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HISTORY 1302 Study Guide #1

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					US HISTORY 1302                                                            STUDY GUIDE #1

[632]        = page number in text
[L]          = lecture
[I]          = internet notes                                     Q1 date ______________
[V]          = video
∑            = essay question                                     T1 date ______________


CHAPTER 18        FRONTIERS OF CHANGE, POLITICS OF STATLEMATE,
                  1865-1898

a.      Agencies of Western Expansion. White European dominance of the American
        West grew while the influence of Native- and Mexican-Americans declined.

        1.    Using the figure “250 years,” how much land was claimed by Euro-Americans
              between 1865-1890? [563]
        2.    ______ transcontinental rail lines were laid between 1869-1893. [564].
        3.    Name 2 metals that boosted mining operations in the West: [565]

              1. _____________________________   2. ____________________________

        4.    The __________ War shifted cattle raising to the West? [566]
        5.    Does Hollywood feature enough Black cowboys to match their numbers in
              history? [567] _____.
        6.    The North “incorporated” the West just like it did the South. How did
              “corporate” gunmen and “populist” gunmen differ? [L]

              _______________________________________________________________

              _______________________________________________________________


b.      The Last Indian Frontier. Between 1865 and 1890, the Federal Government
        crushed Indian resistance west of the Mississippi river and herded Native-
        Americans on to reservations. Likewise, Anglo-Americans shoved aside the
        Mexican population.

        1.    Why were 38 Santee Sioux hung in the largest mass execution in the nation’s
              history? [569] __________________________________________________
        2.    William Tecumseh ___________ was General of the Army from 1869-1884.
              The total war he pioneered against the _________________ he now used
              against Indians. [572]
        3.    Department of the Missouri commander Phillip ________________ went after
              Indians on the high plains. Methods included ______________ campaigning,



                                                 1
           burning of villages, destruction of animal herds, and recruiting Indian
           ___________ to use against hostile tribes. [569]
     4.    Five companies of the ___th Cavalry under the command of General George
           A. ___________ were wiped out by Sioux and Cheyenne Indians 25 June
           1876. [569]
     5.    In 1890, the Sioux Indians believed that the ___________ Dance would return
           the buffalo and protect them from white man’s bullets. [569-70]
     6.    Who said, “From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.”
           [573] __________________________.
     7.    What was President U.S. Grant’s “peace policy”? Did it work? [573]
           _______________________________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________________

     8.    How did the Dawes Act affect the tribes? [574]

           _______________________________________________________________

     9.    What accounts for the rapid demise of the Indians after 1865? [L]

           _______________________________________________________________

           _______________________________________________________________

     10.   Enclaves called _____________ became urban centers of Mexican-American
           life as Anglo-Americans pushed the former residents of Old Mexico off the
           land. [L, 574-75]


c.   The New South. The Federal Government and Wall Street entrepreneurs
     sponsored business and industry in the South as well as the West.

     1.    During the 1880s southern business reformers rejected the romance of
           plantations and forgot about electing a Democratic president and focused
           instead on a New ___________ of ___________________. [575]
     2.    __________________, Alabama, became the “Pittsburgh of the South"
           because it led the way in doubling the South's production of ________ and
           ________, helped along by northern ____________. [576]
     3.    How did the crop lien system hurt tenant and sharecropper farmers? [576]
     4.    Name 2 Supreme Court decisions that upheld “Jim Crow” laws in the South.
           [577]

           1. _________________________________    2. ________________________________

     5.    In 1881, Booker T. __________________ founded the _________________
           Institute. In the 1895 Atlanta Compromise he offered his theory of


                                              2
          ____________________________: The Black community would accept
          temporary segregation; in exchange Whites would support Black business and
          education. [577]


d.   The Politics of Stalemate. The “Gilded Age” receives its name from a novel
     written by Mark Twain. The novel tells the story of how politicians supported the
     demands of business speculators, receiving pay-offs in return. Needless to say, it
     was a period of corruption, and neither the Republican nor Democratic parties could
     claim it was untainted.

     1.   Were presidential races close between 1872-1896? [578]

          ______________________________________________________________

     2.   By waving the "_____________ Shirt" the Republican Party usually won the
          presidency by claiming it alone could be trusted with the nation's future. In
          the south, Democrats denounced ____________ equality and consistently
          elected Confederate veterans as governors. [579]
     3.   In the states of the ex-Confederacy where Jim Crow laws were passed, Black
          voter participation in Mississippi fell from 130,000 in the 1870s to
          __________________ in 1900. [651]
     4.   The assassination of President _________________________ by a man who
          failed to receive appointment as US ambassador to France in 1881 resulted in
          the 1883 ___________________ Act, a civil service reform act that required
          appointees to certain government posts to pass an exam. [579]
     5.   The Republican Party favored a high _______________ to protect
          northeastern manufacturers and to fund the _____________ of Union Army
          veterans who would surely give the party their votes. [580]



CHAPTER 19    ECONOMIC CHANGE AND THE CRISIS OF THE 1890S

a.   Economic Growth. Between the depressions of 1878 and 1893, the US economy
     grew at one of its fastest rates in history. Manufacturing grew the fastest at 180%.

     1.   What group of Americans was hurt most by railroad “price fixing”? [584]

          _______________________________________________________________


b.   The American Middle Class. Delete.




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c.   Wealth and Inequality.

     1.   Capitalism produces for ____________ and factories are ________________
          owned. In _________________, government owns key industries and
          production is based on _______. Liberalism is underwritten by
          ______________, protects private property through _____________________
          guarantees and accomplishes change through gradual _________.
          Communism, in theory, preaches worker ______________________ to end
          exploitation under capitalism but also insists that capitalism must exist first in
          order to create the material base of modern existence. [I]

     2.   Who were the “Robber Barons” and why did many Americans hate them?
          [592, 594]

          _______________________________________________________________

     3.   What are the implications of the graph on page 594?

          _______________________________________________________________


d.   Labor Strife. The Industrial Revolution triggered the formation of unions, strikes,
     and labor violence. Thinkers and organizers like Henry George and Eugene Debs
     struggled to find ways to shield wage earners from the profit consciousness of the
     industrial capitalists.

     1.   The _________________________ won their biggest victories by conducting
          successful strikes against Union Pacific (1884) and _____________________
          Pacific in year _____________? [596]
     2.   How did most Americans feel about the verdicts handed down in the
          Haymarket trial, Chicago, 1887? [596] _______________________________
     3.   Read the ideas of Henry George and Edward Bellamy. What solutions does
          each offer to remedy the social problems caused by rapid industrialization and
          profit making? [596-97]

          George   _________________________________________________________

          Bellamy ________________________________________________________

     4.   Take the Test: Do you believe in the doctrines of Henry George? [I]




                                            4
    5.   Make a chart comparing the Homestead (1892) and Pullman (1894) Strikes.
         Analyze the issues involved, the tactics both sides used, and the results. [I,
         597-99]




∑     Compare the Homestead (1892) and Pullman (1894)
      Strikes. Write about the issues involved, the tactics
      both sides used, and the results. Analyze what these
      strikes say about the relationship between labor,
      business, and government? [I, 19.d.5, 597-99] Be sure
      to see rubric on website.




                                           5
e.   Farmers’ Movements. A depression struck the nation during the early 1890s.
     Low farm prices, the shortage of money and credit, and eastern control of the
     railroads spawned a powerful political response from southern and western farmers
     and ranchers.

     1.   Populists advocated "free ______________ to replace the gold standard of the
          American monetary system. [601]
     2.   President Grover Cleveland repealed the ______________________________
          Act in 1893, setting the stage for the presidential race of 1896. [602]
     3.   Why did the Farmer’s Alliance want a “subtreasury” system? [602]

          _______________________________________________________________


f.   The Rise and Fall of the People’s Party. James Weaver, the Populist Party
     candidate in 1892, lost. By 1896, the Populists (People’s Party) merged with the
     Democrats to Challenge the Republicans. The Democratic platform contained
     many planks from the old Populist party. The intent was to use measures like free
     silver to liberate farmers, ranchers, and wage earners from their pain.

     1.   List the proposals of the Populist Party in 1892? How many of them became
          planks in the Democratic Party platform in 1896? [603]

          ________________________                 ________________________

          ________________________                 ________________________

          ________________________                 ________________________


     2.   In 1896, _____________ _______________ ran for the GOP and
          ____________ __________ _______ ran for the Democrats. [604]

     3.   Who won the election of 1896? [map 605] __________________.

     4.   What factors that contributed to the outcome of the 1896 election? [605, I]

          ________________________                 ________________________

          ________________________                 ________________________

          ________________________                 ________________________




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     5.   Why was the 1896 election significant in American history? [606]

          ______________________________________________________________

          ______________________________________________________________




CHAPTER 21    PROGRESSIVISM

a.   Progressivism and the Protestant Spirit. Labor violence and radicalism had
     failed to eliminate rampant business and political corruption or to improve the life
     of workers. A new class of reformers called progressives approached these
     problems from a new angle. Theodore Roosevelt said, “The betterment which we
     seek must be accomplished . . . through the national (federal) government.”
     Progressivism is hard to define, but a few traits can be identified.

     1.   What were the origins of the Progressive Movement? [640, L]
     2.   What did progressivism mean? [640, L]

b.   Muckrackers, Magazines, and the Turn Toward Realism. Socialists,
     journalists, and social workers stimulated interest in reform.

     1.   In McClure's magazine journalist _________________________ exposed the
          unfair practices of _______________________ and the _________________
          Oil Company. [641]
     2.   What types of corruption did Lincoln Steffens write about? [641]

          ______________________________________________________________


c.   Settlement Houses and Women’s Activism.

     1.   What was Hull House, Chicago? [643-44]

          ____________________________________________________________


d.   Socialism and Progressivism.

     1.   By 1912 the number of mayor or city commissioner seats by socialists reached
          __________. [646]
     2.   Upton Sinclair exposed filthy conditions in the meat packing industry in a
          1906 book entitled ______________________. [646]


                                            7
     3.   What was a “gas and water” socialist? [647] ________________________

          ____________________________________________________________


e.   Municipal Reforms. Progressivism started in the cities then bubbled upward to
     state and eventually national politics.

     1.   What was the theory behind the city commission plan? ______________
          ___________________________________________________________
          What was the first American city to use such a plan? [648] _______________.

     2.   What was a “city manager”? [649]

          ____________________________________________________________

     3.   What were the political disadvantages to managed government? [649]

          ____________________________________________________________

          ____________________________________________________________


f.   Political Reform in the States. Until the 19th Amendment in 1920, states
     controlled who voted. Note the subtle and obvious forms of power employed to
     contract or expand the franchise during the progressive era.

     1.   What happened to immigrant and Black voting participation between 1900-
          1920? [650-51] ______________________________________________.
     2.   What was the thesis and recommendation of Walter Lippman’s Drift and
          Mastery (1914)? [651] ________________________________________
          ___________________________________________________________

     3.   Name 4 influential women suffragettes. [652-53, V, I]

          (1) ________________________             (2) _________________________

          (3) ________________________             (4) _________________________

     4.   What was the rationale for giving women the right to vote? [652, I]

          ____________________________________________________________

     5.   Did all women want to link Black voting rights with women’s voting rights?
          [652] _______________________________________________________.


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g.   Economic and Social Reform in the States.

     1.   Governor _____________ __________________ organized a "brain trust" of
          technicians, businessmen, educators and civic leaders to put the state of
          ______________________ on the cutting edge of reform. [654-55]


h.   Renewed Campaign for Civil Rights. Some Black leaders criticized Booker T.
     Washington’s “accommodation” theory as pointless. They reasoned that Whites
     would never accept Blacks. In this atmosphere the NAACP and the civil rights
     movement was born.

     1.   In which Illinois city and year did rioting whites kill several Blacks and gave
          urgency to the goals of the _____________ Movement? city _________________
          year _______. Sadly, it happened within walking distance of Abraham’s
          Lincoln’s grave. [656]
     2.   Who was W.E.B. Dubois? How did he want to advance Black civil Rights?
          [L, 656-57]
          _______________________________________________________________

          _______________________________________________________________

          _______________________________________________________________

     3.   Lawyers of the _______________ (est. 1910) won their first case in 1915
          when the Supreme Court struck down the __________________ clauses in the
          states of ________________ and _______________. [656]


∑      Explain Booker T. Washington’s “accommodation” theory.
       Compare to the views of W. E. B. Dubois. [18.c.5;
       20.f.3; 21.h.99]. Be sure to see rubric on website.


i.   National Reform. Progressive reform influenced national political parties.
     Theodore Roosevelt (Rep) considered himself as much a progressive as Woodrow
     Wilson (Dem). Everyone knew corporations had to be controlled. The question
     was one of competing methods: more competition vs. regulation.

     1.   Did Teddy Roosevelt really view himself as a “trust-buster”? [658]

          ____________________________________________________________




                                           9
     2.   What was TR’s “Square Deal”? [659]

          ____________________________________________________________

          ____________________________________________________________

     3.   Two industries regulated by legislation in 1906 were meatpacking under the
          ____________________ Act and railroads under the ____________________
          Act. [659]
     4.   The nation’s first National Park in 1872 was ________________________ [I]


j.   The Taft Interregnum. delete.


k.   Roosevelt’s Return.

     1.   Why did T. R. come storming back into politics angry as a “Bull Moose” at
          his picked successor, William Taft? [661

          ____________________________________________________________

          ____________________________________________________________


l.   Rise of Woodrow Wilson.

     1.   What was Wilson’s vocation before entering politics in New Jersey? [662]

          ____________________________________________________________


m.   The Election of 1912.

     1.   Compare Theodore Roosevelt’s New Nationalism, Woodrow Wilson’s New
          Freedom, and the positions taken by socialist Eugene Debs and Republican
          incumbent William H. Taft? [L, I]

     2. _____________________ won the presidential election of 1912. [663]


n.   The Wilson Presidency.

     1.   What acts/constitutional amendments of the Wilson administration affected?
          [664]


                                         10
          (1) income tax _______________________________________________

          (2) banking _________________________________________________

          (3) tariff ____________________________________________________

o.   From the New Freedom to the New Nationalism. Wilson proved to be a
     regulator rather than a buster.

     1.   How did the Federal Trade Commission represent Wilson’s approach to big
          business? [665]
     2.   Known as the “Common People’s advocate,” Supreme Court justice
          ______________________ decided cases on the circumstances of the new
          industrialized America instead of old precedent. [666, I]

     3.   What Wilson administration acts seemed to favor workers? [666]

          ____________________________________________________

          ____________________________________________________

          ____________________________________________________

          ____________________________________________________


p.   National Progressivism: An Ambiguous Legacy. Progressivism began
     optimistically and ended pessimistically. Women did not change politics; Wilson’s
     foreign policy lay in shambles, as we shall see at the end of World War I; and big
     business remained powerful in America’s political economy. Blacks gained almost
     nothing. The referendum, recall, secret ballot, and 17th Amendment (direct election
     of senators) had little impact. Surviving progressives formed the support for the
     next reform era: the New Deal of the 1930’s.

     1.   Which way did power flow during the first two decades of the 20th Century,
          from the states to the federal government, or vice versa? [668].




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