (eg, “jordens omdreininger” instead of jordrotasjon, “vindtilstrømning” instead of
vindstrømning, “vindfarmer” instead of vindparker). There were also some examples of incorrect
register (eg, “USA sitt vindatlas” is too informal for this type of text).

                                                                                                      71
The good grasp of the informational content of the text and the use of correct terminology more
often than not (“vindturbiner”, “mekanisk kraft” “vindenergi”…) resulted in a translation of a sound
standard.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were one or two errors of grammar/language (e.g. one instance of incorrect preposition
usage, “motsatt måte enn” instead of motsatt måte av; “vindenergi utvikling” should be written in
one word in Norwegian).
There was also the odd instance of an English sentence structure (e.g. ”Så hvordan produserer
vindturbiner elektrisitet” instead of Hvordan produserer så vindturbiner elektrisitet).
However, for the most part language use was fluent with well-controlled sentences. The text was
clear and coherent.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
A couple of spelling mistakes and an omitted heading were the technical errors found in the
translation.

Recommendations to candidates
Double check technical terms to be sure you use the correct ones are used. Check the translation
carefully for anything that might have been omitted.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The rendering was fairly close to the original text, with only a few errors of language or translation.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
On the whole, the translation showed a good understanding of the subject matter and appropriate
vocabulary and register were employed. At times, however, there were inappropriate, inaccurate
or incorrect terms (eg, “lynet slo kraftig ned” instead of lynet glimtet kraftig to translate lightning that
was flashing madly; “plantet” instead of dyrket to translate grown; grønnsakshagen” instead of
kjøkkenhagen to translate vegetable garden).
There was only one omission from the text, in warm red dress, where warm was not translated.
The text was for the most part a good rendering of the original, with appropriate language and
register. Idioms were used to good effect (eg, “til hennes tantes bitre forargelse” “dødd og kommet
til himmelen”).

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were one or two errors of Norwegian usage (e.g. “gudene-vet” should be gudene-vet-hva)
and a couple of instances of slightly clumsy or inaccurate expression (eg, “som hørtes veldig ut
som klapringen av …”, “og lærte henne slike fantastiske lange ord”). Errors of grammar were few
(eg, one instance of incorrect preposition usage “tenkte Alice med seg selv” instead of tenkte Alice
for seg selv, and one instance where an adverb in the original was replaced by an adjective
thereby altering slightly what was said about the pinafore (splendidly warm and red, not “splendid,
warm and red”).
However, language use in general was fluent with well-controlled sentences. The text read like a
story from a children’s book, which was exactly what it was.
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were very few technical errors – one comma mistake and failure to include emphasis at one
point. Punctuation in connection with direct speech was correct. Accents were included where
necessary.
Recommendations to candidates
Sentence structure should be kept simple to avoid clumsy expression.
                                                                                                         72
UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The candidate performed well, producing a fairly close rendering of the original text, with only a few
errors of language or translation.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
On the whole, a good understanding of the subject matter was shown and appropriate vocabulary
and register were employed. At times, however, there were inappropriate, inaccurate or incorrect
terms (e.g. “jordens håndverkere” instead of håndverkere på jorden, “maskinere” instead of
bearbeide, “og” instead of eller). At one point the original text included an example of reported or
indirect speech that was not expressed as such in the translation. There were also some examples
of incorrect register (e.g. “I Day sine innledende eksperimenter” and “menneskeknokler” are both
too informal for this type of text).
One translator’s note was included and was satisfactory.
For the most part, the candidate used correct terminology (“smeltedigler”, “smeltemassen”,
“bioaktivt glass”…) and was able to convey the message of the original text in a satisfactory
manner.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were one or two errors of grammar (eg, one instance of incorrect preposition usage,
“korroderende mot instead of korroderende på or i møte med, “på romferger” instead of ombord i
romferger).
In a scientific text such as this, it would normally be expected that non-metric units be converted
into metric units for the Norwegian reader.
However, language use in general was fluent with good sentence structure. The text was basically
clear and coherent.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were a couple of spelling mistakes. It should also be noted that when including a translator’s
note, it was not necessary to include the footnote number each time the word explained therein
was mentioned in the text.
Recommendations to candidates
The use of informal expressions should be avoided in such this kind of context. Candidates are
reminded that knowledge of scientific terminology is very importan.

UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
This text proved to be a very challenging one and unfortunately the rendering of the original text
was not produced faithfully.
Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The text did not seem to have been understood completely and there were one or two serious
errors in translation, (e.g. gangmasters was translated by “gangsterkonger”, thereby introducing
gangsters into the text; immigrants and migrants were translated by the same term; indigenous
was translated by “naturlig” rather than innfødt or the like). Some omissions were made and the
candidate struggled to find adequate translations for terms such as primary care trusts, policy
director, working population etc. Inappropriate terms were also used at times (eg, “urørt ressurs”
instead of uutnyttet ressurs and “offisielt arbeidsledige” instead of registrerte arbeidsledige).
However, the register of the original text was kept faithfully and there were also some good
expressions that were appropriate for the type of text (“skjult arbeidsledinghet”, “et permanent
innslag i …”).
There were no translator’s notes, but such notes would have been useful in order to explain, for
example, some of the bodies or institutions referred to.
                                                                                                    73
The inadequate grasp of informational content and the errors/inaccuracies in the rendering of the
original text resulted in a translation that was not of a professional standard.
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The language used in this text was not always fluent and grammatically correct (e.g. “en
undersøkelse med hensikt å” should read en undersøkelse i den hensikt å ...; “bør gi målrettet
støtte så immigrantenes ...” should start bør gi målrettet støtte for å kunne tilpasse …). In one or
two places sentence structure was a little clumsy, such as “forsøke å hanskes med å hjelpe …”.
At times, however, the language used was fluent with well-controlled sentences, and it is probable
that some of the inappropriate usage was a result of focusing all energy on solving problems of
comprehension and finding suitable Norwegian translations for many of the English terms.
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were a couple of spelling and punctuation errors and part of a sentence was omitted. The
text was otherwise technically sound.
Recommendations to candidates
It is advisable to always double-check the translation to make sure that no part of the text has been
omitted.


                                                 -*-




                                                                                                   74
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO PANJABI

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
The translation contained some excellent words. However, the word networking was not translated
at all. Besides, there were some omissions and additions and use of some inappropriate words.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Most of the text was translated and there were some mistakes. Renderings of phrases such as
people you meet, education, friends, hog their attention, doctor you meet, don’t dive in, exchanging
ideas and talking were omitted. “wisdom gained by experiences” was added. front the show, face
for presenting, sending an article were translated wrongly.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The handwritten translation was sometimes difficult to read. However, it was organised. There
were few grammatical errors and the occasional poor sentence rendering but nothing too serious.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were too many spelling errors which with extra care could have been avoided.

Recommendations to candidates
This translation could have been an excellent piece if the meaning of networking (the main topic of
the text) had been explained in Panjabi. An option could have been to write a translator’s note and
carry on using the English word.
There were many spelling mistakes, which with more attention, could have been avoided. One
should always make time to read the translation and correct the mistakes. Spelling errors can be
costly and the use of wrong vowel symbols can change the word. Dictionaries are a good source of
help but one should always make sure to double check the meaning in a particular context.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The candidate has a good understanding of the text and used some excellent words. However,
s/he made few errors which are misleading. The candidate used the word “puppet” for doll and the
text gives you the impression that Alice has a puppet not a doll. Pinafore was translated as an
outer garment like “overall” which should have been a type of sleeveless dress. There were some
very careless spelling mistakes which could have been avoided with some more attention.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The candidate conveyed most of the text well but made some mistakes that could change the
meaning of the original message. The renderings of drowsy, tired, recently, big in city, small, doll
and pinafore were incorrect. There were a couple of omissions that did not make much difference
to the meaning.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The text was well presented and organised. However, some sentence rendering was poor. Some
vowel symbols were misplaced and in some places the use of comma or full stop was incorrect.
This lead to misunderstanding and confusion.




                                                                                                  75
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were too many spelling errors that with extra care could have been avoided. The overuse of
the double sound vowel ( ˇ ) makes a different pronunciation in Panjabi.

Recommendations to candidates
The translation could have been very good if another checking could have spotted careless
mistakes. Candidates should always take time to read and check the translation. Spelling errors
can be costly and the use of wrong vowel symbols can change the word. . Dictionaries are a good
source of help but one should always make sure to double check the meaning in a particular
context.
The use of the keyboard’s upper or lower case characters was very important. Misplaced vowel
symbols, commas or full stops were the cause of many errors.

UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
The translations were not up to the standard required to pass the examination. The original
message was distorted and the text was misleading. Words such as alleged, Privacy Law, rights,
law, amongst others, were not translated. England was translated as “Britain”. There were too
many spelling mistakes.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The candidate could not convey the original message of the text correctly. There were too many
wrong translations. For example, law was translated as “rules”, Human rights as “Human welfare”,
Privacy Law as “isolation rule”, the woman alleged as “women’s offence”, etc. The translation failed
to convey the complexity and the seriousness of the case.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The text was well presented and organised. However, some sentence rendering was poor. Some
vowel symbols were misplaced and in some places the use of comma or full stop was incorrect.
This lead to misunderstandings and confusion.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were too many spelling errors that with extra care could have been avoided. There were
some pronunciation-related faults in Panjabi words as in woman, on and human.

Recommendations to candidates
The translation could have been very good if another checking could have spotted careless
mistakes. Candidates should take time to read and make sure they understand the complexity and
seriousness of the text. For example, Privacy could sometimes mean isolation but not in this text.
The use of dictionaries is very helpful but candidates must make sure the correct word is chosen
for the specific context. The use of the keyboard’s upper or lower case characters is very
important. Misplaced vowel symbols, commas or full stops were the cause of many errors.


                                                -*-




                                                                                                  76
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

POLISH INTO ENGLISH

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
Overall the general standard of candidates was good as far as the comprehension of text was
concerned. However, if it comes to submitting any of the finished translations to a publisher some
editing would need to be done. All candidates showed potential ability to improve their finished
work, as the level of comprehension was good. The weakness lay in aspects of English usage,
presentation and punctuation.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Overall the candidates managed to convey appropriately the essence of meaning in their
translated version of their General paper. Most of the candidates did not make any translator’s
notes, when some may have added further clarity to the comprehension of the text.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
All translated passages showed a well understood and therefore organised final work. In the
instance of a paper that was failed, the candidate’s use of “the” was so repetitive that it seemed
that their knowledge of English grammar was too limited for such an advanced translation. English
syntax needs to be worked on by all candidates.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Spelling was of a good standard. Punctuation was of a poor standard in most of the finished
scripts. Transfer of names etc. was good in all marked papers. Legibility was of a reasonable
standard with room for improvement in presentation. Candidates need to be aware of the use of
commas and inverted commas.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates should always make sure they leave enough time at the end of the exam to re-read the
paper. All candidates need to be aware the final version reads authentic English. Grammar needs
revision.

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
The texts were not rendered in idiomatic English. The source text was translated word for word and
replicating Polish word order. Candidates should pay special attention to cohesion and coherence
and in particular to pronouns, prepositions and word order.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There were a series of mistakes not acceptable at this level. For example, “If the glue was put
unevenly” was written instead of If the glue was applied unevenly; “says” was written where it
should have been said; “longetivity” [sic] was written where it should have been life.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were some problems with prepositions. For example, “should not disappear by the next 15
years” was written instead of should not disappear in the next 15 years.
There was interference from Polish, including Polish word order that makes the following examples
difficult to understand in English: “some discs might be unable to be read”, “the last, thickest but
mostly getting scratched element, is (…)”.


                                                                                                  77
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Polish conventions instead of English ones were followed. For example “0,5” instead of 0.5.

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

General Report on Candidate Performance
Some basic concepts were not rendered properly. This lead to misleading information.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There were some basic business words that were not translated properly. For example, dobra was
translated as “property” where in fact in this context dobra meant any goods that can be traded.
A sentence in the source text discussed different levels of probability for the inflation to be below or
above the target. One candidate omitted the word probability and ended up telling their reader that
inflation will be below the target when in fact the Polish text said that the probability of inflation
being below the target is smaller than the probability of inflation being above the target.
The expression mid term was rendered as “mid year” and “middle period”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were some articles missing such as in funds from the EU, in the National Bank of Poland.
There was inconsistency when a candidate used “%” and then “per cent” in the same script.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
No particular comments.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
The atmosphere, pathos and meaning of most translations were faithful to the original piece. The
mood of the piece was well evoked with an intelligent and precise choice of words. There were
some Distinctions. The work was extremely good and promising.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Candidates showed a very high standard. One Pass mark demonstrated a good comprehension of
the original piece; however, the rendering was at times clumsy and the passage lacked the flow of
the original. For example, the rendering "though with a lot of life in her" is not good English, even if
it brings across the meaning.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The organisation of the translated passage demonstrated thorough comprehension of the original
piece. Coherence remained consistent throughout. Work on improving English grammar should be
continued by some candidates.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Spelling was of high standard with no errors made. Transfer of names etc. was accurate. Legibility
was good in all papers. Presentation could be neater. Some candidates need to revise punctuation
rules. The Distinction papers made enjoyable reading.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates who wish to translate literature are advised to read as many texts as possible in the
target language. There is always room for further improvement until excellence is achieved and
none of the original flow of language is lost. Candidates need to develop their ‘feel’ for the English
language, according to the period in which the work is set. This will enable to make an accurate
choice of words and for the prose to flow accordingly.

                                                                                                      78
UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
There were one or two phrases that the candidates found challenging (please see below under
Aspect 1).

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Challenging phrases include:
    - lot rejsowy which was variously translated as “a liner”, “a light aircraft” or “an airliner”, when
       in fact it denotes a scheduled flight (as opposed to charter or cheap flights).
    - emigracja was also quite challenging to translate, particularly in phrases such as mała
       emigracja. Candidates tended to translate literally as “small emigration”, which was not
       easy to understand.
    - “The great emigration goes west” would have been better as Most emigrants go west.
    - It should have been Thanks to the media and not just “Thanks to media”.
    - A serious mistake was made with the sale of Delta Bank, which should have been the sales
       department of Delta Bank.
    - “send a mink” would have been better as send a mink fur.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were some grammatical mistakes, such as the use of the pronoun “they” when it referred to
money. An alternative translation was once given in brackets: “big prize (jackpot)”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
“Great Britain” and “England” would have been better translated as United Kingdom. Also note that
in Polish Anglia is often used to denote UK; “flys” should have been flies; “head hunters” should
have been headhunters; Airport was misspelled as “airpot”; “singletton” was written instead of
singleton; “Definetely” was written instead of definitely.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates should pay more attention to spelling. All candidates had problems with hyphenation.
Translations will always benefit from one last check. It is important for candidates to translate into
their mother tongue.

UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
The source text was not fully understood. See below for examples.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The following are examples of mistranslations:
    - a specialist word karniści which means lawyers specialising in criminal law was translated
        as “penologists”;
    - wręcz was translated as “on the contrary” (wręcz przeciwnie) when in fact this word is only
        used to emphasise what was already said earlier and not to contradict it.
    -
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
No particular comments on this Aspect.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were problems with legibility in the handwritten scripts.




                                                                                                      79
Recommendations to candidates
Translations will always benefit from one last check. Candidates should get familiarised with legal
vocabulary and practise translation in this field. It is important for candidates to translate into their
mother tongue.


                                                   -*-




                                                                                                       80
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

PORTUGUESE INTO ENGLISH

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
The level of comprehension was very good in many cases, as was the quality of the written
English, and the technical aspects associated with the translation. The translations read fluently
and rendered accurately the particular nuances and idiomatic expressions within the source text,
which consisted of an interview with a known writer speaking in the first person. For example, Será
que ela está convencida? was correctly translated as “full of herself” or “big-headed”. Thought had
been put into reflecting the accurate register of the source text and finding an appropriate
equivalent in the English translations.
Where the candidates had failed, this was due to two main factors: firstly very over-literal
translation of vocabulary which did not accurately reflect the meaning of the source text, or
rendered the meaning ambiguous; secondly, several different types of inaccuracies in the syntax of
sentences: either through confusing noun and verb order or misinterpretation of the use and
conjugations of verbs in the source text. In the case of those who failed, the quality of English
expression was poor and those candidates may not have been native speakers of English. It is
important for candidates to translate into their mother tongue.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
In the case of candidates who passed, the level of comprehension was good. Their work contained
some very apposite renderings, such as “she is a bit full of herself, isn’t she?” for será que ela é
convencida? and “one that didn’t sully my soul or corrupt my heart” for [um] que não me
conspurque a alma, que não estrague a minha zona dos afectos.
Overall, candidates’ main weakness in Aspect 1 is not comprehension, but rendering into the target
language.
One candidate who failed by quite a margin showed serious deficiencies at the level of English
expression.
Some translations showed a tendency to translate a little too literally from the Portuguese, or used
standard dictionary translations of particular vocabulary items, which were inappropriate for the
particular context and register of the source text: for example, precupação was translated as
“worry”, when the discourse of the speaker in the source text implied interest or concern. To give
another example, the noun somatória, which implies a sum total was simply translated as
“number”. There was also some awkwardness when translating vocabulary that has no direct
correspondence in English, such as atribuições (not to be confused with atributo meaning
attributes). Atribuições in the context of the text, more correctly translates as rights or powers.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
With a few exceptions, this Aspect was good and with no major deficiencies. However, further care
needs to be taken with the use of the appropriate verb tenses which, as in the case of the future
tense for example, is used for the purposes of speculation, as in I wonder if…. These are easily
mistranslated if not examined carefully in their appropriate contexts. The same applies to the
compound tenses which use an auxiliary verb. For example, Acho que tudo isso terá ajudado was
translated as “I think all of this will help” in one instance. Specific difficulties also arose in places,
with the over literal translation of sentences, which followed the word order of the source text. More
care in rethinking the equivalent word order in English would have helped. For example, outras
coisas que tenho a impressão was translated in one instance as “Other things that I had the
impression”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Again, with few exceptions, there were no major problems with this Aspect. The translations were
neatly presented, well paragraphed in such a way as to reflect the changes in topic and subject –
                                                                                                        81
and also the basic interview format of the source text – and correctly spelt. Some proper names,
such as Simbad should have been transposed to their English equivalents, in this case Sinbad.
With regard to punctuation, more care with the placing of punctuation would have prevented
difficulties with rendering the syntax in Portuguese into its English equivalent.

Recommendations to candidates
Some candidates need to be reminded of the rules on producing translator’s notes in the Diploma
in Translation exam. In this paper, nearly all were superfluous.
The candidates who failed this paper displayed major deficiencies in their written English. This
area in particular needs attention.
Candidates should not necessarily rely on standard dictionary definitions of specific vocabulary
items, but examine the words to be translated carefully in the whole context of the paragraph or
theme that the source text is about, and check alternative definitions offered in dictionaries, to see
if these are not more appropriate for the translation. In the case of translation of whole sentences,
consider whether the phrasing might not be made clearer with appropriate rearrangement of the
word order, or insertion of appropriate punctuation.

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
A very broad range, from almost perfect to extremely bad. Candidates with distinction were very
much at home with the specialised terminology, and were able to pitch the register accurately –
technically correct, but accessible.
A few candidates showed that they were not an English native speakers, with the most elementary
errors, and the three candidates who failed were clearly not conversant with the most basic
technical vocabulary (on wind power, in this case).

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Some candidates were consistently accurate in terms of comprehension, rendering and lexis, and
pitched the register correctly.
When candidates were reasonably good under this Aspect, they were still unable to render the text
into natural English, and a few candidates showed a complete lack of comprehension of this semi-
specialised text. Errors here include actualidade (the present) translated as “opportunity” and
“aeolian/aeolic park” as wind farm.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
This Aspect was dealt with successfully. The exceptions showed they were not totally at home with
the English language, such as in “has the tendency to compatibalize”; “there are a series”; “the
attribution of interconnected points”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were spelling mistakes such as “ennvironmental”, “renumeration” and incorrect punctuation
for numerals (“4.500” for 4,500, etc.). Otherwise, this Aspect was reasonably well covered.

Recommendations to candidates
Those who translated out of their native language should seriously consider not doing so in the
future, unless they are truly bilingual.
Also, if any candidate is not reasonably conversant with a particular specialised field, they should
not attempt to undertake a translation in that area.

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

General Report on Candidate Performance
In the Pass cases, the level of comprehension was good, and the flair and confidence with which
they expressed themselves in the given register was pleasing.


                                                                                                    82
The failed cases showed serious errors likely to impede understanding, or a failure to grasp the
demands of the source register. There were thus serious deficiencies at the level of English
expression.
Some candidates need to be reminded of the rules on producing translator’s notes in the Diploma
in Translation exam: nearly all were superfluous.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
In the case of those candidates who passed, the level of comprehension was good, and the flair
and confidence with which they expressed themselves in the given register was pleasing. Their
work contained some very pleasing renderings, such as “trade fair” for feira, “Jaime observes that”
for na constatação de […] Jaime.
With regard to those who failed, there were issues regarding familiarity with key terms associated
with the register, such as indústria transformadora (manufacturing / processing industry) rendered
incorrectly as “transforming industry” “how the industry is transformed” and “the modifying
industry”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
In the case of the candidates who failed by quite a margin, their work was marred by a number of
grammar mistakes, some of them quite basic. Examples of such mistakes include “the minister that
believes on the fair’s success” and “reflect over”.
With regard to the others, there were no major deficiencies here.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Again, with the exception of the failed cases, whose work was marred by spelling mistakes, there
were no major problems with this Aspect.

Recommendations to candidates
Some candidates need to be reminded of the rules on producing translator’s notes in the Diploma
in Translation exam: nearly all were superfluous.
All three candidates who failed showed a lack of familiarity with the required register. These areas
in particular need attention.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Two of the translations did not quite meet the standard of being fit for professional purposes or
publication principally because of some misunderstanding of the fundamental import of the
sentences in the source text, whose literary qualities derived from the linking of concrete images
drawn from the city of Lisbon, which were related to an era depicted as decadent and confused.
Thus the literal and the figurative were interwoven in the text in a complex way, and it was this
complexity which needed to be conveyed in the translation, and in the appropriate register, which
employed concrete images and figurative or conceptual language.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There was a tendency to over-literal translations of specific vocabulary items not appropriate to the
literary register, rather than searching for more appropriate to the register in the original
Portuguese. For example, fechando was translated simply as “closing”. There were also some
misunderstandings with more complex vocabulary items, easily confused with other cognate
words: for example, luxúria translated as “luxury” or “luxuriousness” more accurately translates as
lust which makes more sense in the context of the particular source text.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The particular issue which arose from the organisation of the translation of the source text was the
very long sentences in Portuguese, which, as said above, interwove the protagonists of the text
which the environment and setting. Great care, therefore, had to be taken with the rendering of
these into a comprehensible rendition in the English, and the translation entailed some
                                                                                                   83
rearrangement of phrases, or an appropriate use of punctuation. Some thought had to go into
whether, for example, a verb might be better translated by some other part of speech. In one
translation, for example, the use of Fosse…fosse was accurately rendered as “Whether…whether”
in the translation. Also care had to be taken to avoid a literal word-by-word translation of sentences
which integrated several concepts. It might have been necessary to clarify who or what exactly
certain pronouns in the text were referring to. For example the sentence Porém, a cidade estava
infestada de parasitas que tornavam impraticável o papel dos criadores was somewhat
ambiguously translated as “However, the city was infested with parasites which made its creators’
role impossible’.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The paragraphing adhered to the paragraphing in the source text, but it could have been modified
in the translation for the benefit of the reader. The translations were accurately typed, but some
transposition of proper names didn’t occur – for example, the ancient Trojan city compare to Lisbon
in the text Troia has an English equivalent, Troy.

Recommendations to candidates
Read through the source text carefully and before actual translation of specific words or sentences
write an analysis of the writer’s intentions, the context and the way in which language is used to
convey meaning; also specific literary uses of language. Be careful with literal dictionary
translations of words which might not accurately reflect the register of the source text, or might
change meaning with a more literary or figurative use. Also consider whether the translation needs
more clarification in order to make clear who or what the pronouns and verbs in the source text are
referring to.

UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
A wide range of performance, from excellent translations, through to serous failures.
A few candidates omitted phrases or explanations of acronyms.
Translator’s notes were overused in one case. Most were unnecessary and/or subjective.
In one case insufficient familiarity with the target language was shown.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Most candidates were accurate in terms of lexis, register, etc. However, several were confused
with the main specialised terminology in the text (fluoride / fluorite / fluorosis).

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Some candidates were clearly not at home in the target language (English), e.g. hence why, over-
literal and/or garbled rendering.
Otherwise, only minor errors with word order, etc.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.
No problems here, with the exception of minor errors such as “State” for state.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates whose first language is not the target language should be encouraged not to undertake
translation in that direction.
Confusion over terminology could easily be resolved with a more careful use of (monolingual)
dictionaries.

UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE
General Report on Candidate Performance
The main difficulty displayed by candidates was a lack of familiarity with the given register. Their
work was stilted in terms of rendering: there was no real flow to either, suggesting that the
                                                                                                    84
candidates had not fully comprehended the original text. Candidates need to bear in mind that their
goal is to produce a text that can “stand alone” and be read as if it had been written originally in
English.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The main difficulty displayed by the two candidates was a lack of familiarity with the given register.
Their work was stilted in terms of rendering: there was no real flow to either, suggesting that the
candidates had not fully comprehended the original text.
An example of a stilted rendering would be the versions offered for mutantes conforme o momento
e a moda: “changing according to occasions and trends” and “mutants depending on moments and
trends”. Such renderings impede a full understanding of the text. A more appropriate rendering
would have been which shift according to historical moment and trends.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The performance here was generally satisfactory, but both candidates maintained the “sentence
failure” found in the final paragraph (one long sentence) of the text in their versions, seemingly not
recognising the existence of lesser flexibility in terms of what is acceptable in written English in this
regard.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were no major problems with this Aspect, although work could have been more neatly
presented.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates should invest some time in reading texts written in this register in both Portuguese and
English, in order to become more familiar with the register. They should also avoid very literal
renderings which lack clarity in the target language. Candidates need to bear in mind that their goal
is to produce a text that can “stand alone” and be read as if it had been written originally in English.

UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
With few exceptions, the translations rendered the source text intelligible, and made clear to the
reader the basic import of the source text. However, the translations could have been improved still
further, with some more attention to the detail of the exact translation of vocabulary which changes
meaning when placed in a register pertaining to legal matters, syntax of sentences, paragraphing
and punctuation.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
It was necessary for the candidates to take great care to find an exact equivalent of vocabulary
which has one meaning in day-to-day or standard dictionary use, but takes on a quite different
meaning in specific legal contexts and registers. For example, reclamar commonly means to
complain or to protest and was translated as such by all the candidates, but in a legal context it can
translate as demand and it was this meaning which was intended in the first sentence of the source
text, Atendendo ao reclamo da comunidade juridical brasileira. Apart from that, the candidates had
to be on their guard against awkward literal translation of terms such as gratuidade (implying
something that is free of charge) translated as “gratutitousness”, or over-literal translations such as
“non-existence” for inexistência (in a context referring to children).

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The specific feature of the source text were the sentences (including one consisting of five lines)
which described complex interactions between separating couples, their common goods and the
law. This resulted in long sentences, which might have proved difficult to follow if translated in their
exact sequence into the source text. Thus it was important to consider whether the text might have
needed more clarification by breaking up the sentences, or even rearranging some clauses. It was
very important to clarify who or what was being referred to even if this meant substituting, for
                                                                                                       85
example, pronouns for their proper names for definitions, and also, taking care to translate
prepositions which do not always exactly correspond in English and Portuguese. This would have
prevented some awkwardness in the syntax of translations such as “for the same reasons of
facilitating the process…”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The translations were neatly presented, but some more thought might have been given to the
paragraphing in order to clarify the topic for the readers’ benefit. In one case there were some
errors of syntax due to awkward placing of punctuation that, again, required careful thought if the
translation was not to be rendered ambiguous. For example, “declare themselves as such, before
the notary public…”.

Recommendations to candidates
Research the specific register in Portuguese for law, and juridical questions, before embarking on
the actual translation to get a ‘feel’ for the vocabulary and terminology used. Take care not to take
for granted that the first and most common dictionary definition of a word such as reclamo will
necessarily conform to its common meaning in a source text written in this register. Most good
dictionaries will give the legal meaning of a word, if there is one. Also take care to clarify if
necessary in sentences containing a number of referents, what is being referred to and consider
questions of paragraphing and punctuation carefully (for further clarification).


                                                 -*-




                                                                                                   86
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO ROMANIAN

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
The paper was not translated accurately. There were omissions and a number of clumsily
translated sentences in one of them.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There were omissions of phrases such as …the tiny gestures, … to your mutual advantage.
Some other mistranslations included self defeating translated as “self defence”, being generous
with your contacts (e.g. sharing contacts’ details) translated as “being generous with your
acquaintances”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Both papers had some minor grammatical mistakes:
“l-ai întâlneşti” (should be either l-ai întâlnit or îl întâlneşti) “persoana pe care a-i întâlnit-o” should
be persoana pe care ai întalnit-o.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The papers did not have any technical faults; both were legibly written with accurate punctuation.

Recommendations to candidates
Practice makes perfect, so try and practise translating articles from newspapers on a wide variety
of subjects. This will improve your vocabulary and will familiarise you with English colloquial
expressions and specialist vocabulary.

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
The translations showed a good command of the subject matter, but the failed cases were let down
by a number of omissions (see below).

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Examples of omissions were these three bladed wind turbines, wind energy resource potential,
areas designated.
In one case axis was translated as “axle”.
Papers awarded a Merit showed a good command of the terminology and produced an elegant
and clear text.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were some unexpected grammatical mistakes. For example, no agreement between noun
and verb (terminii… descrie, should have been termenii descriu). The Genitive of harta (map in
Romanian) should have been translated as hărţii, not “hartei”. Apart from these examples the texts
were well organised.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were no technical faults in any of the papers and the punctuation was correct.




                                                                                                         87
Recommendations to candidates
Always check the finished translation. Does it flow in Romanian or does it sound like a translation?
Is all the terminology correctly translated? Beware of ‘false friends’ or similar sounding words: axis
as opposed to axle.

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

General Report on Candidate Performance
A very poor piece of work with numerous mistranslations; serious grammar and punctuation errors
make comprehension difficult.
The candidates showed complete lack of familiarity with the subject matter, as well as a poor grasp
of English in general. The below-average grammar and punctuation in the Romanian translation
makes the text difficult to follow. There are also a few misspellings and missing diacritics.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
No understanding of the subject matter was shown. For example, private equity is translated
throughout as “deţineri private” (private holdings) instead of capital privat - a perfectly
straightforward translation, marketers is translated as “distributors”, culling is translated as
"selecting", stripping off is translated as “dispossession”, etc.
The translation also demonstrates a lack of understanding of everyday English as well as a
complete disregard for context. For example, Greed is right is translated as "Greed is fair",
buzzword is translated as "attractive buzz", the industry has lured the likes of... is translated as "the
industry was lured by persons such", bespoke shop is translated as “shop to order” etc. There are
also numerous less serious mistranslations.
The choice of words is, in places, incongruous with the style of the original text e.g. "s-a lepădat
de", "slujbă", “să facă coadă la uşa ei".

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The text is often incoherent due to faulty grammar. For example, subjects and predicates do not
agree, and meandering sentences lack commas. There is also evidence of a lack of familiarity with
English idioms which leads to new idioms being invented in Romanian. For example, will come
under fire is translated as “vor intra sub focul întrebărilor”, has (…) queuing is translated as “ţine
(…) să facă coadă”. All in all, the translations are very difficult to follow.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Poor punctuation, especially lack of commas, poses a particular problem in this translation. In
addition, diacritics are missing, proper names are badly copied from the English text, and there are
a few misspellings (“vre un” instead of vreun, “Miercuri” instead of miercuri, “astăză” instead of
astăzi).

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates might benefit from further study of English and Romanian.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
A very good and imaginative piece of work. The transfer of information is accurate, with the
translator showing an in-depth knowledge of both source and target languages. Language and
register are perfectly appropriate. There are a few instances in which the text does not flow
smoothly, and the sentence structure is less than perfect. This is not too serious and could be
easily put right when reviewed.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The translation shows a good understanding of the content and spirit of the source text. There are
a few instances of slight over and under translation which affect the quality of the sentences, e.g.

                                                                                                       88
“… în oraşul Manchester. Manchester era un oraş.." (… in the city of Manchester. Manchester was
a city…), "fumând pipă” (pipe smoking). The translator’s notes were used judiciously.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The sentence structure of the translations is very good. Presumably in an attempt to increase the
familiarity of the style the translator introduces fillers in the sentence. These attempts however
backfire, making the style seem forced e.g. “Oare cum se produce Dumnezeu-ştie-ce, de altfel?” (I
wonder how do you make Heaven-knows-what in fact?).

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
No major problems.
UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
Performance was uneven.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translator's notes, if any)
One candidate shows a very good understanding of the subject matter and uses language and
style which are appropriate to the type of text.
The other candidate demonstrates a lack of understanding of basic English. Thus phone calls is
translated as “phone sounds” throughout the text whilst employer is translated as "proprietor".
Other mistranslations include enshrined in the law translated “a law to act as a testament”; abused
as “excessively used”, anxiety as “agitation”, low mood as “bad mood”, etc. The translator’s notes
were used judiciously.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Problems include grammatical errors, awkward turns of phrase and literal translations which do not
work in the target language (e.g. “convorbiri făcute”,”cu cine aceasta conversase”, “oficiul
avocaţilor”).

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There are spelling and punctuation errors; the main problem is the use of English quotation marks
in a Romanian text.

Recommendations to candidates
Giving due attention to context and analysing the intended meaning of each sentence might be of
help. Especially in the failed cases, further study of English is essential.


                                                -*-




                                                                                                 89
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

RUSSIAN INTO ENGLISH

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
The text was a fairly straightforward article from Moscow News on the changes in anti-smoking
laws which posed no major problems. The standard of performance was, nevertheless, mostly
poor with a few candidates being able to produce a translation of the required professional
standard. A lack of due competence in Russian and poor writing skills in English were very much in
evidence among those who were unsuccessful.
Once again, it was the decoding rather than the encoding of the text that constituted a problem.
The candidates in all options made mistakes resulting from lack of understanding of individual
words. Some followed the original too closely.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The majority of candidates showed an inadequate level of comprehension which manifested itself
in frequent inaccuracies ranging from very serious to minor and the inability to express the
meaning of the original suitably in English. There was much mistranslation of phrases which were
essentially unproblematic. надоело выглядеть динозавром (I was fed up of looking like a
dinosaur) was wrongly given as: “I do not want to look like a dinosaur anymore”, and even less
accurately, as “It got on my nerves to discover dinosaurs.” Slightly trickier phrases such as
депутаты Госдумы вновь за чистоту легких соотечественников (Members of the Duma
have once again taken it upon themselves to clean up the nation's lungs) were mistranslated as
“Members of the State Duma have again tackled their compatriots lungs”.
Most candidates found it difficult to free their English from the sentence structures of Russian
which gave rise to widespread clumsiness and distortion. For example, ...в стране бесплатно
оказывающего помощь от курения... “...unique in the country for providing assistance with
getting off smoking at no charge...”.
One candidate translated only as far as line 39 which attracted a mandatory Fail.
There was inconsistency and in some cases outright thoughtlessness in the translation of the
names of institutions. One candidate translated фонд "Общественное мнение" (Public Opinion
Foundation) correctly but thereafter referred to it subsequently by the Russian initials, “FOM”,
instead of the English ones, POF. The same candidate referred to the Russian Public Opinion
Research Centre (ВЦИОМ in Russian) with a transliteration of the Russian initials: “VTsIOM”
which, without an explanatory footnote, is meaningless for an English readership.

There were, additionally, some problems with linking devices, especially conjunctions, such as
впрочем, при этом. The phrase в нашем случае was poorly handled and should have been
translated as in Russia’s case, or similarly. There were mistakes in the use of tenses, as in
эффект может быть неожиданным. Translated as “was unexpected”, it distorted the meaning.
In this option, more than in any of the others, there were cases when the text of the original was
followed too closely, which resulted in clumsiness. The words динозавр and душегубка were
translated too literally.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The work of most candidates did not read like authentic English, and would not, therefore have
been usable in a professional context.
Where candidates had adhered unduly to Russian sentence structures this resulted in
ungrammatical English: e.g. “It is impossible to provide the new price exactly to the point.” (Точно
новую цену назвать нельзя). A single error of this nature is sufficient to incur a mark of Fail.
There was some misuse of tense in English: e.g. “...the majority of Moscow restaurateurs have
done so a long time ago.” ( instead of ...did so...).

                                                                                                  90
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There were no issues in this Aspect.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates must be sure that they possess the prerequisite language skills in both Russian and
English that this examination demands. In addition to a wide-ranging vocabulary an extensive and
finely-tuned knowledge of Russian grammar and the idiomatic resources of the language are
essential.
It is vitally important that candidates read a wide range of material from the contemporary press in
both Russian and English taking particular note of neologisms and the creative trends currently
employed.
Candidates should also work with past examination papers in order to hone their translation skills
and speed.
In the examination candidates should not begin the task of translation until they have read the text
carefully, taking note of any problematic sections of the text. When they have completed their
translation candidates should check very carefully what they have written.

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

General Report on Candidate Performance
Almost every candidate who took this option was unable to meet the demands of the examination
due to an inadequate understanding of Russian. Cumulative levels of error in every case, greatly
impaired texts, removing any chance of success.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Candidates were repeatedly confounded by the Russian turn of phrase and, invariably, Russian
word order which led to serious mistranslation. Typical in this respect are: ...основы ценовой
политики находятся в вeдении Российской федерации (price control falls within the
jurisdiction of the Russian Federation) mistranslated as: “...price control policy can be found at the
inception of the Russian Federation...” Here the candidate mistakenly reads вeдениe (jurisdiction)
as ввeдениe (introduction). Less seriously there is: “...not a single law on the bases of price policy
in the country exists...”.
At the other end of the scale, the following very simple phrases suffered frequent mistranslation:
принимать закон (to pass a law) frequently mistranslated as: “to approve a law”; за подписью
(signed by) wrongly given as: “under the signature of”; ценовая политика (pricing policy) “pricing
politics”.
There was some mistranslation of Russian tense: ...и этот факт остается без внимания [...]
политиков и журналистов (this continues to escape the notice of politicians and journalists)
wrongly given as: “...a fact that has avoided the attention of...”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Most candidates, at some point, produced ungrammatical English, two typical examples are:
“Today's price-policy is based with a 12-year old prescription is 239 resolution of the Government”;
and “... they simply meet money policies, sanctioning their proposals.” Such errors automatically
mean failure in this examination.
There were some instances of misuse of English prepositions: “...guarantee from outrageous
prices...” or “travel in public transport”.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The name of the Russian Minister for Economic Development, Герман Греф was repeatedly
mistransferred as “German Graff”.

Recommendations to candidates
In preparation for Units 02 and 03 it is vitally important that candidates read as much material as
possible relating to their chosen specialism. They should ensure that they develop a wide
knowledge of the specialist terminology relevant to the subject.
                                                                                                    91
Candidates should ensure that they regularly practise translating specialist material, to develop
their skill and speed, and giving particular thought to the problems such material typically presents
to the translator.

UNIT 03D: SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
This paper which contained a good deal of technical terminology, and which demanded a precise
style in English, was attempted by one candidate only who gave an outstanding performance.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Candidates demonstrated an excellent understanding of the original Russian and were able to
transfer this effortlessly and faultlessly into English. The precise scientific style of the original was
excellently captured in very well written and stylish English which displayed a full acquaintance
with the subject's specialist lexis. There was no mistranslation of any kind.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were no faults in this Aspect.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There was one minor spelling error: “glutanylcysteine” instead of glutamylcysteine.

Recommendations to candidates
In preparing for the specialist options it is vitally important that candidates read widely in both
languages and build up an extensive knowledge of specialist terminology. Additionally, candidates
should also work constantly on honing their writing skills in English.

UNIT 03F: LAW

General Report on Candidate Performance
The majority of candidates taking this option did not possess an adequate command of Russian to
be able to cope with this quite demanding paper. One candidate gave up after translating the first
seventeen lines only. As well as displaying a lack of due linguistic competence, the majority of
candidates showed a lack of due thought in carrying out the task of translation which was impaired
the quality of their translations significantly.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The mostly poor levels of comprehension resulted in very poorly worded English. The phrase
Юридические лица (legal entities) caused much difficulty and was mostly incorrectly translated
as “legal/juridical persons”. Indeed, it was embodied in one serious mistranslation as: “...the
conduct of tour operator business [...] may be sanctioned by a legally competent person...” This
error typifies the difficulties experienced by many candidates who were unable to penetrate the
meaning of the original Russian and transfer it satisfactorily to English.
One candidate failed to understand one of the most fundamental aspects of Russian grammar: the
use of the preposition c in expressions of time, wrongly translating С 1 июня 2007 (From the 1
June 2007) as “On 1 June 2007”.
Poor comprehension levels plus lack of thought led to a varied range of clumsy phrasing e.g.
monetary means (денежное средство); “this information may offer an interest for the consumer”;
“in printed publications issued periodically”; “...establishments carrying out activity for the
organisation of trips.”
An even greater degree of thoughtlessness was demonstrated by one candidate who translated
the phrase ...вводятся в действие с 1 июня 2008... (which are being introduced on 1 June 2008)
as “...which were brought in on 1 June 2008.” The candidate failed to notice that the article was
written in August 2007, making such a translation wholly illogical.
                                                                                                       92
Frequent omissions on the part of some candidates impaired their translations even further.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The work of many candidates did not read as authentic English as the result of an exceedingly
clumsy style: e.g. “...the improper execution of obligations in accordance with the agreement.”
Most candidates at some stage in their translations produced ungrammatical sentences which,
alone, attract mandatory failure. The following is typical: “...the carrying out of tour operator activity
on the territory of the Russian Federation is with a juridical person permitted only in a case of the
presence on him of an insurance contract of civil liability...”

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
There are no matters in this Aspect.

Recommendations to candidates
The common failing among candidates taking this option was a clear lack of the prerequisite
language skills for this examination. Candidates attempting the Diploma in Translation must be
sure that they possess a very high degree of fluency in both languages. Additionally they must
hone their writing skills in English so that they are able, in the examination context, to produce a
stylish and aptly worded translation which conveys the message of the original text clearly and
unambiguously.
Candidates should also ensure that they are fully conversant with the specialist lexis of the subject
matter of their chosen options. This can be done by reading specialist publications in both English
and Russian. There are many useful Internet sites that can be profitably used for this purpose.


                                                   -*-




                                                                                                        93
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO SLOVAK

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION
General Report on Candidate Performance
This year there were two candidates taking this option and there were some clear examples of
competent professional translation in the case of one of the candidates. The understanding of the
subject area proved critical this year as the vocabulary used in the English original is very new to
the Slovak language and had to be paraphrased to quite an extent, which was very well handled by
the above candidate. Unfortunately, even given the background explanation about the text, one
candidate completely misunderstood the key concept of the text (networking). This led to
inappropriate rendering into Slovak and a number of misleading statements would have confused
the intended reader. It is also critical to pay attention to the correct spelling of words (for example,
the interchanging of ý and í in Slovak clearly separates a professional document from a non-
professional). In addition, it is important to make sure the whole text is translated, as there were
some omissions in both translations.
Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
As indicated above, the major issue was the understanding (and appropriate translation) of the
concept of networking and related phrases of conference attendance, returning to base and
debriefing. Social networking sites were paraphrased well by some.
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
In a professional translation it is important to make sure that the final translation reads as an
original document in the target language. This is particularly important in instances where a more
complex English sentence structure requires a considerable re-organisation in Slovak. The best
example of this was the last paragraph, which both candidates struggled with to some extent.
Sticking rigidly to the English word order can lead to a very unnatural translation. It is also
important to use appropriate translations for concepts such as company we keep, we can keep
company we like, self-defeating, etc.
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
A professional translator should never get the ý and í mixed up. Equally important is an issue of
correct spelling of nejaký where the incorrect spelling (“nijaký”) actually changes the meaning of
the word from some to none and this is clearly unacceptable. The punctuation in the Slovak
language is more complex than in English and the correct use of comma was an issue again.
Finally, the correct declination of nouns is also important.
Recommendations to candidates
Try to keep up with the evolution of the Slovak language that arose as a result of technological and
societal changes in recent years. Concepts that a few years ago were completely alien to Slovak
language are routinely used these days and often encountered in the Slovak media, which is now
widely available via the Internet. Reading original Slovak texts also strengthens the correct use of
grammar and spelling.
UNIT 02C: LITERATURE
General Report on Candidate Performance
This year there was one candidate taking this option and demonstrated a very impressive,
professional translation quality. The vocabulary and terminology matched the spirit of the source
text very well. Unfortunately, some serious spelling mistakes let this translation down.
Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The translation demonstrates a very good command of the subject matter although at times the
translator misunderstands the source text and uses an incorrect word (with a similar root) as a
                                                                                                      94
translation. For example frightful is actually translated as “frightening” as opposed to dreadful.
Similarly, a funny little man is translated literally as opposed to a quirky little man. Otherwise the
text uses appropriate terminology, idioms and register and the translator’s note is used well. The
choice of language matches the spirit and intention of the original very well.
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were only a few cohesion issues, for example the pinafore being “exactly the same, but a
copy”: it is either exactly the same or it is a copy, but cannot be both. Otherwise the translation
reads well and is organised appropriately.
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
As indicated above, there were a number of issues in this Aspect this year. It is important to check
the correct declination of foreign names, e.g. Manchester. It is also critical to use correct spelling of
nejaký where the incorrect spelling (“nijaký”) actually changes the meaning of the word from some
to none and this is clearly unacceptable. The use of hyphen as a spojovník is different to a
pomlčka and should be used without a space.
Recommendations to candidates
Reinforce the correct spelling of Slovak words as indicated above. Otherwise the work is very good
and the candidate is commended on its quality.
UNIT 03D: SCIENCE
General Report on Candidate Performance
This year there was one candidate taking this option and demonstrated good aspects of scientific
translation. However, concentrating too much on trying to stay true to the technical side of the
translation compromised the ‘Slovakness’ of the text. It is important to read the translation at the
end to ensure it reads as a text originally written in the target language. In addition, the serious
spelling mistakes let this translation down and overall only a pass could be awarded.
Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The translation demonstrates a reasonable command of the subject matter although at times the
translator misunderstands the sentence structure of the source text and uses incorrect translation.
For example For windows silica is just fine is actually translated as “For glass made of silica, this is
good”, which changes the meaning of the original sentence.
Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
This translation often reads as a direct translation from English, with the word order often being
very unnatural to a Slovak text. This is the major problem under this aspect with the translation.
Also, some direct translations from English (e.g. …has been experimenting…over the past 20
years) are inadequate (in Slovak in this context the equivalent of a simple already is all that is
needed).
Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Technically this translation contains a number of mistakes in the use of punctuation (commas
either used in the wrong place or not at all) as well as numerous declination mistakes, e.g.
declination of levitator in Slovak, wrong preposition used in …directly to a tumor site. The most
serious mistake in this aspect is again the wrong spelling of the word nejakom (some). The
translator uses the form “nijakom” meaning none, which completely changes the meaning of the
word and the sentence and hence it also impacts on the aspects 1 and 2.
Recommendations to candidates
Reinforce the correct spelling of Slovak words as indicated above. Reading of original Slovak
scientific text would reinforce correct Slovak word order and punctuation in such text.


                                                   -*-

                                                                                                       95
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO SWEDISH

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
Good solid translation; the candidate knows Swedish.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Most errors are to be found in this Aspect and are slight i.e. “mycket mer” instead of många fler,
“hellre” instead of snarare.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Only one mistake, agreement on page 3: “deras” instead of dennes.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
A few errors here: plural ending “uttrycken” and spelling mistakes that could be seen as typing
errors made in haste skilsmässa, upprinnelse (correct spelling).

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates are advised to improve their register. Check solutions to translations of English bad
and social, often complicated when translated into Swedish. Scrutinise texts for agreements – en
person…lägg beslag på dennes uppmärksamhet.’

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
All errors are within this Aspect and minor, e.g. favoritförkläde should be one word; “långa rader
med siffror…” instead of stora rader siffror…

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
No comments under this Aspect.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
No comments under this Aspect.

Recommendations to candidates
Candidates are advised to work on style and tone as well as look for new registers.


                                                -*-




                                                                                                96
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

SWEDISH INTO ENGLISH

UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
This candidate’s translation was practically faultless.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
This Aspect was excellent in every respect.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
No fault can be found in this Aspect.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Any faults are of a minor nature such as “heart disease” for cardio-vascular disease.

Recommendations to candidates
Keep up the good work.


                                                  -*-




                                                                                      97
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO TURKISH

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There are too many minor mistakes and the major mistakes that are of a nature that would make
the translation in the target language not suitable for submission as a professional piece of work.
Care should be given to choice of vocabulary in the target language to avoid
misunderstanding/misrepresentation. Candidates should read the English text with great care and
make sure that they understand it. They should then check that the Turkish version they have
given reflects the meaning of the original.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Using the inverted sentence structure particularly in a translation for a passage in the field of
business requires total command of structure; otherwise the structure can sit very awkwardly in the
text. (See also comments below.)

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Care should be taken in ensuring that sentences end in full stops. Also when a word has to be
divided due to space restrictions, the dividing point must be marked appropriately so that it is
understood that the word is continuing in the next line. This causes problems not only to the reader
but the translator as well, as the translator him/herself may then be misled as to the grammatical
status of the word in question (e.g. whether it is the subject or the object) and not complete the rest
of the sentence with the correct grammatical links.

UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The translations were on the whole satisfactory. Some candidates displayed an excellent mastery
of the source text as well as the rendering in Turkish.
Candidates should be careful about the nuances of meaning, in particular where very similar words
in Turkish can mean very different things; for example to sigh is iç geçirmek in Turkish, but should
not be confused with the very similar Turkish word içinden geçirmek.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
There were no significant problems in the translations regarding this Aspect.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Candidates should be more careful about the presentation of the translated text. More care should
be given to separating the paragraphs, spacing out the Turkish endings that should be written
separately and punctuation marks.

UNIT 03F: LAW

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
The translation work submitted fell short of being fit to present/submit to a client. There seemed to
be problems in the comprehension of the sections of the English source text. This was not just a
matter of not having the correct word to hand in an examination environment; the translation
problems seemed to stem from problems in grasping and rendering the structures correctly. There
should not be any ambiguity in the translation; a sentence should not be translated in such a way
that there may be a different reading of it. Clarity of meaning in the target language should be
                                                                                                     98
foremost in the mind of the translator alongside all the other expected requirements of such a task.
Candidates preparing for this option should prepare themselves by reading and actually translating
a very wide selection of writings in the remit of this option.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Candidates should make sure that the sentences in the target language are grammatically
coherent and complete. This seemed to be a problem particularly in the longer Turkish sentences
and where the candidates had problems in the comprehension of the English original.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Candidates should take greater care about the technical points; presentation of work is often
overlooked. It is advisable to use the full name of country/organization etc instead of acronyms in
the first mention of the entity, especially when these are not universally used and accepted
acronyms. For example, UK is a very recognisable acronym in English, but to use “BK”
(presumably standing for Birleşik Krallık in Turkish) in the Turkish text without any reference to
what the full version is should be avoided.


                                                -*-




                                                                                                  99
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

ENGLISH INTO URDU

UNIT 01: GENERAL TRANSLATION

General Report on Candidate Performance
Candidates performance ranged from excellent versions to very inaccurate translations that
showed poor understanding of the subject and were coupled with some obvious mistakes.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Some used literal translation, e.g. company not translated as companies but as an abstract noun in
Urdu which is a literal meaning. Some words were not translated at all, others were translated
incorrectly and had wrong choice of meaning from the dictionary. For example, mortals translated
as “lethal” and selfish translated as “greedy”.
The sentence No one wants to be monopolised (line 22) was not quite comprehended by the
candidates and there were a variety of incorrect interpretations such as “No one likes monopoly”,
“No one wanted anybody’s monopoly”, “No one likes others to establish their monopoly”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The candidates who passed the exam have good grasp of grammar and have shown good
organisation of their work. In one case singular has been used in place of plural e.g. line 5 Kings
treated as singular in Urdu translation. In line 15 again Family and education was treated as
singular in Urdu. There were examples of bad sentence construction such as in Keep an eye on
headlines or the new films or books which was treated as two separate parts, rather than parts of
one sentence. There was a sentence with the wrong word order, namely “Exchanging with each
other your ideas” in Urdu.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
In this field the main problem was bad spelling in Urdu.

Recommendations to candidates
Read the whole passage before attempting to translate. Choose correct meaning from the
dictionary. Learn correct sentence structures and correct spelling of words. Write words correctly.
Hastily written words can appear to be incorrect.

UNIT 02A: TECHNOLOGY

General Report on Candidate Performance
Excellent in all respects.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
A few candidates got mixed up when translating terrain (line 4) as “areas” and, at the end, Atlas as
“maps”. Atmosphere was omitted. Apart from that it was an excellent translation.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Excellent in all respects.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Excellent in all respects.

Recommendations to candidates
None.

                                                                                                  100
UNIT 02C: LITERATURE

General Report on Candidate Performance
There were Distinctions as well as Fails. The failed candidates did not appear to have learned
Urdu in a formal setting. Hence, the writing was not good and full of spelling mistakes.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
There were several mistakes such as slumped translated as “fell”, clutched translated as “held”, do
things translated as “talk”, magical tricks translated as “mischief”.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Word order in some sentences was not quite correct in some translations, as candidates followed
the same word order as in English sentences. Mostly the Urdu sentences start from where the
English sentence ends and you work backwards.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Many spelling mistakes show lack of training in Urdu writing.

Recommendations to candidates
Proper formal training in writing is essential. Attention to correct word order in sentences must be
learned so that the writing makes sense.

UNIT 03E: SOCIAL SCIENCE

General Report on Candidate Performance
Pass papers showed a few mistakes.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Poor comprehension of English was shown on page 2 of the script. Thus Sefton commissioned
…in parts (line 15) was translated as “Sefton has investigated which has proved that their migrant
population with their increasing number of old people and unemployment, can improve the
economy.” dubbed (line 4) represent (line 13) and potential (lines 14 and 30) were not translated.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
Generally coherent and cohesive writing.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
Excellent in all respects.

Recommendations to candidates
Think carefully before starting to write. Read the whole sentence, make sure you understand the
meaning and start to construct Urdu sentences making sure all detail is properly included and
nothing left out.


                                                -*-




                                                                                                  101
DIPLOMA IN TRANSLATION 2008
EXAMINER’S REPORT ON CANDIDATE PERFORMANCE

URDU INTO ENGLISH

UNIT 02B: BUSINESS

General Report on Candidate Performance
The performance was satisfactory but there were some grammatical mistakes. The source text
was understood and the message was conveyed with correct terminology.

Aspect 1: Comprehension, accuracy and register (appropriateness of rendering and lexis &
translators’ notes, if any)
Most candidates displayed a good grasp of informational content and understood the subject
matter. There were some minor errors of comprehension which affected accuracy. But the
candidates were able to show a good understanding of the text and the message conveyed was
both accurate and authentic.

Aspect 2: Grammar, organisation of work (cohesion and coherence)
The importance of grammar in this exam is key. The candidates did not do very well in terms of
grammatical accuracy. The candidates should have been more careful as they have displayed
some weakness in maintaining coherence. Greater attention is needed to produce a translation
with correct grammar.

Aspect 3: Technical points (spelling, punctuation, accents, transfer of names, figures,
dates, legibility etc.)
The candidates did well regarding the technical points. There were no spelling mistakes and the
presentation was good.

Recommendations to the Candidates
It is recommended that the candidates should pay extra attention to grammar. This is an important
factor in producing a professional translation. They should try to achieve a fuller understanding of
how the tenses and other aspects in Urdu can be translated into English.


                                                -*-




                                                                                                  102