United Nations Millennium Development Goals Richmond Vale Academy - Africa DI Program In September 2000 149 Heads of State and Government and high-ranking officials from over 40 other countries came together at the headquarters of the UN in New York to adopt the United Nations Millennium Declaration, committing their nations to a new global partnership to reduce extreme poverty and to set out a series of time-bound targets with a deadline of 2015. That have become known as the Millennium Development Goals. The Millennium Development Goals 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. 2. Achieve universal primary education. 3. Promote gender equality and empower woman. 4. Reduce child mortality. 5. Improve maternal health. 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases. 7. Ensure environmental sustainability. 8. Develop a global partnership for development. End poverty and hunger. • Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day. • Target 2: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people. • Target 3: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Where do we stand? The MDG target of cutting in half the proportion of people in the developing world living on less than $1 a day by 2015 remains within reach for the world as a whole. However, this achievement will be largely the result of extraordinary success in Asia, mostly East Asia. In contrast, little progress has been made in reducing extreme poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Quick facts. The World Bank’s latest estimates show that 1.4 billion people in developing countries were living in extreme poverty in 2005. Recent increases in the price of food have had a direct and adverse effect on the poor and are expected to push many more people – an estimated 100 million – into absolute poverty. The proportion of children under five who are undernourished declined from 33 per cent in 1990 to 26 per cent in 2006. However, by 2006, the number of children in developing countries who were underweight still exceeded 140 million. What has worked. Microfinance has helped many of the world’s poor to increase their incomes through self- employment and empowerment. For the past two years, Malawi’s voucher programme for fertilizers and seeds has helped double its agricultural productivity, turning the country into a net food exporter after decades of famine as a perennial food importer. NERICA - or the New Rice for Africa, a crossbreed of Asian and African rice varieties - can produce up to 200 per cent more than traditional crops and is expected to generate savings of several million dollars per year in the cost of rice imports in several pilot countries. Since 2002, the courier delivery company TNT and the World Food Programme (WFP) have developed a partnership called “Moving the World” to help fight global hunger. Achieve universal primary education. • Target: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. Where do we stand? In all regions, inequalities in access to education continue to pose major barriers to fully attaining the MDG 2 target, projections suggest that without further acceleration, 58 out of the 86 countries that have not yet reached universal primary education will not achieve it by 2015. Quick facts. Globally, 570 million children are enrolled in school. The number of children of primary school age who were out of school fell from 103 million in 1999 to 73 million in 2006. In that year, primary school enrolment in developing countries reached 88 per cent on average, up from 83 per cent in 2000. In sub-Saharan Africa, the net primary school enrolment ratio has only recently reached 71 per cent, even after a significant jump in enrolment that began in 2000. Around 38 million children of primary school age in this region are still out of school. In Southern Asia, the enrolment ratio has climbed above 90 per cent, yet more than 18 million children of primary school age are not enrolled. What has worked. Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda have abolished school fees, which has led to a surge in enrolment. In Haiti, collaboration between the Government, UN agencies and NGOs has changed the lives of 4,300 of the country's poorest children, thanks to an education project that provided school materials and supplies to 33 schools Promote gender equality and empower woman. • Target: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015. Where do we stand? School doors have swung open for girls in nearly all regions, as many countries have successfully promoted girls’ education as part of their efforts to boost overall enrolment. Girls’ primary enrolment increased more than boys’ in all developing regions between 2000 and 2006. While there is evidence of some success, especially in enrolment at the primary level, gender disparities in education are clearly evident in some regions. Sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania and Western Asia have the largest gender gaps in primary enrolment. Quick facts. Of the 113 countries that failed to achieve gender parity in primary and secondary school enrolment by the target date of 2005, only 18 are likely to achieve the goal by 2015. Girls account for 55 per cent of the out-of-school population. Since 2000, the proportion of seats for women in parliaments only increased from 13.5 to 17.9 per cent. Women occupy at least 30 per cent of parliamentary seats in 20 countries, although none of these countries are in Asia. What has worked. Rwanda’s constitution, adopted in 2003, guarantees a minimum of 30 per cent of parliamentary seats and other leadership positions to women. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation recently awarded $19 million to a UNDP-supported project using low-cost technology to boost the productivity and income of women farmers in Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal, three Least Developed Countries in Africa. Since 1991, a growing number of women’s groups and civil society organizations from more than one hundred countries have taken part in the campaign “16 Days of Activism against Gender Violence”, tackling all forms of violence against women, such as domestic violence, sexual violence in armed conflict, and female genital mutilation/cutting. Reduce child mortality. • Target: Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate. Where do we stand? In 2006, for the first time since mortality data have been gathered, annual deaths among children under five dipped below 10 million, to 9.7 million. This represents a 60 per cent drop in the rate of child mortality since 1960. Nevertheless, millions of children continue to die each year from preventable causes such as pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria and measles. Quick facts. Worldwide, deaths of children under five years of age declined from 93 to 72 deaths per 1,000 live births between 1990 and 2006. A child born in a developing country is over 13 times more likely to die within the first five years of life than a child born in an industrialized country. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for about half the deaths of children under five in the developing world. Between 1990 and 2006, about 27 countries – the large majority in sub-Saharan Africa – made no progress in reducing childhood deaths. What has worked. Through the “Nothing but Nets” campaign, initiated by a variety of foundations and corporate, sports-related and religious partners, approximately $18 million was raised to purchase and distribute 730,000 insecticide-treated anti-malaria nets in Africa since the campaign’s inception in May 2006. The Measles Initiative – led by the American Red Cross, the UN Foundation, WHO, UNICEF, and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – has become one of the most successful global health initiatives in the world. Maternal and neonatal tetanus is a disease that kills tens of thousands of newborns each year, most of them in developing countries. Viet Nam's Ministry of Health has eliminated maternal and neonatal tetanus, with support from WHO and UNICEF. Improve maternal health. • Target 1: Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio. • Target 2: Achieve universal access to reproductive health. Where do we stand? Maternal mortality remains unacceptably high across much of the developing world. Fully achieving the Goal 5 target of reducing by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio remains a challenging task; it is the area of least progress among all the MDGs. Quick facts. Maternal mortality shows the greatest disparity among countries: in sub-Saharan Africa, a woman’s risk of dying from treatable or preventable complications of pregnancy and childbirth over the course of her lifetime is 1 in 22, compared to 1 in 7,300 in developed regions. The risk of a woman dying from pregnancy-related causes during her lifetime is about 1 in 7 in Niger compared to 1 in 17,400 in Sweden. Every year, more than 1 million children are left »» motherless and vulnerable because of maternal death. Children who have lost their mothers are up to 10 times more likely to die prematurely than those who have not. What has worked. In countries such as Jamaica, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Tunisia, significant declines in maternal mortality have occurred as more women have gained access to family planning and skilled birth attendance with backup emergency obstetric care. Finding trained health workers to deliver emergency obstetric care is often a challenge in the developing world’s rural areas. UNFPA, in partnership with the Tigray regional health bureau (Ethiopia) and Médecins du Monde, an international NGO, has piloted an innovative project to train mid-level health officers so that they can provide life-saving emergency surgery at rural hospitals, where doctors are scarce. Galvanizing support for maternal health is the goal of the UNFPA-led Campaign to End Fistula, which in 2006 worked in 40 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and the Arab States. Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases. • Target 1: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. • Target 2: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it. • Target 3: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases. Where do we stand? Most countries are struggling to meet the Goal 6 targets of achieving universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS by 2010 and of halting and reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. Estimates of the number of people newly infected with HIV declined from 3 million in 2001 to 2.7 million in 2007. Quick facts. Every day, nearly 7,500 people are infected with HIV and 5,500 die from AIDS. Globally, an estimated 33 million people were living with HIV/AIDS in 2007. The number of people living with HIV rose from an estimated 29.5 million in 2001 to 33 million in 2007. The vast majority of those living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa, where about 60 per cent of adults living with HIV in 2007 were women. Malaria kills over 1 million people annually, 80 per cent of whom are children under five in sub- Saharan Africa. There continue to be between 350 million and 500 million cases of malaria worldwide each year. An estimated 250 million anti-malaria insecticide-treated bed nets are required to reach 80 per cent coverage in sub-Saharan Africa. To date, the funds committed will provide only 100 million nets – less than one half of the requirement. What has worked. As a result of the expansion of antiretroviral treatment services, made possible by increased international funding, the number of people who die from AIDS has started to decline, from 2.2 million in 2005 to 2 million in 2007. From 2005 to 2007, the percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving antiretroviral drugs to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) rose from 14 to 33 per cent. In this same period, the number of new infections among children fell from 410,000 to 370,000. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is the largest international public health effort in history. WHO, UNICEF, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Rotary International, the Gates Foundation, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization and donor governments jointly collaborate on this initiative, which has led to a rapid decline in transmission of the wild polio virus. Ensure environmental sustainability. • Target 1: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources. • Target 2: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss. • Target 3: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. • Target 4: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers. Where do we stand? Climate change is intensifying disasters, including extreme weather events, storm surges, floods and droughts. It is vital that development strategies incorporate measures to strengthen community resilience through economic development, income diversification, strengthened natural/infrastructural defenses and disaster preparedness. Quick facts. Some 1.6 billion people have gained access to safe drinking water since 1990. At this rate, the world is expected to meet the MDG target on drinking water. But about 1 billion people still do not have access to safe drinking water, and 2.5 billion lack access to basic sanitation services. Currently, only 22 per cent of the world’s fisheries are sustainable, compared to 40 per cent in 1975. Despite their importance to the sustainability of fish stocks and coastal livelihoods, only 0.7 per cent of the world’s oceans – about 2 million square kilometers – were put under protection. Some 2.4 billion people live without access to modern cooking and heating services, and 1.6 billion have no access to electricity. What has worked. The 1987 Montreal Protocol has resulted in the phasing out of over 96 per cent of all ozone- depleting substances (ODSs). This quantitative success in the protection of the ozone layer has also achieved important climate benefits because many ozone depleting substances controlled under the Protocol are also potent greenhouse gases. Decades ago, Pakistan’s Forest Department began planting rows of trees (called shelterbelts) along roadsides and canals in the Thal region to protect them against wind-borne sand. This initiative aimed to convert the vast sand-dune-covered Thal Desert into productive agricultural land, enhancing food production and improving living conditions through job creation. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) contribute to the conservation of ocean species and habitat, and aid in the development of sustainable fisheries. Develop a global partnership for development. • Target 1: Address the special needs of least developed countries, landlocked countries and small island developing states. • Target 2: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. • Target 3: Deal comprehensively with developing countries’ debt. • Target 4: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries. • Target 5: In cooperation with the private sector, make available benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications. Where do we stand? There is a large delivery gap in meeting commitments towards the MDG target of addressing the special needs of least developed countries (LDCs), and to provide more generous official development assistance (ODA) for countries committed to poverty reduction. Efforts to step up ODA have been set back. In 2007, the only countries to reach or exceed the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income (GNI) were Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. Quick facts. Official development assistance (ODA) continued to drop from an all-time high of $107.1 billion in 2005, to $103.7 billion in 2007. Aid flows need to increase by $18 billion per year to meet the promise made by the G8 in 2005 of doubling aid by 2010 – an additional $50 billion annually in global aid, of which $25 billion would be for Africa. For the average developing country, the burden of »» servicing external debt fell from almost 13 per cent of export earnings in 2000 to 7 per cent in 2006, creating a more favorable environment for investment and allowing them to allocate more resources to reducing poverty. In developed countries, 58 per cent of people used the Internet in 2006, compared to 11 per cent in developing countries and 1 per cent in the least developed countries. What has worked. Tanzania used resources saved through debt relief to abolish primary school fees (in 2002), build 30,000 new classrooms and 1,000 schools, and hire 18,000 additional trained teachers. The percentage of children enrolled in mainland Tanzania’s primary schools climbed from 58.7 per cent in 1990 to 94.8 per cent in 2006. Nigeria established in 2005 a Virtual Poverty Fund to channel monies released by debt relief towards poverty reduction and the other MDGs. Mozambique used its debt service savings to vaccinate one million children against tetanus, whooping cough and diphtheria, to fight AIDS, and to build and electrify schools. Through an inter-agency UN programme called Integrated Framework for Trade-related Technical Assistance, support has been provided to least developed countries in making trade capacity an integral part of both national poverty reduction and development plans. Malawi Off track. Possible to achieve if some changes are made. Possible to achieve if some changes are made. Possible to achieve if some changes are made. Off track. Possible to achieve if some changes are made. Off track. Insufficient information. Mozambique Possible to achieve if some changes are made. Off track. Off track. Very likely to be achieved, on track. Very likely to be achieved, on track. Off track. Off track. Insufficient information. South Africa Very likely to be achieved, on track. Very likely to be achieved, on track. Very likely to be achieved, on track. Possible to achieve if some changes are made. Possible to achieve if some changes are made. Possible to achieve if some changes are made. Very likely to be achieved, on track. Very likely to be achieved, on track.