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									Floodplain Management
and Restoration in
Charlotte-Mecklenburg

     Dave Canaan
     Director – Water & Land Resources
Storm Water Management

       CHARLOTTE-MECKLENBURG
        STORM WATER SERVICES

       Mecklenburg County SWS
         FEMA streams (> 1 sq. mi. watershed)
         County areas (pipes, swales, ditches)
         5 of 6 towns (pipes, swales, ditches)
       City of Charlotte SWS
         Open systems (creeks & swales)
         Closed systems (culverts & pipes)
Background

 County Storm           Water
   Major Streams
    – FEMA or mapped streams/river
    – Greater than 1 square mile
      drainage area
    – County wide
   Minor System
    – Less than 1 square mile
      drainage area
 Background

 County Storm Water
   Partnerships ($1.8M)
    – City
        – NPDES Permit
        – BMP projects
    – Towns
        – NPDES Permit
        – Investigations, design and
          construction
Background
   Municipalities
    ($35M+/-)
     Minor System
       – Less than 1 square mile
         drainage area
       – Programs vary greatly
     Water Quality per CWA
County Vision

Priorities in
Mecklenburg County:

   A safe community
   A healthy community
   A livable community
   A prosperous community
   A well-governed community
Commitment at the Top

                “The Little Sugar Creek that the
"The County Commission herein findswatershed is
                one of the most severely that our
public policy of Mecklenburg County is polluted
                watersheds in North Carolina and
surface waters --- creeks, tributaries, ponds (NCDWQ
                natural resource to be protected as a
lakes --- are a Catawba River Basinwide Water Quality
source of natural beauty and recreation.
                Plan pp. 4-24 to 4-27).”


Further, that the use of our creeks, tributaries,
ponds and lakes as a stormwater disposal method
shall be secondary to the preservation of creeks,
tributaries, ponds and lakes.”
Multi-objective Floodplain Planning

   BOCC Adopted Initiatives;
     Floodplain Management Guidance Doc. (Dec 97)
     SWIM Initiative (Dec 99)
     Greenway Master Plan (1999)
     Flood Mitigation Plans (2003)
     All Hazards Plan (2005)
Charlotte-Mecklenburg



                 Sugar Creek
                         Little Sugar Creek
                               Hidden
                               Valley
Watersheds / Basins

   330± miles of FEMA streams

   32 watersheds

   All water in Mecklenburg
    County (except Catawba River)
    originates in Mecklenburg
    County
Mission
Floodplain Management strives to build a Livable
Community by:

    Reducing the potential for the loss of
     life and property due to flooding.

    Enhancing the natural and beneficial
     functions of the floodplain.
Floodplain Management
Goals & Objectives
Mitigation/Restoration
      (Correction)

 PROJECTS
      PAST
                           FUTURE

                     PRESERVATION
                         (Protection)

                      ORDINANCES
  County Storm Water Services
  Capital Program


Three Components:
 Flood Mitigation Program
 Water Quality Program
 Engineering Program
  (Stream
  Restoration/Repairs)
Floodplain Management Partners




  PARTNERSHIP
       S
Floodplain Management Elements

   Creek Maintenance
   Rainfall / Stream Gauges
   Flood Information and Notification System
   Floodplain Remapping
   Customer Service Requests
   Stream Restoration
   Flood Mitigation Planning
   Floodplain Buyout Program
Maintenance

   Storm Water Operations Division
       Blockage Removal
       Encroachments / Notices of Violation
       Vegetation Management
       Acquired parcel maintenance
Floodplain Management Elements

   Creek Maintenance
   Rainfall / Stream Gauges
   Flood Information and Notification System
   Floodplain Remapping
   Customer Service Requests
   Stream Restoration
   Flood Mitigation Planning
   Floodplain Buyout Program
Rainfall / Stream Gauges



                           PARTNER
                           United States
                             Geologic
                              Survey
                             (USGS)
Floodplain Management Elements

   Creek Maintenance
   Rainfall / Stream Gauges
   Flood Information and Notification System
   Floodplain Remapping
   Customer Service Requests
   Stream Restoration
   Flood Mitigation Planning
   Floodplain Buyout Program
Early Warning System

                                                                      Data filing,
                          Data collection
                                                                    displaying, &
                          & transmission
                                                                    disseminating
                            subsystem
                                                                      subsystem


    Flood response plan



                                       Response
                                      and recovery




Warning



    Warning
 dissemination
   subsystem                                              Forecasting
                                                          subsystem
                                    Threat-recognition   (c)1999, David Ford Consulting Engineers
                                        subsystem
Early Warning System
Floodplain Management Elements

   Creek Maintenance
   Rainfall / Stream Gauges
   Flood Information and Notification System
   Floodplain Remapping
   Customer Service Requests
   Stream Restoration
   Flood Mitigation Planning
   Floodplain Buyout Program
Re-Mapping - 1999
                    1975: Flood Insurance Rate
                    Maps (FIRM)
                    Community Rating System
                    (insurance discounts)
                    1999-2001:
Re-Mapping - 1999
Re-Mapping
              STUDY
             RESULTS


              Existing
             Conditions
              +2.0 feet


               Future
             Conditions
              +4.6 feet
Floodplain Management Elements

   Creek Maintenance
   Rainfall / Stream Gauges
   Flood Information and Notification System
   Floodplain Remapping
   Customer Service Requests
   Stream Restoration
   Flood Mitigation Planning
   Floodplain Buyout Program
 Service Requests

   Flooding
    Erosion
  Blockages
Property Damage


              Irwin Creek at I-77
Floodplain Management Elements

   Creek Maintenance
   Rainfall / Stream Gauges
   Flood Information and Notification System
   Floodplain Remapping
   Customer Service Requests
   Stream Restoration
   Flood Mitigation Planning
   Floodplain Buyout Program
History Overview

   1890’s - 1920’s: Catawba River dams
     Duke Energy
   1910’s - 1930’s: creek dredging, widening
     drainage, irrigation, agricultural districts
   1950’s: chemical deodorizers
     Meck County Dept. of Environmental Protection
   1960’s - 1995: riprap
     engineering department
   1995 - present: soil bioengineering
     Storm Water Services
1890’s - 1920’s

   Catawba River dams - Duke Energy
     Series of 11 dams/reservoirs
     drinking water, hydro power, flood control, navigation
     created setbacks & buffers from water bodies
     swimming, fishing & recreation
1910’s - 1930’s

   US Army Corps of Engineers
     Creating navigable waters of the state & U.S.




 “Dredge on
Briar Creek”
Dredge, Widen, Straighten


   Agricultural Districts
     better field drainage
     eliminated “swamps” &
      “marshes”
     no more groundwater recharge


       “Drainage Work in
      Mecklenburg County”
            circa 1911
    Dredge, Widen, Straighten
   Sewer Department
     centralized collection & treatment, first WWTP, 1923




                           Old creek alignment
                           for Little Sugar Creek




                  New & “improved” alignment
                  for Little Sugar Creek
   Dredge, Widen, Straighten


      Federal Funding                  $16,076.70
        North Carolina Emergency
         Relief Administration, 1936
 “Drainage of McDowell Creek”
        “Clearing Little Sugar         $3,877.30
        Creek & tributaries”
                                           $95,406.47
“Cleaning out Long Creek”
        “Clear & ditch Toby Creek”             $2,627.70
 “Briar Creek drainage”
                                         $3,447.10
1950’s

   “Chemical deodorizers
    should take of it!”
     Meck County Dept. of
      Environmental Protection



County streams had little
aquatic life, minimal
vegetative cover and strong
odors.
1960’s - 1995

   Riprap - King of the Queen City!
     Worked for just about any engineering “solution”
     Fixes the stream horizontally
     Environmental consequences of “flush & gush” weren’t
      understood
     Environmental movement was in its infancy
     1972 - Clean Water Act
  Bio Engineering
Irwin Creek (1998)
Natural Channel Design

Hydraulic response ….. altered dimension




                              A narrower
                              thalweg forms in
                              Briar Creek TWO
                              months after
                              placing SIX
                              alternating rock
 Briar Creek, August 12, 2000 vanes (2000).
Floodplain Management Elements

   Creek Maintenance
   Rainfall / Stream Gauges
   Flood Information and Notification System
   Floodplain Remapping
   Customer Service Requests
   Stream Restoration
   Flood Mitigation Planning
   Floodplain Buyout Program
    Flood Mitigation Purpose

   Community Health and Safety
    Focus Area
   Reduce Injury
    Flood Mitigation
    Planning History
   1997 Floodplain
    Management Guidance
    Document
   1999 Adopted original
    Watershed Plans
   2000 Initiate Mitigation
    (Buyout) Program
   2004 Adopted updated
    Watershed Plans
   2004 Expanded Flood
    Mitigation Capital Program
Floodplain Management Elements

   Creek Maintenance
   Rainfall / Stream Gauges
   Flood Information and Notification System
   Floodplain Remapping
   Customer Service Requests
   Stream Restoration
   Flood Mitigation Planning
   Floodplain Buyout Program
Problem Definition

           Doral Apartments
      Briar Creek July 22-24, 1997
Problem Definition

           Myers Park Manor
      Briar Creek July 22-24, 1997
    Flood Mitigation
    Accomplishments
Years 2000 - 2005
 135 buildings removed from the
  floodplain (90% participate)
 80 acres of deeded public open
  space
 Buyout Funding (Awarded)
     $14.1M - Federal Funds
     $1.7M - State Funds
     $8.9M - Local Storm Water Funds

   35 additional buildings &
    40 acres of open space within the
    floodplain through efforts with Real
    Estate Services
Buyout Program

   Issues
     Voluntary = No Condemnation
     Fair Market Value
     Prioritizing thru Mitigation Plans
     Demolition vs. Relocation
     Owners vs. Renters
     Hazardous Materials
     Vacant Land & What to Do With It
Buyout Area


1938                                        Myers
                                             Park
                           Park
                                  Myers Manor
                          Road
1951                     Shopping
                                   Park
                                  Manor
              Future Park Center
                                Future Myers
          Road Shopping
                                Park Manor
          Center (1956)
1956             Future Park
                                  (1951)

                Road Shopping
                Center (1956)

                                   Brandywine Road
Buyout Area


1995
1997

2003
Buyout Area




                                AFTER


                   High Water
BEFORE - July 97




  BEFORE
  AFTER
 Buyout Area

 Hidden Valley - Step 1
Property Acquisition
  (1) Fee Title
  (2) Deed Restriction
  (3) Voluntary
  (4) No Condemnation
 Buyout Area

 Hidden Valley - Step 2
Structure Demolition
  (1) Relocation
  (2) Habitat for Humanity
  (3) Fire Dept. Training
  (4) SWAT Police Training
 Buyout Area

 Hidden Valley - Step 3
Environmental Restoration
  (1) Environmental
  (2) Water-Oriented
  (3) Open Space / Re-Forested
  (4) Greenway / Recreational
Buyout Area

Hidden Valley Eco-Restoration Wetland
   $1± million acquisition cost
   $1.2± million construction cost
   $940,000 CWMTF grant
   1½ sq. mile watershed
   17 homes purchased & razed
   greenway planned
   additional vacant land purchases
   additional funds from Wetlands Restoration Program
THANK YOU

								
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