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ALTERNATIVE JET FUELS

VIEWS: 53 PAGES: 19

									           ALTERNATIVE JET FUELS




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          INTRODUCTION
          CONVECTIONAL JET FUELS
          FISCHER - TROPSCH SYNTHETIC FUELS
          FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS
          FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS FROM BIOMASS
          FUELS FROM RENEWABLE OILS
          CRYOGENIC JET FUEL
          CONCLUSIONS
          REFERENCES




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    REASONS FOR SELECTING ALTERNTIVE FUELS
     OILPRICES
     ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

     EMISSIONS

     LOW SULFER CONTENT AND AROMATIC CONTENT

     REDUCED LIFE CYCLE OF GREEN HOUSE GAS

     SMOOTH ENGINE PERFORMANCE




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           OIL PRICES, 1994- MARCH 2008
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          JET FUEL IS A TYPE OF AVIATION FUEL DESIGNED
           FOR USE IN AIR CRAFT POWERED BY GAS TURBINE
           ENGINES

          MOST COMMONLY USED FUEL FOR COMMERCIAL
           AVIATION ARE JET A & JET A-1

          JET B IS ALSO USED FOR ITS ENHANCED COLD
           WEATHER PERFORMANCES

          JET FUEL IS A MIXTURE OF LARGE NUMBER OF
           HYDROCARBONS


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           CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT CONVERT A MIXTURE
           OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN IN TO
           LIQUID HYDROCARBONS

          (2n+1) H2 + n CO → CnH(2n+2) + n H2O

          TEMPERATURE RANGE(150–300 °C)

          PRESSURE RANGES FROM ONE TO SEVERAL TENS OF
           ATMOSPHERES

          CATALYSTS USED ARE COBALT,IRON OR NICKEL

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          UNBLENDED FT FUELS HAVE REDUCED AROMATIC
           CONTENT AND NEARLY SULFUR FREE

          UNBLENDED FT FUELS HAVE REDUCED LUBRICATION
           PROPERTIES

          REDUCED EMISSIONS

          IMPROVED THERMAL STABILITY



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          PRIMARILY CONSISTS OF METHANE

          CREATED BY METHANOGENIC ORGANISMS IN
           MARSHES,BOGS ETC

          IT MUST UNDERGO EXTENSIVE PROCESSING TO
           REMOVE ALL MATERIALS OTHER THAN METHANE

          PRODUCTION COST RANGES FROM $1.40 TO $2.50
           PER GALLON


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          CLEANEST FOSSIL FUEL PRODUCING LESS CO2 PER
           JOULE
          FEWER POLLUTENTS THAN OTHER FOSSIL FUELS

          IT HAS MORE SPECIFIC ENERGY THAN JET A

          ITS LOWER TEMPERATURE CAN HELP TO COOL THE
           AIR WHICH THE ENGINE COMPRESSES FOR GREATER
           VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY

          TEMPERATURE AT THE EXHAUST CAN BE LOWERED


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          BIOMASS IS A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE,IS
           BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL FROM LIVING OR RECENTLY
           LIVING ORGANISMS,SUCH AS WOOD,GAS AND
           ALCOHOL

          BIOMASS IS CARBON BASED AND IS COMPOSED OF
           ORGANIC MOLECULES INCLUDING ATOMS OF
           HYDROGEN,OXYGEN,NITROGEN

          IT ALSO INCLUDES SMALL QUANTITIES OF ATOMS
           INCLUDING ALKALI,ALKALINE EARTH AND HEAVY
           METALS


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          CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES

          THERMAL CONERSION

          CHEMICAL CONVERSION

          BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION

          PRODUCTION COST RANGES FROM $1.99 TO $2.34
           PER GALLON



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     USUALLY BIODIESEL OR BIOKEROSENE IS USED
    BIODIESEL
     MADE BY CHEMICAL REACTION OF
      LIPIDS(VEGETABLE OIL OR ANIMAL FAT) WITH
      ALCOHOL
     BIODIESEL HAVE BETTER LUBRICATING PROPERTIES
      AND HIGHER CETANE RATINGS THAN LOW SULFUR
      DIESEL FUELS




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     BIOKEROSENE

          IT IS THE KEROSENE DERIVED FROM BIOMASS

          IT IS NOT USED AS A REALISTIC ALTERNATIVE FOR
            TRADITIONAL FOSSIL FUEL FOR AVIATION SINCE
            IT DOES NOT HAVE HIGH ENERGY CONTENT PER
            UNIT VOLUME AND LOW FREEZING POINT




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     JET FUEL FROM HALOPHYTES
      HALOPHYTES ARE SALT WATER PLANTS



          STUDY IS GOING ON AT MASDAR INSTITUTE OF
           SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCING
           COMMERCIAL QUANTITIES OF FUEL FROM SALT
           WATER PLANTS

          HALOPHYTES ARE SAID TO BE HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE
           SOURCE OF BIOMASS ENERGY



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     THEY DONOT NEED FRESH WATER OR VALUABLE
      LAND
     THEY HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO DELIVER HIGH
      YIELDS PER UNIT OF LAND
     THEY HAVE LOWER ENVIRONMENTAL AND CARBON
      IMPACT THAN FUELS MADE FROM OTHER FOOD
      CROPS
     PUMPING AND DRAINAGE OF HIGH VOLUMES OF
      SEAWATER ARE THE MAJOR PROBLEMS




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          THE TERM CRYOGENIC FUELS MEANS MATERIALS
           THAT ARE GASES AT NORMAL CONDITIONS HAVE
           BEEN COOLED TO THEIR BOILING POINT AND
           STORED AS LOW TEMPERATURE LIQUIDS

          EG : LIQUID HYDROGEN AND LIQUID METHANE

          HAVING VERY HIGH GRAVIMETRIC ENERGY
           CONTENT AND LOW VOLUMETRIC ENERGY




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    OIL PRICES WOULD BE REDUCED

    REDUCTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    REDUCE WORLD DEMAND FOR CRUDE OIL




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          James I. Hileman, MIT ; David S. Ortiz, RAND ;James T. Bartis,
           RAND; Hsin Min Wong, MIT; Pearl E. Donohoo, MIT ; Malcolm
           A. Weiss, MIT; Ian A. Waitz, MIT, Near-Term Feasibility of
           Alternative Jet Fuels, Technical Report,2009
          Bilal M. McDowell Boman; Dan L. Bulzan; Diana I.; Centeno-
           Gomez; and Robert C. Hendricks, Glenn Research Center,
           Cleveland, Ohio, Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source for
           Aviation—A Survey, NASA/TM—2009-215587,2009
          Carol Bosely,Roger Organ,John Lind ; Alternative Jet
           Fuels,Addendum 1 To Aviation fuels Technical Review(FTE3/A
           1),2006,CHEVRON CORPORATION
          http://memagazine.asme.org/web/Green_Energy_Leader_Job.
           cfm
          http://www.greencar.com/articles/5-things-need-fischer-
           tropsch-process.php



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