What is a disease?
Abnormal condition of an organism’s
cells, body systems, or processes.
Evidence: specific symptoms and signs
They cause an immune response in
– This is the body’s attempt to rid itself of the
disease and stay healthy.
How do diseases differ?
The causes can be different
Pathogens cause some diseases.
– Biological causes
– Often called microbes (microscopic)
– Protists, bacteria, or viruses
– Microbes can be:
• carried by mosquitoes, flies, pigs, or other animals
– Transmitted to humans
• Found in water, soil, and sneezes
Why aren’t we sick all the time?
– We will discuss that later
– Inherited conditions - related to chromosomes
Biochemical or environmental factors
– Second hand smoke
– Air pollution
– Problems or failure in normal functioning of an
organ or organ system
Body’s defense systems
Preventing microbes from entering the body -
first lines of defense
– Hairs lining mucus membranes
– Acids in the stomach
White blood cells are second line of defense
Third line of defense: lymphocytes and
leukocytes - white blood cells
Antibodies - immunities
– natural or by vaccination
Managing Non Pathogenic
Repair the damaged system
– Remove causative behaviors
Meningitis Traveler’s diseases
Rabies Black death
Tetanus Chicken pox
Whooping cough Measles
Non communicable diseases
Restless Leg Syndrome
What are the differences?
Think about the causes.
Which diseases can be transmitted from
person to person?
Which can be treated (or prevented)
Which will go away? Which are likely to
continue for the remainder of the
All over the world people of all ages are
exposed to diseases.
You are a medical researcher.
– Your specific role as a researcher is to research
and present information about health issues of
• FOCUS ON COMMUNICATING TO CHILDREN!!
– You are responsible to research information on
your specific assigned disease.
After you have collected & documented
information, you will design a brochure about
– You will present your findings to the class.
– In “uniform.”
The brochure will then be made available to
– To promote understanding of diseases
– Understand their means of transmission.
Research to conduct
What is the nature of the disease? Is it
communicable or non-communicable?
What are 3 interesting statistics about
What causes the disease?
What body system does it impact?
What are the signs & symptoms of the
How do you treat the disease?
Is it contagious?
Is it curable? If so what are possible
How do you prevent the disease from
spreading to others?
Are there traveler’s advisories about this
disease (posted by the CDC)?
Rough draft of research
Typed answers to the questions will be
submitted by March 24.
References will be submitted with the
– MLA format on note cards (4 X 6)
Format of finished brochure
Your unique and creative design
Your brochure will be printed on both
sides of an 8 1/2” by 11” piece of paper
folded into thirds.
List of at least 3 references in MLA
Final brochure (fully colored) is due by
Note taking sheet for your classmates.
Presentations: dates are to be
Dani: Influenza Audrey: Allergies
Kellie: Asthma Minjun: Whooping
Aidan: Meningitis Cough
Leah: Multiple Sclerosis David: Osteoarthritis
Rachel: Rabies Justin: Tuberculosis
Jacqueline: Diabetes Yeji: Restless Leg
Liz: Tetanus Syndrome
Maya: Epilepsy Caroline:Traveler’s
disease (for your country)
Emily: Black death
Nicole: Chicken pox
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, 2/22/2008,
Jones, Paul. 3rd December, 2001, 2/22/2008. <http://www.mult-
The Nemours Foundation. 2/22/2008,
New York State Department of Health, 2/22/2008,
Sanofi Pasteur Inc. 15-Mar-2007, 2/22/2008
2007, Arthritis Foundation, 2/22/2008, <http://www.arthritis.org/disease-