OPPORT UpperInter.indd

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OPPORT UpperInter.indd Powered By Docstoc
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    Pronunciation symbols

    /p/        = pen              /w/        = way
    /b/        = bad              /e/        = let
    /t/        = tap              / /        = add
    /d/        = do               /i /       = teeth
    /k/        = can              /i/        = bit
    / /        = get              /ɑ /       = art
    /f/        = few              /ɒ/        = dog
    /v/        = view             /ɔ /       = form
    /θ/        = throw            /υ/        = put
    /ð/        = though           /u /       = do
    /s/        = see              / /        = cup
    /z/        = zoo              / /        = skirt
    /ʃ/        = shop             /ə/        = the
    / /        = measure          /ei/       = make
    /tʃ/       = cheese           /əυ/       = home
    /d /       = join             /ai/       = fly
    /m/        = man              /aυ/       = now
    /n/        = not              /ɔi/       = enjoy
    /ŋ/        = ring             /iə/       = near
    /h/        = hot              /eə/       = care
    /l/        = let              /υe/       = poor
    /r/        = rain             //         = main stress after / ɑ ftə/
    /j/        = yet              //         = seconadry stress afternoon / ɑ ftə nu n/


    Abbreviations
    Noun (n)   = podstatné meno
    Adj.       = prídavné meno
    Verb (v)   = sloveso
    Adv.       = príslovka
    Pron       = zámeno
    Prep       = predložka
    Number     = èíslovka



    Pearson Longman                                     Slovak Ventures, s.r.o
    Reprezentantka pre SR:                              Kasalova 6
    Mgr. Adriana Miková                                 949 01 Nitra
    Mobil: 0911 710 717                                 tel.: 037/ 65 20 261
    e-mail: slovakia@longman.sk                         fax: 037/ 77 20 190
    Ing. Božena Zajacová                                e-mail:        sv@venturesbooks.com
    Mobil: 0911 710 737                                            predaj@venturesbooks.com
    e-mail: vychod@longman.sk
    Ing. Renáta Danihelová                              www.slovakventures.sk
    Mobil: 0911 710 787
    e-mail: zapad@longman.sk



                                         Published 2008
   3

MODULE 1 Identity                                                      bracelet / breislit/ n náramok He bought her a gold
                                                                         bracelet as a sign of his affection.
(be) really into / riəli intə, intυ/ phr v zaujíma sa                  breathed in / bri ðd in/ phr v vdýchnu He breathed in
  o.. Martin‘s really into modelling US railroads – he even edits        her perfume as she brushed past him.
  a magazine on the subject.                                           brochure / brəυʃə, ʃυə/ n leták, brožúra Pick up some
(be) really keen on / riəli ki n ɒn/ phr by blázon                       holiday brochures on your way home, and we‘ll decide where
  do.. Jim‘s become really keen on photography since he got              to go.
  his digital camera.                                                  canoeing /kə nu iŋ/ n kanoing I‘ve only tried canoeing
abroad /ə brɔ d/ adv v zahranièí I‘ve never lived abroad                 once, and I fell out and nearly drowned!
  before.                                                              can‘t stand / kɑ nt st nd/ v nemôc znies /vystá
accommodation /ə kɒmə deiʃən/ n ubytovanie                               I can‘t stand sitting in the house all day when it‘s nice and sunny
  The price for the holiday includes flights and hotel accommodation.     outside.
advanced /əd vɑ nst/ adj pokroèilý The USA was trying                  careless / keələs/ adj nedbalý, bezstarostný It was
  to develop ever more advanced weapons systems.                         careless of him to leave the door unlocked.
aggression /ə reʃən/ n agresia, násilníctvo                            class-conscious / klɑ s kɒnʃəs/ adj bra do úvahy
  Television violence can encourage aggression in children.              príslušnos k spoloèenskej triede In many ways
altogether / ɔ ltə eðə/ adv dohromady, spolu It‘s                        the British are still as class-conscious as they ever were.
  a very old custom that has vanished altogether over the years.       clean up / kli niŋ p/ phr v upratova She was forever
ambition / m biʃən/ n cie¾, ambícia She fulfilled her                     cleaning up after her son.
  ambition to run the 10,000 metres in under 30 minutes.               cloudless / klaυdləs/ adj bezoblaèná She lay sunbathing
ambitious / m biʃəs/ adj cie¾avedomý, ambiciózny                         under a cloudless sky.
  Alfred was intensely ambitious, obsessed with the idea of            clubbing / kl biŋ/ n chodenie do klubov She always
  becoming rich.                                                         goes clubbing when she‘s in New York.
arrangements /ə reind mənts/ n prípravy, usporiadanie                  clues /klu z/ n stopa, vodítko The police have no clues
  Rachael phoned the hotel yesterday to check the arrangements           to who might have committed the crime.
  for her wedding reception.                                           come over /keim əυvə/ phr v prís k Jack came over
astrology /ə strɒləd i/ n astrológia She believes in                     and asked me to dance.
  astrology, and checks her horoscope in the paper every day.          come up /k m p/ phr v objavi sa, vyjs najavo
atmosphere / tməsfiə/ n atmosféra The hotel had                          One thing that came up was the question of how to pay for
  a lovely relaxed atmosphere.                                           the new equipment.
attic / tik/ n podkrovie He lived in a small attic room at             communicative /kə mju nikətiv/ adj komunikatívny
  the top of the house.                                                  Tom wasn‘t very communicative, and kept himself to himself.
autobiography / ɔ təbai ɒ rəfi/ n životopis, autobiografia             competition / kɒmpə tiʃən/ n sú až Competition for the job
  He‘s writing his autobiography, and he‘s only nineteen!                was intense.
awaken /ə weikənd/ v zobudi , prebra We were awakened                  competitive /kəm petətiv/ adj sú aživý Some US
  by the alarm clock.                                                    industries are not as competitive as they have been in
background / b k raυnd/ n pozadie, pôvod Steve                           the past.
  has a background in computer engineering.                            conservative /kən s vətiv/ adj konzervatívny
badminton / b dmintən/ n bedminton Playing                               The party takes a very conservative attitude to the country‘s
  badminton every week helps keep us fit.                                 education system.
bare /beə/ adj bosý There was a ragged child with bare feet            considerate /kən sidərət/ adj pozorný, oh¾aduplný
  begging at the roadside.                                               He was always kind and considerate to me.
bargained / bɑ ind/ v vyjednáva cenu I didn‘t want                     conventional /kən venʃənəl/ adj konvenèný Internet
  to pay the price he was asking, so I bargained and got a few           connections through conventional phone lines are fairly slow.
  pounds off.                                                          cottage / kɒtid / n chata We rented a country cottage in
beam /bi m/ n zväzok lúèov The rabbit froze when it was                  Devon for our two-week holiday.
  caught in the beam of the car‘s headlights.                          courses / kɔ siz/ n kurzy - vyuèovacie Details of next
beat /bi t/ v porazi Brazil were beaten 2–1 by Argentina.                term‘s courses can be found in the college handbook.
belief /bi li f/ n viera To become a priest you need a strong          create /kri eit/ v stvori , vytvori Some people believe
  belief in God.                                                         the universe was created by a big explosion.
bemoan /bi məυn/ v ¾utova , trúchli He was bemoaning                   crime /kraim/ n zloèin We moved here because there was
  the fact that lawyers charge so much.                                  very little crime.
bore /bɔ / v nudi He‘s the sort of person who bores you                death /deθ/ n smr The death of his mother came as a tremendous
  at parties.                                                            shock.
                                                                                                                             4
decent / di sənt/ adj slušný He‘s paid a decent salary but         found out / faυnd aυt/ phr v zisti Chris found out that
  doesn‘t think it‘s enough.                                         her great-grandfather used to be a policeman.
deep down / di p daυn/ prep phr hlboko vo vnútri Deep              garage /         rid / n garáž Jenny likes all kinds of music,
  down, I think she‘s embarrassed because her family has so much     from classical to garage.
  money.                                                           gas / s/ n plyn The oven is electric, but the hob is powered
democratic / demə kr tik/ adj demokratický They                      by gas.
  elected a democratic government for the first time in 1957.       get at / et ət, t/ phr v robi si z niekoho žarty Why
depth /depθ/ n håbka This sea has an average depth                   is he always getting at me?
  of 35 metres.                                                    get by / et bai/ phr v vystaèi si s príjmom I don‘t
developed /di veləpt/ adj rozvinutý Energy consumption               earn a huge salary, but we get by.
  in the developed world has risen steeply in recent years.        get on with / et ɒn wið, wiθ/ phr v vychádza s niekým
developing /di veləpiŋ/ adj rozvojový Aid to developing              I get on really well with my wife‘s parents.
  countries has been increased by 30 per cent this year.           get to / et tə, tυ/ phr v prís do.. When does this train
devote myself to /di vəυt mai self tə, tυ/ v phr by                  get to Edinburgh?
  oddaný He has devoted himself to good works all his life.        getting on with /ə jυ etiŋ ɒn/ phr v vychádza s...
dew /dju / n rosa The grass was wet with early morning dew.          How are you getting on with the people at your new office?
doll /dɒl/ n bábika He was carving a small wooden doll for         gift / ift/ n dar The earrings were a gift from my aunt.
  his granddaughter.                                               glinting / lintiŋ/ v lesknú sa The sea was glinting in
door attendant / dɔ r ə tendənt/ n vrátnik The door                  the sunlight.
  attendant stopped him when he tried to leave without paying.     glisten / lisəniŋ/ v lesknú sa The tears were glistening
draw /wəz drɔ iŋ/ v kresli The boys were drawing graffiti             on her cheeks.
  on the wall.                                                     goose / u s/ n hus They had goose for Christmas dinner.
dust /d st/ n prach All the furniture was covered in a thick       grateful / reitfəl/ adj vïaèný I‘m so grateful for all your
  layer of dust.                                                     help.
easy-going / i zi əυiŋ/ adj bezstarostný, ¾ahkomyse¾ný             hard-working / hɑ d w kiŋ/ adj ažko pracujúci
  Her easy-going nature made her popular.                            He was always a hard-working teacher, and he got the post of
emotional /i məυʃənəl/ adj citový, emocionálny She                   deputy head this year.
  provided emotional support at a very distressing time for me.    historic /hi stɒrik/ adj historický It‘s a TV programme
enclose /in kləυz/ v priloži Please enclose a cheque with            about the restoration of historic buildings.
  your order.                                                      homesick / həυm sik/ adj smútiaci za domovom
enquiry /in kwaiəri/ n vyšetrovanie, prešetrovanie                   Bill loved Australia, but he felt homesick and wanted to go
  The police are making enquiries into his background.               back home to see his friends.
entrance /in tr nst/ adj uvies do vytrženia He was                 house /haυs/ n dom When I was young, ‚house‘ and ‚garage‘
  entranced so completely by her that he fell on his knees and       were things that people lived or worked in, not kinds of music!
  proposed.                                                        chat /tʃ t/ n pokec, rozhovor I‘ve had a long chat with
entrance exams / entrəns i z m/ n vstupný test                       Vinnie.
  The entrance exams for this college are very difficult.           chatty / tʃ ti/ adj zhovorèivý He was in an unusually chatty
excitable /ik saitəbəl/ adj popudlivý A puppy is naturally           mood.
  affectionate and excitable.                                      check in / tʃek in/ phr v zapísa sa Check in two hours
extreme /ik stri m/ adj obrovský, extrémny Extreme                   before the flight.
  poverty still exists in many rural areas.                        cheerful / tʃiəfəl/ adj veselý She‘s feeling more cheerful
facilities /fə silətiz/ n vybavenie, technické prostriedky,          today.
  možnosti Science facilities at the school have been greatly      chestnut tree / tʃesn t tri / n gaštan - strom Grandad
  enhanced by the addition of the new laboratories.                  has a chestnut tree in his garden.
family-oriented / f məli ɔ rientid, ɒri-/ adj rodinne              childish / tʃaildiʃ/ adj detský, detinský He has a very
  zameraný This channel concentrates on family-oriented              high, childish laugh for a man his age.
  programmes and doesn‘t broadcast adult films.                     chop /tʃɒp/ v seka He went outside to chop some more
flow /wəz fləυiŋ/ v tiec , prúdi The water was flowing                wood for the fire.
  swiftly down the river.                                          Christmas pudding / krisməs pυdiŋ/ n vianoèný
folks /fəυks/ n rodina I‘d like to take you to Glasgow and           puding Would you like some cream on your Christmas
  introduce you to my folks.                                         pudding?
fortyish or so / fɔ tiiʃ ɔ səυ/ phr štyridsiatnik                  I wouldn’t mind / wυdnt maind/ v nevadilo by mi..
  alebo tak nejako She looks younger, but in fact she‘s              I wouldn‘t mind if the seats in the cinema were comfortable,
  fortyish or so.                                                    but they were as bad as the film!
   5
I‘d rather /d rɑ ðə/ phr radšej by som... I‘d rather go              lining / lainiŋ/ n orámovanie, obšívka He bought me
  to the dentist than go and see that film again – it was terrible!     a lovely black jacket with a red silk lining.
ideal / ai diəl/ adj ideálny We‘ll give you good advice on           loft /lɒft/ n povala Our neighbours have just done a loft
  how to reach your ideal weight.                                      conversion.
idealistic /ai diə listik/ adj idealistický Idealistic young         logic / lɒd ik/ n logika The logic behind this statement
  doctors are working extremely long hours in our hospitals.           is faulty.
identity /ai dentəti/ n totožnos , identita The identity             look after /lυk ɑ ftə/ phr v stara sa o... Don‘t worry,
  of the killer is still unknown.                                      I‘ll look after the kids tomorrow.
imitated / imiteitid/ v napodobòova She watched                      look forward to /lυk fɔ wəd tə, tυ/ phr v teši sa na...
  the dancer carefully and then imitated her every step.               I‘m really looking forward to our vacation.
impatient /im peiʃənt/ adj netrpezlivý We are growing                look out / lυkt aυt/ phr v pozrie von I looked out of
  impatient with the lack of results.                                  the window, but couldn‘t see Dad anywhere in the garden.
in tears /in tiəz/ prep phr utápa sa v slzách Maria was in           looking back on / lυkiŋ b k ɒn/ phr v ohliada sa spä
  tears because of the nasty comments you made about her cooking.      Looking back on the holiday, it wasn‘t one of the best experiences
in vain /in vein/ adv neúspešne I searched in vain for                 of my life.
  my wallet.                                                         lottery / lɒtəri/ n lotéria I always buy a lottery ticket but
incident / insidənt/ n udalos , príhoda A spokesman                    I don‘t think I‘ll ever win the lottery.
  said it was an isolated incident.                                  lungs /l ŋz/ n p¾úca The disease had affected his lungs,
individual / ində vid uəl/ n jednotlivec The rights of                 but the outlook for his recovery was positive.
  the individual are sometimes lees important than the rights of     made up of /iz meid p əv, ɒv/ phr v by vyrobený z..
  the people in general.                                               The colour green is made up of a mixture of blue and yellow.
individualistic / individ uə listik/ adj osobitý You                 magnifying glass / m nifai iŋ lɑ s/ n zväèšovacie
  can‘t miss him, he has a very individualistic style of dressing!     sklo, lupa You need a magnifying glass to read this writing, it‘s
injure /wəz ind əd/ v zrani Charles was injured when                   so small!
  the car he was in collided with a tree.                            minority /mai nɒrəti/ n menšina Gaelic is still spoken in
ink /iŋk/ n atrament Please write in black ink on the form.            Ireland by a tiny minority.
innovative / inəvətiv/ adj inovatívny, nový This course              mood /mu d/ n nálada You‘re in a good mood this morning!
  takes an innovative approach to language teaching.                 moody / mu di/ adj náladový Keith had seemed moody
intensive /in tensiv/ adj intenzívny The college offers                and depressed all morning.
  a one-week intensive course in English for businessmen             movement / mu vmənts/ n pohyb The burglar‘s
  needing to learn the language quickly.                               movements were soft and stealthy.
intolerant /in tɒlərənt/ adj netolerantný The party attracts         muddy / m di/ adj zablatený Take your boots off outside
  people who are intolerant of other people‘s political beliefs.       if they‘re muddy.
introduce myself / intrə dju s mai self/ phr predstavi               mug /m / n pohár I made the plumber a mug of coffee.
  sa Allow me to introduce myself – I‘m David‘s father.              multicultural / m lti k ltʃərəl/ adj multikulturálny
invisible /in vizəbəl/ adj nevidite¾ný The house was                   Living in a multicultural society means that you have to get on
  surrounded by trees and invisible from the road.                     with people from other cultures.
judge /d d / v súdi , posudzova You should never                     mysterious /mi stiəriəs/ adj záhadný The police are
  judge a person by their looks.                                       investigating the mysterious deaths of three children at the hospital.
judo / d u dəυ/ n džudo Jack is a brown belt at judo, and            mystery / mistəri/ n záhada Twenty years after the event,
  is not someone you should pick a fight with.                          his death remains a mystery.
kind /kaind/ adj milý They were very kind to me when I was           nasty / nɑ sti/ adj odporný, protivný He has a nasty
  in need of help.                                                     temper and I avoid him as much as possible.
knowledge / nɒlid / n vedomos You need specialist                    national park / n ʃənəl pɑ k/ n národný park John
  knowledge to do this job.                                            Muir was the main person behind the creation of Yosemite
ladder / l də/ n rebrík She climbed up the ladder.                     National Park.
law-abiding / lɔ ə baidiŋ/ adj dodržujúci zákon I‘m                  nationalistic / n ʃənə listik/ adj nacionalistický,
  a law-abiding citizen – I‘ve never broken the law in my life!        národný They were encouraging nationalistic sentiment
leaves /li vz/ n listy It was autumn, and the leaves were              among the students.
  falling from the trees.                                            not (be) keen on myself / nɒt ki n ɒn mai self/ phr
liberal / libərəl/ adj liberálny The authorities have started          neby nieèomu naklonený, nepozdáva sa Brenda
  to take a more liberal attitude towards soft drugs.                  wants to go to Morocco this year, but I‘m not very keen on it myself.
likeable / laikəbəl/ adj sympatický Sadie is a very happy,           observer /əb z və/ n divák, pozorovate¾ Bergman
  likeable child.                                                      was a keen observer of human nature.
                                                                                                                                     6
on purpose /ɒn p pəs/ prep phr zámerne Was it an accident,              reckless / rekləs/ adj bezoh¾adný He was accused of
 or did the car run her over on purpose?                                  causing death by reckless driving.
operation / ɒpə reiʃən/ n operácia Ken needs a heart                    reliable /ri laiəbəl/ adj spo¾ahlivý Scientists have
 bypass operation or he may die.                                          developed a birth control method that is cheap and reliable.
origin / ɒrəd in/ n pôvod Her book has a new theory to                  religious /ri lid əs/ adj náboženský I don‘t share her
 explain the origins of the universe.                                     religious beliefs – she‘s a Hindu and I‘m an atheist.
outgoing / aυt əυiŋ/ adj otvorený, spoloèenský We‘re                    rely /ri lai/ v spo¾ahnú sa I knew I could rely on David to
 looking for someone with an outgoing, sociable personality.              help me when I needed it.
overjoyed / əυvə d ɔid/ adj preš astný He was overjoyed                 remain /ri meind/ v zosta , zotrva We remained long after
 to see his mother again.                                                 the others had gone.
path /pɑ θ/ n chodník I walked nervously up the garden                  research /ri s tʃ/ n výskum The money you give will
 path towards the front door.                                             fund research into the causes of cancer.
patient / peiʃənt/ n pacient Most of the patients had a quiet           reserved /ri z vd/ adj skromný, zdržanlivý Ellen was
 night, but Mr Jones was in a lot of pain.                                a shy, reserved girl.
perfectionist /pə fekʃənist/ n perfekcionista Many top                  retired /ri taiəd/ adj v dôchodku, dôchodkový Before
 athletes are perfectionists who drive themselves to succeed.             he started editing the newsletter, Mrs Granger was a retired
perk up /aiv p kt p/ phr v oži I‘ve perked up since I had                 teacher with nothing to do.
 that cup of coffee.                                                    reveal /wəz ri vi ld/ v odhali The secret of his birth was
personality / p sə n ləti/ n osobnos He was an ambitious                  revealed when the will was read.
 man with a strong personality.                                         ride /wəz raidiŋ/ v jazdi I‘ve got a picture of your mum
physics / fiziks/ n fyzika I was never any good at physics                when we were riding donkeys on Blackpool beach.
 when I was at school.                                                  ring up / riŋ p/ phr v zavola , zatelefonova I‘ll ring
picked me up / pikt mi p/ phr v vyzdvihnú , vzia                          the manager up tomorrow.
 autom Her husband always picked her up in the car after work.          roam /rəυm/ v túla sa The dogs are allowed to roam around
plants /plɑ nts/ n rastliny Jessica bought some plants                    wherever they want.
 for the garden.                                                        rock climbing / rɒk klaimiŋ/ n horolezectvo Hamish
please /pli z/ v poteši They run the kind of business that                likes to go rock climbing in the mountains at the weekends.
 wants to please its customers.                                         romance /rəυ m ns, rə / n románik, vz ah Hemingway‘s
poll /pəυl/ n vo¾by A recent poll found that 80% of                       romance with his nurse inspired him to write ‚A Farewell to Arms‘.
 Californians support the governor.                                     romantic /rəυ m ntik, rə / adj romantický ‚Tom always
pond /pɒnd/ n rybník, nádrž Take little Jimmy down to                     sends me red roses on my birthday.‘ ‚How romantic!‘
 the park and let him sail his new boat on the pond.                    rooftops / ru ftɒps/ n vrchol strechy From his vantage
popular / pɒpjələ/ adj ob¾úbený, populárny Hilary                         point he could see over the rooftops down to the harbour.
 was popular at school and had lots of friends.                         seagulls / si         lz/ n èajka As we walked on the beach,
powerful / paυəfəl/ adj mocný, vplyvný He was one of                      the seagulls wheeled overhead.
 the most powerful men in Bohemia.                                      selfish / selfiʃ/ adj sebecký How can you be so selfish?
practice / pr ktis/ n precvièovanie It takes hours of                     Give him some of your sweets!
 practice to learn to play the guitar.                                  sensible / sensəbəl/ adj rozumný She seems very sensible
premature / premətʃə, tʃυə, premə tʃυə/ adj predèasný,                    – I‘m sure she won‘t do anything silly.
 nedonosený Her daughter was very small because she was                 sensitive / sensətiv/ adj citlivý, vnímavý Oscar Wilde
 born two months premature.                                               was a sensitive and intelligent young man.
primary school / praiməri sku l/ n základná škola                       sentimental / senti mentl/ adj citový, sentimentálny
 We went to the open day at our local primary school.                     The film was just a bit too sentimental – it didn‘t reflect the real
principles / prinsəpəlz/ n zásady, princípy He has very                   world.
 strong principles, and will never do anything that might be illegal.   several / sevərəl/ adj nieko¾ko, pár They shook hands
protect /prə tekt/ v chráni , ochraòova Are we doing                      and went their several ways.
 enough to protect the environment?                                     show off / ʃəυ ɒf/ phr v predvádza sa He couldn‘t
provide /prə vaid/ v poskytnú Tea and biscuits will be                    resist showing off on the tennis court.
 provided.                                                              shy /ʃai/ adj hanblivý He was a quiet, shy man who found
put up with /pυt p wið, wiθ/ phr v vyrovna sa s..,                        it difficult to make friends.
 znies , vydrža She put up with his violent temper for                  situated in / sitʃueitid in/ v nachádza sa The campsite
 years, but finally she couldn‘t tolerate it any more.                     is situated in the heart of the beautiful Pentland Hills.
rather / rɑ ðə/ adv dos I was rather surprised to see him               sociable / səυʃəbəl/ adj spoloèenský They‘re a pleasant,
 with his ex-wife.                                                        sociable couple who are popular with the neighbours.
   7
some kind / s m kaind/ phr nejaký There was some kind                   traffic jams / tr fik d mz/ n cestná zápcha It‘s
  of problem with the car, and they had to stop and fix it.                good to get out of the city and onto the open road, away from
something like / s mθiŋ laik/ phr nieèo ako.. Yes,                        all the traffic jams.
  something like that would suit us fine.                                unadventurous / nəd ventʃərəs/ adj nedobrodružný
sort of / sɔ t əv/ phr akýsi I feel sort of funny – I think I‘ll have     They‘re pretty unadventurous with their money, and don‘t like
  to lie down for a while.                                                taking risks.
soul /səυl/ n duša The priest talked about the immortality of           variety /və raiəti/ n rozmanitos , rôznorodos The girls
  the soul.                                                               come from a variety of different backgrounds.
spell /spel/ n zaklínadlo The magician cast a magic spell.              violence / vaiələns/ n násilie There is too much sex and
spell /speld/ v hláskova In the spelling test, I had only                 violence on TV these days.
  spelled two words correctly!                                          violent / vaiələnt/ adj násilný The increase in violent
spot /spɒt/ n miesto, oblas We found a nice quiet spot                    crime is due to the ease of obtaining handguns.
  on the beach.                                                         was lying /wəz lai iŋ/ v ležal When he came in, the dog
spots /spɒts/ n škvrny, bodky He had been eating                          had chewed all the cushions and was lying on the sofa.
  spaghetti, and had spots of tomato sauce all down his                 wealthy / welθi/ adj bohatý He left as a poor, working
  shirt.                                                                  class boy and returned as a wealthy man.
staff /stɑ f/ n personál The entire staff has done an outstanding       well /wel/ n studòa She lowered her bucket into the well.
  job this year.                                                        wood /wυd/ n drevo Put some more wood on the fire.
stale /steil/ adj starý, suchý This bread goes stale very               woods /wυdz/ n lesy Heather takes her camera into the woods
  quickly because it has no preservatives.                                and photographs the birds and plants.
steep /sti p/ adj strmý, príkry The path became rocky and
  steep as we got nearer the top of the mountain.
strength /streŋθ/ n sila She didn‘t even have the strength
                                                                        MODULE 2 Laughter
  to stand up.
                                                                        abroad /ə brɔ d/ adv v zahranièí I‘ve never lived abroad
sunshine / s nʃain/ n slneèné svetlo We had three days
                                                                         before – up till now I lived all my life in Britain.
  of spring sunshine.
                                                                        ache /eikt/ v bolie When I got up this morning my back
survive /sə vaiv/ v preži Only 12 of the 140 passengers
                                                                         ached and I had a bad cough.
  survived.
                                                                        amused /ə mju zd/ adj pobavený, veselý Ellen seemed
suspicious of /sə spiʃəs əv/ phr podozrievavý
                                                                         amused by the whole situation.
  Colin was suspicious of Jeff‘s reasons for offering to help.
                                                                        analyse / nəlaiziŋ/ v analyzova If you analyse the joke
swooped through / swu pt θru / phr v vrhnú sa
                                                                         too closely you won‘t find it funny.
  strmhlav The owl swooped through the air and caught
                                                                        announcements /ə naυnsmənts/ n oznamy, hlásenia
  a mouse.
                                                                         The station announcements are very difficult to hear because of
sympathetic / simpə θetik/ adj sympatický I could do
                                                                         the noise of the trains.
  with a sympathetic friend who will listen to my problems.
                                                                        approve of /ə pru v əv, ɒv/ v neschva¾ova She doesn‘t
take off / teik ɒf/ phr v odlieta My flight takes off for New
                                                                         approve of young children watching TV for more than an hour
  York at 3 o‘clock this afternoon.
                                                                         a day.
temporary / tempərəri, pəri/ adj doèasný These
                                                                        attach to /ə t tʃt tə, tυ/ v pri¾nú , sta sa blízkym
  tablets will only provide temporary pain relief, so you should go
                                                                         I got very attached to my son‘s dog when I looked after him
  and see your doctor.
                                                                         over Christmas.
tends to / tendz tə, tυ/ v ma sklon k.. She tends to get
                                                                        audience / ɔ diənsiz/ n publikum, diváci There are
  angry if you don‘t agree with her.
                                                                         some really tough audiences in the northern clubs and pubs.
that sort of / ð t sɔ t əv/ phr taký druh ... Do you like
                                                                        badly behaved / b dli bi heivd/ adj správa sa neslušne,
  active holidays? You know, skiing and that sort of thing?
                                                                         nevychovane The children were badly behaved, so I sent
thug /θ z/ n lupiè If you walk around here at night you‘re
                                                                         them to bed early.
  likely to be attacked by thugs.
                                                                        be attacked /wəz ə t kt/ v by napadnutý A little girl
to finish off /tə finiʃ ɒf/ phr v ukonèi Harry, would you
                                                                         was attacked by two large dogs in the park.
  like to finish off by making a summary of the main points?
                                                                        birthday treat / b θdei tri t/ n narodeninový
tolerant / tɒlərənt/ adj tolerantný Luckily, my parents
                                                                         zážitok As a special birthday treat, we‘re taking Sadie to
  were tolerant of my choice of music.
                                                                         Disneyland Paris.
tolerate / tɒləreit/ v tolerova We simply will not tolerate
                                                                        bomb /bɒm/ n bomba Fortunately the house was empty
  vigilante groups on our streets.
                                                                         when the bomb exploded.
traditional /trə diʃənəl/ adj tradièný Giovanni‘s
                                                                        border / bɔ də/ n hranica Troops were advancing across
  restaurant specialises in traditional Italian cooking.
                                                                         the German–Polish border.
                                                                                                                                      8
bravely / breivli/ adv odvážne Jimmy struggled bravely                   cultural references / k ltʃərəl refərənsiz/ n kultúrny
  with his homework, but he couldn‘t work out the answers.                 odkaz, zmienka His speech included several cultural
break /breik/ n prestávka, pauza We‘ll have a short                        references to ethnic minorities.
  break for lunch, then start again at 2 o‘clock.                        dairy cow / deəri kaυ/ n krava chovaná výhradne
bright /brait/ adj chytrý, múdry I always said he was                      na mlieko We keep dairy cows for their milk and a few beef
  a bright young man and that he‘d do well in life.                        cattle as well.
bull /bυl/ n býk There‘s a herd of cows in the field, with one            day trip / dei trip/ n jednodòový výlet My grandparents
  bull looking at them over the fence.                                     took me on a day trip to Blackpool.
burst out laughing / b st aυt lɑ fiŋ/ phr vybuchnú                       defend /di fend/ v bráni , ochraòova From 1914 to 1918
  smiechom When she came out of the hairdresser‘s,                         the armed forces were engaged in a struggle to defend our
  everybody burst out laughing.                                            homeland.
cable / keibəl/ n kábel The white cable goes to the top of               depressed /di prest/ adj trpiaci depresií She felt lonely
  the motor; the blue cable goes underneath.                               and depressed after her husband left her.
cackle / k kəl/ v chichota , štebota They‘re always                      dim /dim/ adj tupý, obmedzený He never gets the point
  cackling like witches about some private joke.                           of my jokes – I‘m beginning to think he‘s a bit dim.
canal /kə n l/ n kanál We walked along by the side of                    disaster /di zɑ stə/ n katastrofa One hundred and twenty
  the canal.                                                               people died in China‘s worst air disaster.
causing damage / kɔ ziŋ d mid / v phr spôsobujúci                        dresses up / dresiz p/ phr v oblieka sa He dresses
  škodu The hurricane in Birmingham caused damage to around                up as a penguin and hands out leaflets in the town centre.
  30 houses.                                                             durables / djυərəbəlz/ n tovar dlhodobej spotreby
celebrate / seləbreit/ v oslavova It‘s Dad‘s birthday                      The price of consumer durables will rise when the new tax
  and we‘re going out for a meal to celebrate.                             comes in.
circumstances / s kəmst nsiz, stənsiz/ n okolnosti                       eating humble pie / i tiŋ h mbəl pai/ phr uzna si chybu
  In what circumstances did you first meet the accused?                     Sally will have to eat humble pie when she discovers how
clean out / kli n aυt/ phr v uprata , vyèisti We‘d better                  badly she has edited this book.
  clean out the attic this week.                                         emergency /i m d ənsi/ n pohotovos , stav ohrozenia
coastguard / kəυst ɑ d/ n pobrežná stráž Phone                             Lifeguards are trained to deal with emergencies.
  the coastguard station at Stornoway and tell them to launch            empty gesture / empti d estʃə/ phr prázdne/
  the lifeboat.                                                            nezmyselné gesto Jack offered to buy us a meal, but it
coin /kɔin/ n minca Toss a coin to see who goes first.                      was an empty gesture as we‘d already eaten.
combination / kɒmbi neiʃən/ n kombinácia A combination                   empty space / empti speis/ phr prázdne miesto Now
  of factors may be responsible for the increase in cancer.                it‘s January, there‘s a big empty space where the Christmas tree
comforted / k mfətid/ adj upokojený When the police                        used to be.
  got there, the victim was being comforted by a neighbour.              eventually /i ventʃuəli/ adv nakoniec He eventually
community /kə mju nəti/ n spoloènos The new arts                           escaped and made his way back to England.
  centre will serve the whole community.                                 explode /ik spləυdz/ v vybuchnú The firework exploded
compensate for / kɒmpənseit fə, fɔ / v vyváži ,                            in his face and he was badly burned.
  kompenzova The great salaries here compensate to some                  explosive /ik spləυsiv/ n výbušnina Because the gas is
  extent for the boring work you have to do.                               highly explosive, it needs to be kept in high-pressure containers.
consumer /kən sju mə/ n zákazník Consumers will soon                     exposed /ər ik spəυzd/ v odkrytý The plant‘s roots were
  be paying higher airfares.                                               exposed above the earth in the pot.
contain /kən tein/ v obsahova The thieves stole a sack                   express an opinion /ik spres ən ə pinjən/ v phr vyjadri
  that contained banknotes.                                                svoj názor My dad doesn‘t like to express an opinion in case
contemporary /kən tempərəri, pəri/ adj súèasný There‘s                     it‘s not what my mother thinks.
  an exhibition of contemporary Japanese prints at the Tate this week.   express horror /ik spres hɒrə/ v phr zhrozi sa My parents
content / kɒntents/ n obsah I‘m always amazed at the contents              expressed horror at the very thought of having a takeaway meal.
  of women‘s handbags!                                                   express thanks /ik spres θ ŋks/ v phr vyjadri
crack smb. up / kr ks jυ p/ phr v rozosmia                                 vïaku The committee would like to express their thanks to
  niekoho Peter Kay cracked us up when we saw him at                       Mrs Smith for the wonderful flowers.
  the theatre last week.                                                 fall about laughing / fɔ l əbaυt lɑ fiŋ/ phr vá¾a
crisis / kraisis/ n kríza The country now faces an economic                sa od smiechu They fell about laughing when I told them
  crisis.                                                                  what had happened.
critics / kritiks/ n kritici The public loved the film, and               false teeth / fɔ ls ti θ/ n zubná protéza My granddad
  millions went to see it, but the critics hated it.                       keeps his false teeth in a glass in the bathroom.
   9
fans /f nz/ n fanúšikovia Fans of ‚Taggart‘ were shocked                got stuck / ɒt st k/ v zaseknú sa The heel of her shoe
  when the star of the series died.                                       got stuck in a crack in the pavement.
fatal / feitl/ adj smrte¾ný, fatálny Potentially fatal                  grim / rim/ adj ne¾útostný, krutý Inhabitants are facing
  diseases are more easily spread now that people find it so               up to the grim reality of rebuilding the shattered town.
  easy to travel the world.                                             hangs up / h ŋz p/ phr v zavesi telefón If you get
feature / fi tʃəz/ v uvies v hlavnej roli The story                       any more calls from that double glazing company, just hang up.
  of ‚Watership Down‘ features Hazel, Fiver and Bigwig, three           has delivered /həz di livəd/ v doruèi The milkman
  rabbits searching for a new home.                                       hasn‘t delivered any milk this morning.
feature / fi tʃə/ n výbava, znak Airbags are a standard                 has retired from /həz ri taiəd frəm, frɒm/ v odís
  feature in most new cars.                                               do dôchodku Jack has retired from the Civil Service but
feeble / fi bəl/ adj slabý, mdlý His voice sounded feeble                 he still works freelance for the department.
  and far away.                                                         have gone off /həv ɒn ɒf/ phr v prestal ma rád
fire officers / faiər ɒfisəz/ n požiarnik Nearly 50 fire                   I used to like Tom, but recently I‘ve gone right off him.
  officers were called to the site of the fire, at a factory in Station   hero / hiərəυ/ n hrdina He had dared to speak out against
  Road.                                                                   injustice, and overnight he became a national hero.
foreigners / fɒrənəz/ n cudzinci There are many more                    hilarious /hi leəriəs/ adj ve¾mi smiešny Fay told
  foreigners working in this country than there were 20 years             a hilarious story about a policeman with very large ears.
  ago.                                                                  hit back / hit b k/ phr v opätova kritiku, vráti
frozen / frəυzən/ adj zamrznutý, mrazený You can use                      úder - prenesene The actress hit back at claims that she
  fresh or frozen fish in this recipe.                                     had threatened a member of staff.
funeral parlour / fju nərəl pɑ lə/ n pohrebníctvo,                      champion / tʃ mpiən/ adj ví azný Daisy here is our
  pohrebná služba We can view Nate‘s body at the funeral                  champion Highland cow.
  parlour this afternoon.                                               championship / tʃ mpiənʃip/ n šampionát, sú až
furious / fjυəriəs/ adj zúrivý Residents in the area are                  Sonja came first in the women‘s figure skating championship.
  furious at the decision.                                              childlessness / tʃaildləsnəs/ n bezdetnos The childlessness
fussy / f si/ adj nervózny, podráždený Sue was fussy                      of the marriage was one of the reasons they broke up.
  about her looks.                                                      chip in / tʃip in/ phr v prispie nieèím Other committee
gains / einz/ v získa The fact that he‘s in a wheelchair                  members chipped in with a few pounds to buy a new dartboard.
  gains him some deserved sympathy.                                     chuckle / tʃ kəl/ v kváka , pochechtáva sa What
genre / ɒnrə/ n žáner Tarantino can be said to have                       are you chuckling about?
  invented a new genre of film-making.                                   ignore /i nɔ z/ v ignorova , nevšíma si When Daisy
get a move on / et ə mu v ɒn/ v phr pohni sa Get a move                   pulls the dog‘s tail, he just ignores it and shuts his eyes.
  on, we‘re already 20 minutes late!                                    imitating / iməteitiŋ/ n napodobòovanie She‘s made
get back / et b k/ phr v vráti sa I‘ll talk to you when I get             a living out of imitating famous people on television.
  back from the shops.                                                  impressive /im presiv/ adj pôsobivý, úchvatný Among
get off / ets ɒf/ phr v vystúpi Harry got off the train                   the guests was an impressive array of authors and critics.
  while it was still moving.                                            in her prime /in hə praim/ prep phr v najlepšej
get on /həz ɒt ɒn/ phr v vychádza dobre s.. Don                           forme, na vrchole Most athletes are in their prime at
  has got on well in the company, and is now a director.                  around the age of 28.
get out of / ets aυt əv, ɒv/ phr v dosta sa z ... His                   inborn / in bɔ n/ adj vrodený Mammals have an inborn
  charm often gets him out of trouble in awkward situations.              fear of snakes.
get the feeling / et ðə fi liŋ/ v phr ma pocit I get                    incontrovertible /in kɒntrə v təbəl/ adj nevyvrátite¾ný
  the feeling I‘m not wanted here – I think they‘re trying to get         CCTV provided incontrovertible evidence that he was at the scene
  rid of me.                                                              of the crime.
gets into trouble / ets intə tr bəl/ v phr dosta sa                     influenced / influənst/ v ovplyvnený The writing is greatly
  do problémov She often gets into trouble because people                 influenced by the style of Jane Austen.
  think she‘s making fun of them.                                       insane /in sein/ adj šialený That‘s an insane risk that you
giggle / i əl/ v chichota sa If you can‘t stop giggling                   don‘t need to take.
  you‘ll have to leave the room.                                        instructions /in str kʃənz/ n inštrukcie Read the instructions
go off / əυ ɒf/ phr v odís John decided to go off on his                  carefully before you open the packet.
  own.                                                                  intention /in tenʃən/ n zámer, plán I have no intention
goes in for / əυz in fə, fɔ / phr v zúèastni sa, podstúpi                 of retiring just yet.
  test He‘s a good photographer, and often goes in for competitions     ironic /ai rɒnik/ adj ironický Your car was stolen at the police
  in magazines.                                                           station! How ironic!
                                                                                                                                10
is on /iz ɒn/ phr v by na programe NYPD Blue‘ is on                  narrator /nə reitə/ n rozprávaè Mike was both the central
  at 10 o‘clock tonight.                                              character in the book and the narrator of the story.
is packed /iz p kt/ v by preplnený The 5.40 train to                 nasty / nɑ sti/ adj odporný, protivný He has a nasty temper
  Reading is always packed on weekdays.                               and I avoid him as much as possible.
knocked her over / nɒkt hər əυvə/ phr v nabúra autom,                nationalities / n ʃə n lətiz/ n národnosti Between
  zhodi niekoho na zem The car went up on the pavement                the 16 people in the group, I counted eight different nationalities.
  and knocked her over.                                              nervously / n vəsli/ adv nervózne Peter waited nervously
know-all / nəυ ɔ l/ n vševed She‘s a bit of a know-all                for the results of the tests.
  – always has the answer to every question.                         novel / nɒvəl/ n román, novela I‘m reading a novel by
lack /l k/ n nedostatok New parents often suffer from                 Jane Austen entitled ‚Emma‘.
  lack of sleep during the first few months.                          occasion /ə kei ən/ n príležitos What‘s the occasion?‘
laughter / lɑ ftə/ n smiech Foster joined in the laughter             ‚It‘s our anniversary.‘
  even though the joke was about him.                                oil /ɔil/ n olej Check the oil level in your car every week.
let down / let daυn/ adj sklamaný Henry felt very let down           on thin ice /ɒn θin ais/ prep phr by na tenkom ¾ade
  at the complete lack of support for his proposal.                   Be very careful what you say, young man – you‘re on thin ice
lieutenant /lef tenənt/ n nadporuèík The lieutenant led               with me already.
  his men back to the safety of the camp.                            originally /ə rid inəli/ adv pôvodne The family originally
lip /lip/ n pera His bottom lip was swollen where Dave had            came from France, but now live in Germany.
  hit him.                                                           out to grass / aυt tə rɑ s/ prep phr prepusti niekoho
listen to reason / lisən tə ri zən/ phr da si poveda                  kvôli veku He was only 58 when the company put him out to grass.
  Fred will do whatever he wants – I can‘t get him to calm down      pale /peil/ adj bledý He looked very pale and drawn.
  and listen to reason.                                              panic / p niks/ v spanikári When she saw the teacher
long-time partner / lɒŋ taim pɑ tnə/ n dlhoroèný                      coming, she panicked and threw her cigarette away.
  partner My long-term partner and I are getting married next        paradox / p rədɒks/ n paradox It‘s a paradox that in such
  month.                                                              a rich country there can be so much poverty.
look for / lυkiŋ fə, fɔ / phr v h¾ada What are you                   passport / pɑ spɔ t/ n pas She was born in New York and
  looking for?‘ ‚An old book that I bought years ago.‘                has an American passport.
make you laugh / meik jυ lɑ f v phr rozosmieva                       pensioner / penʃənə/ n penzista, dôchodca When
  He‘s good at making me laugh when I‘m feeling depressed.            you‘re 65 you‘ll be able to get a bus pass for old age pensioners.
makes out / meiks aυt/ phr v predstiera , vyhlasova                  physical / fizikəl/ adj fyzický She was in constant
  nieèo, èo nie je pravda Dad makes out that he‘s                     physical pain.
  constantly being told what to do by Mum.                           pint /paints/ n pinta Can I have two pints of bitter and a packet
makes up / meiks p/ phr v vymýš¾a si Granddad                         of crisps, please?
  makes up stories to tell the kids when they go to bed at night.    plot /plɒt/ n tajný plán The police uncovered a plot to bomb
manual / m njuəl/ n návod na použitie, manuál                         the UN headquarters.
  Consult the computer manual if you have a problem.                 pool /pu l/ n guleèník Do you prefer pool or billiards?‘ ‚I like
misery / mizəri/ n úbohos , bieda What we are witnessing              snooker best.‘
  here is human misery on a vast scale.                              pot /pɒt/ v trafi - gu¾u v biliarde If you pot the black
mishaps / mish ps/ n malá nehoda We had a few                         you get seven points.
  mishaps while you were out – I‘m afraid we broke all the plates!   power saw / paυə sɔ / n elektrická píla It‘s so much
mislead / mis li dz/ v oklama , zavies Talking about                  easier cutting this wood with a power saw instead of my old
  the accused‘s past record misleads the jury into thinking he        hand saw!
  must be guilty.                                                    proof /pru f/ n dôkaz Absolute proof of the existence of life
misunderstand / mis ndə st ndz/ v nesprávne                           on other planets may be difficult to obtain.
  pochopi They often misunderstand me because of my                  pub /p b/ n krèma Do you fancy going to the pub for a pint?
  heavy Scottish accent.                                             published / p bliʃt/ v vyda , vytlaèi Chatto & Windus
monotony /mə nɒtəni/ n monotónnos She wanted to                       published his works in the late 1960s.
  escape the monotony of her everyday life.                          pulling somebody‘s leg / pυliŋ s mbədiz le / phr
moral / mɒrəl/ n mravné ponauèenie The moral of                       na ahova niekoho, robi si žarty I wasn‘t serious,
  the story is that you should never forget who your friends are.     I was only pulling your leg.
move in / mu v in/ phr v pris ahova sa When are you                  put on /pυt ɒn/ phr v obliec si He took off his uniform and put
  moving in with your new flatmates?                                   on a sweater and trousers.
nap /n p/ n zdriemnutie I usually take a short nap after             put on / pυts ɒn/ phr nasadi Tim puts on a silly voice when
  lunch.                                                              he‘s embarrassed.
   11
rain heavily / rein hevəli/ v phr lia ako z krhly It rained          self-pity / self piti/ n seba¾útos There was an annoying
  heavily all day Sunday, so I stayed in.                              note of self-pity in her voice, but it‘s all her own fault.
raise the question / reiziz/ v nastoli otázku His reply              sense of humour / sens əv hju mə/ phr zmysel pre
  raised the question of whether someone else committed the crime.     humor She has a great sense of humour, but she doesn’t like
rebellion /ri beljən/ n povstanie There was an armed                   jokes against herself.
  rebellion in the country in 1974.                                  shell /ʃel/ n granát Occasionally, people still find unexploded
rebellious /ri beljəs/ adj rebelantský Kevin and Perry were            shells that fell during World War Two.
  two rebellious teenagers invented by comedian Harry Enfield.        silly / sili/ adj hlúpy Stop asking silly questions.
rebels /ri belz/ v búri sa, vzpiera sa Most teenagers                situational comedy / sitʃueiʃənəl kɒmədi/ n situaèná
  rebel against their parents at one time or another.                  komédia Situational comedy is often set in a ‚normal‘ time and
recommendation / rekəmen deiʃən/ n odporúèanie                         place but with slightly odd characters.
  We will review the case and make a recommendation to               sketche / sketʃiz/ n skeè The programme is a series of short
  the client.                                                          comical sketches.
record shop / rekɔ d ʃɒp/ n hudobný obchod I don‘t                   slapstick comedy / sl pstik kɒmədi/ n komédia plná
  go to the record shop any more, I just download tracks off           pádov, hádzania vecí do seba... Slapstick comedy
  the internet.                                                        usually involves people getting covered in custard or falling on
reference / refərəns/ n spojitos , odkaz There is no                   their faces.
  direct reference to her own childhood in the novel.                sleep heavily / sli p hevəli/ v phr tvrdo spa George
regions / ri d ənz/ n oblasti, regióny The temperature                 slept heavily and didn‘t hear the postman knocking on the door.
  in London is often much higher than it is in the regions.          slice /slais/ n krajec The sandwich was invented when
re-issued v znova vydané, publikované Her books                        someone put some meat between two slices of bread.
  have been re-issued in new paperback editions with new             social life / səυʃəl laif/ n spoloèenský život He lives
  covers.                                                              with his mum and stays in a lot – he doesn‘t have much of
relevant / reləvənt/ adj závažný, významný Relevant                    a social life.
  documents were presented in court.                                 somebody‘s heart sinks / hɑ t siŋks/ phr strati
relieved /iz ri li vd/ adj. upokojený Kay was relieved to              odvahu, ma srdce v nohaviciach My heart sank
  see that her daughter had escaped unhurt.                            when I walked into the room and saw the police were there.
replay / ri plei/ n odveta Milan won the semi-final replay            something was wrong / s mθiŋ wəz rɒŋ/ phr nieèo
  3–0.                                                                 nebolo v poriadku Ted knew something was wrong
rescue / reskju d/ v zachráni That man just jumped                     when Sheila didn‘t answer the doorbell.
  into the frozen lake and rescued the drowning boy.                 sophisticated /sə fistikeitid/ adj kultivovaný,
responsibility /ri spɒnsə biləti/ n zodpovednos                        intelektuálne na úrovni He plays a sophisticated, witty
  Kelly‘s promotion means more money and more responsibility.          American; however, he still can‘t talk to women.
review /ri vju / n recenzia She sent us her review of the film,       steak and kidney pie / steik ən kidni pai/ n jedlo -
  which was less than flattering.                                       zmes mäsa, zeleniny, múky We have steak and kidney
risky / riski/ adj riskantné Doctors say it‘s too risky to try         pie, chicken and mushroom pie, and cheese and onion pie today.
  and operate.                                                       strike /straik/ v udrie She fell heavily, striking her head
rubbish / r biʃ/ n odpad, nezmysly There‘s so much                     against the side of the boat.
  rubbish on TV tonight, I think I‘ll go to bed early.               successful /sək sesfəl/ adj úspešný The operation was
runaway / r nəwei/ adj odpojený A runaway lorry with                   successful – Betty can go home the day after tomorrow.
  faulty brakes ran into the front of the shop.                      summary / s məri/ n struèný obsah A brief summary
sank /s ŋk/ v ponori sa, prepadnú sa I opened the oven                 is given on a separate sheet.
  door and the cake sank in the middle.                              sunburnt / s nb nt/ adj spálený od slnka Jackie got
sarcastic /sɑ k stik/ adj sarkastický Was she being                    very sunburnt after lying out in the garden for three hours.
  sarcastic or did she mean what she said?                           surgery / s d əri/ n ordinácia The doctor‘s surgery was
scared stiff / skeəd stif/ v phr na smr vystrašený I‘m                 crowded, and all the waiting patients seemed to have the flu.
  scared stiff of heights – I don‘t want to go near the edge.        sympathy / simpəθi/ n sympatie I have a lot of sympathy
screwdriver / skru draivə/ n skrutkovaè Have you got                   for her; she had to bring up the children on her own.
  a screwdriver? I need to undo these screws and take                tamer / teimə/ n krotite¾ The lion tamer cracked his whip
  the cover off.                                                       and the lion jumped through the flaming hoop.
screws /skru z/ n skrutka The cover is held on by four screws,       tap /ə teipiŋ/ v odpoèúva I‘m watching ‚Commander in
  one at each corner.                                                  Chief‘ and taping ‚Ugly Betty‘.
scriptwriter / skript raitə/ n scenárista Mary dreamed               taxi cabs / t ksi k bz/ n typický taxík You have to
  of being a scriptwriter and making films in Hollywood.                give a good reason for claiming taxi cabs on your expenses.
                                                                                                                                12
telling a joke / teliŋ ə d əυk/ phr rozpráva vtipy He                   was coughing /wəz kɒfiŋ/ v kašlal The old man was
  was telling a joke, and it must have been about me because he          coughing hard, and didn‘t seem to be able to stop.
  stopped when he saw me.                                               was feeling down /wəz fi liŋ daυn/ phr v ma depresiu
telly / teli/ n televízor Is there anything good on telly                Ken was feeling down, so we took him out for a meal to cheer
  tonight?                                                               him up.
the bomb is ‚live‘ /ðə bɒm iz laiv/ phr bomba je                        was fired /wəz faiəd/ v bol vyhodený z práce John was
  aktívna The army has been called in to find out whether                fired because they caught him stealing money from the company.
  the bomb is ‚live‘ or harmless.                                       washing-up liquid / wɒʃiŋ p likwid/ n prostriedok
throw out / θrəυ aυt/ phr v vyhodi We usually throw out                  na umývanie riadu Will you get some more washing-up
  all our old magazines.                                                 liquid when you go to the supermarket?
tick /tik/ v tika The old clock ticked noisily above                    wave at /wə weiviŋ ət, t/ v máva na They were still
  the mantelpiece.                                                       waving at the train long after it had left the station.
to be prone to something /tə bi prəυn tə s mθiŋ/                        weakness / wi knəs/ n slabina The legislation has
  phr by náchylný na.. Sadie has always been prone to                    a fundamental weakness and must be re-written.
  catching colds if there‘s one going around.                           were swollen /wə swəυlən/ v boli opuchnuté Her eyes
to buck someone up /tə b k s mw n p/ phr v                               were swollen and she looked as if she‘d been crying for a long
  naštartova A holiday in the sun always bucks me up in                  time.
  the middle of winter.                                                 wheel /wi l/ n volant Gary grabbed the wheel and steered
to do someone good /tə du s mw n υd/ phr                                 the car away from the oncoming lorry.
  urobi dobre, pomôc It‘ll do you good to have a cry                    wine tasting / wain teistiŋ/ n ochutnávka vína John
  instead of bottling everything up inside you.                          and Katy are holding a wine tasting on Thursday evening.
to give someone a hard time /tə iv s mw n ə                             wire /waiə/ n drôt Copper wire is being replaced by fibre
   hɑ d taim/ phr znepríjemni život He gave me a really                  optics fro carrying data signals.
  hard time about losing his watch, but it wasn‘t even my fault!        witty / witi/ adj vtipný He thinks of them as witty remarks,
to take somebody‘s mind off things /tə teik s mbədiz                     but I regard them as insults.
   maind ɒf θiŋz/ phr pomôc myslie na nieèo iné Try and                 wonder / w ndə/ v zaujíma sa, chcie vedie I wonder
  take his mind off his problems by taking him to the cinema tonight.    how James is getting on.
to talk sense /tə tɔ k sens/ phr hovori rozumne,                        worth reading / w θ ri diŋ/ phr stá za preèítanie
  zmysluplne She‘s still in shock after the accident, and she‘s          It‘s worth reading the passage carefully to understand exactly
  not talking sense.                                                     what the author means.
to walk out on somebody /tə wɔ k aυt ɒn s mbədi/                        yell at / jelz ət, t/ v vrieska na.. He comes home and
  phr v necha niekoho v štichu His wife said she didn‘t love             yells at the dog if he‘s had a bad day.
  him any more and walked out on him after 20 years of marriage.        youth /ju θ/ n mladík Several youths were arrested for
tool /tu l/ n nástroj I don‘t have the right tools to start              throwing stones at the police.
  fiddling around with the engine.
torn /wəz tɔ n/ v roztrhaný This page is torn, so I can‘t
  see what was on the missing part.
                                                                        REVIEW
treat /tri t/ n zábava, rados , pohostenie Steven
                                                                        affection /ə fekʃən/ n náklonnos Bart had a deep affection
  took his son to a cricket match as a birthday treat.
                                                                         for the old man.
turns you off / t nz jυ ɒf/ phr v odradi The feel of
                                                                        affectionate /ə fekʃənət/ adj milujúci, láskavý Jo is
  the material turns me right off wearing that jacket.
                                                                         very affectionate towards her daughters.
unforgivable / nfə ivəbəl/ adj neodpustite¾né
                                                                        avoid /ə vɔid/ v vyhnú sa, predís Road safety is
  Patrick had deceived her, and that was unforgivable.
                                                                         taught to young children to avoid road accidents.
values / v lju z/ n hodnoty Aesop‘s Fables embodied
                                                                        break into /wə breikiŋ intə, intυ/ phr v vláma sa
  the values of the time in which they were written.
                                                                         Thieves broke in and stole a valuable painting from the gallery.
viewers / vju əz/ n diváci The latest episode of Doctor
                                                                        colleagues / kɒli z/ n kolegovia He tries to keep his
  Who on TV attracted millions of viewers.
                                                                         colleagues away from his personal friends, and vice versa.
viewing figures / vju iŋ fi əz/ n sledovanos Viewing
                                                                        convention /kən venʃən/ n konvencia Convention
  figures for the programme are down, and it looks like the next
                                                                         used to mean that a man would always hold a door open for
  series will be cancelled.
                                                                         a woman.
visual / vi uəl/ adj zrakový, vizuálny Artists translate
                                                                        deliberate /di libərət/ adj zámerný Why did you have to
  their ideas into visual images.
                                                                         make a deliberate attempt to humiliate her?
voices / vɔisiz/ n hlasy Rory Bremner, the impressionist, is
                                                                        democracy /di mɒkrəsi/ n demokracia The country
  a man of many voices.
                                                                         has seen a return to democracy after 16 years of military rule.
   13
embarrassment /im b rəsmənt/ n zahanbenie,                              dialects / daiəlekts/ n dialekt, náreèie There are many
  rozpaky She suffered extreme embarrassment at not knowing               dialects of English, so even some British people have difficulty
  how to read.                                                            understanding some of them.
entertainment / entə teinmənt/ n zábava The town                        empire / empaiə/ n ríša The Roman empire at one time
  provides a wide choice of entertainment.                                included England.
enthusiastic /in θju zi stik/ adj nadšený All the staff                 impact / imp kt/ n vplyv We need to assess the impact of
  are enthusiastic about the project.                                     private motoring on climate change.
former / fɔ mə/ adj bývalý The former Soviet Union broke                invasion /in vei ən/ n invázia, vpád The invasion of
  up into a number of separate republics.                                 Normandy cost many lives on both sides.
genius / d i niəs/ n genialita This magnificent film                      printing press / printiŋ pres/ n tlaèiarenský stroj
  reveals Fellini‘s genius.                                               This huge printing press will print in six colours at once.
imaginative /i m d inətiv/ adj kreatívny There are some                 pronunciation /prə n nsi eiʃən/ n výslovnos Do you
  very imaginative uses of computer technology in education.              know the correct pronunciation of these Gaelic names?
imitations / imə teiʃənz/ n napodobòovanie She does                     raid /reidz/ n nájazd The Scots made many raids across
  good imitations of several of her colleagues.                           the border to steal cattle from the English.
installed /in stɔ ld/ v inštalova Have you installed the new            ruling class / ru liŋ klɑ siz/ n vládnuca trieda Now
  version of MS Office on your PC?                                         he‘s been made a Lord, I suppose you could say he‘s part of
institution / insti tju ʃən/ n inštitúcia Dawn works as                   the ruling classes.
  an adviser to the Government and other political institutions.        simplified / simplifaid/ v zjednodušený Hiragana is a set
predict /pri dikt/ v predpoveda Sales were five percent                    of simplified Chinese characters used in writing Japanese.
  lower than analysts had predicted.                                    was standardised /wəz st ndədaizd/ v bola
pull funny faces / pυl f ni feisiz/ v phr robi opièky                     štandardizovaná Written English was not standardised
  Bill pressed his nose to the window and pulled funny faces at           in the time of Chaucer.
  the people inside.
resembles /ri zembəlz/ v pripomína The baby closely
  resembles his father.
                                                                        MODULE 3 Style
reserve /ri z v/ n odstup, rezervovanos His natural
                                                                        absent-minded / bsənt maindid/ adj roztržitý
  reserve makes it hard for him to say what he thinks.
                                                                         Granddad‘s been getting rather absent-minded and forgetful lately.
rubbery / r bəri/ adj elastický, gumovitý That woman
                                                                        acknowledge /ək nɒlid iz/ v uzna , oceni His book
  must have really rubbery legs, to be able to fit into that tiny box!
                                                                         acknowledged his debt to the work of other scholars.
sense /sens/ n pocit Afterwards I felt a great sense of relief.
                                                                        advertising billboards / dvətaiziŋ bilbɔ d/ n reklamné
sentiment / sentimənt/ n sentiment Similar sentiments
                                                                         plagáty, bilboardy There were huge advertising billboards
  were expressed by many politicians.
                                                                         all along the road into Las Vegas.
slippery / slipəri/ adj šmyk¾avý In places, the path can
                                                                        aggressive /ə resiv/ adj agresívny Jim‘s voice became
  be wet and slippery after it rains.
                                                                         more aggressive as his anger increased.
splashed /spl ʃt/ v ostrieka , ošpliecha When the whale
                                                                        antisocial / nti səυʃəl/ adj nespoloèenský She was
  crashed back into the water, it splashed everybody in the front
                                                                         finding it hard to cope with her son‘s increasingly antisocial
  six rows.
                                                                         behaviour.
temperature / temprətʃə/ n teplota The temperature of
                                                                        appeal /ə pi l/ n žiados , výzva The police have issued
  the water was just right for swimming.
                                                                         a new appeal for information.
term /t m/ n semester The new school term begins on
                                                                        appreciate /ər ə priəʃieitiŋ/ v váži si More and more
  2 September.
                                                                         people are appreciating the way the organisation can help
virus / vaiərəs/ n vírus Somebody sent me a virus that
                                                                         them.
  destroyed all the information on my hard disk.
                                                                        architecture / ɑ kitektʃə/ n architektúra The architecture
                                                                         of Venice is one of its chief attractions to tourists.
CULTURE CORNER                                                          baseball caps / beisbɔ l k ps/ n baseballová
                                                                         èiapka Most of the fans wore baseball caps with their team‘s
academy /ə k dəmi/ n akadémia She was presented                          logo on the front.
 with an award by the American Academy of Arts and Letters.             be cluttered with /iz kl təd wið, wiθ/ v by zaprataný
cockney / kɒkni/ adj cockney - náreèie She comes                         The front garden was cluttered with the remains of several rusted cars.
 from the east end of London, and has a broad cockney                   be getting on /iz etiŋ ɒn/ phr v starnú Sam is getting
 accent.                                                                 on, you know – he will be 80 next year.
court /kɔ t/ n súdna sieò A crowd of reporters had gathered             beauty salon / bju ti s lɒn/ n salón krásy Farah has
 outside the court.                                                      opened a beauty salon offering skin, hair and nail treatments.
                                                                                                                                 14
benefit from / benəfit frəm, frɒm/ v aži z.., ma                     designer labels /di zainə leibəlz/ n ve¾mi drahé
  výhody Modern students benefit greatly from being able to             znaèkové obleèenie Only clothes from designer labels
  use the internet for research.                                       are good enough for Steve.
body piercing / bɒdi piəsiŋ/ n piercing There are several            diseases /di zi ziz/ n choroby It‘s frightening how many
  shops offering body piercing services down near the market.          diseases you can catch just by going into hospital as a patient!
brand /br ndz/ n znaèka výrobku Some brands of computer              disinfected / disin fektid/ v dezinfikovaný All
  disk are more reliable than others.                                  the instruments have to be disinfected between one patient
branded / br ndid/ adj znaèkový I only by branded foods                and the next.
  – I won‘t buy the supermarket‘s own-brand, cheap stuff.            display /di spleiz/ v vystavova The gallery displays works
busker / b skəz/ n poulièný spevák The busker who                      by local artists.
  plays to the queue outside the theatre is very good.               drama groups / drɑ mə ru ps/ n divadelný zbor
catwalk / k twɔ k/ n predvádzacie mólo She‘s so                        I joined various drama groups over the years, but I decided I wasn‘t
  thin she could get a job as a catwalk model.                         a very good actor.
classy / klɑ si/ adj nóbl, elegantný I can‘t afford the prices       dyed /daid/ adj nafarbený, prefarbený /vlasy/ He
  they charge in classy restaurants.                                   went mad when his daughter had her hair dyed bright green.
clown /klaυnz/ n klaun The children like going to the circus         ear-piercing guns / iə piəsiŋ                    nz/ n pišto¾ na
  because the clowns make them laugh.                                  prepichovanie uší Cheap ear-piercing guns are sometimes
clutter free / kl tə fri / adj uprataný, èistý Your desk               used by people offering a quick service.
  must be clutter free at the end of every day, with everything      elegant / eli ənt/ adj elegantný A tall, elegant young
  put away neatly.                                                     woman strode confidently over to our table.
comes across as / k mz ə krɒs əz, z/ phr v javi                      equipment /i kwipmənt/ n zariadenie We went into
  sa, prejavova sa Ted comes across as a shy person, but               a shop selling camping equipment to buy a tent.
  he‘s very entertaining when you get to know him.                   essential /i senʃəl/ adj podstatný, základný A good diet
comfy / k mfi/ adj pohodlný I can‘t wait to sit down in a comfy        is essential for everyone who wants to live a long and healthy life.
  chair after walking around all day!                                extensively /ik stensivli/ adv rozsiahlo The house has
conventional /kən venʃənəl/ adj zastaralý, konvenèný                   been extensively rebuilt after the damage caused by the storm.
  Internet connections through conventional phone lines are fairly   eyebrows / aibraυz/ n oboèie She trims her eyebrows so
  slow.                                                                they look as if they‘re drawn on with a pencil.
cool /ku l/ adj studený She swam out into the cool water             eyesore / aisɔ / n hrozný poh¾ad That rundown,
  of the lake.                                                         abandoned factory is an eyesore.
cosmetics /kɒz metiks/ n kozmetika A range of                        fad /f d/ n mánia Interest in organic food is not a fad, it‘s
  cosmetics and toiletries is available at the beauty counter.         here to stay.
cosy / kəυzi/ adj útulný The living room was warm and cosy.          fair-sized / feə saizd/ adj dos priestranný There‘s
couch /kaυtʃ/ n vá¾anda Tom offered to sleep on the couch              a fair-sized garden at the back of the house, but no garage.
  while Sue took the bedroom.                                        fashionable / f ʃənəbəl/ adj moderný Strong colours
craze /kreiz/ n bláznenie, mánia She started a craze                   are very fashionable at the moment.
  for this type of jewellery.                                        fine /fainz/ n pokuta His unpaid parking fines come to
dated / deitid/ adj starý, staromódny That dress looks                 a total of over £200.
  a bit dated now – it was in fashion in the 1980s.                  fireworks / faiəw ks/ n ohòostroj There will be a big
decay /di kei/ n rozpad Old cars in various stages of decay            fireworks display on the Thames to celebrate the New Year.
  littered the streets.                                              flit /flits/ v prelietava Kim flits from one job to another,
define /di fain/ v definova Clothes don‘t define who you                and never concentrates on anything for very long.
  are – it‘s what‘s inside that counts.                              folk /fəυk/ n folk - hudobný štýl I used to like folk in
degree /di ri / n diplom Paul got a degree in Chemistry                the 1960s and 1970s, but I prefer classical music now.
  from Cambridge University.                                         (get) fed up / fed p/ phr v ma plné zuby I‘m fed up
demonstrate / demənstreit/ v demonštrova                               of sitting here studying. Let‘s go out and get a pizza.
  The study demonstrates the link between poverty and                (get) in touch /in t tʃ/ prep phr spoji sa s,
  malnutrition.                                                        skontaktova sa Whenever our son gets in touch it
depressed /di prest/ adj zbedaèený, postihnutý                         usually means he needs some money.
  krízou The whole area is depressed, with more than 40% of          get beyond / et bi jɒnd/ phr v dosta sa cez, za
  the people out of work.                                              I couldn‘t get beyond the strange language of the story to
designer clothes /di zainə kləυðz, kləυz/ n                            understand what the author was trying to say.
  znaèkové obleèenie Tom is willing to pay a fortune for             get on well / et ɒn wel/ phr v vychádza s... Do you
  the most fashionable designer clothes.                               get on well with your wife‘s parents?
   15
ghetto / etəυ/ n geto Jews were forced to live in a ghetto               massive / m siv/ adj masívny The bell is massive,
  in a small area of the city.                                            weighing over 40 tons.
global / ləυbəl/ adj globálny Global climate change is                   menacing / menəsiŋ/ adj hrozivý Dark, menacing clouds
  becoming a very urgent problem for us all.                              gave warning of a storm coming in from the west.
go for / əυ fə, fɔ / phr v ma zá¾ubu Sally goes for men                  merchandise / m tʃəndaiz, dais/ n tovar A range of
  with nice cars and big wallets.                                         official Disney merchandise was on sale.
graffiti / r fi ti/ n graffiti The walls next to the railway             messy / mesi/ adj neuprataný, rozhádzaný A messy
  track are covered with graffiti.                                         room is a sign of a disorganised person.
graffiti-inspired / r fi ti in spaiəd/ adj inšpirovaný                   move house / mu vd haυs/ v phr pres ahova sa
  grafitmi Her T-shirts carry graffiti-inspired designs.                   We last moved house in 1996, when we came to live here.
guardian / ɑ diən/ n poruèník, strážca His aunt                          multinationals / m lti n ʃənəlz/ n mnohonárodnostné
  became his legal guardian after his parents died in a car crash.        spoloènosti Many of the country‘s industries have been taken
hairstyle / heəstail/ n úèes Do you like my new hairstyle?                over by giant multinationals.
have a lot in common /həv ə lɒt in kɒmən/ phr ma                         music charts / mju zik tʃɑ ts/ n hudobný rebríèek
  ve¾a spoloèného We got talking and found we had a lot                   The group‘s record is quickly making its way up the US music
  in common.                                                              charts.
haven‘t got a clue / h vənt ɒt ə klu / phr nema                          musicians /mju ziʃənz/ n hudobníci All the musicians
  potuchy Do you know where James Street is?‘ ‚Sorry, I haven‘t           in the orchestra are good soloists in their own right.
  got a clue.‘                                                           nails /neilz/ n nechty At my hairdresser‘s they will also do
hepatitis / hepə taitis/ n žltaèka Kay caught hepatitis                   your nails for a few pounds extra.
  when she was backpacking in the Far East.                              navel / neivəl/ n pupok The belly-dancer was wearing
household / haυshəυld/ n domácnos A growing number                        a bright red jewel in her navel.
  of households have at least one computer.                              needle / ni dl/ n ihla Give me a needle and thread, and I‘ll
chic /ʃi k/ adj šik, štýlový Margaret was looking very chic               sew up the tear in your jacket.
  in blue.                                                               neighbourhoods / neibəhυdz/ n susedstvo, okolie
ideal / ai diəl/ adj ideálny We will give you advice on how               Most of the neighbourhoods around here have good schools
  to reach your ideal weight.                                             and excellent housing.
illegal /i li əl/ adj nelegálny You can go to prison for                 numerous / nju mərəs/ adj poèetný Numerous attempts
  being in possession of illegal drugs.                                   have been made over the years to hide the truth.
independence / indi pendəns/ n nezávislos Nigeria                        old-fashioned / əυld f ʃənd/ adj staromódny She
  gained independence from Britain in 1960.                               wears really old-fashioned, outdated clothes!
independent / indi pendənt/ adj nezávislý There are plans                on the edge of /ɒn ði ed əv/ prep phr hrana The cat was
  to split the corporation into a number of smaller independent           standing on the edge of the chair, ready to jump onto the table
  companies.                                                              where the food was.
insist on /in sist ɒn/ v trva na Jill insisted on having a seat          open fireplace / əυpən faiəpleis/ n krb Phil loves
  by the window.                                                          an open fireplace, with logs crackling away and the flames
instruments / instrəmənts/ n hudobný nástroj Many                         dancing.
  members of the orchestra play two or more instruments.                 open-air concerts / əυpən eə kɒnsəts/ n koncert vonku
laid-back / leid b k/ adj k¾udný I don‘t know how you can                 There is a series of open-air concerts in the park every month
  be so laid-back about your exams.                                       during the summer.
leaflet / li flit/ n leták The doctor gave me a leaflet on skin           pavement artists / peivmənt ɑ tists/ n poulièní umelci
  cancer and told me to stay out of the sun.                              Some of the pavement artists in Cologne were very good and
lectures / lektʃəz/ n hodina vyuèovacia I have two                        attracted large crowds.
  lectures this afternoon, but nothing after 4 o‘clock.                  pierced /piəst/ adj prepichnutý Many women, and
live statues‘ / laiv st tʃu z/ n živé sochy There were                    some men, have pierced ears so that they can wear earrings.
  a few buskers in the square, and one or two people being ‚live         pleasure-seeking / ple ə si kiŋ/ adj rados a zábavu
  statues‘.                                                               h¾adajúci Las Vegas attracts a certain kind of pleasure-
logos / ləυ əυz/ n logo You‘ll find the logos of companies                 seeking tourist.
  like Coke and Levis in most countries you visit.                       policies / pɒləsiz/ n politika Company policies prevent
make a point / meik ə pɔint/ v phr poukáza na She                         staff talking to the press.
  chained herself to the railings to make a point about how women        popularity / pɒpjə l rəti/ n ob¾úbenos , popularita
  are treated in society.                                                 The popularity of the Internet has soared.
make it / meik it/ phr v dosiahnu , dotiahnu to ...                      promotion /prə məυʃən/ n postup, povýšenie I want
  When I‘ve earned my first million, I‘ll know I‘ve made it to the top.    a job with good prospects for promotion.
                                                                                                                                  16
property / prɒpəti/ n majetok The hotel is not responsible                spacious / speiʃəs/ adj priestranný The house has a spacious
  for any loss or damage to guests‘ personal property.                      living area which could be divided up into more than one room.
protest / prəυtest/ n protest Many students were injured                  spoil / spɔiliŋ/ v pokazi , znièi Can‘t you enjoy yourself
  during protests against the Vietnam war.                                  without spoiling the day for everybody else?
punishable / p niʃəbəl/ adj trestný, postihnute¾ný                        spread /wəz spred/ v rozšíri The record‘s success
  Driving at more than the speed limit is an offence that is punishable     was spread by being played by several music stations on
  by a fine.                                                                 the radio.
pursue /pə sju iŋ/ v venova sa Kelly has decided on                       statues / st tʃu z/ n sochy The statues in the plaza
  pursuing a career in journalism.                                          looked very neglected and needed cleaning.
qualified / kwɒlifaid/ adj kvalifikovaný Dawn is well                     status / steitəs/ n postavenie, uznanie These
  qualified for her new role as a company director.                          documents have no legal status in Britain.
receptive /ri septiv/ adj prijate¾ný You might find them                   storage room / stɔ rid ru m, rυm/ n odkladacia
  in a more receptive mood tomorrow.                                        miestnos The hotel has a storage room where you can
reflect /ri flekt/ v odráža sa She could see her face                       put your cases until you leave for the airport.
  reflected in the car‘s windshield.                                       stove /stəυv/ n sporák There was a pot of soup simmering
refuge / refju d / n útoèisko During the frequent air-raids,                on the stove and a delicious smell from the oven.
  people took refuge in their cellars.                                    stylish / stailiʃ/ adj štýlový Vera was a stylish woman in
relatively / relətivli/ adv relatívne The system is relatively              her forties.
  easy to use – even my four-year-old can manage it.                      subway trains / s bwei treinz/ n metro Have you ever
renovate / renəveitid/ v rekonštruova , renovova                            travelled on the subway trains in New York City?
  Gordon bought an old, neglected house and completely                    suit /su ts, sju ts/ v sedie niekomu, pasova That
  renovated it.                                                             shirt really suits you – it goes with your eyes.
respectable /ri spektəbəl/ adj rešpektovaný My parents                    suntan lotion / s nt n ləυʃən/ n opa¾ovací krém
  were hard-working, respectable people all their lives.                    The children must put on suntan lotion every day before they
run-down / r n daυn/ adj zrúcaný, vo ve¾mi zlom stave                       go out on the beach.
  The church is situated in a run-down inner-city area.                   surrealist /sə riəlist/ adj surrealista Dali was a painter
rural / rυərəl/ adj vidiecky The house has a rural setting,                 in the surrealist movement.
  and is surrounded by fields and open country.                            survival /sə vaivəl/ n prežitie Illegal hunting is threatening
salaries / s ləriz/ n mzdy, platy Salaries have risen                       the survival of the species.
  faster than inflation.                                                   tacky / t ki/ adj nemoderný, lacno efektný The old
salon / s lɒn/ n salón Most of the salons do either body                    couple‘s mantelpiece was covered in tacky ornaments.
  piercing or tattooing, but not both.                                    takes after / teiks ɑ ftə/ phr v podoba sa Jim takes
scatty / sk ti/ adj bláznivý, praštený I can‘t stand people                 after his father – neither of them like crowds of people.
  who are scatty and disorganised.                                        tasteless / teistləs/ adj nechutný That was a tasteless
scrawl /skrɔ ld/ adj naèmára There was a message                            remark to make in front of someone whose wife has just died!
  scrawled on a scrap of paper.                                           tattooed /tə tu d, t tu d/ adj potetovaný Dave wears
sculptures / sk lptʃəz/ n sochy, súsošia The sculptures                     a T-shirt with no sleeves so that you can see his tattooed arms.
  at Bretton Park include one or two by Henry Moore and Barbara           tends to / tendz tə, tυ/ v ma sklon k.. She tends to
  Hepworth.                                                                 get angry if you don‘t agree with her.
seek to / si kiŋ tə, tυ/ v usilova sa People are buying                   threatening / θretniŋ/ adj hrozivý His voice sounded
  the new flats before they are even built, seeking to make a living         angry and threatening.
  in a few years‘ time.                                                   tongue /t ŋ/ n jazyk Joe ran his tongue over his dry lips.
shave /ʃeivd/ v oholi He shaved his head as a bet to raise                treat /ə tri tid/ v zaobchádza We are always treated
  money for charity.                                                        as valuable customers whenever we go to Kato‘s restaurant.
show off / ʃəυiŋ ɒf/ phr v predvádza Jake was showing                     trends /trendz/ n trendy Reading this magazine will help
  off his new diamond ear stud this morning.                                you keep up with the latest fashion trends.
slim /slim/ adj chudý A slim young woman came in and                      trendy / trendi/ adj trendový, moderný He owns a couple
  asked if we had any size 8 dresses.                                       of a trendy King‘s Road restaurants where all the stars eat.
slogan / sləυ ənz/ n slogan The protesters marched                        unconventional / nkən venʃənəl/ adj nekonvenèný
  through London chanting slogans and singing.                              Unconventional political views were not tolerated in the former
smart /smɑ t/ adj upravený, nahodený You‘re looking                         Soviet Union.
  very smart today in your new suit!                                      unfashionable / n f ʃənəbəl/ adj nemoderný, lacno
space /speis/ n vesmír Space travel was every young                         efektný You can‘t wear unfashionable clothes if you work at
  boy‘s dream in the 1960s.                                                 a fashion magazine.
   17
unsightly / n saitli/ adj škaredý na poh¾ad Prince                   award /ə wɔ did/ v udeli My dad was awarded the Military
 Charles has made several speeches protesting about                   Cross in the First World War.
 unsightly buildings.                                                bands /b ndz/ n skupina He‘s been in a few bands, the most
up-to-date / p tə deit/ adj najnovšie, aktuálne                       successful being the Rolling Stones.
 They have access to up-to-date information through a computer       base /beis/ v usadi sa The paper had intended to base
 database.                                                            itself in London.
urban / bən/ adj zastavaný Unemployment in urban                     be criticised /bi kritisaizd/ v by kritizovaný The police
 areas is much worse than it is in the countryside.                   were criticised for their poor handling of the inquiry.
vain /vein/ adj samo¾úby Men can be just as vain as women.           be suspended /bi sə spendid/ v visutý The tightrope walker
vandal / v ndəlz/ n vandal Vandals have destroyed                     made his way across a rope suspended above the audience.
 the bus shelter.                                                    bee in her bonnet / bi in hə bɒnət/ phr omie¾a nieèo
varnished / vɑ niʃt/ adj nalakovaný She held out her                  kolom dokola She‘s got a bee in her bonnet about bus drivers,
 hands, displaying nails that were varnished bright red.              and is always complaining about them.
wallpaper / wɔ l peipə/ n tapeta I haven‘t finished                   being appreciated / bi iŋ ə pri ʃieitid/ v by ocenený,
 putting wallpaper up in the bedroom yet.                             docenený My boss sent me a complimentary e-mail
website / websait/ n For more information on weight loss              yesterday – it‘s always nice being appreciated.
 and healthy eating, visit our website.                              belong /bi lɒŋd/ v patri This watch belonged to my dad
witty / witi/ adj vtipný He thinks of them as witty remarks,          many years ago.
 but I regard them as insults.                                       bit /bit/ v zahryznú , pohrýz Grandad broke his false
yo-yo / jəυ jəυz/ n yo - yo Simple toys like yo-yos and               teeth when he bit into his sandwich!
 spinning tops kept us amused for hours.                             bits and pieces / bits ən pi siz/ phr útržky Helen told
                                                                      me a few bits and pieces about herself, but not many details.
                                                                     black sheep / bl k ʃi p/ phr èierna ovca rodiny
MODULE 4 Beauty                                                       Amy‘s always been the black sheep of the family since she
                                                                      left home at 15.
(a) fly on the wall / flai ɒn ðə wɔ l/ phr by ako malá
                                                                     bookworm / bυkw m/ n knihomo¾ Jan‘s always been
  muška a poèu a vidie bez toho, aby ste bol
                                                                      a bit of a bookworm – she‘s constantly reading something.
  videný I‘d love to be a fly on the wall when the manager talks
                                                                     borders / bɔ dəz/ n hranice China always reacts strongly
  to his team at half-time.
                                                                      to any threats against her borders.
a real masterpiece /ə riəl mɑ stəpi s/ phr skutoèné
                                                                     bored to death / bɔ d tə deθ/ phr by k smrti
  ve¾dielo His speech was a real masterpiece – all the information
                                                                      znudený Her speech bored me to death, and I fell asleep
  needed, but over in 15 minutes.
                                                                      halfway through.
a song and dance /ə sɒŋ ən dɑ ns/ phr preháòa ,
                                                                     botanical garden /bə t nikəl ɑ dn/ n botanická
  nadsadi She looked normal to me, but her dad made a right
                                                                      záhrada John‘s a gardener at the botanical garden, so he
  song and dance about how she was dressed.
                                                                      knows a lot about plants.
acclaim /ə kleim/ n potlesk, aplauz The young singer
                                                                     breathtaking / breθ teikiŋ/ adj dych berúci The view
  is enjoying critical acclaim.
                                                                      from my bedroom window was absolutely breathtaking.
adjacent to /ə d eisənt tə, tυ/ adj pri¾ahlý, susediaci
                                                                     brilliant / briljənt/ adj oslnivý, jasný She closed her
  The new shopping centre, being adjacent to the offices, will be
                                                                      eyes against the brilliant light.
  convenient for lunchtime shoppers.
                                                                     butterflies / b təflaiz/ n motýle These bushes are very
admirable / dmirəbəl/ adj obdivuhodný George
                                                                      attractive to butterflies in the summer.
  made an admirable attempt to achieve his target, but he didn‘t
                                                                     catchy / k tʃi/ adj chyt¾avý We need a catchy song to
  manage it.
                                                                      act as a them tune for the new TV series.
are dismantled /ə dis m ntld/ v rozobra , rozmontova
                                                                     coastline / kəυstlainz/ n pobrežie The coastlines of the two
  The locomotives are taken to a scrapyard in the Midlands where
                                                                      countries are only separated by a narrow channel.
  they are dismantled.
                                                                     collar / kɒlə/ n golier He grabbed me by the collar and
are financed /ə fain nst, fi n nst/ v by financovaný
                                                                      pulled my face towards his.
  The new housing developments are financed by the local
                                                                     comes across / k mz ə krɒs/ phr v náhodou objavi
  council.
                                                                      I came across an old picture of Mum when I was tidying up.
argument / ɑ jəmənt/ n hádka I broke the vase during
                                                                     competitive /kəm petətiv/ adj sú aživý Some US
  an argument with my husband.
                                                                      industries are not as competitive as they have been in the past.
art exhibition / ɑ t eksə biʃən/ n umelecká výstava
                                                                     conflict / kɒnflikt/ n rozpor, konflikt Conflicts over
  A new art exhibition is opening at the Tate this weekend.
                                                                      wage settlements have led to strikes in the automotive
assassinate /ə s sineit/ v úkladne zavraždi The CIA
                                                                      industry.
  discovered a plot to assassinate the President.
                                                                                                                                18
corny / kɔ ni/ adj otrepaný, staromódny He made a couple                guidebook / aidbυk/ n cestovný sprievodca krajinou
  of corny jokes about women drivers, and then she slapped him.           You should buy a couple of travel guidebooks on the countries
cot /kɒt/ n detská postie¾ka It won‘t be long before the baby             you‘re going to visit.
  is big enough to climb out of that cot.                               handsome / h nsəm/ adj pekný I think Johnny Depp is
damaged / d mid d/ adj znièený My car was badly                           an extremely handsome young man.
  damaged in the accident.                                              hang gliding / h ŋ laidiŋ/ n závesné lietanie Phil
destination / desti neiʃən/ n cie¾ cesty Allow plenty of                  goes hang gliding in Lanzarote every summer.
  time to get to your destination.                                      hang on a second / h ŋ ɒn ə sekənd/ phr poèka
developed /di veləpt/ v rozvinutý Energy consumption                      chví¾u Are you going? Hang on a second and I‘ll come with you.
  in the developed world is causing concerns about global               haunting / hɔ ntiŋ/ adj prenasledujúci, neustále
  warming.                                                                sa vracajúci He sang a haunting melody about someone
dilapidated /di l pideitid/ adj schátralý,                                he loved long ago.
  polorozpadnutý There was an old, dilapidated shed at                  hesitant / hezitənt/ adj váhavý Gail gave me a hesitant
  the bottom of the garden.                                               little smile.
dusty / d sti/ adj zaprášený Adrian cycled along the dusty              huddle / h dliŋ/ v chúli sa, krèi sa The three trees
  road, throwing up a cloud behind him.                                   looked like they were huddling together at the top of the hill.
effortless / efətləs/ adj nenútený, ¾ahký Alexei rose                   chase / tʃeisiŋ/ v prenasledova , chyta There were
  to his feet with a single effortless movement.                          dogs chasing each other all over the town square.
embarrassing /im b rəsiŋ/ adj zahanbujúci, trápny                       I have to admit /ai h v tυ əd mit/ phr musím
  She asked a lot of embarrassing questions about his home life.          pripusti I have to admit that I know absolutely nothing
engineering / end i niəriŋ/ n stavite¾stvo Brunel‘s bridge                about this software.
  over the river at Clifton was a remarkable piece of engineering.      insignificant / insi nifikənt/ adj nepodstatný You
entire /in taiə/ adj celý It was the worst day of my entire life          realise that your problems are insignificant in comparison with
  when I lost the competition.                                            many other people‘s.
fabric / f brik/ n vlákno Have a look at our new range of               intimately / intimətli/ adv dôverne I know the city intimately
  curtain fabrics and wallpapers.                                         after living here for 20 years.
fairy tale / feəri teil/ n rozprávky Grimm‘s fairy tales                issue / iʃu , isju / n záležitos Abortion is a highly
  were often scary and full of violence.                                  controversial issue.
fasten / fɑ sən/ v zapína , upevòova ‚I‘m going now,‘                   labelled / leibəld/ v oznaèený štítkom s adresou
  she said, fastening her coat.                                           Make sure every box is labelled with your name and address.
feat /fi t/ n výkon, èin They climbed the mountain in 28                let the cat out of the bag /let ðə k t aυt əv ðə b /
  days, a remarkable feat.                                                phr vyzradi tajomstvo Ken let the cat out of the bag and
field /fi ld/ n pole The country road gave a view of green                told her about the surprise party.
  fields and rolling hills.                                              lies /laiz/ v leža , rozprestiera sa The village lies in
financially /fai nənʃəli, fi / adv finanène Colin wants                   a bend of the river Ure.
  to help his kids financially when they go to university.               lichen / laikənz, litʃənz/ n mach It was an old wall, with
fish out of water / fiʃ aυt əv wɔ tə/ phr ako ryba na                     lichens growing on the surface sheltered from the wind.
  suchu Everyone else was wearing evening dress, so I felt like a fish   litter / litə/ n odpadky People who drop litter can be fined
  out of water in my T-shirt and jeans.                                   in some cities.
fuss /f s/ n rozruch James said he‘d better be getting back             loads and loads / ləυdz ən ləυdz/ phr haldy,
  or there‘d be a fuss.                                                   obrovské množstvo Paula has loads and loads of books
give shade / iv ʃeid/ v phr tieni The large oak tree in                   on the subject of English history.
  the garden gives the back of the house some shade in summer.          loneliness / ləυnlinəs/ n osamelos Some students
give shelter / iv ʃeltə/ v phr poskytnú prístrešok                        suffer from loneliness when they first go away to university.
  They rescued me from the storm, took me to their house and            luminous / lu minəs/ adj jasný, žiariaci I painted the gate
  gave me shelter.                                                        with luminous paint so that it could be easily seen in the dark.
glamorous / l mərəs/ adj fascinujúci, okúz¾ujúci                        madman / m dmən/ n blázon He drives like a madman
  She led an exciting and glamorous life in Monaco.                       – I won‘t take a lift with him in case he has a crash..
glowing / ləυiŋ/ adj nadšený, pochvalný I‘ve had                        magnificent /m              nifəsənt/ adj skvelý, nádherný
  glowing reports from Neil about your work.                              The choir gave a magnificent performance of Brahms‘
gorgeous / ɔ d əs/ adj úžasný ‚What do you think of my                    Requiem last night.
  new flatmate?‘ ‚He‘s absolutely gorgeous!‘                             mark territory / mɑ k terətəri/ v phr oznaèi si
graceful / reisfəl/ adj pôvabný, graciózny The model‘s                    teritórium The dog went round every tree in the garden,
  movements were graceful and elegant.                                    marking his territory.
    19
materials /mə tiəriəlz/ n materiál Denim is a hard-wearing                         rising ground / raiziŋ raυnd/ n stúpajúci terén,
  material but it doesn‘t keep the cold out.                                         vyvyšujúci sa At the back of the cottage there is rising
medieval / medi i vəl/ adj stredoveký These spices                                   ground all the way to the top of the Pentland Hills.
  were first brought to Italy from the East in medieval times.                      saffron-coloured / s frən k ləd/ adj šafranová žltá -
melt /həd meltid/ v roztopi sa By the time we got up                                 farba Usha was wearing a saffron-coloured sari that contrasted
  this morning, the snow had melted in the sunshine.                                 with her black hair.
monotonous /mə nɒtənəs/ adj monotónny Hal exists                                   sale /seil/ n predaj The use and sale of marijuana remains
  on a monotonous diet of nothing but chips and burgers.                             illegal.
moral / mɒrəl/ adj morálny It is easy to have an opinion                           scary / skeəri/ adj hrozný Ned had a scary moment when
  on a moral issue like the death penalty for murder.                                he thought he was going to lose control of the car.
moving / mu viŋ/ adj dojemný Bayman‘s book about his                               scenic / si nik/ adj scénický The Highlands is a region of
  illness is deeply moving.                                                          great scenic beauty.
nylon / nailɒn/ n nylón I hate nylon shirts – they get all hot                     scores /skɔ z/ n nieko¾ko desiatok, stovky There are
  and sticky in warm weather.                                                        scores of lovely homes scattered all over the mountainside.
obstacle race / ɒbstəkəl reis/ n prekážkový beh                                    seat /si t/ n sídlo The family live in London but also have a country
  An assault course is a kind of obstacle race for army soldiers.                    seat in Berkshire.
paces / peisiz/ n kroky The treasure map says to take 14                           seemingly / si miŋli/ adv zdanlivo The detectives have only
  paces west and then turn north and take another six paces.                         been able to gather a few seemingly unrelated bits of information.
parade /pə reid/ n prehliadka, pochod There will be                                shadow / ʃ dəυ/ n tieò She waited for him in the long dark
  a victory parade in the town centre for the winning rugby team.                    shadow of an old oak tree.
permission /pə miʃən/ n povolenie You must ask permission                          sheep /ʃi p/ n ovca Sheep were grazing on the hillside.
  before taking any photographs inside the church.                                 shriek / ʃri kiŋ/ v krièa , jaèa , vrieska Katy was
picturesque / piktʃə resk/ adj malebný Peterhead is                                  shrieking with delight when her dad handed her the new puppy.
  a quiet Scottish fishing village with a picturesque harbour.                      sick and tired / sik ən taiəd/ phr by znudený a nahnevaný
plonk /plɒŋk/ adv prudko, hluène They just came in and                               I‘m sick and tired of waiting for him – I‘m giving up and going home!
  put their bags down plonk in the middle of my room.                              sinister / sinistə/ adj temný, zlovestný, hrozivý There
poetry / pəυətri/ n poézia He reads a lot of poetry,                                 was something sinister and disturbing about Mr Scott‘s death.
  particularly the works of Dylan Thomas and Robert Frost.                         slanting / slɑ ntiŋ/ adj šikmý Does the house have a slanting
powerful / paυəfəl/ adj vplyvný He was one of the most                               roof or a flat one?
  powerful men in Bohemia.                                                         solid / sɒlid/ adj pevný, tuhý The lake was frozen solid,
praise /preiz/ v pochváli Jane was praised by her teacher                            so we were able to skate across it..
  as a hard-working, bright pupil.                                                 solitary / sɒlətəri/ adj jediný, osamelý The solitary
previous / pri viəs/ adj predchádzajúci I‘ve met him                                 goal of the match was scored by Giggs, the left-winger.
  before on two previous occasions.                                                soothing / su ðiŋ/ adj utišujúci, uk¾udòujúci Penny
projects / prɒd ekts/ n projekt Don is responsible for 20                            sang a soothing song to the little girl until she fell asleep.
  building projects at any one time, so he‘s very busy.                            soppy / sɒpi/ adj sentimentálny We watched a really
protect privacy /prə tekt privəsi, prai / v phr chráni                               soppy film about a little boy and his faithful dog.
  súkromie We want to erect a high fence all round the house                       spectacular /spek t kjələ/ adj efektný, pompézny
  to protect our privacy.                                                            The Canadian Rockies are a mountainous area with spectacular
questioning / kwestʃəniŋ/ n výsluch After two hours of                               scenery.
  questioning, the police got the suspect to confess.                              spy /spai/ n špión Blake was a Soviet spy who fled to Russia
rainfall / reinfɔ l/ n dažïové zrážky We‘ve had a long                               when he was discovered.
  period of low rainfall, so the ground is very dry.                               square metre / skweə mi təz/ n štvorcový meter
rap /r p/ n rap - hudobný štýl This record label has                                 The living room is approximately 28 square metres in area.
  published many popular rap songs.                                                storm /stɔ m/ n búrka The storm broke at five o‘clock, and
rat race / r t reis/ phr neustále súperenie ¾udí by                                  we had thunder and lightning for the next three hours.
  úspešnejšími It‘s the story of a couple who quit the rat race                    stressful / stresfəl/ adj stresujúci Moving to a new house
  and went to live on a deserted island.                                             is a very stressful experience.
recommend / rekə mend/ v odporúèa I recommend                                      striking / straikiŋ/ adj nápadný, neobyèajný The city
  that you get some professional advice.                                             provides a striking contrast between wealth and poverty.
reputation / repjə teiʃən/ n reputácia Judge Kelso                                 stunning / st niŋ/ adj senzaèný, fantastický You look
  has a reputation for being strict but fair.                                        absolutely stunning in that dress.
right up your street / rait p jɔ stri t/ phr presne pre                            support /sə pɔ tid/ v podporova Patrick has supported
  teba I think this job is right up your street – it will be just right for you.     Huddersfield football club since he was a little boy.
                                                                                                                              20
surround /sə raυnd/ v obklopova The field was                          REVIEW
  surrounded by trees on every side.
suspicion /sə spiʃən/ n podozrenie I can‘t say for                    accompany /ə k mpəni/ v doprevádza Children under
  definite who did it, but I certainly have my suspicions.               14 must be accompanied by an adult.
take-off / teik ɒf/ n vzlietnutie Take-off and landing are            appeal /ə pi ld/ v odvola sa Brown appealed against his
  the only two parts of a flight that are at all dangerous.              sentence, and it was reduced to two years.
tear-jerking / tiə d kiŋ/ adj srdcervúci The story of                 aspects / spekts/ n aspekt, uhol poh¾adu Aspects
  how she became ill and died made a tear-jerking film.                  of his behaviour led me to believe that he was lying.
tedious / ti diəs/ adj nudný, fádny The work was tiring               avant-garde / vɒŋ ɑ d/ adj avantgardný The Tate
  and tedious, with nothing to relieve the boredom.                     Modern specialises in avant-garde art exhibitions.
techno / teknəυ/ n techno Jimmy doesn‘t like techno                   be considered /bi kən sidəd/ v by považovaný
  – he‘d much rather listen to a live orchestra.                        If you don‘t have at least two degrees, you‘ll be considered
tenant / tenənt/ n nájomník The desk was left in the flat                unsuitable for the job.
  by the previous tenant.                                             ceiling / si liŋ/ n strop Rooms with high ceilings are very
texture / tekstʃə/ n štruktúra, stavba, textília The smooth             difficult to heat.
  texture of the silk shirt felt cool against her skin.               classification / kl səfi keiʃən/ n klasifikácia What is
thoughtful / θɔ tfəl/ adj pozorný Paul is very thoughtful,              the system for the classification of wines according to quality?
  and always brings me a little present when he visits.               colony / kɒləni/ n kolónia Algeria was formerly a French colony.
tiny / taini/ adj malý She was brought up in a tiny community         combine /kəm bain/ v spája , kombinova Augustine was
  in the Midwest before she moved to the big city.                      later to combine elements of this philosophy with the teachings
to be honest /tə bi ɒnəst/ phr na rovinu, pravdu                        of Christianity.
  povediac... Well, to be honest, I‘ve never really liked             concern /kən s n/ n záležitos , vec The recent rise in
  Morrissey.                                                            crime is a matter of considerable public concern.
to be obsessed /iz əb sest/ v by posadnutý                            confront /kən fr nt/ v konfrontova The problems
  He is obsessed with railways, and often has really boring             confronting the new government were enormous.
  conversations about them for hours.                                 crowd /kraυd/ n zástup A crowd of angry protesters
tortoise / tɔ təs/ n korytnaèka People often paint their                surrounded the van carrying Smith to jail.
  address on their tortoise‘s shell in case it gets lost.             delay /di leiz/ n zdržanie, oneskorenie Delays in bringing
translucent /tr nz lu sənt/ adj priesvitný Blue veins                   him to trial meant that he had already served six months in
  showed through her translucent skin.                                  prison.
transport /wə tr ns pɔ tiŋ/ v preváža The criminals                   dimension /dai menʃən, di / n rozmer, dimenzia Bush
  were transporting stolen cars to Europe in shipping                   is not very interested in the moral dimension of world politics.
  containers.                                                         disarmament /dis ɑ məmənt/ n odzbrojenie Russia and
umbilical cord / m bilikəl kɔ d/ n pupoèná šnúra                        the USA made a commitment to worldwide nuclear disarmament.
  The umbilical cord joins the baby to its mother while it is still   effect /i fekt/ n vplyv My parents‘ divorce had a big effect
  inside the womb.                                                      on me.
unique /ju ni k/ adj jedineèný The Galapagos gives us                 emigration / emi reiʃən/ n emigrácia Emigration from
  a unique opportunity to study these rare creatures.                   Ireland was at its height after the potato crop failed.
unremarkable / nri mɑ kəbəl/ adj obyèajný, nièím                      exhibit /i zibit/ n výstavný kus The exhibits on display
  zaujímavý He led a busy but otherwise unremarkable life.              here date from the 17th century.
unspoilt / n spɔilt/ adj neznièený, neznehodnotený                    figures / fi əz/ n èísla The figures mean that we are not
  There‘s some lovely unspoilt countryside within just a few            making enough profit.
  miles of the city centre.                                           guards / ɑ dz/ n strážnici The accused was flanked by
valley / v liz/ n údolie Bronwen was brought up in the south            two guards when he was led into court.
  Wales valleys, amongst coal pits and miners.                        heighten / haitn/ v zvýši There are fears that the march
was directed /wəz di rektid, dai / v boli režírované                    will heighten racial tension.
  Many of the winning films were directed by complete                 inspire /in spaiə/ v inšpirova We need someone who
  unknowns.                                                             can inspire the team to greater success.
why bother / wai bɒðə/ phr na èo sa ob ažova You                      jaguar / d          juə/ n jaguár The zoo houses many big
  could at least try!‘ ‚Why bother? It won‘t make any difference.‘      cats, including jaguars, leopards and tigers.
wooded / wυdid/ adj zalesnený The wooded hills of                     lingua franca / liŋ wə fr ŋkə/ n spoloèný jazyk
  Northern Virginia were once an important coal-mining area.            English is the lingua franca in many countries.
wrapped up / r pt p/ v zabalený The baby was well                     loyalists / lɔiəlists/ n lojalisti The bomb was planted by
  wrapped up against the cold weather.                                  people calling themselves loyalists to the British crown.
   21
merge /m d / v zlúèi sa, fúzova The bank announced                   alternative /ɔ l t nətiv/ adj alternatívny Many
  that it was to merge with another of the high street banks.         alternative approaches to learning have been tried and have
mind you / maind ju / v phr samozrejme, pochopte                      failed.
  I‘m very shy. Mind you, when I‘ve had a few drinks I get more      androids / ndrɔidz/ n android Data‘ was the name of
  outgoing!                                                           the android on the Starship Enterprise in the Star Trek series.
persuaded /pə sweidid/ v presvedèi The arguments                     antibiotics / ntibai ɒtiks/ n antibiotiká The doctor
  of his lawyers persuaded the judge to treat him sympathetically.    gave me some antibiotics to cure the infection.
puppet / p pit/ n bábka We watched a 20-minute puppet                artificial intelligence / ɑ tifiʃəl in telid əns/ n umelá
  show on the beach.                                                  inteligencia Artificial intelligence suggests that robots may
rise /raiz/ n rast We are expecting a sharp rise in interest          one day be able to think for themselves.
  rates.                                                             artillery shells /ɑ tiləri ʃelz/ n delostrelecká munícia
safety / seifti/ n bezpeènos The company is introducing               We could hear the scream of artillery shells from the big guns
  measures to improve the health and safety of employees.             behind us.
serve /s vd/ v poslúži , prospie The fact that you showed            astrology /ə strɒləd i/ n astrológia Astrology claims
  no regret for what you did served to increase your sentence.        to be able to foretell the future by analysing the position of
session / seʃən/ n sedenie The centre is holding a training           the stars.
  session for teachers about computers.                              astronauts / strənɔ ts/ n kozmonaut A team of
similarities / simə l rətiz/ n podobnosti The similarities            astronauts is in training for the next mission into space.
  between them are remarkable – they could almost be twins!          astronomical / strə nɒmikəl/ adj astronomický,
spray /sprei/ v sprejova She sprayed her neck with                    obrovský Astronomical prices have made it impossible for
  perfume before going out for the evening.                           many people to buy a house in London.
state /steits/ n štát Many states had still not voted to ban         astronomy /ə strɒnəmi/ n astronómia Jan has had
  slavery.                                                            a telescope ever since she first became interested in astronomy.
strike /strəυd/ v vkroèi ve¾kými krokmi Fran strode                  at our own pace / t aυər əυn peis/ prep phr naším
  into the shop and demanded to see the manager.                      vlastným tempom We prefer to be on our own so that we
struggle / str əld/ v pokúša sa, snaži sa The prisoner                can walk at our own pace.
  struggled to get away, but they prevented him from escaping.       atom / təm/ n atóm Carbon atoms form the basis of all
three dimensional / θri dai menʃənəl, di-/ adj                        living matter.
  trojrozmerný The letters on his T-shirt looked three-              attend /ə tend/ v zúèastni sa Only 12 people attended
  dimensional because of how they were coloured.                      the meeting.
trap /tr pt/ v chyti do pasce An animal is most                      aware of /ə weər əv, ɒv/ adj všimnú si, by si vedomý
  dangerous when he is trapped with nowhere to go.                    Are you aware of my best-selling book on the subject, „Rain is Wet“?
treaty / tri ti/ n zmluva Both sides have agreed to sign             bacteria /b k tiəriə/ n baktéria Before penicillin, a bacterial
  the peace treaty.                                                   infection could often cause death in the sufferer.
twist /twist/ v toèi , otoèi He twisted his head slightly            be involved in /wəz in vɒlvd in/ v by zapletený v,
  and looked up at her.                                               zúèastni sa It was alleged that the bank was involved in
variety /və raiətiz/ n rozmanitos There are hundreds                  criminal activities.
  of varieties of fuchsia for sale in this garden centre.            be on the brink of /wəz ɒn ðə briŋk əv, ɒv/ prep phr
virtual reality / v tʃuəl ri ləti/ n virtuálny realita                by na pokraji, by jednou nohou v... In mid 1939,
  „The Sims“ is a virtual reality game where you control the lives    Germany was on the brink of war with Britain.
  of a whole family of people.                                       beat /bi t/ v porazi Brazil were beaten 2–1 by Scotland.
                                                                     beforehand /bi fɔ h nd/ adv popredu The police need to
                                                                      be briefed beforehand on how to deal with this sort of situation.
MODULE 5 New Frontiers                                               biology /bai ɒləd i/ n biológia He got a degree in biology
                                                                      and went on to become a teacher.
accuracy / kjərəsi/ n presnos He passes the ball with
                                                                     black hole / bl k həυl/ n èierna diera I‘m worried that
 unerring accuracy.
                                                                      the project could become a financial black hole.
activate /wil bi ktiveitid/ v spusti , aktivova
                                                                     brain /brein/ n mozog Messages from the brain are carried
 The device will be activated by irregularities in the patient‘s
                                                                      by the central nervous system.
 heartbeat.
                                                                     break /breiks/ n prestávka Shall we have a break from
achieve /wil həv ə tʃi vd/ v dosiahnu By the end of
                                                                      working, and relax with a cup of tea?
 the year I will have achieved my target of losing 50 pounds
                                                                     breakthrough / breikθru / n prielom, neèakaný objav
 in weight.
                                                                      Scientists have made a major breakthrough in the treatment
aliens / eiliənz/ n mimozemš ania Wilbur said that aliens
                                                                      of cancer.
 from another planet had captured him and held him prisoner.
                                                                                                                                22
calculations / k lkjə leiʃənz/ n prepoèty, kalkulácie                 deep space / di p speis/ n hlboký vesmír Signals
 Calculations have shown that our initial theory was incorrect.         from deep space may come from other solar systems that are
came out /keim aυt/ phr v objavi sa The original                        trying to contact us.
 version of the film came out in 1938.                                 demonstrated / demənstreitid/ v demonštrova ,
canyon / k njənz/ n kaòon There are some beautiful                      predvies Galileo demonstrated that the sun did not go
 houses in the canyons north of the city.                               round the Earth, but vice versa.
classical piece / kl sikəl pi siz/ n klasický úryvok                  despite /di spait/ conj napriek Despite all our efforts to
 The pianist played several classical pieces and then threw in          save the school, the authorities decided to close it.
 a couple of jazz numbers.                                            dim /dim/ adj matný, nejasný, šedý In the dim light of
code /kəυd/ n kód, zásada The Torah is the basis for all                the early dawn, the hills appeared on the horizon.
 Jewish laws and their moral code.                                    disconnecting / diskə nektiŋ/ v prerušenie spojenia
colonise /wil həv kɒlənaizd/ v podmani si It‘s                          They stopped him making any more calls by disconnecting his
 possible that we will have colonised the Moon by the late              telephone line.
 21st century.                                                        DNA molecule / di en ei mɒlikju l/ n DNA molekula
come round /k m raυnd/ phr v zastavi sa, zaskoèi                        The DNA molecule is a combination of four chemicals.
 Why don‘t you and your wife come round and have a few drinks         documentary / dɒkjə mentəri/ n dokument A local
 this evening?                                                          film crew is making a documentary about volcanoes.
compensates for / kɒmpənseits fə, fɔ / v vynahradi ,                  dress up / drest p/ phr v vyoblieka sa Where are
 kompenzova The long jail sentence doesn‘t compensate for               you going, all dressed up like that?
 the fact that my husband is no longer alive.                         due to / dju tə, tυ/ conj kvôli The court of inquiry ruled that
compose /kəm pəυz/ v zloži , skomponova Mozart                          the crash was due to pilot error.
 composed his first works when he was a young boy.                     effective /i fektiv/ adj efektívny The cheaper drugs are
computerised /kəm pju təraizd/ adj poèítaèové                           just as effective in treating arthritis.
 Computerised equipment has meant the loss of many jobs.              efficient /i fiʃənt/ adj zdatný, schopný Moira has
conference / kɒnfərəns/ n konferencia Representatives                   been a very efficient secretary over the last 15 years.
 from over 100 countries attended the International Peace             electric current /i lektrik k rənt/ n elektrický prúd
 Conference in Geneva.                                                  If you pass an electric current through this wire, it will produce
confess /kən fes/ v prizna sa Edwards confessed to                      light.
 being a spy for the KGB.                                             emotions /i məυʃənz/ n emócie Emotions were running
confuse / ɒt kən fju zd/ v zmias , zmýli Oliver                         high as Argentina beat Brazil to reach the semi-finals.
 got the numbers confused and dialled somebody else by                employs /im plɔiz/ v zamestnáva The film employs special
 mistake.                                                               effects to achieve things that actors couldn‘t physically do.
consequence / kɒnsikwənsiz/ n dôsledok What are                       enable /wil i neibəl/ v umožni Scientific breakthroughs
 the consequences for the patient if anything goes wrong?               will enable us to live longer and healthier lives.
constant / kɒnstənt/ adj neustály There was a constant                energy / enəd i/ n energia Helping people takes time and
 stream of visitors to the house.                                       lots of energy.
consume /kən sju md/ v skonzumova The accused                         engineer / end i niə/ n stavite¾, inžinier He trained
 had consumed more than 15 pints of bitter, my lord.                    as a civil engineer, and spent his career designing and
control panels /kən trəυl p nəlz/ n kontrolné                           building bridges.
 prístroje There are so many control panels in a modern               equation /i kwei ən/ n rovnica In the equation 2x + 1 = 7,
 aircraft that it gets very confusing.                                  what is x?
cosmology /kɒz mɒləd i/ n kozmológia Cosmology tries                  exhibition / eksi biʃən/ n výstava There‘s an exhibition
 to expand our knowledge of the universes beyond our own.               of black and white photographs by Diane Arbus next week.
costly / kɒstli/ adj nákladný This operation involves a complex       expand /iz ik sp ndiŋ/ v rozširova , rozrasta Tesco,
 and costly procedure.                                                  the supermarket giant, is expanding its empire into the United
creators /kri eitəz/ n tvorcovia Aardman Animations                     States.
 are the creators of Wallace and Gromit.                              far-reaching / fɑ ri tʃiŋ/ adj ïalekosiahle The country
crystal balls / kristl bɔ lz/ n krištá¾ová gu¾a Ask                     carried out far-reaching reforms to modernise its economy.
 most people about fortune-telling and they picture gypsies           foggy / fɒ i/ adj hmlistý A foggy day in November is not
 looking into crystal balls.                                            the best time to visit Glasgow.
cure /kjυə/ v lieèi Many types of cancer can now be cured.            formula / fɔ mjələ/ n formulka, vzorec We‘re still
data processing / deitə prəυsesiŋ, dɑ tə/ n spracovanie                 searching for a peace formula.
 dát As a result of an error in our data processing department, you   frontiers / fr ntiəz/ n hranice Sam is going off to
 have been paid £1 million this week.                                   Australia – she wants new frontiers to conquer.
   23
futurology / fju tʃə rɒləd i/ n futurológia Futurology                      in its infancy /in its infənsi/ phr v plienkach, v zaèiatkoch
  involves scientific predictions about the future.                            Considering the internet was in its infancy only a few years ago,
galaxy /          ləksi/ n galaxia How many galaxies are there                things have moved really fast.
  in the known universe?                                                    in terms of /in t mz əv, ɒv/ prep phr z h¾adiska,
gaze / eiziz/ v rozhliada sa Dan reached the top of                           pod¾a People are already talking in terms of computers that
  the hill and gazed out over the landscape below.                            you will carry on your wrist.
gene /d i n/ n gén The disease is passed from mother to                     incredibly /in kredəbli/ adv neuverite¾ne Nicotine is
  child through the genes.                                                    incredibly addictive.
genetic /d ə netik/ adj genetický Genetic defects can                       information technology / infə meiʃən tek nɒləd i/
  sometimes be the introduction of an altered gene.                           n informaèné technológie Information technology has
genetic engineering /d ə netik end i niəriŋ/ n                                had quite an impact on patient records in the NHS.
  genetické inžinierstvo Genetic engineering has the capability             insect-like / insekt laik/ adj tenký ako prútik Just
  to correct birth defects in children and babies.                            looking at his skinny, insect-like fingers makes me shiver.
geology /d i ɒləd i/ n geológia I never studied geology,                    interactive / intər ktiv/ adj interaktívny The museum
  but I like collecting rocks and finding out what they‘re made of.            likes to make its children‘s exhibits as interactive and hands-
get across / et ə krɒs/ phr v vyjadri , vyslovi It took                       on as possible.
  him ages to get his point across.                                         investigate /in vesti eit/ v pátra , vyšetrova The state
give away / iv ə wei/ phr v rozda , da zadarmo I gave                         police are investigating the incident.
  most of my books away when I left college.                                is to do with /iz tə du wið, wiθ/ phr v ma spoloèné I think
giving him a ring / iviŋ him ə riŋ/ phr zavolaj mu                            the accident was more to do with his tiredness than anything else.
  I‘ll ask my husband to give you a ring and arrange it.                    jigsaw puzzle / d i sɔ p zəl/ n skladaèka The last
got a lot out of / ɒt ə lɒt aυt əv, ɒv/ phr v ve¾a                            piece of the jigsaw puzzle is missing – I can‘t complete it.
  získa , dozvedie sa I got a lot out of your lectures – they               jug /d      / n džbán The set is comprised of a milk jug, a sugar
  were always full of useful information.                                     bowl and a teapot.
gravity / r vəti/ n prí ažlivos , gravitácia The force                      laboratory /lə bɒrətri/ n laboratórium A research
  of gravity prevents us for jumping more than a few feet off the ground.     laboratory in Cambridge has just announced a breakthrough
ground-breaking / raυnd breikiŋ/ adj priekopnícky                             in the treatment of certain cancers.
  Pavlov‘s dog was the subject of one of his ground-breaking                lack of / l k əv, ɒv/ n nedostatok The murderer‘s lack
  experiments on instinct.                                                    of remorse led the judge to give him the maximum penalty.
hereditary /hi reditəri/ adj dedièný The disease is                         landmarks / l ndmɑ ks/ n prírodný úkaz Tourists
  hereditary, but usually skips a generation.                                 come to Edinburgh to see all its famous landmarks, such as
hibernation / haibə neiʃən/ n hibernácia Bears survive                        the castle.
  the winter by hibernation until the warmer weather returns.               launch / lɔ ntʃiŋ/ v predstavi , uvies na trh
high-powered / hai paυəd/ adj výkonný, vysoko                                 Microsoft are launching a new operating system this week.
  výkonný He put a high-powered jet engine in an automobile                 leave our mark on / left aυə mɑ k ɒn/ v phr zanecha
  so that it would go very fast.                                              dojem The Chicago Bears have left their mark on Superbowl
horoscope / hɒrəskəυp/ n horoskop Jen‘s magazine                              XXIX, but they didn‘t win it.
  has horoscopes in it every week, and she reads them and                   lecture / lektʃə/ n prednáška I attended a lecture on
  believes every word.                                                        medieval art at the gallery last night.
human genome / hju mən d i nəυm/ n ¾udský                                   life-like / laif laik/ adj ako živý The monsters in that film
  genóm The human genome is a map of the DNA molecule.                        were very life-like – they scared me to death!
humankind / hju mən kaind/ n ¾udstvo It is possible                         light year / lait jiə, j / n svetelný rok He discovered
  that humankind will one day colonise other planets.                         a star 3000 light years from Earth.
chemicals / kemikəlz/ n chemické látky This mixture                         link /wil bi liŋkiŋ/ v spoji The lab will be linking together
  of chemicals can be highly dangerous and may explode.                       hundreds of computers across the world for this experiment.
chess /tʃes/ n šach They meet fairly often to play chess.                   logged on / lɒ d ɒn/ phr v prihlási sa I logged on,
identify /ai dentifai/ v identifikova , rozozna He was                        entered my password, and checked my e-mail.
  too far away to be able to identify faces.                                make out / meik aυt/ phr v rozozna He could just
impact / imp kt/ n vplyv We need to assess the impact                         make out a dark shape moving towards him.
  on climate change.                                                        makes up for / meiks p fə, fɔ / phr v kompenzova ,
improving /im pru viŋ/ v zlepši , skvalitni Science                           nahradi Do you think £5 is going to make up for all the extra
  has been instrumental in improving the lives of millions.                   work I had to do? No way!
in case /in keis/ conj v prípade In case you were wondering,                manned /m nd/ adj nesúci ¾udí, obsadený ¾uïmi
  yes, that is a wig she‘s wearing.                                           How much did it cost to send a manned spacecraft to the moon?
                                                                                                                         24
manufacturing / m njə f ktʃəriŋ/ v priemyselná                     participants /pɑ tisipənts/ n úèastníci The participants
 výroba Thousands of jobs had been lost in manufacturing.            in tonight‘s discussion include the Prime Minister.
Mars /mɑ z/ n Mars Tell us about the enormous volcanoes            passing on / pɑ siŋ ɒn/ phr v posla ïalej, preda
 known to exist on Mars.                                             ïalej Spies passed on secret information to the enemy.
mass /m s/ n masa, hmota The food had congealed into               patch / p tʃiz/ n f¾ak, škvrna Small patches of dirt on
 a sticky mass.                                                      the camera lens appeared as white spots on the photograph.
mass-produced / m s prə dju st/ adj vyrábaný vo                    penicillin / peni silin/ n penicilín The bread in his cupboard
 ve¾kom Most people can‘t afford anything other than mass-           was so old, it had penicillin growing on it.
 produced furniture.                                               perspective /pə spektiv/ n poh¾ad, postoj His father‘s
memorable / memərəbəl/ adj pamätný We want to make                   death gave him a whole new perspective on life.
 this a truly memorable day for the children.                      Petri dish / pi tri diʃ/ n Petriho miska The bacteria
meteorite / mi tiərait/ n meteorit The depression was                were grown in a Petri dish in the laboratory.
 caused by a meteorite that collided with the Earth millions of    physicist / fizisist/ n fyzik A physicist studies natural
 years ago.                                                          phenomena such as heat, light and sound.
microchip / maikrəυ tʃip/ n mikroèip Japan‘s largest               physics / fiziks/ n fyzika After studying physics at university,
 producer of microchips has a contract to supply Monster             Sheila got a job at NASA.
 computers.                                                        presumably /pri zju məbli/ adv pravdepodobne,
microscope / maikrəskəυp/ n mikroskop Abnormalities                  pod¾a všetkého It‘s raining, which presumably means
 in the cells can be seen quite clearly under a microscope.          that your football match will be cancelled.
molecule / mɒlikju l/ n molekula The molecules of                  probes /prəυbz/ n kozmická sonda The ship carries a space
 oxygen gas contain just two atoms.                                  probe that will land on the planet to take rock samples.
mould /məυld/ n pleseò There‘s green mould on this meat            process / prəυses/ n proces The Israeli–Egyptian peace
 – it isn‘t fit to eat.                                               process took a long time to conclude.
mould-breaking / məυld breikiŋ/ adj prelomový,                     programmable / prəυ r məbəl/ adj programovate¾né
 významný Henry did some mould-breaking research on                  Central heating is a programmable heating system used in homes
 biological processes.                                               and offices.
nanotechnology / n nəυtek nɒləd i/ n nanotechnológia               provokes /prə vəυks/ v provokova He provokes the dog
 Nanotechnology would use minute robots that could be                by teasing him and then tells him off when he starts barking.
 programmed to travel through our bodies.                          quiz /kwiz/ n kvíz, sú až Are you coming to the pub quiz
navy / neivi/ n námorníctvo The British Navy have sent               at the Cock and Bull tonight?
 three warships to the area to restore calm.                       radio telescope / reidiəυ teləskəυp/ n satelit
nebula / nebjυli / n hviezdna hmlovina The Crab                      zbierajúci rádiové vlny z vesmíru A radio telescope
 Nebula is a galaxy far away from, but similar to, our own.          allows us to see far into space, beyond the reach of optical
nuclear bomb / nju kliə bɒm/ n jadrová bomba                         instruments.
 Pakistan have developed the capability to build a nuclear bomb.   radioactivity / reidiəυ k tivəti/ n rádioaktivita The danger
nuclear war / nju kliə wɔ / n atómová vojna The threat               of radioactivity exists for many years after the bomb has been
 of nuclear war has lessened since the peace treaty was signed.      exploded.
objective / ɒbd ek tivəti/ n cie¾ He vowed to achieve              reception /ri sepʃən/ n hostina, recepcia The reception
 certain objectives before the end of his presidency.                will be held in the church hall after the wedding.
oil /ɔil/ n olej Check the oil level in your car every week.       reflect /ri flekt/ v odráža The choice of pieces reflects
on screen / ɒn skri n/ prep phr na obrazovke This photo              the gallery manager‘s love of unusual sculpture.
 looks quite different on screen to when you print it out.         reflection /ri flekʃən/ n odraz, uvažovanie This is a time
online / ɒn lain/ adv pripojený, on-line All the city‘s              for careful reflection on what has happened, rather than hasty
 schools will be online by the end of the year.                      action.
outcome / aυtk m/ n výsledok It was impossible to predict          refreshments /ri freʃmənts/ n obèerstvenie
 the outcome of the election.                                        Refreshments will be available in the school dining hall for
outlook / aυtlυk/ n poh¾ad He‘s got a good, positive outlook         anyone who feels hungry.
 on life.                                                          relativity / relə tivəti/ n teória relativity Many later
painstakingly / peinzteikiŋli/ adv opatrne Janet                     conclusions have been made possible by Einstein‘s theory
 painstakingly assembled the pieces of the broken vase and           of relativity.
 put it back together.                                             release /wəz ri li st/ v verejne premieta Scorsese‘s
panel discussion / p nl di sk ʃən/ n beseda so                       new film was released in 2000 cinemas nationwide.
 skupinou odborníkov Each speaker will give a five-                 replica / replikə/ n napodobenina, replika The ornament
 minute talk, and this will be followed by a panel discussion.       was an exact replica of the Taj Mahal.
   25
resources /ri zɔ siz, ri sɔ siz/ n zdroje The country‘s                  tiny / taini/ adj malý, útly She was brought up in a tiny
  mineral resources will have been used up by 2020.                        community in the Midwest before she moved to the big city.
reveal /ri vi l/ v odhali He may be prosecuted for revealing             to be all about /iz ɔ l əbaυt/ phr v ma zámer, cie¾
  secrets about the security agency.                                       This housing development is all about conserving energy and
rock / rɒkiŋ/ v húpa sa The punch sent his opponent rocking                lowering costs.
  back on his heels.                                                     tube /tju bz/ n trubica, trubka The first televisions
science fiction / saiəns fikʃən/ n vedecká fantázia                        contained lots of tubes and valves.
  Brian writes science fiction books for children and adults.             tube / test tju b/ n nádoba Heat the liquid in the test-tube
search engine / s tʃ end in/ n vyh¾adávaè Yahoo                            to a temperature of 100 degrees Celsius.
  is one of the best-known search engines on the internet.               ultra-smart / ltrə smɑ t/ adj vysoko inteligentný
settle down / setliŋ daυn/ phr v usadi sa Haven‘t you ever                 Ultra-smart robots will one day be able to do most of the things
  thought of getting married, settling down and having children?           that humans can, and more besides.
so as to / səυ əz tə, tυ/ conj na to aby So as to keep                   unassuming / nə sju miŋ/ adj skromný, nenároèný
  everyone entertained, there will be a comedian and a rock band.          My teacher was a shy, unassuming man who nevertheless
so that / səυ ðət, ð t/ conj aby Joan wants us to arrive                   came alive in the classroom.
  early so that she can introduce everyone before we eat.                universe / ju niv s/ n vesmír Not everything in the universe
solar system / səυlə sistəm/ n slneèná sústava How                         is understood by scientists.
  many planets are there in our solar system?                            use up / ju z p/ phr v minú She‘s used up all the hot water
sources / sɔ siz/ n zdroje Sources in Parliament have                      – there‘s none left!
  stated that the Prime Minister will resign soon.                       vary / veəri/ v variova , by rozdielny Test scores vary
spaceships / speis ʃips/ n raketoplán My nephew                            from school to school.
  likes making models of spaceships and railway trains.                  Venus / vi nəs/ n Venuša The high surface temperatures
species / spi ʃi z/ n druh Seven species of hawk have been                 of Venus make it unsuitable for human colonisation.
  observed.                                                              virtual / v tʃuəl/ adj potenciálny Car ownership is a virtual
spill /spil/ v vylia Katie almost spilled her milk when she tripped        necessity when you live in the country.
  on the carpet.                                                         visual effects / vi uəl i fekts/ n vizuálne efekty
store /stɔ / v skladova Squirrels are storing up nuts for                  The band have used visual effects and fireworks in their show
  the winter.                                                              since the beginning.
swimming costume / kɒstjυm/ n plavky Linda bought                        walked out / wɔ kt aυt/ phr v vyjs von Ed threw all his
  a one-piece swimming costume for her holiday in Egypt.                   papers into the waste basket and then walked out of the office.
switch / switʃiz/ n vypínaè Turn on all the lights, please               was published /wəz p bliʃt/ v bol uverejnený An account
  – the switches are over there.                                           of the trial was published in the newspaper the next day.
take over / teik əυvə/ phr v prevzia His only reason for
  investing in the company was to take it over.
tea-leaves / ti li vz/ n èajové lístky Some people
                                                                         MODULE 6 Soft Machine
  claimed to be able to tell your future by reading patterns in
                                                                         a breath of fresh air /ə breθ əv freʃ eə/ phr nový postoj,
  the tea-leaves.
                                                                           názor, .. Her approach was a breath of fresh air after all the old
telephone directory / teləfəυn dai rektəri, di / n
                                                                           ideas that were being suggested.
  telefónny zoznam Look up her number in the telephone
                                                                         absurd /əb s d/ adj absurdné It seems quite absurd
  directory.
                                                                           to expect anyone to drive for 3 hours just for a 20 minute
the last piece…had fallen into place /ðə lɑ st pi s
                                                                           meeting.
  həd fɔ lən intə pleis/ phr posledný kúsok skladaèky
                                                                         admit /wəz əd mitid/ v pripusti , prija Mr Jones was
  zapadol With this discovery, the last piece of the puzzle had
                                                                           admitted to hospital last night with three broken ribs.
  fallen into place.
                                                                         advance /əd vɑ ns/ n výhoda, postup, zlepšenie
the sky‘s the limit /ðə skaiz ðə limit/ phr bez hraníc,
                                                                           Despite a lot of research, there have not been many advances
  bez problémov, nepozná prekážky If it‘s money you
                                                                           in the treatment of the common cold.
  need for your new project, the sky‘s the limit!
                                                                         Aids /eidz/ n AIDS Aids is still a huge problem in the developing
the thing kicked off /ðə θiŋ kikt ɒf/ phr zaèa The concert
                                                                           world, and causes many deaths.
  kicked off with one of the crowd‘s favourite numbers, ‚Brown Sugar‘.
                                                                         airtight / eətait/ adj vzduchotesný The food should be kept
theme /θi m/ n téma The book‘s theme is the conflict
                                                                           in airtight containers to prevent it from going bad.
  between love and duty.
                                                                         amateur / mətə/ n amatér She was a gifted amateur
time-consuming / taim kən sju miŋ/ adj èasovo
                                                                           skier, but not as good as today‘s professionals.
  nároèný It used to be a complex and time-consuming
                                                                         ankle / ŋkəl/ n èlenok Janet slipped on the stairs and
  process to make millions of calculations.
                                                                           twisted her ankle.
                                                                                                                                 26
astonished /ə stɒniʃt/ adj užasnutý We were astonished                 convincing /kən vinsiŋ/ adj presvedèivý, usvedèujúci
 to find the temple still in its original condition.                      The jury was shown convincing evidence of his guilt.
bann from /wəz b nd frəm, frɒm/ v zakáza Chambers                      corridors / kɒridɔ z/ n chodby Patients were lying on
 was banned from taking part in athletic competitions for two years.     trolleys in the corridors because there weren‘t enough beds.
battle / b tl/ n boj, bitka, vojna Tim had a battle to get             crack /həz bi n kr kt/ v rozlomi , rozlúšti An important
 the tax he had paid back from the Inland Revenue.                       moment in World War II was when the Enigma machine code was
billion / biljən/ number bilión The final cost could be as much           cracked.
 as one billion dollars.                                               date /deit/ n schôdzka, rande His date turned up late for
blotch /blɒtʃiz/ n vyrážka What are those strange red                    the dance, wearing jeans and a T-shirt!
 blotches on your back?                                                deadly / dedli/ adj smrte¾ný This snake carries a deadly
bone marrow / bəυn m rəυ/ n kostná dreò Your daughter                    poison that could kill you in minutes if it bit you.
 needs a bone marrow transplant if she is going to survive.            debate /di beit/ n debata, rozhovor The gun-control
break out /həd brəυkən aυt/ phr v zaèa , zaháji                          debate in the US will go on for ever.
 They managed to leave the country before war had broken out.          decipher /di saifəd/ v rozrieši After weeks of study,
bring up / briŋ p/ phr v nadhodi , zaèa hovori                           the team finally deciphered the enemy‘s code.
 o... Why did you have to bring up the subject of money?               definitive /di finətiv/ adj koneèný, definitívny He wrote
bronchitis /brɒŋ kaitis/ n zápal dýchacích ciest                         the definitive study of Victorian railway stations.
 Val has caught bronchitis, and has terrible fits of coughing.          detect /di tekt/ v odhali Many forms of cancer can be
bubble / b bəl/ n bublina When water boils, bubbles rise                 cured if detected early.
 to the surface.                                                       determination /di t mi neiʃən/ n odhodlanie Yuri shows
camping holiday / k mpiŋ hɒlədi, dei/ n stanovaèka                       great determination to learn English.
 Camping holidays with my parents got to be less fun when I reached    diagnosed /həd bi n daiə nəυzd/ v diagnostikovaný
 sixteen.                                                                I‘m sorry, I didn‘t know your son had been diagnosed with MS.
cancer / k nsə/ n rakovina A lot of cancers can now be treated         diagnosis / daiə nəυsis/ n diagnóza The original diagnosis
 successfully.                                                           was incorrect – there‘s actually nothing wrong with you.
capacity /kə p səti/ n kapacita, ve¾kos The fuel tank                  diarrhoea / daiə riə/ n hnaèka I was off work last week with
 has a capacity of 40 litres.                                            sickness and diarrhoea – it must have been something I ate.
cell /sel/ n bunka The disease has stopped his body producing          disables /dis eibəlz/ v znemožòova This condition
 red blood cells.                                                        disables the mechanisms that the body uses to protect itself.
clones /kləυnz/ n klony Most people are ethically opposed              disorder /dis ɔ də/ n porucha He suffers from a rare
 to the idea of human clones.                                            disorder of the liver.
cloning / kləυniŋ/ n klonovanie Cloning first came to                  distort /di stɔ t/ v skresli Tall buildings can distort radio
 the public‘s attention with Dolly the sheep.                            signals.
come off it /k m ɒf it/ phr ale nehovor, to                            don’t care two hoots about /dəυnt keə tu hu ts
 nemyslíš vážne I want to be a professional footballer.‘                 əbaυt/ phr nema vôbec záujem, nestara sa She
 ‚Come off it, John, you can‘t even kick the ball straight!‘             doesn‘t care two hoots about his feelings.
come up /k m p/ phr v pristúpi , obráti sa na..                        donor / dəυnə/ n darca The kidney transplant service
 One of the teachers came up and started talking to me.                  urgently needs more donors.
compatible /kəm p tibəl/ adj kompatibilný The new                      doping / dəυpiŋ/ n doping The team were cleared of all
 software is IBM compatible.                                             the doping offences of which they had been accused.
complications / kɒmpli keiʃənz/ n komplikácie During                   drugs /dr z/ n lieky, drogy Make sure you lock the drugs
 the operation, complications arose, and the patient sadly died.         cupboard every time after you have used it.
consists of /kən sists əv, ɒv/ v pozostáva z... The human              dubious / dju biəs/ adj pochybný The firm was accused
 body consists largely of water.                                         of dubious accounting practices.
contemporary /kən tempərəri, pəri/ adj súèasný There                   eating disorders / i tiŋ dis ɔ dəz/ n poruchy trávenia,
 is an exhibition of contemporary Japanese prints at the gallery.        stravovania Many young fashion models look so thin, you think
continent / kɒntinənt/ n kontinent, svetadiel The continent              they must suffer from eating disorders.
 of Antarctica lies south of the Equator.                              electrical impulses /i lektrikəl imp lsiz/ n elektrické
contract /həd kən tr ktid/ v nakazi sa, chyti chorobu                    impulzy Electrical impulses are sent from all parts of the body to
 It was announced that ten people in Bangkok had contracted              the brain for processing.
 bird flu.                                                              eliminate /i limineitid/ v vylúèi James was eliminated
contracts / kɒntr kts/ n zmluvy, kontrakty Contracts                     in the heats, and did not go forward to the final.
 have been exchanged, and the work is due to start at the beginning    endangered /in deind əd/ adj ohrozený The charity raises
 of November.                                                            money to support the conservation of endangered animal species.
   27
epidemic / epi demik/ n epidémia Over 500 people died                 heart /hɑ t/ n srdce Regular exercise is good for the heart.
  during last year‘s flu epidemic.                                     chat show / tʃ t ʃəυ/ n program, v ktorom sa moderátor
equipment /i kwipmənt/ n zariadenie, vybavenie                           rozpráva s hos ami o všelièom Jonathan Ross is a well-
  I bought this torch in a shop selling camping equipment.               paid TV chat show host.
eradicate /i r dikeit/ v zbavi sa We can eradicate this               chemotherapy / ki məυ θerəpi/ n chemoterapia
  disease from the world.                                                Jill‘s hair fell out when she had chemotherapy treatment for her
estimated / estimeitid/ adj odhadovaný An estimated                      cancer.
  2000 passengers were stranded at Heathrow because of the pilots‘    I bet / ai bet/ phr stavím sa.... I bet the next person to
  strike.                                                                come round that corner is a woman.
euphoria /ju fɔ riə/ n eufória There was a general                    I reckon /ai rekən/ phr predpokladám, myslím I reckon
  atmosphere of pessimism after the euphoria of last year.               Leeds will be back in the Premiership within two seasons.
fatal / feitl/ adj smrte¾ný, fatálny There is now a long              immune system /i mju n sistəm/ n imunitný systém
  list of potentially fatal diseases that we know about.                 My immune system is not as strong as it ought to be.
fertility drugs /f tiləti dr z/ n lieky podporujúce                   immunity /i mju nəti/ n imunita This drug gives limited
  oplodnenie Fertility drugs sometimes cause mothers to have             immunity against the disease.
  multiple births.                                                    immunology / imjə nɒləd i/ n imunológia Immunology
find out / faindiŋ aυt/ phr v zisti One way of finding out                is the study of how the body‘s defences act against disease.
  what he wants is just to ask him.                                   in favour /in feivə/ prep phr v prospech Our MP voted
flaw /flɔ z/ n chyba There are a few flaws in your suggestion,            in favour of the government‘s proposal to abolish the tax.
  but overall it seems well thought out.                              infection /in fekʃən/ n infekcia An ear infection can affect
flu ( = influenza) /flu / n chrípka Helen has a touch of flu,             your balance.
  so she‘s not coming in to work today.                               inflatable wristbands / rist b ndz/ n nafukovacie
fluid / flu id/ n tekutina He is not allowed solid food yet,             rukávniky na plávanie The little kids have inflatable
  only fluids.                                                            wristbands to help them stay afloat.
for starters /fə stɑ təz/ prep phr na zaèiatok For                    infusion /in fju ən/ n prilievanie, vlievanie, infúzia
  starters, you need a new suit; then a decent haircut; and then         Further education badly needs the infusion of more resources.
  you‘ll be ready for the interview.                                  inherited /in heritid/ adj zdedený Is this an inherited
from the word go /frəm ðə w d əυ/ prep phr od                            disease, or is it passed on by infection?
  zaèiatku From the word go, you have been against any                initial /i niʃəl/ adj prvotný Tony wants an initial investment
  suggestions I might make.                                              of £5000 to start up his new business.
game show / eim ʃəυ/ n sú ažná hra In this game show,                 insert /in s t/ v vloži , strèi do His hand shook slightly
  the winner is the person who can answer most questions correctly.      as he inserted the key into the lock.
gene-doping / d i n dəυpiŋ/ n génový doping Gene-                     interprets /in t prits/ v interpretova The computer
  doping means that athletes‘ genes could be altered so that they        interprets signals from the keyboard and turns them into
  could run faster.                                                      actions on screen.
genetically-modified /d ə netikli mɒdifaid/ adj                       kidneys / kidniz/ n oblièky One of his kidneys has failed,
  geneticky upravované Many supermarkets have been                       and he needs a transplant.
  forced to stop selling genetically-modified foods.                   knee /ni / n koleno Lucy had a bandage round her knee
get a lot out of / ɒt ə lɒt aυt əv, ɒv/ phr v ve¾a získa ,               where she had cut it.
  dozvedie sa I got a lot out of your lectures – they were            leading / li diŋ/ adj vedúci, riadiaci The army played
  always full of useful information.                                     a leading role in organising the attempted coup.
get down to / et daυn tə, tυ/ phr v zaèa It‘s time we got             let‘s face it / lets feis it/ phr buïme úprimný, povedzme
  down to work.                                                          si pravdu Let‘s face it, Harry, you never really worked very hard
get fit / et fit/ phr by v kondícii Sally wants to start                 at your exams, did you?
  going to the gym so she can get fit.                                 liver / livə/ n peèeò Her liver had suffered because of all
get through / ɒt θru / phr v zvládnu With a lot of hard                  the alcohol she had been drinking.
  work, you‘ll get through your exams and go to college.              living matter / liviŋ m tə/ n všetko žijúce All living
go over / əυiŋ əυvə/ phr v prekontrolova , znova                         matter is based on carbon atoms.
  prejs I want to go over my essay once more to ensure there          long-term / lɒŋ t m/ adj dlhodobý The long-term
  are no spelling mistakes.                                              future of the fishing industry is at stake in these talks.
go through /went θru / phr v preštudova si I went                     lungs /l ŋz/ n p¾úca John filled his lungs with air and dived
  through your proposal, and I must say I think it‘s excellent.          below the surface of the water.
healthy / helθi/ adj zdravý You‘ll be glad to know that your          major / meid ə/ adj ve¾ký There is a major problem with
  wife has given birth to a healthy baby boy.                            parking in London.
                                                                                                                               28
malaria /mə leəriə/ n malária Your granddad caught                pneumonia /nju məυniə/ n zápal p¾úc She was taken
 malaria when he worked in India in the 1920s.                      to hospital, suffering from pneumonia.
manipulate /mə nipjəleit/ v manipulova He was one of              polio / pəυliəυ/ n detská obrna She had never been able
 those men who manipulated people into doing what he wanted.        to walk properly since contracting polio as a child.
marathon / m rəθən/ n maratón Roy ran the Boston                  postpone /pəυs pəυn/ v pozdrža , odloži ,
 Marathon in under three hours.                                     odsunú The match had to be postponed until next week.
marvel / mɑ vəl/ n zázrak The bridge over the river at            prevent /pri vent/ v predchádza The rules are intended
 Bristol is an engineering marvel.                                  to prevent accidents.
mature /mə tʃυə/ adj vyspelý Laura is very mature for             prioritise /prai ɒritaiz/ v uprednostni , rozhodnú
 her age.                                                           sa èo je prvoradé You need to prioritise your social life
measles / mi zəlz/ n osýpky Robin has lots of red spots             and your studies.
 all over his chest – do you think it‘s measles?                  priority /prai ɒritiz/ n priorita My priorities right now are
medical / medikəl/ adj medicínsky, lekársky Medical                 to get a degree and a good job.
 research into cancer will one day provide a cure.                purpose / p pəsiz/ n zámer, úmysel, úèel For the purposes
mention / menʃən/ v spomenú Was my name mentioned                   of the story, let‘s assume that the USA has elected a black President.
 at all?                                                          put off /pυt ɒf/ phr v preloži , odsunú The match has
millilitre / milili təz/ n mililiter We need to draw a few          been put off until tomorrow because of bad weather.
 millilitres of blood for testing.                                radically / r dikli/ adv úplne, radikálne The team is
monsters / mɒnstəz/ n strašidlá, príšery The little girl was        radically changed from the one that played Manchester United
 convinced that there were monsters living under her bed.           last week.
motivated / məυtiveitid/ adj motivovaný The students              rank /wəz r ŋkt/ v umiestni sa v rebríèku Last
 are all highly motivated to learn about the subject.               year Morris was ranked 47th in the world; this year he‘s gone
multiply / m ltiplai/ v násobi Children will learn to multiply      up to 23rd.
 and divide in the second year.                                   rare /reə/ adj vzácny, ojedinelý This species of plant is
muscle / m səl/ n sval Relax your stomach muscles, then             becoming increasingly rare.
 stretch again.                                                   regulate / re jəleit/ v regulova , kontrolova There
nerve cell / n v sel/ n nervová bunka Pain is communicated          are strict rules regulating the use of chemicals in food.
 from the arm to nerve cells in the brain.                        related to /ri leitid tə, tυ/ v by vo vz ahu, spojený
neuron / njυərɒn/ n neurón Some of the neurons in                   Are you related to the Doctor Thompson who works in Oncology?
 the patient‘s brain are not functioning correctly.               replacement /ri pleismənt/ n nahradenie Our old car
neuroscientists / njυərəυ saiəntists/ n vedci, zaoberajúci          is badly in need of replacement.
 sa mozgom Neuroscientists can foresee the day when surgery       repulsive /ri p lsiv/ adj odporný, odpudivý Many
 will be aided by tiny robots in the body.                          people find slugs repulsive.
nevertheless / nevəðə les/ adv avšak, napriek tomu                revision /ri vi ən/ n opakovanie I‘m too busy to go out
 What you said was true. It was, nevertheless, a little unkind.     tonight, I have lots of revision to do for my exam tomorrow.
not in any circumstances /nɒt in eni s kəmst nsiz,                rewarding /ri wɔ diŋ/ adj užitoèný, prospešný
 -stənsiz/ phr za žiadnych okolností I will not in any              Teaching can be a very rewarding career.
 circumstances approve that idea.                                 rewards /ri wɔ dz/ n odmeny The financial rewards of
nurse /n s/ n sestrièka zdravotná The nurse is coming               a good job in the City are substantial.
 to give you an injection for the pain.                           ribs /ribz/ n rebro The donkey was so thin and hungry that
optimism / ɒptimizəm/ n optimizmus Recent results                   its ribs were showing through the skin.
 must give some cause for optimism.                               sickly / sikli/ adj chor¾avý She was always a sickly child,
organ / ɔ ən/ n orgán The liver, heart, and other internal          and spent a lot of time in hospital.
 organs are all functioning normally.                             signals / si nəlz/ n signál, náznak He is still very ill, but
outbreak / aυtbreik/ n vypuknutie A cholera outbreak                there are signals that we can hope for a full recovery.
 killed hundreds of people last year.                             skilful / skilfəl/ adj zruèný, šikovný Henry is the most
performance /pə fɔ məns/ n vystúpenie Stern‘s                       skilful footballer in the Premier League.
 performance of the Bruch concerto was stunning.                  skin /skin/ n pokožka, koža She had thick black hair and
performance-enhancing /pə fɔ məns in hɑ nsiŋ/                       smooth dark skin.
 adj zvyšujúci výkonnos Some Tour de France riders                slow down / sləυ daυn/ phr v spomali Growth in sales
 have been accused of taking performance-enhancing drugs.           has slowed down.
pick up / pik p/ phr v nachyta nieèo, získa                       spine /spain/ n chrbtica Calum was born with something
 /chorobu/ I think I must have picked up the infection when         wrong with his spine, and he can‘t stand straight.
 staying in that crummy hotel.                                    spirit / spirit/ n duch I‘m 85, but I still feel young in spirit.
   29
stamina / st minə/ n výdrž, vytrvalos You need stamina             whereas /weər z/ conj zatia¾ èo... The old system was
  to be a long-distance runner.                                     fairly complicated, whereas the new system is really very simple.
stomach / st mək/ n žalúdok He turned round and punched            with reservations /wið rezə veiʃənz/ prep phr s výhradami
  Carlos in the stomach.                                            I will approve your plan, but with reservations; I want to see more
structure / str ktʃə/ n štruktúra The structure of the brain        financial detail.
  is extremely complex.                                            within /wið in/ prep do /urèitého èasu / We should
substance / s bstəns/ n hmota, substancia The leaves                have the test results back within 24 hours.
  were covered with a strange sticky substance.                    work out / w k aυt/ phr v vypracova UN negotiators
suffer from / s fə frəm, frɒm/ v trpie nieèím Fran                  have worked out a set of compromise proposals.
  has suffered from asthma since she was little.                   wouldn’t touch it with a bargepole /wυdnt t tʃ it wið
support /sə pɔ t/ v podporova The bill was supported                ə bɑ d pəυl/ phr da ruky preè, pretože si myslím,
  by a large majority in the Senate.                                že je to zlé, nesprávne If it‘s Jimmy‘s idea, I wouldn‘t touch
TB (= tuberculosis) / ti bi / tuberkulóza Doctors                   it with a bargepole!
  thought that TB had been eradicated, but it has been appearing   wrist /rist/ n zápästie She had a gold watch on her wrist.
  again in the last few years.                                     write down / rait daυn/ phr v zapísa si This is the address.
tetanus / tetənəs/ n tetanus That‘s quite a deep cut – you          Do you want to write it down?
  should get a tetanus jab.
therapy / θerəpi/ n terapia Jack will have to undergo
  months of therapy before he can walk again.
                                                                   REVIEW
threat /θret/ n vyhrážka Your threats don‘t scare me.
                                                                   atmospheres / tməsfiəz/ n atmosféra The planet‘s
tissue / tiʃu / n tkanivo The vet took a tissue sample to see
                                                                     atmosphere is full of methane, so it is unsuitable for human
  whether there was any evidence of cancer.
                                                                     life.
totally off the map / təυtl i ɒf ðə m p/ phr na samote,
                                                                   breed /həd nɒt bred/ v chova /zvieratá / We have bred
  ïaleko od všetkého Ken lives in this remote village
                                                                     chocolate labradors for twenty years at this farm.
  somewhere in Africa that‘s totally off the map.
                                                                   bug /b / n viróza I picked up a bug last weekend, and felt
track and field / tr k ən fi ld/ n atletika, atletické
                                                                     really ill for days.
  disciplíny The pentathlon tests a range of track and
                                                                   commands /kə mɑ ndz/ n rozkazy The software already
  field skills.
                                                                     exists that will allow you to give voice commands to your
transformation / tr nsfə meiʃən/ n premena,
                                                                     computer.
  transformácia In recent years, the movie industry has
                                                                   consistency /kən sistənsi/ n jednotnos , zjednotenie
  undergone a dramatic transformation.
                                                                     Consumer groups are demanding greater consistency in the labelling
transplant / tr nsplɑ nt/ n transplantácia Your
                                                                     of food products.
  husband needs heart transplant surgery.
                                                                   crash into / kr ʃt intə, intυ/ phr v narazi , nabúra
treatment / tri tmənt/ n lieèba There have been great
                                                                     The lorry‘s brakes failed, and it crashed into a low wall and two
  advances in the treatment of cancer.
                                                                     parked cars.
tumble /həv t mbəld/ v padnú At least five world records
                                                                   crops /krɒps/ n úroda Crops have failed over the last two
  have tumbled in the first day of the Olympic competition.
                                                                     years, and the people are starving.
undergo / ndə əυ/ v podstúpi The country has
                                                                   dinosaurs / dainəsɔ z/ n dinosaury Debate continues
  undergone massive changes recently.
                                                                     on the reason why the dinosaurs died out.
underline / ndə lainz/ v zvýrazni , podtrhnú
                                                                   guns / nz/ n zbrane Do you think the British police should
  The fact that the Queen opened the building underlined
                                                                     carry guns, or not?
  the importance of the new venture.
                                                                   headache / hedeik/ n boles hlavy I had a really bad
underweight / ndə weit/ adj majúci menšiu
                                                                     headache, and couldn‘t go to work.
  hmotnos ako zvyèajne Women who smoke risk giving
                                                                   cholera / kɒlərə/ n cholera A cholera outbreak killed hundreds
  birth to underweight babies.
                                                                     of people last year.
unequivocally / ni kwivəkli/ adv jednoznaèný, jasný,
                                                                   impulses / imp lsiz/ n impulzy Scientists are studying
  nesporný I can‘t unequivocally say that he will recover
                                                                     the electrical impulses coming from space.
  completely, but his chances are good.
                                                                   in advance /in əd vɑ ns/ prep phr v predstihu We paid
unit / ju nit/ n jednotka, oddelenie The man is in
                                                                     in advance for our tickets, and saved 10 per cent on the price.
  the hospital‘s intensive care unit.
                                                                   jaw /d ɔ / n sánka He suffered a broken jaw and two
unnatural / n n tʃərəl/ adj neprirodzený It was very
                                                                     cracked ribs in the fight.
  cold, which seemed unnatural for late spring.
                                                                   lay out flat / leid aυt fl t/ phr položi horizontálne
vaccine / v ksi n/ n vakcína The invention of a polio vaccine
                                                                     a vystrie The material was laid out flat to dry on special
  saved many lives.
                                                                     frames called ‚tenters‘.
                                                                                                                                  30
lift /lift/ n vý ah They took the lift down to the lobby of the hotel.   massacred / m səkəd/ v zmasakrovaný General Custer‘s
lightbulbs / laitb lbz/ n žiarovky Both the lightbulbs in                  forces were massacred by the Sioux.
   the living room have gone out, leaving us in the dark.                misguided /mis aidid/ adj chybný, založený na omyle
nerves /n vz/ n nervy The nerves in his arm took some                      He described the government‘s economic policy as misguided.
   time to recover after the accident.                                   missile / misailz/ n strela One of the missiles fired at
program / prəυ r m/ v programova Attempts to program                       the ship scored a direct hit on the bow.
   computers to produce and understand speech are continuing.            native Americans / neitiv ə merikənz/ n pôvodní
range /reind / n škála, množstvo The company offers                        obyvatelia Ameriky Native Americans were forced to live
   a range of services including TV, telephone and broadband.              in camps in small areas of the country.
resist /ri zist/ v odola I just can‘t resist chocolate.                  negotiate /ni əυʃieit/ v vyjednáva The government
rockets / rɒkits/ n raketa At first, none of the rockets fired               refuses to negotiate with terrorists.
   into space had anyone on them.                                        outrun /həz aυt r n/ v predbehnú The prisoners have
round /raυnd/ n kolo A third round of peace talks will be held             outrun their pursuers and escaped.
   next month.                                                           prohibition / prəυhi biʃən/ n prohibícia This old man
software engineer / sɒftweə end i niə/ n programátor                       used to sell illegal alcohol in Chicago during Prohibition.
   softvérový Larry works as a software engineer for IBM.                railway / reilwei/ n železnica You can now check your
stitches / stitʃiz/ n stehy Ben cut himself on a glass, and                e-mail while travelling on a railway train at 125 miles per hour!
   had to have six stitches in his hand.                                 slave /sleiv/ n otrok His great-grandfather was a slave in
suspicion /sə spiʃən/ n podozrenie I can‘t say for definite                 the American south.
   who did it, but I certainly have my suspicions.                       spiritual / spiritʃuəl/ adj duchovný, spirituálny Painting
the tropics /ðə trɒpiks/ n trópy, tropické oblasti You                     helps fill a spiritual need for beauty.
   must put on sun screen if you go out in the sun in the tropics.       stock exchange / stɒk iks tʃeind / n burza/akcií,
unconscious / n kɒnʃəs/ n v bezvedomý She was found                        cenných papierov, ../ Trading on the stock exchange
   alive but unconscious.                                                  has been exceptionally slow today.
vegetarians / ved ə teəriənz/ n vegetariáni Vegetarians                  trans-continental / tr nz kɒnti nentl/ adj spájajúca
   sometimes need to take vitamin supplements to replace things            jeden koniec kontinentu s druhým The trans-
   missing from their diet.                                                continental railroad was built with the help of thousands of
was wounded /wəz wu ndid/ v bol poranený                                   Chinese labourers.
   Nelson was badly wounded at the battle of Trafalgar.
wheel /wi l/ n koleso The car slid sideways, its rear wheels
   spinning.
                                                                         MODULE 7 Journeys
wouldn’t have evolved / wυdnt həv i vɒlvd/ v
                                                                         accelerate /ək seləreitiŋ/ v pridáva When the car shot
   nevyvinuli sa poèas evolúcie, nezmenili sa pod
                                                                          over the edge of the cliff it was still accelerating.
   vplyvom evolúcie If its living conditions had not changed,
                                                                         advertisement /əd v tismənt/ n reklama The Sunday
   the animal would not have evolved in the way it has.
                                                                          papers are full of advertisements for cars.
                                                                         affirmative /ə f mətiv/ adj súhlasný My request was
CULTURE CORNER                                                            answered by an affirmative nod of his head.
                                                                         alarming /ə lɑ miŋ/ adj alarmujúci There has been
assure /ə ʃυə/ v uisti Her doctor has assured us that                     an alarming increase in violent crime in the city.
  she‘ll be fine.                                                         am looking forward to /m lυkiŋ fɔ wəd tə, tυ/ phr v
civil war / sivəl wɔ / n obèianska vojna It‘s a famous                    teši sa na.. I‘m looking forward to getting home and sinking
  photograph of a soldier being shot in the Spanish civil war.            into a nice hot bath.
collapse /kə l ps/ n pád, kolaps The collapse of the Soviet              apart from /ə pɑ t frəm/ prep phr okrem, až na... We
  Union was caused by a number of factors.                                didn‘t see anyone all day, apart from a couple of kids on
declaration / deklə reiʃən/ n deklarácia The American                     the beach.
  Declaration of Independence was signed in this room.                   apprehensive            / pri hensiv/ adj nervózny,
defeated /di fi tid/ v porazený He looked lost and defeated               obávajúci sa We‘d been a little apprehensive about their
  when they rejected his plan.                                            visit, but it was fine.
freedom / fri dəm/ n sloboda People here like their freedom              arduous / ɑ djuəs/ adj nároèný, namáhavý We began
  and privacy.                                                            the arduous task of loading all the boxes into the van.
gold rush / əυld r ʃ/ n zlatá horúèka The gold rush occurred             argument / ɑ jəmənt/ n hádka I broke the vase during
  when gold was first discovered in the mountains of California.           an argument with my husband.
leap /li p/ n skok He threw a stick into the river and the dog           architecture / ɑ kitektʃə/ n architektúra The architecture
  went after it with a flying leap.                                        of Venice is one of its chief attractions to tourists.
   31
as long as /əz lɒŋ əz/ conj pokia¾ As long as you bring           certainty / s tnti/ n istota She knew with absolute
 the money in tomorrow, we‘ll keep your place for you.             certainty that he‘d say no.
at least /ət li st/ prep phr najmenej, prinajmenšom               city limits / limits/ n okraj mesta, koniec mesta As
 It‘s at least 20 kilometres from here to the river.               soon as you reach the city limits, you‘re in open countryside.
available /ə veiləbəl/ adj by prístupný, k dostaniu               claim / kleimiŋ/ v vyhlási The explorers planted their
 Tickets are available from the box office.                         flag and claimed the land for France.
backpack / b kp k/ n cestova len s ruksakom na                    climate / klaiməts/ n klíma, podnebie Some animals
 chrbte Zak and his girlfriend backpacked around Asia for three    are capable of adjusting to a variety of climates.
 months.                                                          cling /kl ŋ/ v lipnú na She‘s clinging to the hope that they
baggage / b id / n batožina Check your baggage in at               will soon be rescued.
 the airline‘s ticket desk.                                       companion /kəm p njən/ n spoloèník For ten years
balloon /bə lu n/ n balón We‘ll have to be up early in             he had been her constant companion.
 the morning because the balloon flight is at 6 am.                compartment /kəm pɑ tmənt/ n oddelenie The bag
ballooning /bə lu niŋ/ n lietanie balónom Uncle Nick‘s             is divided into separate compartments.
 latest hobby is ballooning.                                      consequently / kɒnsikwəntli/ adv následne Most
bank /b ŋk/ n breh rieky These birds make their nests in           computer users don‘t receive any keyboard training. Consequently,
 holes in the river bank.                                          their skills are poor.
barely / beəli/ adv sotva She was very old and barely able        constantly / kɒnstəntli/ adv neustále He talked
 to walk.                                                          constantly about his work, and I couldn‘t get a word in.
barren / b rən/ adj neúrodný Thousands of years ago               contrary to / kɒntrəri tə, tυ/ phr napriek... Contrary to
 the land was barren desert.                                       popular belief, Elvis Presley is dead!
bend /bend/ n zákruta The car came round the bend at              convenient /kən vi niənt/ adj výhodný, vyhovujúci
 a terrifying speed.                                               Mail-order catalogues are a convenient way to shop.
bike /baik/ n bicykel Let‘s go for a bike ride.                   cough /kɒf/ n zakašlanie Stuart gave an embarrassed
biochemist / baiəυ kemist/ n biochemik Paul works                  cough.
 as a biochemist in the Pfizer labs in Basel.                      courageous /kə reid əs/ adj odvážny He was wrong,
blazing / bleiziŋ/ adj horúci It was a blazing August              and courageous enough to admit it.
 afternoon, and all I wanted to do was sleep.                     course of action /kɔ s/ n jednotlivé kroky, èiny
book /bυk/ v objedna si, vopred zaisti Have you                    What course of action are you going to take over this breach
 booked a holiday this year?                                       of discipline?
bound / baυndiŋ/ v skáka , vyskoèi The dogs were                  crash /kr ʃ/ n havária 41 people were killed in the plane
 bounding across the beach and into the water as soon as they      crash.
 got out of the car.                                              crowded / kraυdid/ adj plný, preplnený /¾uïmi/
break down / brəυkən daυn/ phr v preruši , zlomi                   Their eyes met across a crowded room, and from then on they
 Talks between the two rival groups have broken down.              were never apart.
breathtaking / breθ teikiŋ/ adj dych vyrážajúci The view          cruise /kru z/ n plavba A Mediterranean cruise is my idea
 from my bedroom window was absolutely breathtaking.               of a truly boring holiday.
breed /bri d/ v rozmnožova sa Eagles breed during                 cultural / k ltʃərəl/ adj kultúrny The author describes
 the cooler months of the year.                                    the very real historical and cultural differences between our
brochure / brəυʃə, ʃυə/ n brožúra Get some holiday                 two societies.
 brochures and we‘ll decide where we‘re going this year.          cylinder / silində/ n valec /v motore/ The care has a large,
bustling / b səliŋ/ adj hemžiaci sa The flower market was           powerful eight-cylinder engine.
 bustling with shoppers.                                          daunted / dɔ ntid/ adj sk¾úèený, vystrašený Vinnie
butterflies / b təflaiz/ n motýle These bushes are very            looked daunted by the scale of the task in front of him.
 attractive to butterflies in the summer.                          daunting / dɔ ntiŋ/ adj zastrašujúci, sk¾uèujúci
camp bed / k mp bed/ n rozkladacie ležadlo All                     The trip seemed rather daunting for a young girl.
 the beds are taken, but you can have either the sofa or          dawn /dɔ n/ n brieždenie The boats set off at dawn to make
 the camp bed in the back room.                                    the most of the daylight hours.
can‘t stand / kɑ nt st nd/ phr nemôc znies ,                      decisive /di saisiv/ adj rozhodujúci Women can play
 vystá ... I can‘t stand people who talk about themselves for      a decisive role in the debate over cloning.
 hours on end.                                                    deep-sea diving / di p si daiviŋ/ n håbkové potápanie
catch up with / k tʃ p wið, wiθ/ phr v dohoni , dosta              Chloe went deep-sea diving on her holiday in Australia.
 sa na rovnakú úroveò It took six years for the law to catch      defeat /di fi t/ n porážka She was a woman who hated
 up with them.                                                     to admit defeat.
                                                                                                                                     32
delay /di lei/ n oneskorenie, meškanie Sorry for                      form /fɔ m/ n formulár I can‘t understand half of the questions
  the delay, Mr Weaver. We won‘t keep you waiting much longer.          on this form.
delicious /di liʃəs/ adj chutný, lahodný ‚The meal was                free of charge / fri əv tʃɑ d / phr bezplatne The lectures
  absolutely delicious,‘ she said politely.                             are free of charge to anyone who wants to come along.
departure /di pɑ tʃə/ n odjazd, odchod I saw Simon                    freezes over / fri ziz əυvə/ phr v celkovo zamrznú
  shortly before his departure for Russia.                              This lake never completely freezes over, as it‘s too deep in the middle.
desperation / despə reiʃən/ n zúfalstvo A look of desperation         frustration /fr streiʃən/ n frustrácia People often feel
  crossed his face as he went under the water again.                    a sense of frustration that they are not being promoted quickly
disagreeable / disə ri əbəl/ adj nepríjemný It‘s                        enough.
  a disagreeable job, cleaning up after motorway accidents.           generation / d enə reiʃən/ n generácia Like most of
distribute /di stribjυtid/ adj distribuova , roznies ,                  my generation, I had never known a war.
  rozosla Most magazines in the UK are distributed by W H             get in touch with / et in t tʃ wið, wiθ/ phr
  Smith.                                                                skontaktova sa We must get in touch with John and Mary to
dive /daiv/ v ponori sa She dived into the swimming pool                find out when they‘re coming.
  and swam to the other end.                                          give up / iv p/ phr v vzda sa Darren has decided to give
downpour / daυnpɔ / n lejak We were caught in a downpour                up football at the end of this season.
  after the game, and got thoroughly soaked.                          go off / əυ ɒf/ phr v odís , utiec John decided to go off
dramatic /drə m tik/ adj dramatický Computers have                      on his own, leaving the others behind.
  brought dramatic changes to the workplace.                          gradually / r d uəli/ adv postupne Jill gradually became
drift / driftid/ v unáša vetrom The boat drifted for miles              aware of an awful smell.
  before they saw any sign of land.                                   gratitude / r titju d/ n vïaka Tears of gratitude filled
dwelling / dweliŋ/ n obydlie The inhabitants have constructed           her eyes.
  temporary dwellings from whatever bits and pieces they could        guaranteed /kən bi               rən ti d/ adj zaruèený A good
  find.                                                                  salary can be guaranteed if you work hard and sell lots of
ecologists /i kɒləd ists/ n ekológovia Ecologists are                   products.
  worried about the survival of many species of animal and plant.     heal / wυdnt hi l/ v lieèi , vylieèi One of her injuries
elegant / eli ənt/ adj elegantný A tall, elegant young                  wouldn‘t heal, no matter what the doctors tried.
  woman strode confidently over to our table.                          health insurance / helθ in ʃυərəns/ n zdravotné
emerge /i m d d/ v objavi sa, vynori sa The pilot                       poistenie The company provides its employees with free
  emerged from the damaged plane in a state of shock.                   health insurance and a car.
en suite /ɒn swi t/ n vlastnú kúpe¾òu Each room has                   herd /h dz/ n stádo The film showed herds of wildebeest
  an en suite bathroom and a balcony.                                   roaming across the Serengeti plain.
except if /ik sept if/ conj okrem toho, ... The cost is £1000,        hillside / hilsaid/ n úboèie kopca Their house is halfway
  except if you want an outside cabin, in which case it‘s £1200.        up a beautiful hillside in the west of Provence.
excursion /ik sk ʃən/ n exkurzia Included in the tour is              historic /hi stɒrik/ adj historický It‘s a TV programme
  an excursion to the Grand Canyon.                                     about the restoration of historic buildings.
exhausted /i zɔ stid/ adj vyèerpaný You look absolutely               hitch a lift / hitʃ ə lift/ v phr stopnú niekoho, aby ho
  exhausted.‘ ‚I am, I‘ve been up all night.‘                           vzal /odviezol... He was standing by the side of the road,
exotic /i zɒtik/ adj exotický The zoo contains many rare                trying to hitch a lift to Southampton.
  and exotic birds from all over the world.                           hitchhiking / hitʃhaikiŋ/ n stopovanie Hitchhiking is
extinct /ik stiŋkt/ adj vyhynutý Dinosaurs have been                    used much less nowadays as a way of travelling in Britain.
  extinct for millions of years.                                      honest / ɒnəst/ adj èestný He was a hard-working, honest man.
extracts / ekstr kts/ n úryvok, výòatok At the end of                 hugely / hju d li/ adv obrovský Kim was hugely relieved
  the book there is an extract from the author‘s next novel.            to see that her brother was unharmed.
fauna / fɔ nə/ n živoèíšstvo Darwin described the fauna               hunt / h ntiŋ/ v lovi The men have gone out hunting for
  of the island in great detail.                                        wild boar.
fill in / fil in/ phr v vyplni Don‘t forget to fill in the form that   I don’t mind /ai dəυnt maind/ phr je mi to jedno
  tells us where you are staying.                                       Would you like a cake or a biscuit?‘ ‚Either, I don‘t mind.‘
fishing hook / fiʃiŋ hυks/ n rybársky háèik The swan                  icon / aikɒn/ n ikona Richard Burton was an icon for stage
  had been injured by fishing hooks and line left behind by careless     and film actors everywhere.
  anglers.                                                            ideal / ai diəl/ adj ideálny We‘ll give you good advice on how
flight /flait/ n let He immediately booked a flight to Toulouse.         to reach your ideal weight.
flora / flɔ rə/ n rastlinstvo Tourism is damaging the flora            if possible /if pɒsəbəl/ conj ak je to možné If possible,
  and fauna of the island.                                              I‘d like to go home an hour early on Thursday.
   33
include /in klu dz/ v zahàòa , obsahova The fare                    mosquito net /mə ski təυ net/ n sie ka proti komárom
  includes hotel accommodation and meals for seven days and           Put up your mosquito net or you‘ll be eaten alive in the middle
  nights.                                                             of the night!
indicate / indikeit/ v naznaèova , indikova                         motorbike / məυtəbaik/ n motorka Motorbikes aren‘t
  Research indicates that over 81% of teachers are dissatisfied        dangerous, it‘s the people who ride them.
  with their salary.                                                motorcycle / məυtə saikəl/ n motocykel Ewan is
inexperienced / inik spiəriənst/ adj neskúsený                        attempting to cross Australia on a motorbike.
  Inexperienced pilots crashed two aircraft in a week.              native / neitiv/ adj rodný They never saw their native
it can‘t be helped /it kɑ nt bi helpt/ phr nedá sa                    land again.
  pomôc I‘m sorry, I‘m too ill to come in to work.‘ ‚That‘s OK,     nightlife / naitlaif/ n noèný život The hotel is only a five-
  it can‘t be helped. Get well soon.‘                                 minute walk from both the beach and the nightlife.
it‘s no use /its nəυ ju s/ phr je to bezvýznamné                    nod /nɒd/ n kývnutie The woman showed her recognition
  It‘s no use complaining about the buses, it doesn‘t make them       with a nod of the head.
  come any quicker.                                                 observation dome / ɒbzə veiʃən dəυm/ n pozorovate¾òa
it‘s worth /its w θ/ phr stojí to za to It‘s probably worth           From your seat in the observation dome you will get a fantastic
  asking at the garage whether anyone remembers seeing him.           view of the Canadian mountain scenery.
jar /d ɑ / n pohár na zaváraninu My dad remembers                   on my own / ɒn mai əυn/ prep phr sám, sama She
  taking jam jars back to the corner shop and getting money           went to Paris on her own, and had a brilliant time.
  for them.                                                         onwards / ɒnwədz/ adv od.... From the 1980s onwards
journey / d ni/ n cesta My journey to China took me                   the industry was in sharp decline.
  through Russia and India, among other countries.                  orbit / ɔ bit/ n dráha In mathematical terms, describe
joy /d ɔi/ n rados The look of joy on her face was a reward           the Moon‘s orbit around the Earth.
  in itself.                                                        orbital road / ɔ bitl/ adj obchvat mesta They call it
keep to / ki p tə, tυ/ phr v drža sa..., zosta na... It‘s             an orbital road because it goes all the way round the city.
  best to keep to the paths because the cliffs are very steep.      package tour / p kid tυə/ n dovolenka so všetkým
last /lɑ sts/ v trva Daylight lasts for 24 hours at certain           okrem stravy Hotel, flights and accommodation are included
  times of the year.                                                  in the price of the package tour, but not food.
lay their eggs / lei ðeər e z/ v phr znie vajíèka                   painful / peinfəl/ adj bolestivý He sobbed as he recalled
  Turtles lay their eggs high up on the beach in the middle of        the painful memory.
  the night.                                                        passenger / p sind ə/ n pasažier Neither the driver
legal / li əl/ adj legálny, zákonný What the company                  nor the passengers were hurt.
  has done is perfectly legal.                                      peacefully / pi sfəli/ adv k¾udne, pokojne He died
lift, give a lift /lift/ n vý ah, odviez niekoho niekam               peacefully in his sleep at the age of 96.
  Can you give me a lift to the post office when you go into town?   pick sb up / pik mi p/ phr v vyzdvihnú niekoho I‘ll
loyal / lɔiəl/ adj lojálny, naklonený The army has remained           pick you up from the airport when your flight arrives.
  loyal to the government.                                          placid / pl sid/ adj k¾udný, mierumilovný A large,
made-to-measure / meid tə me ə/ adj vyrobený na                       placid dog was sitting on the grass wagging its tail at me.
  mieru Eric couldn‘t find an off-the-peg suit to fit him, so he      plankton / pl ŋktən/ n planktón Whales eat huge
  bought a made-to-measure one instead.                               quantities of plankton every day.
make an effort to / meik ən efət tə/ v phr da si tú                 poisonous / pɔizənəs/ adj jedovatý Some mushrooms
  námahu... I‘m going to make an effort to get up early this          are extremely poisonous.
  week and get in to work before 8 o‘clock.                         polar / pəυlə/ adj polárny As our climate warms up, the polar
make up for /meik p fə, fɔ / phr v vynahradi ,                        ice caps will begin to melt.
  kompenzova The team will be anxious to make up for                precious / preʃəs/ adj vzácny We cannot afford to waste
  a disappointing start to the season.                                precious time.
melting-pot / meltiŋ pɒt/ adj miesto, kde žijú ¾udia                prizes / praiziz/ n ceny, ocenenia At school, Julie got
  rôznych rás a kultúr The USA has often been referred                several prizes for her essays.
  to as ‚the melting-pot of civilisation‘.                          promising / prɒmisiŋ/ adj s¾ubný Jo has a promising
midstream / mid stri m/ n stred They had to drop                      career in law if she studies hard and passes her bar exams.
  the experiment in midstream.                                      provided that /prə vaidid ðət/ conj za predpokladu...
migrate /mai reitiŋ/ v s ahova sa, migrova Thousands                  We will keep your tickets for you, provided that you collect them
  of geese migrating for the winter stop at this lake for a rest.     at least 30 minutes before the performance.
mosquito /mə ski təυz/ n komár If you plug this into                raft /rɑ ft/ n raft, pl The shipwrecked crew tried to make a raft
  the wall, the smell will keep the mosquitoes away.                  by lashing some tree trunks together.
                                                                                                                                     34
rail /reil/ n železnica The American rail system caters mainly     snow-capped / snəυ k pt/ adj snehom pokryté
  for freight and not passengers.                                    konèiare Snow-capped mountains surround this hotel high
ranch /rɑ ntʃ/ n ranè, statok, farma Uncle Bob emigrated             in the Alps.
  to New Zealand, and he now runs a sheep ranch on South           souvenir / su və niə, su vəniə/ n suvenír I bought
  Island.                                                            a model of the Eiffel Tower as a souvenir of Paris.
regret /ri retid/ v ¾utova As soon as he said it, he regretted     space suit / speis su t, sju t/ n skafander Dad, how
  his remarks.                                                       do you go to the bathroom in a space suit?
reindeer / reindiə/ n sob The story is that Santa Claus            spin over / spiniŋ əυvə/ phr v pretoèi sa ponad
  rides in a sleigh pulled by reindeer.                              The boy crashed his bike into the wall and was sent spinning
reservations / rezə veiʃənz/ n rezervácia Peter has                  over the handlebars.
  made reservations at an Indian restaurant for Tuesday evening    spoilt /spɔilt/ adj rozmaznaný His parents give him
  at 7.                                                              everything he wants, so he‘s spoilt and immature.
revolutionary / revə lu ʃənəri/ adj revoluèný, prevratný           stay over / stei əυvə/ phr v zosta cez noc You‘re
  The new cancer drug is a revolutionary breakthrough.               welcome to stay over for a few days if you have the time.
risk /risk/ v riskova When children start smoking, they            stop off / stɒp ɒf/ phr v zastavi sa, urobi krátku
  don‘t realise that they‘re risking their health.                   návštevu poèas cesty We can stop off and see you on
row / rəυiŋ/ v veslova She made her name by rowing                   our way back from Brighton.
  across the Atlantic single-handed.                               stream /stri mz/ n prameò We were able to drink clear,
sand /s nd/ n piesok Concrete is made from a mixture of              cool water from the mountain streams.
  sand and cement, water and small stones.                         submarine / s bməri n/ n ponorka There was an accident
sand dunes / s nd dju nz/ n piesoèné duny The sand                   in the nuclear submarine.
  dunes are constantly shifting and changing shape in the wind.    sum /s m/ n suma He owes me a large sum of money.
scarcely / skeəsli/ adv sotva, takmer nie The city had             surface / s fəs/ n povrch, hladina Dead leaves floated
  scarcely changed in 20 years.                                      on the surface of the water.
scars /skɑ z/ n jazvy Jack still had the scars on his knees        survive /sə vaiv/ v preži Only 12 of the 140 passengers
  from when he fell off his bike.                                    survived.
scenery / si nəri/ n scenéria, poh¾ad vôkol The best               tail /teil/ n chvost The dog wagged its tail when its owner
  part of the trip was the fantastic scenery.                        came out of the shop.
scorch /skɔ tʃt/ v ohorie Flames from the burning car              tail lights / teil laits/ n koncové svetlá na aute The fog
  had scorched the side of the van.                                  was so dense all I could do was follow the tail lights of the car in front.
sea voyage / si vɔi id / n cesta po mori The sea                   take command of / tυk kə mɑ nd əv, ɒv/ v phr prebra
  voyage from the UK to America used to take weeks.                  velenie nad... General Norman took command today of the British
seek shelter / si k ʃeltə/ v phr h¾ada prístrešok,                   troops in Northern Ireland.
  skrýšu The travellers sought shelter from the storm in an inn    task /tɑ sk/ n úloha The task of the union representative is
  along the way.                                                     to fight on behalf of the members.
semi-hibernate / semi haibəneit/ v polospa , napoly                teeming / ti miŋ/ adj hemžiaci sa, prekypujúci..
  hybernova These creatures survive the winter by semi-              The teeming streets of Calcutta are quite a shock for tourists.
  hibernating, only coming out occasionally for food.              temperate / tempərət/ adj mierny Britain is fortunate to
separate / sepəreitid/ v odlúèi We‘ve been separated                 have a temperate climate, so it seldom gets extremes of heat
  for six months.                                                    or cold.
set off / set ɒf/ phr v vyrazi /na cestu/ I‘ll set off early       terracotta / terə kɒtə/ n tehlová, hnedo èervená It‘s
  to avoid the traffic.                                               very fashionable to use terracotta tiles on your kitchen floor.
set out on / set aυt ɒn/ phr v vyda sa na cestu                    there‘s no point in /ðeəz nəυ pɔint in/ phr nie je
  The settlers packed up their belongings and set out on their       dôvod na.... There‘s no point in blaming yourself – you had
  journey to the west coast.                                         nothing to do with the accident.
school outing / sku l aυtiŋ/ n školský zájazd, akcia               thumb /θ mz/ n palec na ruke Prisoners were sometimes
  Can I go on the school outing to see ‚Cats‘? It will cost £25.     tortured by hanging them up by their thumbs.
sight /sait/ n poh¾ad Yvonne was overwhelmed at the sight          timetable / taim teibəl/ n rozvrh The Council has set
  of the thousands of people in the square.                          out a timetable for returning to civilian rule.
sightseeing / sait si iŋ/ n návšteva historických                  to reserve /tə ri z v/ v zarezervova si Duncan has
  pamiatok She swam and sunbathed, went sightseeing                  reserved a table at Chez Louis for Tuesday evening at 7.
  and relaxed.                                                     tour guide / tυə aid/ n turistický sprievodca Louise
snail-like / sneil laik/ adj slimaèí Traffic was making               worked as a tour guide for American students in Europe on
  snail-like progress towards the city centre.                       educational courses.
   35
track /tr k/ n úzky chodník The road leading to the farm            MODULE 8 Global Issues
  was little more than a dirt track.
trainee / trei ni / n nováèik, zaèínajúci a uèiaci sa               accelerate /wil ək seləreit/ v prida rýchlos How fast
  The trainees start next week, and one will be allocated to each    will the car accelerate?‘ I asked the salesman.
  experienced sales person.                                         according to /ə kɔ diŋ tə/ prep phr pod¾a According to
training / treiniŋ/ n tréning, školenie On the course                the police, his attackers beat him with a blunt instrument.
  we received training in every aspect of the job.                  accusation / kjə zeiʃən/ n obvinenie A number of serious
travel / tr vəl/ n cestovanie The new job involves a fair            accusations have been made against her.
  amount of travel.                                                 accuse /ə kju z/ v obvini He was accused of murder.
trekking holiday / trekiŋ/ v prázdniny strávené                     active / ktiv/ adj aktívny At summer camp there are lots
  turistikou Alan is going on a trekking holiday in the Himalayas    of games for active youngsters.
  this year.                                                        admit /əd mitid/ v pripusti When asked directly if he
trip /trip/ n výlet Did you enjoy your trip to Disneyland?           had broken the window, the boy admitted he had.
triumph / traiəmf/ n triumf Winning the championship is             advise /əd vaiz/ v poradi She needed someone to advise
  a great personal triumph.                                          her.
tropical / trɒpikəl/ adj tropický The tropical rainforests          affect /həz ə fektid/ v ovplyvni The death of her mother
  are being destroyed by industry and climate change.                has affected her deeply.
trucks /tr ks/ n nákladné autá Trucks are banned from               agreement /ə ri mənt/ n dohoda After much arguing,
  the Swiss motorways at weekends.                                   they eventually came to a mutual agreement
turbulent / t bjələnt/ adj nestály, podliehajúci                    agricultural /        ri k ltʃərəl/ adj po¾nohospodársky
  zmenám The novel is set in the turbulent times of the French       Sally went to agricultural college to study farming methods.
  Revolution.                                                       aid /eid/ n pomoc Foreign aid from many countries poured
turmoil / t mɔil/ n nezhody, zmätok, The prospect of                 into the famine area.
  another week of political turmoil fills me with glee!              announce /ə naυnst/ v oznámi They announced their
turtles / t təlz/ n korytnaèky Pi survived by capturing              engagement at her birthday party.
  and eating turtles when they came up to the lifeboat.             appeal /ə pi l/ n požiadavka The police have issued a new
unscathed / n skeiðd/ adj nezranený, nepoškodený                     appeal for information.
  He escaped unscathed from the accident – not a scratch on him.    archipelago / ɑ ki pelə əυ/ n súostrovie We hired
unsealed / nsi ld/ adj nezapeèatený, neuzavretý                      a boat and sailed round the archipelago, visiting each island
  We sent up clouds of dust from the unsealed roads as we            in turn.
  drove along.                                                      armed conflict / ɑ md kɒnflikt/ n vojnový konflikt,
vegetation / ved ə teiʃən/ n vegetácia, rastlinstvo                  ozbrojený konflikt There was armed conflict in the area,
  Lefkas has an abundance of lush green vegetation.                  and the UN sent in a peace-keeping corps.
victory / viktəri/ n výhra Napoleon‘s military victories            as a result /əz ə ri z lt/ conj v dôsledku... As a result
  have been the subject of many books.                               of their hasty marriage, they are finding they have nothing in
was trapped /wəz tr pt/ v bol uväznený, zakliesnený                  common.
  The driver of the lorry was trapped in his cab for three hours.   assist /tυ ə sist/ v pomôc , asistova When the woman
website / websait/ n webová stránka For more information             fell over, Seth rushed to assist her.
  on weight loss and healthy eating, visit our website.             associate with /iz ə səυʃieitid wið, ə səυsi / v spája
whales /weilz/ n ve¾ryby The Japanese have recently                  s... To me, that perfume is always associated with Kate – she
  started hunting whales again.                                      never wore anything else.
what about / wɒt əbaυt/ phr èo tak.... Is there anything you        at a steady rate /ət ə stedi reit/ prep phr rovnomerne,
  want to do this weekend?‘ ‚What about going to the seaside?‘       na stálej úrovni The crime figures are falling at a steady
whether / weðə/ conj èi Maurice asked me whether I needed            rate.
  any help.                                                         avalanche / vəlɑ ntʃiz/ n lavína The avalanche swept
wings /wiŋz/ n krídla You can hear the beating of millions           down the mountainside .
  of wings as the bats come home to roost.                          average / vərid / adj priemerný The age of the candidates
wound /wu nd/ n rana /od gu¾ky alebo noža/ A nurse                   ranged from 29 to 49, with an average age of 37.
  cleaned and bandaged the wound.                                   be mugged /bi m d/ n by prepadnutý a okradnutý
zero-gravity / ziərəυ r vəti/ n nulová gravitácia                    He was mugged as he walked along the street.
  The astronauts trained for the trip in zero-gravity conditions.   beg /be / v prosi She begged and pleaded with them until
zones /zəυnz/ n oblasti, zóny The tropical zones of the Earth        they finally agreed.
  are getting wider as the climate hots up.                         believable /bi li vəbəl/ adj uverite¾ný It was a story with
                                                                     believable characters in it.
                                                                                                                             36
betting / betiŋ/ n stávkovanie, gamblovanie,                         decline /di klain/ n pokles There has been a decline in
 stávka What‘s the betting Dan‘s involved in this somewhere?          the size of families.
birth certificate /sə tifikət/ n rodný list I couldn‘t find           definite / definət/ adj koneèný, definitívny It‘s impossible
 my birth certificate anywhere!                                        for me to give you a definite answer.
boast /bəυst/ v chvasta sa ‚I wouldn‘t be afraid,‘ she boasted.      deforestation /di fɒrə steiʃən/ n odlesòovanie
burglars / b ləz/ n vlamaè, zlodej The burglars had                   Man alone is responsible for the deforestation of the tropics.
 got in through the back door.                                       defuse / di fju z/ v zmierni Beth‘s quiet voice helped
cancel / k nsəld/ v zruši , pozastavi When their team                 to defuse the situation.
 were relegated from the Premier League, a few supporters            dehydration / di hai dreiʃən/ n dehydratácia The survivors
 cancelled their season tickets.                                      hadn‘t had enough water to drink and were suffering from
capital / k pitl/ n hlavné mesto Washington DC is                     dehydration.
 the capital of the United States.                                   denied /di naid/ v poprie He denied the charge of being
carbon emissions / kɑ bən i miʃənz/ n emisie uhlíka                   drunk in charge of a motor vehicle.
 The earth is getting warmer, and will continue to do so unless we   destination / desti neiʃənz/ n cie¾ cesty The train
 cut down on carbon emissions.                                        destinations were displayed on a board above our heads.
carbon-based / kɑ bən beist/ adj uhlíkový, majúci                    destruction /di str kʃən/ n znièenie, deštrukcia
 uhlíkový základ The ‚greenhouse‘ effect is caused by                 Timber companies are responsible for the destruction of
 carbon-based gases.                                                  the rainforest.
celebrity /sə lebrəti/ n celebrita David Beckham is a famous         devastation / devə steiʃən/ n znièenie, devastácia
 sporting celebrity.                                                  The earthquakes left such scenes of devastation that grown
central heating / sentrəl hi tiŋ/ n ústredné kúrenie                  men cried.
 When the central heating boiler broke down, we had no hot           dining car / dainiŋ kɑ / n reštauraèný vozeò We had
 water.                                                               dinner in the dining car on the train back.
claimed /kleimd/ v vyhlási The aircraft pilots claimed to            disastrous /di zɑ strəs/ adj strašný She had a disastrous
 have seen a UFO while flying over the Pacific.                         first marriage and vowed never to marry again.
claimed /kleimd/ v vyžiada si The hurricane claimed                  discriminate /di skrimineit/ v diskriminova Under
 thousands of lives.                                                  federal law, it is illegal to discriminate against minorities and
CO2 / si əυ tu / n oxid uhlièitý The USA produces 24%                 women.
 of the world‘s CO2 emissions.                                       discrimination /di skrimə neiʃən/ n diskriminácia
coal industry / kəυl indəstri/ n uho¾ný priemysel                     The government passed new laws to prevent sexual
 The coal industry in Great Britain has all but disappeared.          discrimination.
complain /kəm plein/ v s ažova sa Residents are                      downgrade / daυn reid/ v podceòova Police often
 complaining because traffic in the area has increased.               downgrade the seriousness of violence against women in
concern /kən s n/ n záujem, záležitos The recent                      the home.
 rise in crime is a matter of considerable public concern.           downhill / daυn hil/ adv dole kopcom I was going
construction /kən str kʃən/ n stavba, konštrukcia                     downhill and my brakes failed.
 The construction of a new airport was needed, but there was         downstream / daυn stri m/ adv dole prúdom We could
 disagreement about where it should be built.                         see a boat drifting downstream.
corporation / kɔ pə reiʃən/ n korporácia, ve¾ká                      droughts /draυts/ n suchá, obdobie sucha During
 spoloènos He works for a large American corporation.                 the drought we had to use standpipes.
credit / kredit lainz/ n pôžièka The UN threatened to cut credit     dump /d mp/ v ledabolo položi Merrill dumped her
 lines to countries which didn‘t reduce carbon dioxide emissions.     suitcase down in the hall.
cut down /tə k t/ v zníži Mum started turning off the central        dust /d st/ n prach The house had been unused for some
 heating more often to cut down on energy use.                        time, and all the furniture was covered in dust.
cut down / k t daυn/ phr v redukova , zníži Installing               earthquakes / θkweiks/ n zemetrasenia Most of
 double glazing will cut down the noise from traffic.                  the houses in the village were destroyed by the earthquake.
cut off / k t ɒf/ phr v odreza One of his fingers was cut             economic / ekə nɒmik, i / adj ekonomický
 off in the accident.                                                 Economic growth is slow, but will pick up later in the year.
cycle / saikəlz/ n cyklus, obdobie Some people think                 employment /im plɔimənt/ n zamestnanie She was
 that global warming is part of a natural weather cycle.              offered employment in the sales office.
cyclones / saikləυnz/ n cyklóny The cyclone ripped the roof          end /end/ v skonèi World War II ended in 1945.
 off the houses.                                                     environmental /in vairən mentl/ adj environmentálny
declared /di kleəd/ v vyhlási , deklarova They have                   Most people are unaware of the environmental damage caused by
 declared their intention to increase taxes.                          the chemical industry.
   37
erupt /i r pt/ v vybuchnú , Violence erupted after police                global / ləυbəl/ adj globálny Some people still deny that
  shot a student during the demonstration.                                  humans are responsible for global climate change.
escape /i skeip/ v uniknú , ujs He broke down the locked                 global warming / ləυbəl wɔ miŋ/ n globálne otep¾ovanie
  door and escaped.                                                         In order to stop global warming, we have to cut down on carbon
evaporation /i v pə reiʃən/ n vyparovanie The rate of                       emissions.
  evaporation was higher than I‘d anticipated, and we soon ran out       GNP (gross national product) / d i en pi / n hrubý
  of water.                                                                 domáci produkt The GNP of some third world countries is
exclaim /ik skleim/ v vykríknu ‚No!‘ she exclaimed in shock.                abysmally low.
expenses /ik spensiz/ n výdavky The tax inspector said                   government /               vəmənt,          vənmənt/ n vláda
  that some of the expenses I had claimed were invalid.                     The government are planning further cuts in public spending.
exploit /ik splɔit/ v využíva , zneužíva Homeworkers                     growth / rəυθ/ n rast, nárast We‘ve seen enormous
  can easily be exploited by employers.                                     growth in the number of businesses using the web.
exploitation / eksplɔi teiʃən/ n využívanie, zneužívanie,                habitat / h bit ts/ n prirodzené prostredie The Arctic
  vykoris ovanie The film industry thrives on the sexual                    is the polar bear‘s natural habitat.
  exploitation of women.                                                 had not met its targets /həd nɒt met its tɑ its/ v
exports / ekspɔ ts/ n vývoz, export This year, exports                      phr nedosiahol stanovený cie¾, úroveò The company
  exceeded imports.                                                         had not met its target for the year so no bonuses were paid.
extinction /ik stiŋkʃən/ n vyhynutie The Giant Panda                     harem / hɑ rim, hɑ ri m/ n hárem The women lived in
  is in danger of extinction.                                               the harem, guarded by a eunuch.
factor / f ktə/ n faktor The rise in crime is mainly due to              harmful / hɑ mfəl/ adj škodlivý The harmful effects of
  social and economic factors.                                              smoking have to be indicated on all cigarette packets.
factory / f ktəri/ n továreò, závod The owner said                       has been washed away /həz bi n wɒʃt ə wei/ phr v
  the factory would have to close down.                                     boli zmietnuté, odplavené All her belongings had been
famine / f min/ n hlad, hladomor A severe outbreak of                       washed away in the flood.
  potato blight in the 1840s caused the great Irish potato famine.       helicopter / helikɒptə/ n helikoptéra The helicopter
fancy dress party / f nsi dres pɑ ti/ n oslava v maskách                    picked up the survivors and flew them to safety.
  I hadn‘t realised until I got there that it was a fancy dress party!   hell and high water / hel ən hai wɔ tə/ phr nech sa
fear /wəz fiəd/ v obáva sa It was feared that the missing                   deje èo chce, aj keby.... I promised to be with her the next
  passenger had fallen overboard.                                           day come hell or high water.
federation / fedə reiʃən/ n federácia Liz is the Chairperson             homelessness / həυmləsnəs/ n bezdomovectvo
  of the National Federation of Women‘s Institutes.                         Homelessness is a scar on the face of a democratic society.
fierce / fiəsə/ adj silný, násilný Fiercer winds were                    humanity /hju m nəti/ n ¾udstvo We want a clean,
  forecast for the next day.                                                healthy environment for all humanity.
firm /f m/ n firma, podnik She works for an electronics                  hurricane / h rikənz/ n hurikán We were on holiday in
  firm in Swindon.                                                           Florida when the hurricane struck.
first aid / f st eid/ n prvá pomoc Being given first aid                  hydro-electric / haidrəυ i lektrik/ adj hydro-elektrický
  at the scene of the accident probably saved his life.                     There are plans to build large hydro-electric power stations in
flooding / fl diŋ/ n záplavy The heavy rain has led to                      the area.
  serious flooding in some areas.                                         challenge / tʃ lənd / n výzva The company is ready to
floods /fl dz/ n záplavy The weather forecast was for more                  meet the challenges of the next few years.
  rain and the possibility of floods.                                     illiterate /i litərət/ adj neèitate¾ný It was an illiterate letter,
for instance /fər instəns/ prep phr napríklad..                             full of mistakes.
  Several of her friends visited her in hospital, for instance Ellie,    impersonal /im p sənəl/ adj neosobný Business letters
  Sadie, William and Jack.                                                  do not have to be impersonal and formal.
forbid /fə bid/ v zakáza , nepovoli He was forbidden                     in need of /in ni d əv, ɒv/ prep phr potrebova , ma potrebu
  to leave the house, as a punishment.                                      The school was in desperate need of funds for new books.
fury / fjυəri/ n hnev I was shaking with fury.                           in the long term /in ðə lɒŋ t m/ prep phr z dlhodobého
gases /        siz/ n plyny A mixture of gases were used as fuel            h¾adiska In the long term, permanent accommodation is
  for heating.                                                              the best solution.
geological / d i ə lɒd ikəl/ adj geologický The scientist                income / i k m, in / n príjem People on a high income
  studied the geological formations of the cliffs.                          should pay more tax.
giant tortoises / d aiənt tɔ təsiz/ n korytnaèka obrovská                increasing /in kri siŋ/ adj vzrastajúci, rastúci She
  I‘ve seen photos of the giant tortoises of the Galapagos, and one         fell and twisted her ankle, and gazed with increasing disbelief
  day I hope to visit the islands myself.                                   at the number of people who just passed her by.
                                                                                                                           38
indifferent /in difərənt/ adj ¾ahostajný Sarah was                  minister / ministəz/ n minister Six ministers were
  absolutely indifferent to him, and it hurt.                        hauled before the Chief Whip for disorderly conduct.
industrially /in d striəli/ adv priemyselne, industriálne           mismanagement / mis m nid mənt/ n zlé riadenie,
  Electricity can be produced industrially by wind turbines.         nesprávne riadenie The shareholders accused the Board
industry / indəstri/ n priemysel There has been a sharp              of mismanagement, and said they should all be replaced.
  decline in manufacturing industry in Great Britain.               misplace / mis pleis/ v odloži niekam a nepamäta
influence / influəns/ n vplyv There is no doubt that                 si kam Oh dear, I seem to have misplaced the letter. Do you
  Bohr‘s influence was immense.                                       know where it is?
inquire /in kwaiə/ v pýta sa ‚Why are you doing that?‘              misunderstand / mis ndə st nd/ v neporozumie ,
  the boy inquired.                                                  zle porozumie Rachel, you must have misunderstood her!
intense /in tens/ adj silný, intenzívny Young people                 Ellie would never say something like that.
  today are under intense pressure to succeed.                      mountainsides / maυntənsaidz/ n úboèie hory The rock
interest /rate/ / intrəst/ n úrok, / úroková sadzba/                 fall swept the climber down the mountainside.
  The interest rate on this loan is 7 per cent.                     multinational / m lti n ʃənəl/ adj multinárodný,
intergovernmental / intə və mentl, -vən-/ adj týkajúci               mnohonárodný She applied for a job with a multinational
  sa viacerých vlád rôznych krajín The minister had to               media corporation.
  attend an intergovernmental conference.                           multi-purpose / m lti p pəs/ adj viac úèelový We
knock out /wəz nɒkt aυt/ phr v prehra a tým                          always buy Dad multi-purpose gadgets as he loves reading
  vypadnú zo sú aže Leeds were knocked out of the FA Cup.            the instructions and trying them all out!
landscape / l ndskeip/ n krajina She stood on the hill,             multi-racial / m lti reiʃəl/ adj multirasový, viac rasový
  surveying the landscape.                                           There was a mix of ethnic minorities in the area, and the school
landslides / l ndslaidz/ n zosuv pôdy, skál If the slope             was multi-racial.
  is steep enough, landslides can reach up to 200 miles             notorious /nəυ tɔ riəs, nə / adj notorický The bank
  an hour.                                                           employed a notorious computer hacker to safeguard its software.
leak /tə h v li kt/ v presiaknu , vytiec cez malý                   nuclear waste / nju kliə weist/ n jadrový odpad
  otvor The tanker was thought to have leaked about a million        The government has yet to solve the problems of nuclear
  litres of oil.                                                     waste disposal.
lifestyle / laifstailz/ n životný štýl That affair was never        occupation / ɒkjə peiʃən/ n zamestnanie Please state
  going to work because they led completely different lifestyles.    your name, address and occupation.
limited / limitid/ adj obmedzený, limitovaný There                  on a big scale /ɒn ə bi skeil/ prep phr vo ve¾kom
  are only a limited number of tickets available.                    The planned to launch the book on a big scale, with a huge
link /liŋk/ n spojenie The police officer produced a graph            advertising campaign.
  showing the link between drug use and crime.                      on average /ɒn vərid / prep phr v priemere On
literacy / litərəsi/ n gramotnos /schopnos písa                      average, I walk about five miles a day.
  a èíta / The new adult literacy campaign was a huge success.      on the brink of /ɒn ðə briŋk əv, ɒv/ prep phr by na
literally / litərəli/ adv doslovne The name of the cheese            pokraji It felt as if we were on the brink of disaster.
  is Dolcelatte, literally meaning ‚sweet milk‘.                    on top of all that /ɒn tɒp əv ɔ l ð t/ prep phr a na
livelihood / laivlihυd/ n obživa, živobytie Fishing is               koniec, po tom všetkom ešte aj... I‘d had a bad day
  the main livelihood of many people in the area.                    at work and then, on top of all that, my car broke down!
loan /ləυn/ n pôžièka He asked the bank manager for                 operation /ri li f ɒpə reiʃən/ n operácia, akcia
  a business loan of £60,000.                                        The Normandy landings were a relief operation to rescue soldiers
logging / lɒ iŋ/ n ažba dreva The logging company had                trapped between the enemy and the sea.
  cut down most of the forest.                                      opportunities / ɒpə tju nətiz/ n možnosti Leo emigrated
lonesome / ləυnsəm/ adj osamelý Beth is lonesome without             to Australia because there were more job opportunities for him
  the children.                                                      there.
male /meil/ n mužského rodu The male is usually bigger              oppose /ə pəυziz/ v vyjadri nesúhlas, nepodpori
  and more brightly coloured than the female.                        The Liberal Democrats opposed the motion.
malnutrition / m lnjυ triʃən/ n podvýživa Most of                   overdo / əυvə du / v prehna , urobi viac, než je dobré
  the refugees were suffering from malnutrition.                     Analysts believe that worries about the economy are overdone.
marvellous / mɑ vələs/ adj úžasný, bájeèný We had                   overgrown / əυvə rəυn/ adj zarastený, porastený
  a marvellous holiday in Sardinia.                                  The garden will be overgrown with weeds by the time we
mid-life crisis / mid laif kraisis/ phr kríza stredného              get back.
  veku Dad wants to buy a sports car – we think he‘s going          overpopulation / əυvəpɒpjə leiʃən/ n pre¾udnenie
  through a mid-life crisis!                                         Efforts to reduce overpopulation have proved fruitless.
   39
oversleep / əυvə sli p/ v zaspa Sorry I‘m late. I overslept.          recovery /ri k vəri/ n uzdravenie Doctors expect him
pay back / pei b k/ phr v splati I‘ll pay you back                      to make a full recovery.
  on Friday.                                                          reducing /ri dju siŋ/ n zmenšovanie, redukovanie
per capita /pə k pitə/ prep phr na hlavu / na osobu/                    The doctor told him that reducing his weight would be a good idea.
  In 1998 Denmark had the highest average income per capita           refuse /ri fju z/ v odmietnu She asked him to leave,
  (per person).                                                         but he refused.
percent /pə sent/ n percento The bank charges interest                release /ri li s/ n vypustenie Before release, the sea lions
  at 14 percent.                                                        are fitted with electronic tracking devices.
percentage /pə sentid / n percentuálne vyèíslenie                     reluctantly /ri l ktəntli/ adv neochotne She went with
  The percentage of school leavers that go to university is about       him reluctantly, but she would rather have stayed.
  five per cent.                                                       remind /ri maind/ v pripomenú Remind me to get some
petrol / petrəl/ n benzín The car ran out of petrol before              milk on the way home.
  we reached home.                                                    renewable /ri nju əbəl/ adj predlžite¾ný, obnovite¾ný
pity / piti/ n škoda It‘s a pity that he didn‘t accept the job –        It‘s a six-month lease, but it‘s renewable.
  I think he would have been good at it.                              replace /ri pleis/ v nahradi I‘m replacing Sue on the team
plunge into / pl nd d intə, intυ/ phr v vrhnú sa He                     while she has a short break.
  plunged into the pool and swam to the other end underwater.         reports /ri pɔ ts/ v správy, hlásenia The Head
poet / pəυit/ n básnik Sylvia Plath was a famous poet.                  received so many adverse reports about the girl that he had no
polluter /pə lu tə/ n zneèis ovate¾ The polluter should                 option but to suspend her.
  pay for the cost of the clean-up.                                   representative / repri zentətiv/ n reprezentant,
population / pɒpjə leiʃən/ n obyvate¾stvo, populácia                    zástupca During the pay dispute, union representatives
  India has a population of more than one billion.                      negotiated on behalf of the workforce.
post /pəυst/ n pozícia, post I applied for the post and was           rewind /ri waind/ v natoèi , znova natoèi She rewound
  asked to attend an interview.                                         the grandfather clock when it stopped.
postgraduate / pəυst r djuət/ adj postgraduálny                       rock /rɒkt/ v kolísa The earthquake rocked the buildings
  She is studying for a postgraduate degree.                            to their foundations.
poverty / pɒvəti/ n chudoba Millions of elderly people                sanitation / s ni teiʃən/ n hygiena Overcrowding and
  live in poverty.                                                      poor sanitation are common problems in prisons.
prevent /pri vent/ v predchádza The rules are intended                scorpion / skɔ piən/ n škorpión My uncle was bitten by
  to prevent accidents.                                                 a scorpion when he was in the desert.
profession /prə feʃən/ n profesia He was a doctor by                  semi-circle / semi s kəl/ n polkruh He walked in a semi-
  profession.                                                           circle and then stopped.
progressively /prə resivli/ adv postupne Her illness                  set aside /ə said/ v odloži na neskôr I‘ve been setting
  got progressively worse.                                              aside a few pounds each week..
prosperous / prɒspərəs/ adj prosperujúci, bohatý                      set up / set p/ phr v založi , zaèa They want to set up
  a úspešný She married a prosperous landowner who had                  their own import–export business.
  millions in the bank.                                               settler / setləz/ n usadlík The goats introduced by the early
provide /prə vaid/ v zabezpeèi , poskytnú Tea and                       settlers destroyed the ecological balance of the islands.
  biscuits will be provided.                                          shanty / ʃ nti/ n chatrè Workers were living in tents and
public / p blik/ n verejnos The meeting will be open to                 shanties.
  the general public.                                                 shipwreck / ʃip rek/ n potopenie lode Because there
pump /p mpt/ v napumpova The cyclist put a patch on                     weren‘t enough lifeboats, only ten people survived the shipwreck.
  the puncture and pumped up the tyre.                                sign /sain/ v podpísa Sign here, please.
qualification / kwɒləfi keiʃənz/ n vzdelanie, kvalifikácia            similar / simələ/ adj podobný We have similar tastes in
  He started as a teenager, with no qualifications, and built up        music.
  a multi-million-pound empire.                                       skills /skilz/ n schopnosti The skills needed to deal with
queue /kju / n rad, zástup We stood in a queue for half                 customers are many and varied.
  an hour.                                                            slope /sləυps/ n zjazdovka We went skiing at Christmas
ran aground / r n ə raυnd/ v phr uviaznu na                             and I couldn‘t wait to get on the slopes!
  plytèine The tanker ran aground on the archipelago.                 soil /sɔil/ n pôda The soil here is very poor.
reaction /ri kʃən/ n reakcia What was Jeff‘s reaction                 solar / səυlə/ adj slneèný, solárny We drove down to
  when you told him about the job?                                      Cornwall to see a solar eclipse of the sun.
rebuild /wə stil ri bildiŋ/ v prestavova They were still              spare time / speə taim/ n vo¾ný èas Jackie helps out
  rebuilding their houses when the second hurricane hit the island.     at a charity shop in her spare time.
                                                                                                                             40
specialised / speʃəlaizd/ adj špeciálny, špecializovaný               tonnes /t nz/ n tony The ship weighed 20,000 tonnes.
  She had specialised knowledge of the subject and was often          transmit /iz tr nz mitid/ v prenáša sa AIDS is
  called upon to give expert testimony.                                 transmitted from one infected person to another by the act
spectre / spektə/ n vidina The recession is again raising               of having sex.
  the spectre of unemployment.                                        trust /tr st/ v veri I just don‘t trust him.
statistic /stə tistik/ n štatistika The official crime statistics      tsunami /tsυ nɑ mi/ n tsunami The tsunami caught
  are not always accurate.                                              the authorities completely unawares.
steep /sti p/ adj príkry, strmý The road became rocky                 turn on / t n ɒn/ phr v zapnú Jake turned on his computer
  and steep.                                                            and checked his mail.
Stone Age / stəυn eid / n doba kamenná These weapons                  UN / ju en/ n spojené národy The UN headquarters
  were made by people living in the Stone Age.                          building is in New York.
stratosphere / str təsfiə/ n stratosféra With the closing             uncommon / n kɒmən/ adj ojedinelý, nie bežný Violent
  of the pipeline, oil prices soared into the stratosphere.             crimes against the elderly are fortunately very uncommon.
stuff /st f/ n hmota I‘ve got some sticky stuff on my shoe.           under pressure / ndə preʃə/ prep phr pod tlakom
sub-species / s b spi ʃi z/ n pod druh Scientists know                  The interview panel agreed that the first candidate seemed
  that this animal is the last surviving member of the sub-species.     the type to fold under pressure.
substandard / s b st ndəd/ adj nízkoštandardný                        undercooked / ndə kυkt/ adj nedovarený, polosurový
  The company were accused of hiring unqualified workmen,                The vegetables were undercooked, so I complained to the waiter.
  which resulted in substandard housing.                              undernourished / ndə n riʃt/ adj podvyživený
suggest /sə d ests/ v navrhnú I suggested that she                      The children in the village were severely undernourished.
  accompany me on my walk.                                            underpaid / ndə peid/ adj nedocenený platovo
supply /sə plai/ v doda / tovar, .../ Paint for the project             Teachers are overworked and underpaid.
  was supplied by the city.                                           unemployed / nim plɔid/ adj nezamestnaný An unemployed
surrender /sə rendəz/ v vzda sa They refused to surrender               actor is said to ‚resting‘ whilst out of work.
  to the enemy.                                                       unemployment / nim plɔimənt/ n nezamestnanos
survivor /sə vaivəz/ n ten, èo prežil/katastrofu, ../                   The level of unemployment is rising.
  The survivors were finally rescued after 20 days at sea.             uninhabited / nin h bitid/ adj neobývaný As we
take a toll of /həv teikən ə təυl əv, ɒv/ v phr vybra                   sailed around, we came upon an uninhabited island.
  si daò The tsunami took a heavy toll of human life.                 unique /ju ni k/ adj jedineèný, unikátny The scientists
tanker / t ŋkə/ n tanker Tankers are used to carry oil from             had a unique opportunity to study these rare creatures.
  one country to another.                                             unstable / n steibəl/ adj nestabilný The political situation
the greenhouse effect /ðə ri nhaυs i fekt/ n                            is still very unstable.
  skleníkový efekt Most scientists agree that the ‚greenhouse         victim / viktim/ n obe The victim received head injuries
  effect‘ is having an adverse effect on the Earth.                     from which she died a week later.
therapists / θerəpists/ n terapeuti The speech therapists             virtually / v tʃuəli/ adv prakticky Virtually all the children
  wanted an increase in their salaries.                                 come to school by bus.
Third World / θ d w ld/ n krajiny tretieho sveta                      visible / vizəbəl/ adj vidite¾ný The outline of the mountains
  Third world countries need more aid from the West.                    was clearly visible.
threaten / θretn/ v vyhráža sa Postal workers are                     volcanic eruptions /vɒl k nik i r pʃənz/ n sopeèný
  threatening a strike if they don‘t receive a pay increase.            výbuch The magma from the volcanic eruptions flowed down
to back sb up /tə b k/ v podpori niekoho I needed                       the mountainside.
  someone to back me up or they would never believe me.               waterlogged / wɔ təlɒ d/ adj zaplavený Heavy rain
to bring relief /tə briŋ ri li f/ v phr u¾avi , prinies                 meant the pitch was waterlogged.
  ú¾avu The tablets were supposed to bring relief to the most         What‘s ridiculous / wɒts ri dikjələs/ phr smiešne
  painful of headaches.                                                 na tom je... What‘s ridiculous about this whole thing, is
to come to the rescue /tə k m tə ðə reskju / v phr                      how seriously everyone is taking it!
  zachráni niekoho I could see she had been cornered by               windstorms / windstɔ mz/ n veterná smrš , búrka
  the biggest bore at the party, and decided to come to her rescue.     In the last decade, windstorms have become more common.
to do charity work /tə dəυ tʃ rəti w k/ v phr robi                    wiped out / waipt aυt/ phr v zrovna so zemou
  charitatívnu èinnos I have always wanted to do charity                The eruption completely wiped out the nearest town.
  work but never had the time.                                        within reach /wið in reind / prep phr na dosah As soon
to make a full recovery /tə meik ə fυl ri k vəri/ v                     as he came within reach, I grabbed him.
  phr celkom vyzdravie Although it was a nasty accident,              wrap /r p/ v zabali The present was beautifully wrapped
  the surgeon expected him to make a full recovery.                     in gold paper.
   41

CULTURE CORNER                                                      capital punishment / k pitl p niʃmənt/ n trest smrti
                                                                      I don‘t believe in capital punishment in case an innocent man
being adapted / bi iŋ ə d ptid/ v adaptova , práve                    dies for a crime he didn‘t commit.
  prerába na... Her book is a bestseller and is being adapted       career /kə riə/ n kariéra Hugo decided to pursue a career
  for the cinema.                                                     in journalism.
jazz /d z/ n džez America is the home of jazz.                      cathedral /kə θi drəl/ n katedrála When we visited St Paul‘s
owe /əυd/ v dlhova She wouldn‘t lend him any more money,              Cathedral, we went up to the ‚whispering gallery‘.
  as he still owed her £50.                                         centre /wəz sentəd/ v koncentrova Everyone‘s
songwriting / sɒŋ raitiŋ/ n textovanie, písanie textov                attention was centred on the speaker.
  piesní There‘s some excellent songwriting on this album.          citizens / sitizənz/ n obyvatelia All the citizens of Athens
trumpet / tr mpit/ n trúbka Louis Armstrong first played               were equal by law.
  the cornet before moving onto the trumpet.                        city state / siti steit/ n mestský štát The city state of
                                                                      Athens was the greatest trading centre in the Mediterranean.
                                                                    class /klɑ s/ n trieda The working class are the backbone
MODULE 9 Society                                                      of England!
                                                                    comedies / kɒmədiz/ n komédie I usually like comedies,
social / səυʃəl/ adj sociálny They had a debate about                 but this film didn‘t raise many laughs from the audience.
 social issues, such as unemployment and education                  commerce / kɒm s/ n obchod, obchodovanie
accounting /ə kaυntiŋ/ n úètovníctvo Accounting is                    The council introduced measures promoting local commerce
 one of the most boring professions you can get into.                 and industry.
affront /ə fr nt/ n urážka The comments were an affront             commercial /kə m ʃəl/ adj obchodný, komerèný
 to his pride.                                                        Our top priorities must be profit and commercial growth.
aim at / eimd ət, t/ v mieri na The holiday was aimed               commit /kə mitiŋ/ v spácha He was caught in the act of
 at the 18–30 age range.                                              committing the offence and there was no doubt of his guilt.
ancient / einʃənt/ adj staroveký, starodávny Harry                  committee /kə miti/ n výbor, komisia He was the Chairman
 has always been fascinated by the ancient civilisations of Asia.     of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
are locked up for life /ə lɒkt p fə laif/ v phr sú                  company / k mpəniz/ n spoloènos There seem to be
 doživotne uväznení Murderers used to be locked up for                fewer theatrical companies around these days.
 life but these days they are often freed after a few years.        conducted /kən d ktid/ v riadi , vies The Italians
architectural / ɑ ki tektʃərəl/ adj architektonický                   conducted trade with the rest of Europe from their beautiful
 The cathedral was an architectural masterpiece.                      Venetian houses.
aristocratic / ristə kr tik/ adj aristokratický They                conservative /kən s vətiv/ adj konzervatívny She has
 are an old, aristocratic family who have fallen on hard times.       a very conservative attitude to education.
attitudes / titju dz/ n postoj, stanovisko Attitudes                constructive /kən str ktiv/ adj konštruktívny The meeting
 to divorce have changed since the 1950s.                             was very constructive, and many things were agreed.
banker / b ŋkəz/ n bankár The bankers awarded                       convicted /kən viktid/ adj usvedèený The convicted
 themselves a 50% pay rise.                                           murderer always maintained he was innocent, and finally a journalist
banking / b ŋkiŋ/ n bankovníctvo He used the international            proved that he was!.
 banking system to move his money around.                           cradle / kreidl/ n kolíska She rocked the cradle to quieten
be drawn /wə drɔ n/ v by pri ahovaný She was drawn                    the child.
 to acting like a moth to a flame.                                   create /kri eit/ v vytvori Some people believe the universe
begging / be iŋ/ n žobranie The police arrested her for               was created by a big explosion.
 begging in the street.                                             creativity / kri ei tivəti/ n kreativity The artist was seized
belief /bi li fs/ n viera Many religious people have strongly-        by a bout of creativity and didn‘t leave his studio for six days.
 held beliefs.                                                      crime /kraim/ n kriminalita We moved here because
birth /b θ/ n narodenie, pôrod Patsy was celebrating                  there was very little crime.
 last night after giving birth to twins.                            criminals / kriminəlz/ n kriminálnici Personally, I think
brighten / braitn/ v zosvetli Use blonde highlights to                that criminals who steal money should have to pay it back to
 brighten your hair.                                                  their victims.
burglary / b ləri/ n vlámaèstvo Burglaries have risen by 5%.        culminate / k lmineitiŋ/ v vrcholi , kulminova
burst /b st/ n nával, rozpuk When the teacher left the room           The play in the park was fantastic, culminating in a stupendous
 there was a sudden burst of activity among the students.             firework display.
by law /bai lɔ / prep phr pod¾a zákona By law, I‘m not              death penalty / deθ penəlti/ n trest smrti Some states
 allowed to park on double yellow lines.                              in America still have the death penalty for certain crimes.
                                                                                                                               42
decent / di sənt/ adj slušný At last, Sadie had landed a job            full-time / fυl taim/ adj na plný úväzok She works
  with a decent salary.                                                   full-time and has two kids.
demand /di mɑ nd/ n požiadavka, dopyt Production                        fund /f ndz/ n zbierka The church needed funds to do some
  is still increasing faster than demand.                                 essential repairs.
democracy /di mɒkrəsi/ n demokracia The people were                     further education / f ðər edjυ keiʃən/ n ïalšie
  celebrating a return to democracy after 16 years of military rule.      vzdelávanie The government is trying to encourage more
deter /di t / v odstraši The company‘s financial                           students into further education.
  difficulties have deterred potential investors.                        gadget /         d its/ n malý užitoèný nástroj, prístroj
dignity / di nəti/ n dôstojnos The family faced their                     She loves gadgets, and her kitchen is full of them.
  ordeal with dignity.                                                  gifted / iftid/ adj obdarený She was an extremely
dome /dəυm/ n kupolovitá strecha The dome was                             gifted poet.
  covered in gold leaf.                                                 golden ages / əυldən eid iz/ n zlaté roky The 1920s,
domestic violence /də mestik vaiələns/ n domáce                           in my opinion, were the golden age of women‘s fashion.
  násilie The victims of domestic violence are usually women            historian /hi stɔ riən/ n historik The historian was
  and children.                                                           overjoyed when he was granted permission to view the family
drama / drɑ mə/ n dráma The great traditions of ancient                   archives.
  Greek drama are still alive and well.                                 households / haυshəυldz/ n domácnos Most households
drug dealing / dr              di liŋ/ n predaj a distribúcia             try to recycle their rubbish.
  drog She was convicted of drug dealing and was given a thee-          how come? / haυ k m/ phr ako to... How come you
  month prison sentence.                                                  always get away with it but I get caught?
drugs /dr z/ n drogy We had a classroom discussion                      image / imid / n imidž The hotel and casino industry is
  about why people take drugs.                                            working hard on improving its image.
dynamic /dai n mik/ adj dynamický The Florentines                       imperial capital /im piəriəl k pitl/ n krá¾ovské hlavné
  of the 15th century were a dynamic and ambitious people.                mesto Rome was the imperial capital of the Roman Empire.
elderly / eldəli/ adj starší A well-dressed elderly woman               in a mess /in ə mes/ prep phr zaprataný neporiadkom,
  asked me if I‘d seen a small white dog running free.                    rozhádzaný Her bedroom was in a terrible mess, you couldn‘t
empire / empaiə/ n ríša At one time, the sun never set on                 see the floor for clothes!
  the British Empire.                                                   in a state of flux /in ə steit əv fl ks/ prep phr neustála
equal / i kwəl/ adj rovnaký Both candidates received an equal             zmena There are many changes under way, and the company
  number of votes.                                                        is presently in a state of flux.
equivalent /i kwivələnt/ adj rovnocenný, ekvivalentný                   in principle /in prinsəpəl/ prep phr v podstate It
  Would you say that a degree from a redbrick university is               sounded like a good idea in principle, but I wanted to know all
  exactly equivalent to one from Oxford or Cambridge?                     the facts before making a final decision.
facilities /fə silətiz/ n zariadenie, vybavenie The facilities          industrial revolution /in d striəl revə lu ʃən/ n
  in the new gym are superb.                                              priemyselná revolúcia The industrial revolution began
fault /fɔ lt/ n chyba I‘m really sorry – it‘s all my fault.               in Manchester in 1760.
fine /fain/ n pokuta The company director had to pay a fine              inequality / ini kwɒləti/ n nerovnomerný, nerovnoprávny
  for speeding on the motorway.                                           There are inequalities in wealth distribution.
first aid kit / f st eid kit/ n lekárnièka prvej pomoci                 innovation / inə veiʃənz/ n novota, inovácia She
  A first aid kit is essential when taking part in outdoor activities.     dislikes innovations, and likes everything to stay the same.
fish hook / fiʃ hυks/ n rybársky háèik The marlin put                   insatiable /in seiʃəbəl/ adj nenásytný His insatiable
  up a mighty battle and finally snapped the line, taking the fish          appetite for power led to his downfall.
  hook with him.                                                        it‘s high time /its hai taim/ phr je najvyšší èas It‘s
flint /flint/ n kremeò, kameò na kresanie ohòa One of                     high time something was done about the state of my garden!
  the scouts struck the flint to make a spark and start the campfire.     judicial /d u diʃəl/ adj právny The rape victim felt she
flourish / fl riʃt/ v kvitnú , prekvita When I moved                      had been let down by the judicial system.
  the plants to a different part of the garden, they positively         justice / d stis/ n spravodlivos Justice must be seen
  flourished!                                                              to be done.
flowering / flaυəriŋ/ n rozkvet, rozmach The 19th                       knee-deep / ni di p/ adv po kolená When he stepped
  century saw a flowering of science and technology.                       off the path he fond himself knee-deep in mud.
fortune / fɔ tʃənz/ n bohatstvo He made a fortune in                    leisure / le ə/ n chví¾a vo¾na Molly leads a life of leisure.
  the steel industry.                                                   life expectancy / laif ik spektənsi/ n dåžka života
frenzy / frenzi/ n mánia, posadnutos There appears                        According to actuaries, the life expectancy of women is longer
  to be a frenzy of religious feeling sweeping through the land.          than that of men.
   43
life sentence / laif sentəns/ n doživotie Miller is serving             prison sentence / prizən sentəns/ n odsúdenie, trest
  a life sentence for murder.                                             Jed has served his prison sentence and has vowed never to
literature / litərətʃə/ n literatúra He has read many of                  re-offend.
  the major works of literature.                                        pros and cons / prəυz ən kɒnz/ phr pre a proti I went
lose faith /ə lu ziŋ feiθ/ v phr strati vieru v...                        to the meeting to find out the pros and cons of setting up my
  The public are losing faith in the criminal justice system.             own business.
lottery / lɒtəri/ n lotéria He always buys a lottery ticket but         protest groups / prəυtest ru ps/ n protestné skupiny
  he‘s never won the lottery!                                             When the school closure was announced, some of the parents
magnet / m nit/ n magnet The region has become                            formed protest groups at the school gates.
  a magnet for small businesses.                                        punishment / p niʃmənts/ n trest On the board was a list
magnificent /m              nifisənt/ adj pôsobivý The opera              of the various punishments meted out for breaking school rules.
  singer gave a magnificent performance of Aida.                         racism / reisizəm/ n rasizmus The government has
marriage / m rid / n manželstvo She has three daughters                   promised to continue the fight against racism.
  from a previous marriage.                                             rape /reip/ n znásilnenie Police are investigating a series
masterful / mɑ stəfəl/ adj majstrovský Klein handled                      of violent rapes in the town.
  the situation in a masterful way.                                     rapidly / r pidli/ adv rýchlo The disease was spreading
medicine / medsən/ n medicína Steve is studying                           more rapidly than expected.
  medicine, and wants to become a doctor.                               rapist / reipists/ n násilník, ten kto znásilnil Too few
medieval / medi i vəl/ adj stredoveký These spices                        rapists are convicted because the victim cannot face reliving
  were first brought to Italy from the East in medieval times.             the event in open court.
merchant / m tʃənts/ n kupec The silk merchants set                     rationality / r ʃə n ləti/ n logické uvažovanie,
  up their own guild.                                                     racionalita I can understand the rationality of your argument
middle classes / midl klɑ siz/ n stredná trieda In the 19th               but think the premise is flawed.
  century, the wealthy middle classes spent lots of money on art.       recreation / rekri eiʃən/ n reakcia His only recreations
mobility /məυ biləti/ n mobilita Today, there is greater                  are drinking beer and watching football.
  social mobility than ever before.                                     reduction /ri d kʃənz/ n zmenšenie, redukovanie
mugging / m iŋ/ n prepadávanie a okrádanie ¾udí                           The government announced reductions in the benefits people
  na ulici Crime is on the increase, especially mugging and burglary.     are entitled to.
murder / m də/ n vrah On the night the murder was                       reform /ri fɔ m/ v reformova The government is drawing
  committed, he was out of the country.                                   up plans to radically reform the tax system.
murderer / m dərəz/ n vrah How many convicted                           Renaissance /ri neisəns/ n renesancia The Renaissance
  murderers walk free every year?                                         spawned outstanding painters and sculptors such as Botticelli,
myths /miθs/ n mýty The Greeks had many myths about                       Donatello and Michelangelo.
  their gods and heroes.                                                resistance /ri zistəns/ n odolnos , stálos Resistance
outstanding /aυt st ndiŋ/ adj ve¾mi dobrý Kevin was                       to change is usually strong, but more people are now demanding
  an outstanding athlete.                                                 a more equitable society.
part-time / pɑ t taim/ adj èiastoèný Jenny got a part-                  resolve /ri zɒlv/ v vyrieši The crisis was resolved by
  time job to help out with the bills.                                    negotiations.
peckish / pekiʃ/ adj trocha hladný She was feeling a bit                restoration / restə reiʃən/ n reštaurovanie Her will
  peckish.                                                                revealed that she had left all her money to a fund for the restoration
pedestrian /pə destriən/ adj obyèajný, nezaujímavý                        of historic buildings.
  At art school, the tutor showed us a painting that was pedestrian     restore /ri stɔ / v obnovi The government promises to
  and unimaginative.                                                      restore the economy to full strength.
philosophy /fi lɒsəfi/ n filozofia Emma studies philosophy              revenge /ri vend / n pomsta, odplata He took
  at university.                                                          revenge on his employers by setting fire to the factory.
playwright / pleiraits/ n dramatik, autor divadelných                   revolutionize /wəz bi iŋ revə lu ʃənaizd/ v úplne zmeni
  hier The film adaptations of their plays don‘t please most              The office was revolutionised by the introduction of computers.
  playwrights.                                                          savage / s vid / adj divý, zúrivý, neskrotený The child
plentiful / plentifəl/ adj ve¾a, viac než dos The campers                 was attacked by a savage dog.
  had a plentiful supply of food.                                       scandalous / sk ndələs/ adj škandalózny The number
pocket money / pɒkit m ni/ n vreckové How much                            of overseas trips made by politicians is a scandalous waste of
  pocket money do you get?                                                public money.
pollution /pə lu ʃən/ n zneèistenie The pollution in                    scones /skɒnz, skəυnz/ n sušienky Lynne decided to bake
  Bangkok is so bad, the traffic police wear breathing masks.              some scones for tea.
                                                                                                                                 44
sculptors / sk lptəz/ n sochár Michelangelo is one of                   to take into account /tə bi teikən intυ ə kaυnt/ v phr
  the most famous sculptors to have lived.                                vzia do úvahy A number of things would have to be taken
sculpture / sk lptʃə/ n socha Chloe brought back a small                  into account to explain his actions.
  sculpture of an elephant from her holiday in India.                   torch /tɔ tʃ/ n baterka We shone our torches around
search /s tʃ/ n h¾adanie Bad weather is hampering                         the cavern.
  the search for survivors.                                             trade /treid/ n obchod There has been a marked increase
season ticket / si zən tikit/ n sezónny lístok Dad                        in trade between East and West.
  bought an annual season ticket for Manchester United.                 trade unions / treid ju njənz/ n organizácia
second-hand / sekənd h nd/ adj z druhej ruky,                             zastupujúca zamestnancov, odborový zväz When
  obnosený My friend always wears second-hand clothes as                  the company stated they were downsizing, the trade unions
  she refuses to pay full price for anything!                             demanded talks with the employers.
settle down / setl daυn/ phr v upokoji sa Shh! Settle                   traffic jam / tr fik d m/ n dopravná zápcha We
  down please! Now turn to page 57.                                       were stuck in a traffic jam for two hours.
shelter / ʃeltə/ n prístrešok They are in need of food                  tragedy / tr d ədiz/ n tragédia She has suffered many
  and shelter.                                                            tragedies during her life.
shoplifting / ʃɒp liftiŋ/ n krádež tovaru v obchode                     transition /tr n ziʃən/ n prechod It was a smooth
  She had been falsely accused of shoplifting in a clothing store.        transition from full-time work to full retirement.
smartly / smɑ tli/ adv upravene a moderne Ian is                        undertake /wəz ndə teikən/ v prevzia When
  always smartly dressed.                                                 the headmaster was ill, his duties were undertaken by his deputy.
societies /sə saiətiz/ n spoloènosti Modern western                     unfit / n fit/ adj nezdravý, v zlej kondícii She never
  societies are usually democracies.                                      gets any exercise – she must be really unfit.
soft/hard sentences / sɒft, hɑ d sentəns/ n                             urban / bən/ adj mestský Ella dislikes urban life and
  odsúdenie na krátky/dlhý èas Judges today are handing                   would like to live in the countryside.
  down too many ‚soft‘ sentences when a ‚hard‘ one is called for.       utopia /ju təυpiə/ n utópia Everything is perfect in utopia
splendour / splendə/ n pôsobivos , nádhera We                             – all people are treated as equals.
  marvelled at the splendour of the scenery.                            vandalism / v ndəl izəm/ n vandalizmus The police
stable / steibəl/ adj stabilný A wide base will make the structure        figures show that vandalism is on the increase.
  much more stable.                                                     venue / venju / n miesto, priestor/ na koncert,
starve /əm stɑ viŋ/ v hladova The castaways hadn‘t                        míting.../ The first thing to do is book a venue.
  eaten for over a week, and were starving.                             vicious circle / viʃəs s kəl/ n zaèarovaný kruh Work
status / steitəs/ n postavenie These documents have no                    hard/earn money/spend money/work hard and so on – it‘s
  legal status in Britain.                                                a never-ending vicious circle.
superb /sju p b, su / adj excelentný, super dobrý                       view /vju z/ n názor, poh¾ad Many people have strong
  The food at the new restaurant was superb.                              views about smoking in public places.
supporter /sə pɔ təz/ n podporovate¾ The English cricket                vital / vaitl/ adj životne dôležitý The work she does is
  supporters are often referred to as ‚The Barmy Army‘.                   absolutely vital.
survival course /sə vaivəl kɔ s/ n kurz prežitia They                   wealth /welθ/ n bohatstvo The country‘s wealth comes
  were advised to take a survival course before setting off for their     from its oil.
  trek across Africa.                                                   western culture / westən k ltʃə/ n západná kultúra
systematic / sistə m tik/ adj systematický The student                    He took to western culture like a duck to water.
  took a systematic approach to solving the problem.                    wood /wυd/ n drevo Put some more wood on the fire.
take place /teik pleis/ v phr uskutoèni sa The exhibition               work sharing / w k ʃeəriŋ/ n rozdelenie práce
  took place in the Town Hall.                                            Our employer asked us to try work sharing – I do mornings
temple / tempəl/ n chrám, svätyòa He worshipped at temple                 and Karen does the afternoons.
  every day.                                                            works of art / w ks əv ɑ t/ n umelecké diela
theft /θeft/ n krádež Car theft is on the increase.                       The museum was full of paintings and many other works
thus /ð s/ conj v dôsledku èoho... Most of the evidence                   of art.
  was destroyed in the fire. Thus it would be almost impossible
  to prove him guilty.
to be in two minds /əm in tu maindz/ v phr váha ,
                                                                        MODULE 10 Conflict
  by nerozhodný I am in two minds as to whether or not I
                                                                        define /iz di faind/ v definova In my contract, the number
  should accept his dinner invitation.
                                                                         of hours I should work is not clearly defined.
to be let out /ə let aυt/ phr v prepusti Too many
                                                                        aggressive /ə resiv/ adj agresívny Jim‘s voice became
  people are let out of prison before serving their full sentence.
                                                                         aggressive and loud.
   45
airmen / eəmən/ n letec The British airmen pulled off                    copycat / kɒpik t/ adj skopírovaný, podobný tomu,
  an incredible rescue.                                                    èo už raz bolo Crime reports in newspapers often encourage
allergic /ə l d ik/ adj alergický I‘m allergic to penicillin               copycat crimes.
  – it makes me ill.                                                     cotton wool / kɒtn wυl/ n vata She put some disinfectant
anaesthesia / nəs θi ziə/ n anestézia Once the anaesthesia                 on a piece of cotton wool and dabbed it on her cheek.
  wore off, the pain was intolerable.                                    cross-fertilisation / krɒs f tilai zeiʃən/ n vzájomné
anti-war / nti wɔ / adj protivojnový On Saturday we                        ovplyvòovanie sa poznatkami z rôznych oblastí
  attended an anti-war demonstration.                                      The students like the cross-fertilisation of ideas from one discipline
apologize /ə pɒləd aiziŋ/ v ospravedlni sa I told him                      to another.
  to stop apologising – it wasn‘t his fault we had missed the bus.       dairy / deəri/ adj mlieèny Some people are allergic to dairy
are (generally) better off /ə betər ɒf/ v phr sú vo                        products.
  všeobecnosti na tom lepšie Children in the West are                    damned /d md/ adj prekliaty All the soldiers agreed
  generally better off than those in the developing countries.             they would be happy when the damned war was over.
assertive /ə s tiv/ adj asertívny The interview board                    denote /di nəυts/ v oznaèova This map symbol denotes
  decided that his assertive personality was just what the job             a church with a spire.
  needed.                                                                digital / did itl/ adj digitálny Mum and Dad have bought
attack /ə t ks/ n útok The number of attacks on old-age                    an HD digital TV.
  pensioners in their homes is growing.                                  dispute /di spju t/ n spor, debata The firm is involved
award /ə wɔ d/ n ocenenie She was given the Presidential                   in a legal dispute with a rival company.
  Award for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Teaching.              distorted /iz di stɔ tid/ adj znetvorený, pokrivený
bagpipe / b paip/ adj gajdy My granddad is Scottish                        Zack lay trapped in the car, his face distorted with pain.
  and loves listening to bagpipe music.                                  earplugs / iəpl z/ n štuple do uší Dad snores in bed
battalion /bə t ljən/ n iniciova , zaèa akciu The team                     so Mum always wears earplugs.
  bus was followed by a battalion of football supporters.                emigrate /iz emi reitiŋ/ v emigrova , vys ahova sa
battery / b təri/ n batéria You have to take the top off to                My cousin is emigrating to New Zealand as she prefers the standard
  change the batteries.                                                    of living over there.
beforehand /bi fɔ h nd/ adv v predstihu, skôr The police                 emperor / empərəz/ n vládca In the ancient world, there
  need to be briefed beforehand on how to deal with this sort              were few emperors with large empires to rule.
  of situation.                                                          enemy / enəmi/ v nepriate¾ She‘s a dangerous enemy to have.
blow off / bləυn ɒf/ phr v odfúknu When the solider                      entourage / ɒntυrɑ / n sprievod, sprievodné osoby
  stepped on the mine, both his legs were blown off.                       The president and his entourage flew to Texas in Air Force One.
body language / bɒdi l ŋ wid / n reè tela It was                         essay / esei/ n esej For his homework, Matthew had to write
  obvious from Luke‘s body language that he was nervous.                   an essay on George Bernard Shaw.
bottle up / bɒtlz p/ phr v skrýva pocity, nedáva                         evacuation /i v kju eiʃən/ n evakuácia The evacuation
  najavo You shouldn‘t bottle up your emotions and let them                of the building went very smoothly during the fire drill.
  fester – it‘s not good for you.                                        evidence / evidəns/ n dôkaz At present we have no
buddy / b di/ n kamaráti, priatelia neformálne We‘re                       evidence of life on other planets.
  good buddies, and have known each other since we were at school.       expenditure /ik spenditʃə/ n výdaj /peòazí/ The drug
calculator / k lkjəleitə/ n kalkulaèka The children were                   company‘s expenditure on research and development was
  taught how to use the constant function on a calculator.                 essential to its success.
call the tune / kɔ l ðə tju n/ v phr aha za nitky,                       explosion /ik spləυ ən/ n výbuch Several people were
  rozhodova There is an old saying: he who pays the piper                  injured in a bomb explosion.
  calls the tune.                                                        fade away / feidid/ v zmiznú , strati sa, vyprchnú
ceremony / serəməni/ n obrad At the wedding ceremony,                      He‘d washed his jeans so many times, the colour had nearly
  the bride and groom exchanged vows.                                      faded away.
clash /kl ʃ/ n zrážka, krátky boj We‘ve had reports of                   false claim / fɔ ls kleimz/ n falošné vyhlásenie
  armed clashes along the border.                                          The court ruled that the manufacturers had been making false
cliff /klif/ n útes As I walked along the beach I could see the cliffs     claims about their ‚wonderful miracle cure‘.
  towering above me.                                                     fence /fens/ n plot The garden fence had blown down
compensation / kɒmpən seiʃən/ n vyrovnanie,                                during the storm.
  kompenzácia Melanie was paid compensation for injuries                 feud /fju d/ n spor, svár There was a bitter feud over territory.
  at work which left her disabled.                                       fire brigades / faiə bri eidz/ n požiarny zbor When fire
confidently / kɒnfidəntli/ adv sebaisto She walked                         broke out at the oil refinery, all the fire brigades in the area were
  confidently into the interview room.                                      sent out.
                                                                                                                                        46
flee /fled/ v utiec , uniknú The Great Train Robbers fled             in a heartbeat / hɑ tbi t/ n ve¾mi rýchlo Things can
  the country to avoid being captured by the police.                   change in a heartbeat.
fling back /fl ŋ/ phr v hodi spä The fielder flung back                in private /in praivət/ prep phr v súkromí The police
  the ball as fast as he could.                                        arrived at his place of work and asked to speak to him in private.
friction / frikʃən/ n nezhoda Having my mother living                incident / insidənt/ n incident A spokesman said it was
  with us causes friction at home.                                     an isolated incident.
fume /fju mz/ v sopti hnevom I was fuming when I found               injury / ind əri/ n poranenie She was taken to hospital
  out what he‘d done!                                                  with serious head injuries.
gang / ŋ/ n gang The two rival street gangs were fighting             instinctive /in stiŋktiv/ adj inštinktívny I felt myself to be
  a turf war.                                                          in danger and was overcome with an instinctive impulse to flee.
gap / p/ n medzera The neighbours‘ dog got in through                irritate / iriteit/ v rozèu¾ova It really irritates me when
  a gap in the hedge.                                                  he doesn‘t help around the house.
general / d enərəl/ n generál General Norman took                    jealousy / d eləsi/ n žiarlivos Polly felt a sharp pang of
  command today of the British troops in Northern Ireland.             jealousy when she saw Paul with Suzanne.
generate / d enəreitid/ v vytvára , vznika The Red                   kick up a fuss / kik p ə f s/ v phr nahlas sa s ažova
  Nose Day appeal generated millions of pounds from the public.        The service in the café was atrocious, but Liz didn‘t want to kick up a fuss.
get at sb /iz etiŋ t/ phr v kritizova niekoho Mum                    local consumer protection office / ləυkəl kən sju mə
  is always getting at me for one reason or another – I can‘t do       prə tekʃən ɒfis/ n miestny úrad na ochranu
  anything right!                                                      spotrebite¾a The local consumer protection office advised me
get on sb´s nerves / etiŋ ɒn mai n vz/ v phr ís na                     to take the shop to the small claims court.
  nervy The constant racket of the dog barking was getting on        local council / ləυkəl kaυnsəl/ n miestna
  my nerves.                                                           samospráva, mestská rada The local council decided
get to sb / ets tə, tυ/ phr v hneva What gets to me is                 that they would have to cut back on the number of libraries.
  his complete disregard for other people‘s feelings.                long-standing / lɒŋ st ndiŋ/ adj dlhotrvajúci,
get your own back / et jər əυn b k/ phr urobi                          dlhodobý Robert was a long-standing member of the committee
  naschvál, postavi si hlavu Their cat was forever in my               and was held in great respect.
  garden so I got my own back and bought a dog!                      machine gun /mə ʃi n n/ n automatická zbraò Then
give in / iv in/ phr v vzda sa, rezignova Eventually                   came the sound of men shouting and a burst of machine-gun fire.
  I gave in and accepted the job on their terms.                     manufacturers / m njυ f ktʃərəz/ n ve¾kovýrobcovia
glance / lɑ ns/ v hodi poh¾ad The man glanced nervously                The manufacturers ordered an immediate recall of all their cars
  at his watch, as if he was late.                                     as soon as the fault came to light.
gnarled /nɑ ld/ adj vetrom oš¾ahaný, drsný                           march /wə mɑ tʃt/ v pochodova The soldiers were
  Lightning had struck the gnarled old tree and felled it.             marched around the barracks.
go off with / əυiŋ ɒf wið, wiθ/ phr v vzia si bez                    mediation / mi di eiʃən/ n meditácia Mediation in
  povolenia I‘m fed up with my sister going off with my iPod – she     the dispute was needed between the management of the company
  should buy her own!                                                  and its workers.
greed / ri d/ n nenásytnos , pažravos Eating another                 millionaire / miljə neə/ n milionár The National Lottery
  pudding is just pure greed.                                          has creased a lot more millionaires.
hardly ever / hɑ dli evə/ adv ve¾mi zriedka, takmer                  mission / miʃən/ n výprava, misia He was sent on over
  nikdy We hardly ever get time to go to the cinema these days.        200 missions before being killed in action.
hatred / heitrid/ n nenávis A look of pure hatred flashed             monk /m ŋk/ n mních The monk was killed along with the rest
  across her face.                                                     of the villagers.
headphones / hedfəυnz/ n slúchadlá Shani bought                      motive / məυtivz/ n motív, dôvod His motives for asking
  some new headphones for her iPod.                                    me to dinner were not exactly clear.
heel /hi l/ n podpätok Ella wore black boots with high stiletto      mucked in / m kt in/ phr v podeli sa, aha to spolu
  heels.                                                               Everybody mucked in and did their bit to make sure the play
chilly / tʃili/ adj chladný, mrazivý It was a chilly November          opened on time.
  morning.                                                           negotiation /ni əυʃi eiʃən/ n rokovanie Negotiations
choir /kwaiə/ n zbor He joined a church choir at the age               with the company had reached a crucial stage.
  of eight.                                                          nightmare / naitmeə/ n noèná mora Years after the accident
identification /ai dentifi keiʃən/ n identifikácia Do                  I still have nightmares about it.
  you have any identification? We need proof of who you are.          noise pollution / nɔiz pə lu ʃən/ n zneèistenie hlukom,
immigrants / imi rənts/ n pris ahovalci The government                 hluènos The concert in the park generated several complaints
  has no idea how many immigrants are in the country.                  of noise pollution from nearby houses.
   47
no-man‘s-land / nəυ m nz l nd/ n územie nikoho                          sit back / sit b k/ phr v sadnú si Sit back and relax
  Here indeed was a man who could cross the no-man‘s land                 – I‘ll open a bottle of wine.
  between art and science.                                              soldiers / səυld əz/ n vojaci The soldiers have just returned
offending /ə fendiŋ/ adj otravný I decided to have the offending          from the battlefield.
  tooth removed.                                                        spare /speəd/ v ušetri Why his life was spared, no one knows.
patient / peiʃənt/ n pacient My daughter is a patient in                speedometer /spi dɒmitə, spi / n tachometer I thought
  the maternity ward – she‘s expecting twins!                             I was within the speed limit but the police claimed the speedometer
peasant / pezənt/ n sedliak, ro¾ník Most villagers are                    in my car was faulty.
  peasant farmers.                                                      squat /skwɒt/ v drepnú si, urobi drep He squatted
pedals / pedlz/ n pedále The second-hand bicycle was in                   down beside the little girl.
  good condition expect for the pedals, which needed replacing.         stagger / st əd/ v potáca sa I staggered and nearly fell
petty / peti/ adj triviálny The couple were always having                 on the icy pavement.
  petty squabbles, and finally they split up.                            stick up / st k p/ phr v postavi , vztýèi As soon as we
piper / paipə/ n ten, kto hrá na gajdy At the Highland                    reached the peak, we stuck up a flag to show we‘d succeeded.
  Games, pipers play the bagpipes.                                      stroll over / strəυld əυvə/ phr v prejs sa I didn‘t know
plaza / plɑ zə/ n námestie The plaza was crowded with people.             him at all, but he strolled over casually and asked me for a lift
portable / pɔ təbəl/ adj prenosný Gran likes to listen to                 home!
  her portable radio when she‘s outside gardening.                      take (them) to court / teik tə kɔ t/ v phr zažalova
pride /praid/ n pýcha He wore his medals with pride.                      niekoho The car had never worked properly, but he had to
procedure /prə si d ə/ n postup What‘s the procedure                      take the company to court before he could get his money back.
  for applying for a visa?                                              take action /tυk kʃən/ v phr podniknú nieèo,
proof /pru fs/ n dôkaz The editor checked through the proofs              urobi nieèo I decided to take action when my son hadn‘t
  of the novel, looking for spelling mistakes..                           cleaned his room for six days!
propose /prə pəυz/ v navrhnú We oppose the changes                      take further action / teik f ðər kʃən/ v phr pokraèova
  proposed by the local planning authorities, as they would lower         v èinnosti, procese, atï. The Head decided that to take
  house prices.                                                           further action would just make the situation worse.
pulled a muscle / pυld ə m səl/ v phr porani si sval                    talk (it) over / tɔ k əυvə/ phr v vydiskutova si,
  He was training for the hurdles when he pulled a muscle in              porozpráva sa When we talked it over we found that we
  his leg.                                                                were both in agreement.
put forward /pυt fɔ wəd/ phr v predostrie , predloži ,                  tanks /t ŋks/ n tanky The tanks rolled forward relentlessly,
  navrhnú They put forward a number of suggestions.                       firing on enemy positions.
quarrel / kwɒrəl/ n hádka I think they‘ve had a quarrel,                tell sb off / təυld ɒf/ phr v vynada niekomu Jack was
  and they‘re not speaking to one another.                                told off for running in the corridor at school.
rebel / rebəl/ n, adj rebel Anti-government rebels attacked             temper / tempə/ n povaha, charakter That temper of
  the town.                                                               hers will get her into trouble one of these days.
recalled /ri kɔ ld/ v vybavi si, pripomenú si The soldier               throughout /θru aυt/ prep po celom It is a large organisation
  recalled the incident and gave a report to his superiors.               with offices throughout the world.
reduce /ri dju s/ v zmenši , redukova The governor                      to be out of control /wəz aυt əv kən trəυl/ v phr by
  announced a new plan to reduce crime.                                   nezvládate¾ný The boy was expelled from school for
refund /ri f nd/ v vráti spä , refundova I took                           being completely out of control.
  the radio back, and they refunded my money.                           token / təυkən/ n prejav, znak, znamenie Please
resolution / rezə lu ʃən/ n rozhodnutie The unions and                    accept this gift as a small token of our appreciation.
  management have to bring the dispute to a swift resolution.           trench /trentʃ/ n priekopa Workers dug a trench for gas
rival / raivəl/ n rival, protivník This gives the company                 lines.
  a competitive advantage over its rivals.                              truce /tru s/ n prímerie They agreed to call a truce and
row /raυ/ n hádka Liz and Bev had a row six months ago                    end the fighting.
  and haven‘t spoken to each other since!                               trudge /tr d d/ v plahoèi sa, ís s námahou She
seldom / seldəm/ adv zriedka Karen had seldom seen                        trudged wearily up the hill to the shops.
  him so angry.                                                         turnout / t naυt/ n úèas /¾udí niekde/ The government
set the ball rolling / set ðə bɔ l rəυliŋ/ v phr rozprúdi                 were disappointed in the low turnout of 54 percent in the March
  The dinner was for charity, and we set the ball rolling by donating     elections.
  £1000.                                                                twist the truth / twist ðə tru θ/ v phr prekrúti
set up / set p/ phr v zaèa , založi They want to set up                   pravdu She always tries to twist the truth to serve her own
  their own import–export business.                                       ends!
                                                                   48
VIPs (very important persons) / vi ai pi z/ n
  dôležití ¾udia When we were told to expect to VIPs, little did
  we know that it would be the President and the first lady.
warfare / wɔ feə/ n boj, konflikt Computer-controlled
  warheads are one of the realities of modern warfare.
was fed up to the neck /wəz fed p tə ðə nek/ phr
  ma všetkého po krk Jack was fed up the neck with his
  job as a debt collector, and decided to chuck it in.
well-off / wel ɒf/ adj zabezpeèená finanène Children
  from well-off families usually go to public schools.
wheat /wi t/ n pšenica The body was found in a wheat
  field on the farm.
whisper / wispə/ v šepka You don‘t have to whisper,
  no one can hear us.
widen /həz waidnd/ v rozšíri sa, zväèši sa The gap
  has widened between rich and poor.
withdrawal /wið drɔ əl/ n stiahnutie, odchod
  armády, zbraní, ... After the withdrawal of UN forces, war
  broke out again.
zip /zip/ n zips The zip on my skirt had broken.

				
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