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					                                                       Chapter 4                                                                  17

Chapter 4: Morphology
1. Roots are underlined; bound morphemes are in boldface
   a. fly          f. re-use         k. spite-ful        p.                                pre-plan
   b. desk-s       g. triumph-ed     l. suite            q.                                opt-ion-al-ity
   c. un-tie       h. delight†       m. fast-est         r.                                pretti-er
   d. tree         i. just-ly        n. de-form          s.                                mis-treat
   e. dis-like     j. pay-ment       o. dis-obey         t.                                pre-mature

     †Notice that neither de nor light carries a component of the meaning of delight; hence
     neither counts as a morpheme in this word. (Compare with de-form or light-en)

i. a.      I = -am                 e. they = -and
    b.     you (sg.) = -i          f. not = na-
    c.     we = -im                g. was/were + ing (continuous) = mi-
    d.     you (pl) = -id
ii. a.     ‘They were buying’ = mixaridand
    b.     ‘You (sg.) did not buy’ = naxaridi
    c.     ‘You (sg) were buying’ = mixaridi

3. i. Yes.
   ii. ta/da; -ta occurs after a (voiceless) consonant; -da occurs after a vowel.

     a)             N           b)          V                 c)              A                      d)             V
           N            Af            Af         V                      Af         A                          Af           V
           desk          s            un         tie                    in         valid                      dis          like

     e)         V              f)          A             g)               N                     h)              N

           V            Af           N          Af                 A          Af                          V             Af

     triumph            ed           age        less               just       ice                         pay           ment

      i)            V           j)          A           k)              V                  l)               V
               Af        V           A           Af                Af         V                       Af            V

           pre          plan         fast        est               re        use                      dis           obey
                                                        Chapter 4                                                  18

m)                    N            n)       A              o)         V                  p)            V

              A                         A        Af              Af        V                    Af         V

        N                               pretti er               mis       treat                 pre        view

  V         Af        Af    Af

opt         ion       al    ity

ii. base for -ion = the V opt
    base for -ity = the A optional
    opt is also the root

i. -um-
ii. An infix

6. The correct tree structures are:
                  A                                        N                                         N

                            A                    V                                        V

   Af                 V           Af        Af         V        Af                 Af            V           Af

   in             expense         ive       re        dispose al                   dis        invest        ment
-in must combine with                     re- must combine with                   dis- must combine with a V
 an A (see table 4.6)                     a V (see table 4.6)                     (see table 4.6)

i.     ‘a resident or native of’
ii.    The -er in skater and walker means ‘one who does X’
iii.   The -er meaning ‘a resident of’ cannot attach to a base that ends in a vowel or /r/.
iv.    No, as shown by words such as discoverer, doer, liar, and so on.

8. Because the rightmost component of the compound is the head (p. 109), its category
   must be the same as the category of the compound. This is especially important in
   case such as (o), where the rightmost component of the compound (peel) can be used
   as either a N or a V. Since the whole compound here is a N, peel must also be a N in
   this use.
                                             Chapter 4                                   19

   e)          N            f)       N         g)        V        h)          V

         A          N            A       N          V        V          P         V

        fast       food          soft ware          freeze dry         over       book


i. a.   exocentric (a loudmouth is a type of person, not a type of mouth)
   b.   exocentric (a skinhead is a type of person, not a type of head)
   c.   exocentric (a killjoy is a type of person, not a type of joy)
   d.   endocentric (a bath towel is a type of towel)
   e.   endocentric (a death blow is a type of blow)
   f.   exocentric (a bird-brain is a type of person, not a type of brain)
   g.   exocentric (a Walkman is a radio, not a type of man)
   h.   exocentric (a cutthroat is a type of criminal, not a type of throat)
   i.   exocentric (a pickpocket is a type of criminal, not a type of pocket)
   j.   exocentric (a spoilsport is a type of person, not a type of sport)
   k.   exocentric (a crybaby is usually a child or older person, not a type of baby)
   l.   endocentric (brain dead refers to one definition of death)
   m.   endocentric (blow-dry refers to a way of drying)
   n.   endocentric (an armchair is a type of chair)
                                        Chapter 4                                        20

ii. For most speakers, the plural of Walkman is Walkmans, not Walkmen, and the plural
    of loudmouth is [lawdm wθs], not [lawdmawðz] (in contrast, the plural of mouth as
    an independent word is [mawðz]). This is in keeping with the general tendency for
    exocentric compounds to have completely regular plurals.

10. a.   inflection; see table 4.15
    b.   derivation; see table 4.6
    c.   inflection; see table 4.15
    d.   inflection; see table 4.15
    e.   derivation; see table 4.6

11. Derivational affixes are underlined; inflectional affixes are in boldface. (Note that we
    identify affixes only, not suppletion and replacement.)
    a. The farmer’s cows escaped.
    b. It was raining.
    c. Those socks are inexpensive.
    d. Jim needs the newer copy.
    e. The strongest rower continued.
    f. The pitbull has bitten the cyclist.
    g. She quickly closed the book.
    h. The alphabetiz-ation went well.

i. Column 1: internal change; Column 2: suppletion; Column 3: suffixation.
ii. Column 1: come/came; Column 2: bad/worse; Column 3: increase/increased

i. Reduplication
ii. Reduplicate the penultimate (second last) syllable.
iii. malolosi

i. I involves reduplication; II involves suffixation; III involves reduplication
ii. a V becomes N in I; a V becomes A in II; there is no category change in III.
iii. In I, the first (C)V sequence in the word is reduplicated; in II, the suffix –(y)on is
     added; in III, the last CV in the word is reduplicated.
iv. The suffix has the allomorph -on when attached to a base that ends in a consonant and
     -yon when attached to a base that ends in a vowel.

i. record: Yes               outline: No                     report: No
    journey: No              convict: Yes                    assault: No
    exchange: No             imprint: Yes                    answer: No
    remark: No               reply: No                       import: Yes
    surprise: No             retreat: No                     cripple: No
ii. cónduct (N) vs. condúct (V); cónflict (N) vs. conflíct (V)

16. a.   backformation     b. derivation         c.   blending       d.   compounding
    e.   conversion (with stress shift)          f.   clipping       g.   blending
    h.   derivation        i. compounding        j.   clipping       k.   conversion
    l.   blending          m. acronym            n.   clipping       o.   blending
    p.   clipping          q. cliticization
                                        Chapter 4                                     21

17. There is not always a single correct answer here, but possible examples follow.
    a. USOB
    b. klurk
    c. bubble
    d. cheese string
    e. backform

18. a.   ajax
    b.   jonathon(ize)
    c.   ovin
    d.   contactable
    e.   chocseng

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