Media Law Outline Access to Information

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					                                  Syllabus

                 Law 343C.002
       Topics in Public Law: Freedom of
                  Expression
        --Mass Media and Freedom of
                  Expression
                   2010-2011
         The purpose of the course
         This course is intended to provide the students with an opportunity to
learn various questions regarding freedom of expression, especially focusing on
the freedom of expression of mass media. This course is ideal for students who
have learned the basic doctrines of constitutional law to apply its knowledge in
specific situations involving freedom of expression.
         The course will start with the examination of values of freedom of
expression and general theoretical framework, especially focusing whether the
mass media should be granted privileged status. The course will then examine
various content-based restrictions on speech, such as ban on disclosure of
national secret, ban on advocacy of illegal action, regulation of election speech,
restriction of other political expression, civil and criminal liability for defamation,
civil liability for invasion of privacy, regulation of offensive speech, ban on hate
speech, ban on pornography, ban on child-pornography, regulation of sexually
explicit expression, and regulation of commercial expression. Then, the course
will also examine the content-neutral restrictions on freedom of expression,
restriction on newsgathering, including protection of confidential sources. It will
also examine the right of access to the government information, including right of
access to the courtroom and the right of access to government-held information
under the Access to Information Act. The course will also examine the regulation
of broadcasting and new media, including the cable television, satellite television
and the Internet. Then, the students will face the question of social responsibility
of the mass media and the issue of right of access to the mass media.
         Throughout the course, the students are encouraged to analyze these
constitutional issues under the protection of freedom of expression of the Charter.
But the course will also examine various issues presented in other countries,
especially in the United Kingdom, the United States, or other European countries.

       Evaluation method:
       100% final examination.
                                     Outline

00Introduction

PART I: FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION IN GENERAL
01 Value of Free Speech
Irwin Toy Ltd. v. Quebec, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 927
R. v. Keegstra, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 697
Abrams v. U.S., ., 250 U.S. 616 (1919)
Whitney v. California, 274 U.S. 357 (1927)

02 Theoretical Framework
A. The Power to Restrict Freedom of Expression
Reference re Alberta Legislation, [1938] S.C.R. 100
Saumur v. Quebec, [1953] 2 S.C.R. 299
Switzman v. Elbling, [1957] S.C.R. 285
Mcneil v. Nova Scotia, [1978] 2 S.C.R. 662

B. What is expression and what is an infringement of freedom of expression?
Irwin Toys Ltd. v. Quebec, supra

C. Justification
R. v. Oak, [1986] 1 S.C.R. 103
Irwin Toy Ltd. v. Quebec, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 927
Thomson Newspapers Co. v. Canada, [1998] 1 S.C.R. 877
Landmark Communications, Inc. v. Virginia, 435 U.S. 829 (1978)

D. Application of the Charter
RWDSU v. Dolphin Delivery, [1986] 2 S.C.R. 573
Hill v. Church of Scientology of Toronto, [1995] 2 S.C.R. 1130

03 Prior Restraint
Little Sisters Book and Art Emporium v. Canada, [2000] 2 S.C.R. 1120
Dagenais v. Canadian Broadcasting Corp., [1994] 3 S.C.R. 835
Near v. Minnesota, 283 U.S. 697 (1931)
Pentagon Papers Case (New York Times Co. v. United States, 403 U.S. 713 (1971))

PART II: RESTRICTION BASED ON CONTENTS
04 National Security: The Ban on Publication of State Secret
The Official Secrets Act
R. v. Toronto Sun Publishing Ltd. (1979) 24 O.R. (2d) 621 (Prov. Ct.)

05 Public Security: Advocacy of Illegal Action
Boucher v. R., [1951] S.C.R. 265 (seditious libel)
R. v. Zundel, [1992] 2 S.C.R. 731
Reference re. ss. 193 and 195.1 of Criminal Code, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1123
Brandenburg v. Ohio, 395 U.S. 444 (1969)
06 Political Expression
Thomson Newspapers Co. v. Canada, [1998] 1 S.C.R. 877
R. v. Bryan [2007]
BCTF v. BC, [2009] B.C.J. No. 619 (gag law)
National Citizens’ Coalition v. AG 91984) 11 D.L.R. (4th) 481 (Alta Q.B.)
Somerville v. Canada (1996) 136 D.L.R. (4th) 205 (Alta C.A.)
Hogan v. Newfoundland (2000) 183 D.L. R. (4th) 225 (Nfld. C.A.)
Haig v. Canada, [1993] 2 S.C.R. 995
Mills v. Alabama, 384 U.S. 214 (1966)

07 Defamation
R. v. Lucas, [1998] 1 S.C.R. 439
Hill v. Church of Scientology of Toronto, [1995] 2 S.C.R. 1130
Neron v. Chambre des notaires du Quebec, [2004] 3 S.C.R. 95
Grant v. Torstar Corp. [2009]
Cusson v. Quan [2009]
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964)
Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc., 418 U.S. 323 (1974)

08 Invasion of Privacy and Infliction of Emotional Distress
Robbins v. Canadian Broadcasting Corp., (1957) 12 D.L.R. (2d) 35 (Que. S.C.)
Aubry v. Editions Vice-Versa Inc., [1998] – S.C.R. --
R. v. Thompson, (2001) 48 C.R. (5th) 267 (ban on identification of juvenile
complaint)
Smith v. Daily Mail Publishing Co., 443 U.S. 97 (1979)
Florida Star v. BJF, 491 U.S. 524 (1989)
Hustler Magazine, Inc. v. Falwell, 485 U.S. 46 (1988)

09 Pornography, Child Pornography, and Indecency
R. v. Butler, [1992] 1 S.C.R. 452
Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973)
Paris Adult Theatre v. Slaton, 413 U.S. 49 (1973)
R. v. Sharpe, [2001]
FCC v. Pacifica Foundation, 438 U.S. 726 (1978)

10 Hate Speech
R. v. Keegstra, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 697
Canada v. Taylor, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 892
Ross v. New Brunswick School District no. 15, [1996] 1 S.C.R. 825
R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul, , 505 U.S. 377 (1992)
Soldiers are murderer Case (BVerfGE 93, 266 - 312 I. Senate Soldiers-murderers
1 BvR 1476, 1980/91 and 102,221/92 10 October 1995)
Auschwitz lie Case (BVerfGE 90, 241-255 "Auschwitz lie" [Summary of issue
omitted] Decision of the First Senate in accordance with § 24 Federal
Constitutional Court Act - 1 BvR 23/94 - 13 April 1994)
11 Fair Trial
R. v. Vancouver, [1954] 3 D.L.R. (3d) 95 (Que. C.A.)
R. v. Kopyto, (1987) 62 O.R. (2d) 449 (C.A.)
Global Communications Ltd. v. Canada, (1984) 44 O.R. (2d) 609 (C.A.)
Dagenais v. Canadian Broadcasting Corp., [1994] 3 S.C.R. 835
A.G. v. Times Newspapers Ltd., [1973] 3 All E.R. 54 (H.L.)
R. v. Mentuck, [2001] 3 S.C.R. 442
Toronto Star Newspapers v. Ontario, [2005] 2 S.C.R. 188
Canadian Newspapers Co. v. Canada, [1988] 2 S.C.R. 122
Sheppard v. Maxwell, 384 U.S. 333 (1966)
Nebraska Press Association v. Stuart, 427 U.S. 539 (1976)

12 Advertisement and Commercial Expression
Quebec v. Kellogg’s Co, [1978] 2 S.C.R. 211
Irwin Toy Ltd. v. Quebec, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 927
Rocket v. Royal College of Dental Surgeons, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 232
RJR-McDonald v. Canada, [1995] 3 S.C.R. 199
Canada v. JTI-Macdonald Corp., [2007] – S.C.R. --
Ford v. Quebec, [1988] 2 S.C.R. 712
Devine v. Quebec, [1988] 2 S.C.R. 790
Central Hudson Gas & Electric Corp., v. Public Service Commission, 447 U.S. 557
(1980)

PART III: CONTENT NEUTRAL RESTRICTION ON SPEECH
13 Content-Neutral Restriction on Speech: Time, Place, & Manner Restriction
Ramsden v. Peterborough, [1993] 2 S.C.R. 1084
U.C.F.W. v. Kmart Canada, [1999] 2 S.C.R. 1083
Pepsi-Cola Canada beverages v. R.W.D.S.U., [2002] 1 S.C.R. 156
R. v. Guignard, [2002] 1 S.C.R. 472
Vann Niagara v. Oakville, [2003] 3 S.C.R. 158
Arkansas Educational Television Commission v. Forbes, 523 U.S. 666 (1998)

PART IV: NEWSGATHERING
14 The Right of Receive Information and the Right to Newsgathering
Little Sisters Book and Art Emporium v. Canada, [2000] 2 S.C.R. 1120
Luscher v. Deputy Minister of National Revenue, [1985] 1 F.C. 85 (C.A.)
International Fund for Animal Welfare Inc v. Canada, [1987] 1 F.C. 244 (T.D.)
Cohen v. Cowles Media Co., 501 U.S. 663 (1991)
Wilson v. Layne, 526 U.S. 603 (1999)

15 Restrictions on Newsgathering: Ban on Newsgathering, Subpeona, and Search
R. v. National Post, 2010 SCC 16
R. v. Rowbotham (No. 3), (1976) 2 C.R. 241 (Ont. G.S.P.)
R. v. Squires, (1992) 11 O.R. (3d) 385 (C.A.)
Moysa v. Alberta, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 1572
A.G. v. Mulholland, [1963] 2 Q.B. 477 (C.A.)
CBC v. Lessard. [1991] 3 S.C.R. 421
CBC v. Nova Scotia, [1991] 3 S.C.R. 459
Branzburg v. Hayes, 408 U.S. 665 (1972)
Zurcher v. Stanford Daily, 436 U.S. 547 (1978)

PART V: PUBLIC ACCESS TO GOVERNMENT INFORMATION
16 Public Access to Government Information and Mass Media
New Brunswick Broadcasting Co. v. Nova Scotia, [1993] 1 S.C.R. 319
Houchins v. KQED, Inc., 438 U.S. 1 (1978)

17 Public Access to Court
Nova Scotia v. MacIntyre, [1982] 1 S.C.R. 175
Canadian Newspapers Co. v. Canada, [1988] 2 S.C.R. 122
Edmonton Journal v. Alberta, [1989] 2 S.C.R. 1326
Canadian Broadcasting Corp. v. New Brunswick, [1996] 3 S.C.R. 480
Reference re s. 12(1) of Juvenile delinquents Act, (1983) 41 O.R. (2d) 113 (C.A.)
Re Southam and Queen, (1983) 41 O.R. (2d0 113 (C.A.)
Re Southam and Queen, (1986) 53 O.R. (2d) 663 (C.A.)
R. v. Pilarinos, (2001) 158 C.C.C. (3d) 1 (B.C.S.C.)
Southam v. Coulter, (1990) 75 O.R. (2d) 1 (C.A.)
Re Vancouver Sun, [2004] 2 S.C.R. 332
R. v. Rowbotham, (1976) 2 C.R. (3d) 241 (Ont. G.S.P.) (no photograph of persons)
R. v. Squires, (1992) 11 O.R. (3d) 385 (C.A.) (no photograph in the courtroom)
R. v. Pilarinos, (2001) 158 C.C.C. (3d) 1 (B.C.S.C.)(television)

18 Freedom of Information
Access to Information Act

PART VI: BROADCASTING, NEW MEDIA, INTERNET
19 Broadcasting
Broadcast Act
Reference re Radio Communications in Canada, [1932] A.C. 304 (P.C.)
C.F.R.B. v. Canada, [1973] 3 O.R. 819 (C.A.)
Capital Cities Communication Inc v. Canada, [1978] 2 S.C.R. 141
Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC, 395 U.S. 467 (1969)
Turner broadcasting System, Inc. v. FCC, 512 U.S. 622 (1994)(Turner I)

20 New Media and Internet
Dionne v. Quebec, [1978] 2 S.C.R. 191 (cable)
New Media Report
Reno v. ACLU, 521 U.S. 844 (1997)

PART VII: SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF MASS MEDIA
21 Social Responsibility of Mass Media and Right of Access
Gay Alliance Toward Equality v. Vancouver Sun, [1979] 2 S.C.R. 435
Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo, 418 U.S. 241 (1974)
CBS, Inc. v. FCC, 453 U.S. 367 (1981)

				
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