Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath by nikeborome

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									Mongol Eurasia and Its


       Chapter 12
The Rise of the Mongols

Nomadism in Central and Inner
Steppe nomads
– Great riders, herdsmen and hunters
The Khan
– The leader
– Ruled over all regions
– Did menial work
– Either captured or were seeking refuge
Leading families lived off of tribute
– Paid by weaker family groups or clans
– They focused their time and attention on
– Formed alliances with other strong families
    Often through marriage
The Mongols were self sufficient for food
and clothing.
They depended on settled regions for iron
The Mongol Conquests, 1215-1283
 – Wanted tribute from kingdoms of Eurasia
 – By 1209 – Tanggut Rulers committed
 – 1215 – captured the Jin capital
 – 1219 – invaded Khwarezm in central Asia
 – 1221 – had taken most of Iran
 – 1227 – Genghis died
– 1227 – Genghis‟ son, Great Khan Ogodei,
  took over
– 1234 – controlled most of Northern China
– 1236-1241 – Mongols took Kievan Russia,
  Moscow, Poland, and Hungary
– 1241 – Ogodei died, and his son Guyuk took
– 1258 – took Baghdad and executed the last
  Abbasid Caliph
– 1265 – Khubilai declared himself “Great Khan”
    Other branches of the family refused to accept him
– 1271 – Khubilai founded the Yuan Empire
    Central Asia seperated itself
     – Allied with the Turks
     – Became Islamic
– 1279 – the Yuan destroyed Southern Song
– 1283 – Champa Vietnam became a tribute
– 1274 and 1283 – Yuan attacks on Japan both
– Superior bows
    Shot 1/3 farther
– Cavalry with swords, lances, javelins, and
– Flaming arrows
– catapults
Cities that resisted
– Faced slaughter and starvation
Cities that surrendered
– Received food, shelter and protection
Overland Trade and the Plague
Products moved from China to Arabia and
back (Silk Road Route)
 – Silk, art, porcelain
 – Stories of Asian wealth encouraged
   Europeans to want to trade with Asia
     Like those of Venetian, Marco Polo
The “Great Pandemic” of 1347 to 1352
– Bubonic plague had been in China since the
  early Tang period
– Mongol trade carried it into Central Asia and
  then by ship to Egypt and Europe
– Typhus, smallpox and influenza came with it
– Many deaths were caused by peaceful trade
The Mongols and Islam

           Mongol Rivalry
Mongols began to take Muslim regions
– 1260 – the IL Khan state controlled parts of
  Amrenia, Azerbaijin, Mesopotamia, and Iran.
    Mongol leadership was not Muslim
– Mongols set up the Golden Horde Khanate
  just north of the Caspian Sea
    Mongol leadership became Muslim
Tension between the Muslims and non-
– Muslims disliked Mongol worship of idols and
  their method of killing animals
– The Golden Horde (Muslim) claimed land that
  the Il-Khan claimed
– The Il-Khan (non-Muslim) briefly helped
  Christian forces during the Crusades
– The Golden Horde then allied itself with the
  Mamluks in Egypt against the Crusaders and
  the Il-Khan
– 1295 – the new Il-Khan ruler declared himself
       Islam and the State
– Nomads served in the military
– Tax farming
    Hired tax collectors
     – They could use any method to collect
     – They could keep any extra they collected
    Cost the people too much
     – Agricultural production decreased
– Allowed the Golden Horde to move in easily
Central Asian Khanate
– Leader = Timur
    Was only related to Mongols through marriage
    1398 - Took the Muslim Sultinate of Delhi
    1402 - Defeated the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
 Culture and Science in Islamic
Sharing culture between Iran and China
– Juvaini, a writer, influenced, Rashid al-Din
– Al-Din attempted the first history of Europe
– Nasir al-Din Tusi wrote about history, poetry,
  ethics, religion, mathematics, and cosmology
    Figured out lunar rotation
– Other astronomers predicted eclipses
Regional Responses in
  Western Eurasia
 Russia and Rule from Afar
The Golden Horde
– Lost unity
– Trade centers became more important
– The Mongol rulers moved away from the
  region but continued to rule with the help of
  the Orthodox Church
Russian became the dominant written
Gold and silver left the region and went
into the hands of the Mongols
– Starved the region of precious metals
Alexander Nevskii
– Prince of Novgorad
– Was favored by the Mongols
– Moscow grew stronger, gradually becoming a
  political center
Mongol effects on Russia
– Plague
– Armies raided villages and collected heavy
– The “Mongol Yoke” could have kept Russia
  from advancing with the west
– Isolation could have also been due to their
  relationship with the Byzantine Empire
Ivan III (r. 1462-1505) of Moscow used the
title of tsar
– Established his legitimate rule as both the
  Golden Horde and the Byzantine empire
  became weaker and weaker
New States in Eastern Europe and
The Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II
(r. 1212-1250), developed peaceful
relationships with Muslims
 – The Pope wanted him to go on Crusade
 – He regained use of Jerusalem through a
 – The Pope wasn‟t satisfied with the treaty
While those two were arguing…
– Mongol forces were able to take Hungary,
  Poland, and other Eastern European nations
The German speaking Teutonic Knights
tried to take Slavic land from Alexander
– moved Christian Europeans into the lands
Nevskii and the Mongols fought off the
The “Mongol” army was commanded by
Mongols, but was made of Mongols,
Chinese, Turks, Iranians, Europeans, and
at least 1 Englishman
1300‟s – Lithuania escaped from Mongol
The Ottoman Empire
– Turks that came to Anatolia with the Seljuk
– Ottomans set up in Northwest Anatolia
– Helped by Arab warriors wanting to extend
– 1453 – Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II took
Mongol Domination in China

The Yuan Empire, 1279-1368
Kubilai Khan
– Incorporated Confucian ideas
– Buddhist lamas, or priests, became popular
  with Mongol rulers
– The Yuan capital
– Center of culture and economy
– Khubilai broadened the streets, built walls,
  built the Forbidden City
The Mongols
– Unified the 3 Chinese states
    Tanggut, Jin and Song
– Created a racial social ranking
    Central Asians and Middle Easterners
    Northern Chinese
    Southern Chinese
– Increased medicinal knowledge
– Organized China into provinces
– Increased trade with East Asia, but cut off
– Gentry families began focusing on trade
    Changed city life
– Mandarin = Mongolian influenced Chinese
– The country side stayed poor
– Population seems to have shrunk 40%
   Privations of the country side
   Female infanticide
Cultural and Scientific Exchange
Il-Khan                  Yuan
– Style of government    –   Silk
– Engineering            –   Porcelain
– Astronomy              –   New styles of art
– Mathematics            –   Technological
– Weaponry engineering       advances
                                Sight tubes
  and manufacturing
                                Measuring moon
– Doctors and medical           movement
 The Fall of the Yuan Empire
1340s – power struggles between Mongol
1368 – Zhu Yuanzhang
– Led rebellions against the Mongols
– Used Confucianism to justify war against the
– Chinese leader
– Founder of Ming Empire
Many Mongols remained in China
Mongols retained control of Central Asia
Mongols in inner Asia paid tribute to the
The Early Ming Empire

    Ming China on a Mongol
Zhu Yuanzhang took the name Hongwu
– (r. 1368-1398)
– Moved capital to Nanjing
– Used Confucianism
– Put strict limits on imports and visitors
– Gradually the Ming empire became more like
  the Yuan
– The provincial structure remained
Yongle (r. 1403-1424)
– Returned the capital to Beijing
– Restored commerce with the Middle East
– Zheng He
    Maritime expeditions from 1405-1433
    Pursued commerce with the Middle East and
    Collected taxes
 Technology and Population
No new agricultural developments
Limited mining
– Farmers had a difficult time finding metal tools
Ship building declined
Reinstituted the examination system
Population increased
– Focused on food crops rather than cash crops
– deforestation
Soldiers used arrows and exploding
    The Ming Achievement
– “Ming Ware” = blue print on white porcelain
Centralization and Militarism
        in East Asia

Korea from the Mongols to the Yi,
1231 – Mongols attacked
Fought back until 1258
Koryo surrendered, became a subject
– Linked to the Great Khan through marriage
Close relationship with Yuan China
Stayed loyal to the Mongols after the fall of
the Yuan
1392 – Yi established a new kingdom
– Rejected the Mongols, followed the Ming
– High literacy rate
– Cash crops expanded
– Gained knowledge of gunpowder
Political Transformation in Japan,
1274 – Mongols attempted to take Japan
– A storm caused failure
– Helped to unify Japan under the Kamakura
Warlords in some regions became more
1281 – Mongols attacked, a typhoon and
Japanese soldiers turned them away
– Kamikaze = wind of the gods
Japan‟s warrior elite grew stronger
1338 – the Ashikaga Shogunate took
– Fighting occurred between warlords
Resumed trade with China after the fall of
the Yuan
  The Emergence of Vietnam,
1257 – first Mongol attack
Mongols got tribute from the region until
1368, the fall of the Yuan Empire
Ming troops then moved in
1500 – Annam took Champa‟s
independence and formed one state
(Annam and Champa had been two separate

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