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DISEASES: Mrs. Snyder March, 2009 What is a disease? Abnormal condition of an organism’s cells, body systems, or processes. Evidence: specific symptoms and signs They cause an immune response in complex organisms – This is the body’s attempt to rid itself of the disease and stay healthy. How do diseases differ? The causes can be different Pathogens cause some diseases. – Biological causes – Often called microbes (microscopic) – Protists, bacteria, or viruses – Microbes can be: • carried by mosquitoes, flies, pigs, or other animals – Transmitted to humans • Found in water, soil, and sneezes Why aren’t we sick all the time? – We will discuss that later Other causes Genetics – Inherited conditions - related to chromosomes Biochemical or environmental factors – Second hand smoke – Air pollution Individual organism – Problems or failure in normal functioning of an organ or organ system Body’s defense systems Preventing microbes from entering the body - first lines of defense – Hairs lining mucus membranes – Skin – Acids in the stomach White blood cells are second line of defense Third line of defense: lymphocytes and leukocytes - white blood cells Antibodies - immunities – natural or by vaccination Managing Non Pathogenic Diseases Repair the damaged system – Medicines – Surgery – Combination Behavioral changes – Remove causative behaviors Communicable Diseases Influenza Tuberculosis Meningitis Traveler’s diseases Rabies Black death Tetanus Chicken pox Polio STD’S Whooping cough Measles Shingles Mumps Non communicable diseases Asthma Multiple Sclerosis Diabetes Epilepsy Allergies Osteoarthritis Restless Leg Syndrome What are the differences? Think about the causes. Which diseases can be transmitted from person to person? Which can be treated (or prevented) with medicines? Which will go away? Which are likely to continue for the remainder of the individual’s life? Your task All over the world people of all ages are exposed to diseases. You are a medical researcher. – Your specific role as a researcher is to research and present information about health issues of your disease. • FOCUS ON COMMUNICATING TO CHILDREN!! – You are responsible to research information on your specific assigned disease. Brochure After you have collected & documented information, you will design a brochure about the disease – You will present your findings to the class. – In “uniform.” The brochure will then be made available to younger students – To promote understanding of diseases – Understand their means of transmission. Research to conduct What is the nature of the disease? Is it communicable or non-communicable? What are 3 interesting statistics about the disease? What causes the disease? What body system does it impact? What are the signs & symptoms of the disease? Continued How do you treat the disease? Is it contagious? Is it curable? If so what are possible cures? How do you prevent the disease from spreading to others? Are there traveler’s advisories about this disease (posted by the CDC)? Rough draft of research Typed answers to the questions will be submitted by March 24. References will be submitted with the rough draft. – MLA format on note cards (4 X 6) Format of finished brochure Your unique and creative design Your brochure will be printed on both sides of an 8 1/2” by 11” piece of paper folded into thirds. List of at least 3 references in MLA format. Deadlines Final brochure (fully colored) is due by March 31. Typed references Note taking sheet for your classmates. Presentations: dates are to be determined. Assigned Diseases Dani: Influenza Audrey: Allergies Kellie: Asthma Minjun: Whooping Aidan: Meningitis Cough Leah: Multiple Sclerosis David: Osteoarthritis Rachel: Rabies Justin: Tuberculosis Jacqueline: Diabetes Yeji: Restless Leg Liz: Tetanus Syndrome Maya: Epilepsy Caroline:Traveler’s disease (for your country) Joe: Polio Emily: Black death Nicole: Chicken pox References National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, 2/22/2008, <http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/diagnosis/index.htm> Jones, Paul. 3rd December, 2001, 2/22/2008. <http://www.mult- sclerosis.org/explainingms.html> The Nemours Foundation. 2/22/2008, <http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/skin/chicken_pox.html> New York State Department of Health, 2/22/2008, <http://www.health.state.ny.us/diseases/communicable/> Sanofi Pasteur Inc. 15-Mar-2007, 2/22/2008 s<http://www.vaccineplace.com/?fa=learn> 2007, Arthritis Foundation, 2/22/2008, <http://www.arthritis.org/disease- center.php?disease_id=32>.
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