A THE CELL by nikeborome

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									                           BIOL 2420- Study Guide 1

                      I. MICROBIOLOGY: FOUNDATIONS

                    A. THE SCIENCE OF MICROBIOLOGY

1. Define the term “microbiology”.
2. Discuss the scope of microbiology.

                      B. EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE

1. Discuss the role that microbes played in the early evolution of life. Include the
      role of oxygen and its relationship to energy yields.
2. What were the first living things and when did they first appear?

                       C. ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE

1. Explain the significance of microbes within the ecosystem.

                   D. MICROBES AND FOOD PRODUCTION

1. List some food items produced by microbes.
2. Who is Chaim Weizmann and how is he significant to microbiology and
   politics?

                        E. MICROBES AND INDUSTRY

1. List some industrial applications of microbes.

                         F. MICROBES AND MEDICINE

1. What % of microbes are disease causing?.
2. Differentiate between infectious disease and microbial intoxication.


                   II. EARLY HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY


                  A. EARLY PIONEERS OF MICROBIOLOGY

1. When were microorganisms first discovered? Who discovered them?
2. When was a connection made between microbes and disease?
                         B. ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK

     1. Who was Anton van Leeuwenhoek?
     2. Why were microorganisms considered a mere curiosity during his time?


                                C. LOUIS PASTEUR

1.   Who was Louis Pasteur?
2.   What contributions did he make to microbiology?
3.   What is the Germ Theory and when was it proposed?
4.   Who was Joseph Meister and what significant event in history was he
     involved in?


                                 D. ROBERT KOCH

1.   Who was Robert Koch?
2.   Discuss Koch’s work with anthrax.
2.   What contributions did he make to microbiology?
3.   What are Koch’s Postulates?


                     III. CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION


                                  A.     THE CELL

        1.     What is the basic unit of life?
        2.     What are the 2 basic cell types?
        3.     Describe prokaryotic cells.
        4.     Describe eukaryotic cells
        5.     Differentiate between single-celled, colonial, and multi-cellular
               organisms.

                          B.     THE EUKARYOTIC CELL

        1.     Describe the plasma membrane.
        2.     Describe the cytoplasm and cytosol.
        3.     Define the term “organelle” and explain their role in the cell.
      C.    ORGANELLES FOUND IN EUKARYOTIC CELLS

1.     Describe the structure and function of the nucleus.
2.     Describe the cytoskeleton.
3.     Describe the structure and function of the nucleolus.
4.     Describe the structure and function of the ribosomes
5.     What are ribosomes often called?
6.     Describe the structure and function of the rough endoplasmic
       reticulum (RER).
7.     Why is the RER rough?
8.     Describe the structure and function of smooth endoplasmic
       reticulum.
9.     Describe the structure and function of the golgi complex.
10.    What is the golgi complex often called?
11.    What are transport vesicles and where are they produced?
12.    Describe the structure and function of mitochondria.
13.    What are mitochondria often called?
14.    Describe the structure and function of lysosomes and peroxisomes.
15.    Describe the structure and function of the cell wall.
16.    Describe the structure and function of the chloroplast.
17.    Describe the structure and function of cilia and flagella.


                  D. BACTERIAL STRUCTURE

1.     What are all prokaryotic cells known as?
2.     How do prokaryotic cells compare to eukaryotic cells in size?
3.     Discuss the structure and function of the bacterial cell membrane.
4.     Discuss the structure and function of bacterial chromosome and
       plasmids.
5.     Discuss the structure and function of bacterial ribosomes.
6.     Discuss the structure and function of bacterial inclusion bodies.
7.     Discuss the structure and function of the bacterial cell wall.
8.     Discuss the structure and function of the glycocalyx.
9.     Discuss the structure and function of the bacterial capsule.
10.    Discuss the structure and function of bacterial flagella.
11.    Discuss the structure and function of the bacterial pili.
12.    Discuss the structure and function of the bacterial spores.
13.    List 4 diseases caused by spore forming bacteria.
                                   IV. TAXONOMY

1.   Define taxonomy.
2.   Explain the role phylogeny plays in our modern taxonomic system.
3.   Discuss the use of binomial nomenclature to identify living things.
4.   Discuss the system of 8 ascending taxa used to classify living things.
5.   List and define the 3 domains.
6.   List and define the 5 kingdoms of life.
7.   Discuss bacterial taxonomy.
8.   What is “Bergy’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology”?
9.   List some terms unique to microbes.


                      V. ACELLULAR INFECTIOUS AGENTS


1. Describe the 3 forms of acellular infectious agents.

                                    A. VIRUSES

1.   Describe the size and structure of a virus.
2.   Describe the function of a virus.
3.   Give some examples of viral infections.
4.   Define and describe bacteriophages.
5.   Explain “latent viral infections” and give an example of one.
6.   What are oncogenic viruses? Give an example of one.

                                     B. VIROIDS

1. Describe the structure of a viriod.
2. What impact do viroids have on living things?

                                     C. PRIONS

1. Describe the structure of a prion.
2. Explain the “protein only hypothesis”. Who proposed it?
3. What are TSEs and what causes them? Give some examples of TSEs.


                          VI. PROKARYOTIC MICROBES

     1. List and describe the 4 basic categories of prokaryotic microbes.
     2. What effect do photosynthetic bacteria have on human health?
     3. Discuss the following diseases: Typhus fever, Trachoma, nongonococcal
        urethritis,and psittacosis.
     4. Discuss mycoplasmas and their effect on human health.
                        VII. EUKARYOTIC MICROBES

   1. List and describe the 3 basic categories of eukaryotic microbes.
   2. Describe algae.
   3. Discuss the following types of algal intoxication: Amnesic shellfish
      poisoning.
   4. Describe protozoans.
   5. Discuss the following types of protozoan infections: Plasmodium,
      Trypanosoma, Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma
      gondii.
   6. Describe fungi.
   7. Discuss the following types of fungal infections and intoxications:
      Candida albicans, Tinea infections, Histoplasmosis, ergot poisoning, and
      aflatoxicosis.



                READINGS FOR MICROBIOLOGY: EXAM 1



Website:           Historical Perspective

                    -Typhoid Mary


Textbook:
                   Chapter One (pages 1-14)
                         Page 5-table 1-2
                         Page 9-historical note
                   Chapter Two SKIP
                   Chapter Three (pages 27-44)
                         Page 25-historical note
                         Page 34-historical note
                         Page 38-historical note
                   Chapter Four (pages 45-71)
                         Page 56-historical note
                         Page 65-study aid (“strains” versus “serotypes”)
                   Chapter Five (pages 73-87)
                         Page 75-study aid
                         Page 79-historical note

								
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