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3 MEDICATION Powered By Docstoc
					                                               a) WHAT IS AVAILABLE
                                               AND WHAT IT DOES1
1 In the UK, people with Addison’s
   disease are entitled to free NHS
                                      The adrenal hormones, cortisol and aldosterone, are
                                      essential for life. Their technical description is steroid
                                                                                                            3 MEDICATION
prescription medication, by asking
                                      hormones. Your steroid medication aims to replace
   their GP to authorise a Medical
    Exemption Certificate for them.   them in a manner that approximates the natural
                                      rhythms of the body.
     HYDROCORTISONE is                          Most Addisonians are prescribed a                  Prednisone and dexamethasone are longer-acting
      prescribed to replace the       combination of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone            steroids and take longer to become active in the
     cortisol steroid normally        to replace the cortisol and aldosterone hormones.            bloodstream after being swallowed. Prednisone and
     produced by your adrenal         The exact dose depends on the size and metabolism            dexamethasone are normally taken less often and in
    glands. Lack of cortisol is       of the individual, as well as how advanced their             larger single doses. Individuals who switch to these
       what causes the muscle         condition is. In the early stages of the disease many        drugs from hydrocortisone may find they need to
   weakness, low blood sugar          individuals are still able to produce some cortisol and      increase their fludrocortisone dose.
     and loss of concentration        enough aldosterone. Getting it right depends on                        Cortisone acetate is an older version of
    commonly experienced by           collaboration between you and your medical                   hydrocortisone and less readily absorbed. It is also
Addisonians.There are several         practitioners; they must monitor your blood tests            slower acting, as it must first be processed by the
substitutes for hydrocortisone,       and you must monitor your well-being in response             liver into a form the body can use.
the most common ones being            to different levels of medication. In the end, a large                 Each of these other drugs has a different
   prednisone, dexamethasone          part of your mutual success will be due to a                 strength to hydrocortisone; roughly equivalent doses
         and cortisone acetate.       considered process of experimentation.                       are shown in the table below.
                                                Over time, an individual’s need for each
     FLUDROCORTISONE is               medication may alter slightly. If you feel a return of           ROUGHLY EQUIVALENT DOSES OF STEROIDS*
       prescribed to replace the      any of your former Addison’s symptoms, or start to               *Hydrocortisone                   20mg
  aldosterone steroid normally        identify the symptoms of being over-medicated, you               *Prednisone                       5mg
      produced by your adrenal        will need to review this with your doctor.                       *Dexamethasone                    0.75mg**
   glands. Lack of aldosterone                                                                         *Cortisone acetate                25mg
                                                                                                       * Each of these drugs has slightly different properties,
 causes the electrolyte balance                Cortisol replacement                                    which should be discussed with your endocrinologist.
         in the body to become        Hydrocortisone is usually taken in three or two small            ** See Glossary for a more thorough discussion
    destabilised as the kidneys       doses over the course of the day. You may find it                of the potency of dexamethasone.
    retain potassium, the body        helpful to adjust the timing and amount of each
  loses salt and fluids, leading      divided dose to match changes in your lifestyle.
     to low blood pressure and                  Hydrocortisone is the preferred drug
                   dehydration.       because it is quickly absorbed and the closest
                                      mimic of what the body would naturally produce.
   “I was on cortisone acetate        A hydrocortisone tablet has been almost totally
     for a few years and didn’t       absorbed by the stomach and is active in the
      think too much about it.        bloodstream within 30 minutes of being swallowed
            When I switched to        on an empty stomach.
   hydrocortisone I felt 100%                   Hydrocortisone has a further advantage
  better. It made me feel more        over other types of steroid: the amount of it in your
        ‘normal’ also when my         bloodstream can be accurately measured. This
          endocrinologist added       makes it easier to monitor your dosage and adjust
   fludrocortisone. I got rid of      it up or down if necessary.
the lower back pain I had had
       for so many years. SUE
           Why is hydrocortisone                                                      Aldosterone replacement
           the preferred drug?                                            Fludrocortisone is usually taken as a single daily        “I recently started taking
Although it is a synthetic drug, hydrocortisone                           dose, first thing in the morning. It is slower acting     fludrocortisone after my latest
is indistinguishable from the cortisol naturally                          than cortisol-replacement steroids, so people who         renin test showed that my
produced by the adrenals. It is also fast acting and                      only require a small amount can take it every             aldosterone output is waning.
can be measured in the blood. For these reasons,                          second day. There is a wide variation in how much         I only have to take it every
hydrocortisone is the preferred drug for most                             fludrocortisone individuals need to take. A small         other day so far, and
Addisonians. But it may not suit everyone. Some                           number of Addisonians find they do not need               supplement with a little extra
individuals find they do better on a longer-acting                        fludrocortisone once their hydrocortisone                 salt here and there. I have
steroid.                                                                  medication is stable.                                     taken salt tablets when I have
           In the UK, the 1996 survey found that                                    85% of Addisonians who took part in the                          ”
                                                                                                                                    been in the heat. KARLA
around 89% of all Addisonians were taking                                 1996 UK survey were taking fludrocortisone. The
hydrocortisone. Of the rest, 6% were taking                               amounts taken by individuals ranged from 0.025mg          “I take fludrocortisone at
prednisone and 5% were taking cortisone acetate.                          every other day up to 0.4mg per day, while most           0.2mg a day. It helps with
           Medical prescribing patterns do vary by                        people were taking a standard dose of 0.1mg per           my sodium retention and
country. In the US, the 1997 survey found that 65%                        day (equal to 100mcg).                                    keeps my blood pressure up.
of Addisonians were taking hydrocortisone. The                                      Too much fludrocortisone can lead to a          But the main reason it’s
remainder were taking either prednisone (20%) or                          potassium deficiency which, in severe cases, causes       such a high dose is that
cortisone acetate (15%) while just 1% was taking                          an irregular heatbeat or other cardiac symptoms.          my potassium wants to
dexamethasone.                                                            Too little fludrocortisone can lead to a potassium        climb to near fatal levels
                                                                          overload, which also causes cardiac symptoms.                        ”
                                                                                                                                    without it. TRACEY
“I did terribly on hydrocortisone (roller coaster days) and                         You will need to monitor your own
terribly on dexamethasone (too potent and I became                        response to your fludrocortisone dose and inform
Cushingoid). I felt pretty good on prednisone.That was the best           your medical practitioner if you experience new
until my latest endocrinologist put me on cortisone acetate. I’m          symptoms, which you think may be related. It is
happy to say it is the one for me! I did find I needed differing          important not to modify your fludrocortisone
amounts of fludrocortisone on the different corticosteroids. I            medication before checking with your doctor.
needed more on prednisone than I did on hydrocortisone.And                          People with secondary adrenal failure
now I need less on cortisone acetate. KELLY
                                     ”                                    usually keep their adrenal production of aldosterone
                                                                          so, in almost all cases, do not need to take
                                                                          fludrocortisone. Similarly, individuals who are
                                                                          experiencing steroid-induced adrenal suppression
                                                                          do not usually need any fludrocortisone.

                                                b) THE NATURAL DAILY CYCLE OF
                                                ADRENAL HORMONE PRODUCTION
                                    In a person with healthy adrenals, cortisol levels start            steroid medication too late in the evening can cause
                                    to rise around 4am, are at their maximum around                     sleeping difficulties. Around 6pm, or at least four
                                    the time you wake up in the morning and then                        hours before going to bed, is best.
                                    gradually taper off during the day. That is why you                          Aldosterone production follows a similar
                                    will be advised to take your largest divided dose first             pattern to cortisol, with the highest levels naturally
                                    thing in the morning.                                               occurring around the time you wake up. That is why
                                              Cortisol levels are naturally at their lowest             fludrocortisone is usually taken with the morning
                                    shortly after going to sleep, so it is best to take your            medication.
                                    last divided dose of the day by early evening. Taking

                                                c) HOW DO I KNOW WHAT
                                                IS THE RIGHT DOSE FOR ME?
                                    Some medical textbooks still refer to the                           Some Addisonians find that adjusting the timing and
                                    standard practice of prescribing a single dose                      amount of each divided dose can be just as helpful
                                    of hydrocortisone for both men and women                            as taking a larger daily dose.
                                    irrespective of size and bodyweight. In practice,                      IT IS IMPORTANT that you do not take any
                                    most endocrinologists and Addisonians now                                than the smallest possible daily dose of
                                    believe this is inappropriate.                                         hydrocortisone suitable for your symptoms.
  “When I was first diagnosed                 Most women do not need as much as                             Over a period of years too much can lead
  in 1979 I was put on 15mg         30mg hydrocortisone while some large, well-built                       to damaging side-effects such as glaucoma
  hydrocortisone as I am quite      men do need more. Some small, lightly-built women                                   and osteoporosis.
    petite.This dosage gradually    can live comfortably on a dose of less than 20mg.
                                                                                                                  As a general rule, taking more steroid than
 increased to 30mg over many        Similarly, lightly-built men need less than 30mg.
                                                                                                        your body strictly needs for a day or two is not
     years.Then, about six years    I A rough rule of thumb is that both women and men
                                                                                                        harmful. Taking too much steroid for longer periods
     ago, there were other health   should start with a daily dose of 20mg hydrocortisone2.
                                                                                                        of time is harmful. So you can prudently increase
   problems.After that I slowly     I Then if you still feel noticeably unwell, gradually
                                                                                                        your dose for a short time if you think you are
    reduced my dose so that, for    increase your daily dose in increments of 2.5mg until
                                                                                                        developing a serious illness. But for your everyday
the past two years, it has been     you feel well enough to live a normal daily life.
                                                                                                        medication, the aim should be to keep your dose
   just 12.5mg a day. SUSAN
                                                                                                        as low as possible.
                                    2 Some petite women may, in fact, be able to start on a dose of
                                    15mg hydrocortisone per day, particularly if they are also taking
                                    contraceptives or other female hormone replacement therapy.
                                              d) TIMING YOUR DIVIDED DOSE
                                     Some medical textbooks still refer to the standard        NICK is in his mid-thirties and a keen runner. He used
                                     practice of taking hydrocortisone twice a day,            to take his 30mg hydrocortisone in two divided doses,
                                     early morning and evening. In practice, many              20mg before breakfast and 10mg at 6pm. Following a
                                     endocrinologists and Addisonians agree that taking        day curve analysis he now takes 40mg hydrocortisone
                                     a smaller, divided dose more frequently has real          in three divided doses:
                                     benefits. For example, if you commonly experience         I 20mg        on waking
                                     an energy-lag in the afternoon, it may help to switch     I 10mg        with lunch
                                     from taking your medication twice a day to taking it      I 10mg        at 6pm
                                     three times a day.
  “I find it important to split                It prevents the energy lag that many            CATHARYN is in her early forties and a full-time
  my medication up into three        Addisonians experience in the afternoon when their        mother. She used to take 30mg hydrocortisone in
    daily doses to avoid those       cortisone levels are at their lowest. Some people         two divided doses. After switching to three divided
 highs and lows. Doing this I        describe this energy lag as a kind of ‘brain fog’,        doses she found she could cut down her total
 am able to continue with my         while others describe it as feeling low on blood          hydrocortisone dose to 25mg:
 physical and usually stressful      sugar, faintly dizzy, or just irritable.                  I 12.5mg on waking
 work. Don’t be afraid to take                 For people taking prednisone or                 I 7.5mg with lunch
  your medication in smaller,        dexamethasone, the timing of divided doses is             I 5mg        at 6pm
   spread-out doses.Taking it        usually less critical, as the medication stays in the
  with food helps to slow the        bloodstream for longer. This can be useful for            MIKE is a senior civil servant. For many years he
       body’s absorption rate.       individuals whose lifestyle makes it difficult for them   took 15mg hydrocortisone in two divided doses. Since
                       JAMES         to take medication during the day. However, these         introducing a low dose of prednisone in the evening,
                                     drugs also take longer to become active after being       he has been able to reduce his total daily dose to the
     “The morning dose is the        swallowed, which can be a disadvantage at times.          equivalent of just 12mg hydrocortisone. He takes:
      most important for me to                                                                 I 7.5mg hydrocortisone on waking
    take on time. But I can tell                                                               I 1mg        prednisone at 6pm
         the difference with the
   afternoon one if I am more                                                                  KAREN is in her late thirties and runs her own
 than an hour late.The timing                                                                  business as well as bringing up a young family.
 can change with how the day                                                                   Before her day curve she was taking 20mg
       goes, if there are a lot of                                                             hydrocortisone a day in two doses: 15mg on
stresses. Once I got up at 4am                                                                 waking and 5mg with dinner. Following her day
and by 7am I was on the way                                                                    curve, she now takes it three times a day:
    out. I learnt then that once                                                               I 10mg       on waking
      I start my day I need my                                                                 I 5mg        with lunch
             medication. ALAN                                                                  I 5mg        with dinner

                                              e) MONITORING YOUR
                                              MEDICATION: BLOOD TESTS
                                     Thorough blood tests are available in the UK to help
                                     you determine the right daily dose of medication for
                                     you. Remember that these are tests to monitor your
                                     ongoing medication, not tests to determine whether
                                     you still have the disease. Some of these tests can be
                                     done by your GP while others need to be conducted         If you cannot travel to a major hospital for a day
                                     at a hospital laboratory.                                 curve, it is still possible for your GP to monitor
                                                                                               the adequacy of your hydrocortisone dose in
                                                                                               consultation with an endocrinologist. The 24 hour
                           8am plasma cortisol     Plasma renin
                                                                                               urine sample and the mid morning/mid afternoon
                            8am plasma ACTH        Electrolytes (potassium and sodium)
                                                                                               samples of cortisol and ACTH can be administered
                             Day curve analysis    Blood pressure
                                                                                               by a GP.
                                              The most comprehensive test of
                                     hydrocortisone medication is known as a day curve                  Day curve analysis
                                     and is usually done through the endocrinology             Different hospitals have different procedures for a
                                     department of a major hospital. If you have not           day curve, although all follow the same general
                                     had a day curve done, you may wish to ask your            principles. Most are done on an out-patient basis.
                                     GP if they could refer you to a suitable hospital.                  The most comprehensive day curve analysis
                                              The most widely used test of how well            involves taking blood samples over an 11 hour day
                                     the adrenals themselves are functioning is the            starting early morning before you take your first
                                     ACTH stimulation test. Most Addisonians will have         divided dose of medication for the day. Repeated
                                     undergone an ACTH stimulation test to confirm their       blood tests during the day track the medication
                                     diagnosis with the disease. A few Addisonians are         entering your blood stream when you take each
                                     asked to repeat this test over time to assess any         dose and record how long it lasts. The amount of
                                     further deterioration in their adrenal function.          hydrocortisone in your bloodstream during the day
                                              Some endocrinologists do not offer a full        can then be compared to the ideal for a healthy
                                     day curve analysis, preferring to use a combination       individual, and the amount and timing of each
                                     of 24 hour urine analysis and mid morning/mid-            dose adjusted as necessary.
                                     afternoon blood samples recording cortisol and
                                     ACTH levels.
“It took me a while to get the       When you go for a day curve do remember to                blood levels of cortisol were significantly higher than
        medication into a good       check if you are allowed to eat breakfast before you      those of a healthy person for long periods of time.
 balance after my diagnosis. It      arrive. Make sure you bring all your normal daily                  Most specialists agree that Addisonians do
     really took me a couple of      medication with you including any medication you          not need to have a repeat day curve done unless
      years to get it right. For a   take for other conditions.                                there are major changes in their general health
 while I was still so exhausted                Following a day curve analysis, your            or weight. For example, if you were to develop
    I couldn’t even walk to the      specialist may advise you to reduce or increase your      a further endocrine problem - such as a thyroid
   letterbox and back. JAMES         current daily dose or to try taking it in smaller, more   disorder - you should probably request a repeat
                                     frequent amounts. A specialist should advise you to       day curve, once your thyroid medication had
                                     reduce your dose if the day curve showed that your        been stabilised.

                                              f) DRUG INTERACTIONS                             Anyone who is taking drugs to treat tuberculosis
                                     Most prescription and over the counter drugs will         (such as Rifampicin and Rifabutin) will typically need
                                     not affect your steroid medication, although it is        to increase their dose of both hydrocortisone and
                                     always wise to check this with your doctor or             fludrocortisone by up to double the normal dose, as
                                     pharmacist. However, there are a few prescription         anti-tuberculosis drugs speed up the rate at which
                                     drugs that influence the way hydrocortisone and           the body metabolises its steroid medication. These
                                     other steroid medications are metabolised by the          anti-tuberculosis drugs are highly potent, so you
                                     body, either slowing down or speeding up the rate         will need to make sure your condition is being
                                     at which the steroids are metabolised. This means         thoroughly monitored by your doctors throughout
                                     that anyone taking these drugs will probably need         your treatment.
                                     to adjust their steroid medication.                                 Anti-epileptic medications (such as
                                               Contraceptive pills and Hormone                 phenytoin) can also speed up the metabolism of
                                     Replacement Therapy (oral oestrogens) slow                steroids. Growth hormone treatment can lower
                                     down the rate at which the body metabolises               blood levels of cortisol, by reducing the amount
                                     hydrocortisone by around one-third. This means a          of cortisol-binding globulin available.
                                     woman taking the pill or HRT is usually comfortable                 If you should need ulcer-healing drugs
                                     on a hydrocortisone dose that is one-third less than      (such as carbenoxolone) you may need to reduce
                                     she would otherwise need. If she continues taking         your fludrocortisone, as these drugs can lower
                                     her previous hydrocortisone dose, she may develop         potassium levels. If you should need to take anti-
                                     mild signs of over-medication, such as a puffy face       depressants, you may need to ask your doctor to
                                     and little fat deposits on the tummy, above the collar    monitor your electrolytes, as some types can cause
                                     bones and on the back of the neck.                        the body to lose more sodium than usual.

                                              g) MEDICATION AND FOOD
                                     Hydrocortisone prescriptions are usually issued with      Swallowing your tablets just with water makes it
                                     instructions to take this medication with food. In        easier to take your first dose for the day as soon as
                                     practice, most Addisonians can take their tablets         you wake up. Waiting to take your first tablet with
                                     with just water without experiencing indigestion.         breakfast means a delay in getting the steroid into
                                     This is because the amounts of steroid we swallow         your bloodstream, during which time you will feel
                                     are smaller than those taken by individuals with          less well with no hydrocortisone in your blood.
                                     medical conditions needing supplementary steroids                   It is also advisable that, if you wear contact
                                     (pharmacological doses).                                  lenses, you should put these in before taking
                                               If you find you do experience indigestion       hydrocortisone tablets, so that there is no risk of
                                     taking your steroid medication with water, a glass        getting any traces of the medication in your eyes.
                                     of milk (or milk substitutes such as soy, rice milk)
                                     is usually all that is needed to prevent indigestion.
                                     As a general rule, individual doses of 20mg
                                     hydrocortisone or less do not need to be taken
                                     with food.

Addisonians are usually lacking in one other major                only, and none of the trials lasted longer than four
group of adrenal hormones: DHEA and its related                   months. A follow-up study in the UK is taking place        “I have been taking part in
compounds. DHEA is not available in the UK at                     during 2001/2 and this will last a full 12 months.         trials of DHEA over the past
present. However, during the late 1990s several                              Anyone who is considering taking DHEA is        two years.The first study was
clinical trials in the UK and internationally concluded           advised to discuss this with their doctor and have         a double blind study taking
that there were moderate benefits for most                        their blood level measured before they do. Although        the real McCoy for three
Addisonians from taking small quantities of DHEA.                 clinical trials to date have recommended a daily dose      months and a dummy for
These benefits included protection against                        of 25-50mg, not all Addisonians will need as much          three months. I knew when I
osteoporosis, greater energy, enhanced levels of                  as this. A few individuals have reported that doses as     was on the real tablets as I
libido and lean muscle, and relief from dry skin. Side            low as 10mg brought their levels up to the normal          had more energy but the side
effects noted by some individuals were acne, greasy               range. Bear in mind that some endocrinologists are         effects were acne on my face,
skin and moderate weight gain. Two of the three                   cautious about prescribing DHEA in advance of the          chest and scalp. I lost weight
clinical trials involved very small numbers of women              results from longer-term clinical trials, while others     but that may have been down
                                                                  are already doing so.                                                            ”
                                                                                                                             to more horse riding. JANE
         i) ALTERNATIVE AND                                 There are no herbal therapies available which can          “I know of another male
         COMPLEMENTARY THERAPIES                            mimic the effects of natural human cortisol. Until         Addisonian who lived 20
Liquorice root has stimulatory properties similar           steroid medication became available in the 1950s,          miles north of here, but he
to aldosterone. If you eat real liquorice in addition       Addison’s disease inevitably resulted in death over        was ‘cured by faith’ and threw
to your fludrocortisone medication, you risk over-          a period of time. Addisonians who experiment with          away his medication. He
medication. Liquorice root is not recommended as            ‘natural’ alternatives to their normal medication risk     dropped dead in his house
a substitute for fludrocortisone as it is not possible to   the same fate.                                                             ”
                                                                                                                       three days later. JAMES
predict the strength or consistency of the product.                    Complementary therapies such as
Most liquorice sweets are, in fact, only liquorice-         meditation, massage and yoga can offer benefits.
flavoured and can safely be eaten - but do check            Meditation can be a useful way of dealing with a
the list of ingredients. Some cough mixtures also           build-up of fatigue, tension or irritability during the
contain real liquorice.                                     day. Massage and yoga can help with the joint and
                                                            muscle aches which a number of Addisonians
                                                            experience. Regular physiotherapy can also bring
                                                            real relief for joint and muscle aches.

         j) STORING YOUR MEDICATION                         the contents become cloudy or coloured. Injection
Most prescription medication is stable when stored          kits are discussed more fully in sections 9 and 10:
between 0˚ and 25˚ Celsius (32˚ and 77˚ Fahrenheit).        Travel and Crisis Management.
Always check the expiry date on your medications,
especially your injection kit, and dispose of any                                        MEDICATION: A SUMMARY
medication that reaches its expiry date. Many
medications have a shelf-life of around two years,                                       A combination of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone
so it is seldom worth keeping more than six                                              is the most usual treatment for Addison’s disease.
months’ supply at home.
                                                                                         A variety of blood tests are available to help you and
           At temperatures higher than 30˚ Celsius
                                                                                         your doctors establish your correct baseline dosage.
(85˚ Fahrenheit), most medication will reach the
end of its shelf life more rapidly than the stated                                       You may feel better splitting your daily hydrocortisone
expiry date and may start to deteriorate (lose its                                       medication into three divided doses.
effectiveness). For this reason, any medication that
you carry close to the body in a pocket or bag                                           Taking the first dose of the day on waking
should be used within a few days, unless you are                                         is recommended.
storing it inside an insulated travelling container.
                                                                                         Individual doses of 20mg or less do not usually
Insulated travelling containers can be ordered
                                                                                         need to be taken with food.
through most pharmacists. If you are carrying an
injection kit with you in this kind of hot weather, it                                   The last dose should be taken no later than
should be discarded after 12 months, or sooner if                                        4 hours before bedtime.