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Lakes and Water Quality

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					By: Brandy Moss

Introduction to Streams
 

Basics
 Physical characteristics

Stream quality parameters
 Natural variation, expected pollution



Activities
 Discuss Cane Creek  Major inlets to Lake Keowee

Introduction to Lakes


Basics
 What is a watershed?
 What is a lake?  Lake stratification



Activities
 Identify local watersheds  Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUC)

Lake Keowee: History


What formation of Lake Keowee caused?
 Influence on natives and Oconee County

 Structures around lake

 

Where does the water come from?
 Understanding watersheds

What alters its water quality?
 Resolvable influences  Shoreline management, buffer zones,

development

Water Quality
 

What is water quality?
 Chemical, physical, biological condition

How is it determined?
 Perceptions

 Experimentation (water quality parameters)



Activities
 Discuss assumptions

 Samples

Water Quality, cont’d


Water quality parameters
 Several tests in relation to water quality
 What each test describes about water

 

Analyzing samples
 Lake stratification affects on parameters

Activities
 Discussion

 Understanding collected data

Aquatic Organisms


What organisms are affected by changes?
 Insects, plankton, and fish

 

Major algae groups
 What is algae?

Activities
 Fish anatomy  Humans affect on the aquatic food web  Identifying insects as water quality

parameters

Environmental Impacts


Duke Energy
 Nuclear Recycling
 Recreation Use and Needs Study (RUNS)  Shoreline Management Plan



Other
 Nonpoint Source Pollution  Sewage treatment

Lake Monitoring Program


What’s being tested?
 Background of testing method
 Chlorophyll a, fecal coliform



Where is data collected?
 Docks
 6 total locations



Activities
 Preparation for lab

Practice Analysis

Practice Analysis cont’d

Lake Monitoring, cont’d
  

Chlorophyll a
 2 experiments

Docks
 4 times a month

Mid-lake
 “Core” sampling  Monthly



Streams
 Monthly; multiple locations down stream

Development of Analysis


Arla Jessen
 Graduate student; started in 1997
 Periphyton Biomass on Artificial Substrates:

A Lakeshore Development and Water Quality Study  Friends of Lake Keowee (F.O.L.K.S.)

Importance of Analysis


Significance
 Periphyton group being tested shows the

dilapidation of aquatic habitat  Increased recreation, increased growth


Nutrients
 Phosphorus and nitrogen increase plant

production  Eutrophication, less diversity

Watersheds


What is a watershed?
 A ridge of land that separates two adjacent

river systems  They can be large or small

What’s their importance?


Our watershed
 Lake Keowee was constructed by Duke

Energy in the 1970s  Lake Keowee serves as a cooling unit for reactors  Generates hydroelectricity

Natural Changes


Lake stratification
 Epilimnion
 Metalimnion  Hypolimnion



Lake Aging--Eutrophication
 Ogliotrophic  Mesotrophic  Eutrophic

Effects of Pollution


Plants and Animals
 Some cannot adapt to drastic changes in water

quality  Environmental changes also kills aquatic plants


How we use the Lake
 Recreation-No one wants to swim in dirty water
 Daily activities such as bathing, drinking water,

and washing a car  Our recreation affects water quality

Graph of Site Analysis


What was our site?
 Lois Ardelean’s Dock  Neighbors have

ducks

Why is it important?


For life
 Fish and other aquatic organisms need it to

survive.  A concentration that is too low will not be able to sustain aquatic life.  Also needed for chemical reactions is lake functioning

Natural Changes


Reasons for variation
 Photosynthesis-daylight hours
 Respiration and decomposition-24 hours  Inflowing streams, wind, and temperature



Effects
 Photosynthesis cannot counter balance

oxygen loss  Streams and wind add oxygen to water and colder water holds more gas

Effects of Pollution


Low DO
 Stimulating organic matter growth decreases

DO concentrations  Some of the pollution is natural—formed in the lake itself  Any excess throws the balance between the production and consumption of oxygen

Graph of Site Analysis


What was our site?
 Betty’s Dock  Also known as Goose

feeding station

Why is it important?


pH determines:
 Solubility
 Biological utilization
 Nutrients-phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, heavy

metals

 More soluble, less toxic

Natural Changes


Photosynthesis
 Hydrogen ion conc. decreases
 This makes pH higher when photosynthesis

is at its maximum
 

Respiration and decomposition
 Both lower pH

Characteristics of a lake
 Depth causes changes in photosynthesis

and other chemical functions

Effects of Pollution


Indirect impact
 Aquatic life impacted directly by solubility

and availability of nutrients


Life
 Increased plant growth—solubility of

phosphorus  Increases demand for dissolved oxygen (DO)

Graph of Site Analysis


What was our site?
 Dr. Carey Gully’s

Dock  Several dogs in area

Why is it important?


Influences
 Biological activity and growth with a limit
 The diversity of organisms living in the lake ○ Fish, plankton, insects all have temp range



Water chemistry
 Warmer water, faster rate of reactions  Increased temperatures affects life

Natural Changes
 

Seasonal changes
 Air temperature changes

Thermal Stratification
 Top layers warm, bottom cold

 Continues until air temperature cools
 Develop different characteristics

Effects of Pollution


Thermal Pollution
 Small impact on large lakes
 Can cause minor lake warming from runoff



Measuring the effects
 Impact is difficult to measure
 If inflows are common, impact is greater

Graph of Site Analysis


What was our site?
 Rack residence

Why is it important?


Seechi Disk Depth
 Detect algal abundance and overall lake

production
 

Nutrient Concentrations
 Beneficial to organism growth

Chlorophyll a
 Pigment that allows plants to create energy

from light

Natural Changes


Seechi Readings
 Algal growth changes from summer to

winter


Nutrient Concentrations
 Warmer weather, increased growth; Keowee

Golf Course


Chlorophyll a
 Wind, temperature, sunlight, and nutrients

Effects of Pollution
 

Seechi Depth
 Reduces water clarity; trophic status

Nutrient Concentrations
 Increasing pollutant sources



Chlorophyll a
 Algae toxicity

Graph of Site Analysis


What was our site?
 Lois Ardelean’s dock  Away from the

neighbors animals

What did you think about analysis?

Why is water quality important?

Thoughts on the experiment

Why is recording water quality important?

What did you learn?

Have your views changed?


				
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posted:6/17/2009
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