FORTRAN 95 by bnmbgtrtr52


									FORTRAN 95

    Introduction    Fortran programs can be developed, edited, compiled and run
                    from a simple development environment called Plato which is a
                    source code editor that integrates with several compilers and
                    other development tools to provide a single application
                    development environment. Plato is an example of an Integrated
                    Development Environment (IDE). Within Plato you can:
                       Write and compile your program
                       Pinpoint compile-time errors
                       Link/build your program
                       Run your program
                       Debug your program
                       Manage a program as a project consisting of one or many
                       source files and libraries.

   Starting Plato   To start Plato, choose Development Environment from the
                    Programming/F95 option of the Public menu on the Windows

                    The Plato window appears like this:

                    The File menu allows you to create files, open existing files,
                    save, close and print files. It also has a listing of recently edited

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                        The Edit menu has all the normal editor functions for writing
                        and editing your programs
                        The Project menu contains options for compiling, linking and
                        running programs and building projects.
                        The Options menu allows you to customise certain features of
                        Plato's appearance and operation.
                        The Window menu controls the appearance and position of
                        multiple windows.
                        The Help menu offers on-line assistance in using Plato.
                        Many of the menu options have keyboard shortcuts displayed
                        alongside the option itself.
         The Toolbar    Many of the actions available in the menus can also be activated
                        by clicking on the appropriate button in the Toolbar. Positioning
                        the mouse cursor over a button will display the action of the
                                            This group of buttons will open, save and
                                            print program files.

                                                 These are editing buttons to cut, copy
                                                 and paste text. The two buttons on the
                        right allow you to undo the last action and to search for text.

                                                     Use these buttons to compile, link
                                                     and build files and projects.

                              This button will start the Debugger to help you with errors
                              in your program.

                                  These buttons display the Error window and Project

                        The toolbar also has a pull-
                        down list box containing the
                        files that are at present open or part of an open project. You can
                        switch between windows by selecting a filename from this list
                        Below the Toolbar is a blank area, the editor, in which you can
                        type the code of your program and at the bottom of the Plato
                        window is an information bar where progress messages and
                        line an character numbers will be displayed.
    Writing A Program   To create a Fortran source file, choose New from the File menu,
                        or use the appropriate button on the toolbar. Make sure the
                        cursor is positioned at the top left of the editor window and type
                        in the code, for example:
                               PROGRAM FIRST
                               PRINT*,'My first program’

2        Fortran 95
                          The Plato window will now look like this:

Saving The Source File    Before compiling the program, it must be saved to a file. To do
                             Choose Save As from the File menu.
                             Select a directory to save it in.
                             Enter the name first.f95

                          Make sure you give the file an appropriate extension for the
                          compiler you want to use. By default Plato uses the following

                          .for .f .f77                      Salford FTN77
                          .f90 .f95                         Salford FTN95

                          It is a good idea to make the filename the same as that of the
    Compiling, Building   Having written a program, the next step is to compile and link
         And Running      (or build) it. Compiling is a process by which a human readable
                          program is translated into a form, which the computer can
                          understand. The translated program is automatically saved as a
                          binary or object file.
                             To compile the program choose Compile File from the Tools
                             menu or click on the Compile File button in the toolbar.
                          An information window will display the progress of the
                          compilation and if successful, with no errors will show the

                                                                        Fortran 95          3
                      The building procedure is required to build an executable file
                      from one or more object files and built-in libraries of subroutines
                      and functions.
                         To build the program, choose Build File from the Project
                         menu or click on the Build File button in the toolbar.
                      If the program has been compiled and built successfully, it is
                      ready to run.
                         To run the program, choose Run from the Project menu or
                         click on the Execute button in the toolbar.
                      The output will appear in a new DOS window.
One Step Execution    By default, Plato is set up so that the compile, build
                      and run stages can be done automatically by just
                      choosing Run from the Project menu or clicking
                      on the Execute button. Plato will compile and link only when
                      necessary, that is when your source has changed since the last
                      build, saving you time.
    Compiler Errors   Any errors in syntax of your code will prevent compilation. If
                      the compiler detects errors it will display a message in an
                      information window. Click on the Details button in the this
                      window to see a list of each error or warning, one per line
                      showing the name of the source file, the appropriate line
                      number and the error/warning message.
                      When the error is selected in the Error & Warning window the
                      appropriate line will be highlighted in the Edit Window, making
                      it easy to pinpoint exactly where the error occurred.
    Run-time Errors   It is possible that, for some reason, your program fails and that
                      you obtain an error message. This is referred to as a 'run- time
                      error' and usually involves errors in the logic or organisation of
                      your program. For example, you may have attempted to divide
                      by zero or assigned a value to an incompatible variable type.
                      If you are lucky, an error message will indicate what is wrong
                      and you will then be able to correct the program using the editor,
                      save it, re-compile and run it again.
    Editing More      You can work on more than one program by opening further
    Than One File     edit windows. Each time you select New from the File menu a
                      new edit window is created. You can see a list of open files using
                      the drop down menu to the right in the toolbar.
                      Although you may start writing a new program in a new
                      window, the number of windows open will quickly increase if
                      you do so. To avoid this, when you have finished work on a
                      program, and have saved it to disc, you can close a window by
                      choosing Close from the File menu.
                      If your program or application consists of more than one file you
                      will need to create a project to manage it.
           Projects   A Plato project is a file with the extension .prj that contains
                      information about the application you are creating. The
                      information includes:
                         A list of source files
                         A list of object and library files to be linked to the compiled
                         source (this is known as building)
                         Compilation options
                         Other optional settings

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                          Projects provide a convenient way to build an application and all
                          its components.
Creating A New Project    To create a new project and add your source files to it, follow
                          these steps:

                             Choose New from the Project menu to open an empty Project
                             Give the project a suitable name.
                             Click on the COMPILE section of the Project Files tree and
                             use the Add button to navigate your folders and select the
                             source file(s) that are part of this application. You can select
                             more than one file at a time.
                             Now click on the LINK section of the Project Files tree and
                             use the Add button to navigate your folders and select the
                             objects and libraries that are part of this application. Again,
                             you can select more than one file at a time. Note that you do
                             not need to add entries for objects that are built from source
                             that is listed in the COMPILE section as Plato will make
                             sure that those files are linked.

                          The source file(s) you have selected will now be displayed in the
                          Project Files tree under the heading COMPILE and any object or
                          libraries to be linked will be displayed under the heading LINK:

                             To specify compiler options for a particular file, select the file
                             then click the Options button.
                             Double click on a file in the Application tree to open it for
                             editing. You can return to the project window from the
                             Project Menu.
                             To save the project at any time use the Save Project button.

       Compiling And      Compiling a project is similar to compiling single files, you can
     Building A Project   use the toolbar to Compile, Build and Rebuild your projects.
                          When a project is built, all the files in the application tree are
                          processed and any files that do not have an up to date object file
                          are compiled.
  Using The Debugger      To start the Windows Debugger to debug your application, click
                          the Debugger toolbar button. If necessary Plato will
                          automatically compile and link your application with the
                          /DEBUG option enabled.

                                                                          Fortran 95        5
                         A dialogue will appear offering a command line to use with the
                         debugger. The command line must start with sdbg (or wsdbg)
                         and be followed by the path and filename of your application.
                         Optionally this can be followed by /P and then any arguments
                         required by your application.
    Using Checkmate      Checkmate allows you to check the correctness of code
                         dynamically at run-time. By applying Checkmate to your code
                         you can trap most programming errors automatically.

                         To enable Checkmate with a single file:

                            Select File Options from the File menu.
                            Select the option Checkmate enabled
                            Rebuild your application

                         To enable Checkmate for a whole project:

                            Open the Project Window and select the Options tab
                            In the 'Global Compiler Options' box type the option /UNDEF
                            Rebuild your application
    Writing C Programs   You can also write, compile, link and run C and C++ programs
                         in Plato. Save your source file with a .c or .cpp extension.
         Leaving Plato   To leave Plato, select Quit from the File menu.

           Appendix      Keyboard Shortcuts

                         Standard Windows
                         Ctrl+N                  Creates a new edit window
                         Ctrl+O                  Opens a file
                         Ctrl+S                  Saves the current file
                         Ctrl+P                  Prints a file
                         Ctrl+Z                  Undo
                         Ctrl+X                  Cut
                         Shift+Del               Cut
                         Ctrl+C                  Copy
                         Ctrl+Ins                Copy
                         Ctrl+V                  Paste
                         Shift+Ins               Paste
                         Ctrl+A                  Select All
                         Ctrl+F                  Find
                         Ctrl+H                  Find and Replace
                         Ctrl+G                  Go To Line
                         F1                      Help Topics
                         Shift+F1                Keyword Help
                         F2                      Save

6         Fortran 95

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