The Heritage of Physical Education_ Sport_ and Fitness in the by wanghonghx


									   Introduction to Physical
 Education, Fitness, and Sport

            Chapter 2

The Heritage of Physical Education,
  Sport, and Fitness in the United
(500 – 300 BCE)
                            Roman Empire
                           (300 BCE – 476 CE)


 The Greek influence
 Male dominated society with only men having
  access to education.
    Physical prowess was much sought after.

        Games were key part of Greek life.
    Physical training and sport also prepared
     military for defense against outside intruders.
 Sparta (a military dominated city-state),
  exemplified the use of stringent selection of
  children for subsequent physical training.      3
 The Roman influence
 Its military training was critical to conquering
  other civilizations.
    Obedience, discipline, & physical prowess
     were key goals of military training.
      Its sporting events mirrored what we see
       today: Entertainment, large venues,
    Women were less marginalized.
 The empire’s demise also lessened the perceived
  importance of Sport and fitness .                  4
      The Birth of a Profession - 1885

 William G. Anderson noted the lack of support
  (i.e., preparation programs literature) for
  “gymnastics teachers.”

 Organized the first ever professional meeting,
  that spawned the Assoc. for the Advancement
  of Physical Education.

 The empire’s demise also lessened the perceived
  importance of Sport and fitness .
     The pre-1885 Sport & fitness scene
Some sample marquee developments: (see also Box 2.1)
 1820 - First competitive Football game.
 1825 - First Physical Education teacher: C. Beck
 1837 - Catherine Beecher > Western Female Inst.
 1839 - First teacher training program.
 1848 - “Turnverein” club (German) formed.
 1851 - First YMCA in America.
 1859 - First intercollegiate Baseball game
    The pre-1885 Sport & fitness Context

 A young and conservative nation.
 Strong Puritan values prohibiting play & exercise.

 1879 - Dudley Sargent, Assist. Prof. @ Harvard.

 Mid 1800s: Exercise & fitness become
  valued & commonly accepted . . .
  Yet Sport emerges later!

 Sport played mostly in Colleges – Student driven.
     Context for an emerging Profession

 Declining opposition to sport & exercise.
 Large-scale immigration to the new world.
 Industrialization.
 Urbanization.
 Transportation and communication.
 Education – Free universal education for ALL.
 Intellectual climate (e.g., Darwin, Freud, Marx).
           Battle of the “Systems”

 Multiple approaches to formal Gymnastics
  hailed from Europe (e.g., Germany & Sweden).
      European climate: Nationalism & military

      “Faculty Psychology”: Perceived cognitive
       benefits of exercise.

 1889: Boston Conference >> Focus: Purposes
  of Physical Education and how to meet these.
    Emergence of Organized Sport (late 1800’s)
 Post-Civil War period: Sport games gradually
  become standardized (i.e., institutionalized) . . .
  They “come of age.”
 Two-way influence between European & USA
  in the emergence of different sports.
 Women played key role in Sport’s emergence
  in the USA (e.g., Basketball and Volleyball).
 1896: First Modern Olympic Games:
  P. de Coubertin proposes Olympism philosophy.
           Sport on College Campuses

 Rapid rise in men’s college sport (fr. 1850 to 1900).
 Initially, mostly student driven (despite
  frequent opposition from faculty and adm.)

 As sport became more central, abuses increased
  which made faculty support and oversight
 1896: First Modern Olympic Games:
  P. de Coubertin proposes Olympism philosophy.
       Roots of abuse in College Sport
 “Win at all cost” mentality
 Absence of any sense of honor, fair play,
  and respect for rules.

 Abuse occurred relative to eligibility and
  athlete treatment.

 Examples: Playing for multiple colleges, getting
  paid to play.
                     NEEDED . . . FACULTY OVERSIGHT
       Faculty oversight of College Sport

 Emergence of Athletic Conferences (e.g., Western Conference).

 Increased institutional control over college sport.

 Rules were made for eligibility, transfer of
  students, hiring and retaining coaches, etc.

 Women’s college sport was overseen from the
  start, thus, experiencing fewer abuses
    (e.g., Blanche Trilling forms Athl. Conf. of American College
    Women).                                                     13
          The New Physical Education
 1890s: Physical Education recognized as
  curricular field for schools.
 Thomas Wood argues Physical Education’s role
  toward complete education.
 New agenda heavily promoted by:

T. Wood     R. Cassidy   L. Gulick   C. Hetherington
   Physical Education . . .The Profession
                         (1900 – 1920)

 Embrace of other movements:
     Dance, Playgrounds, Camping, College Intramurals, &

 Emergence of a Sport culture.

 Physical Education is associated w. Education
  rather than Medicine.

 1904: American Academy of Physical Education.
    Physical Education: The Golden Age
                             (Post-World War I)

 An emerging middle class, USA becomes
  an international power, a strong economy.

 Interest in Sport grows rapidly (Radio and
   transportation aid in its spread).

 Continued discrimination against African-
  Americans results in formation of separate
    Physical Education: The Golden Age
                     (Post-World War I)

Which is it? . . .

 “OF the Physical”         “THROUGH the Physical”
                           (represents the “New Physical Education”)

    C.H. McCloy                           J.F. Williams
  Development of                      Contribute to
 the body for health                  mental, social,
       & skill                        and emotional
   Physical Education: The Golden Age
                   (Post-World War I) (cont’d.)

  Second-generation leaders
  (“through the Physical”)
        Jesse Fearing Williams (Teachers College)
        Jay B. Nash (NYU)

        Charles H. McCloy

The ”OF” vs. “THROUGH” continues even today.
   The Science of Physical Education…
             Beginnings (1920’s)
1924: The first doctoral programs are

1930: Research Quarterly’s first issue

  Increased focus on Research is essential to
ensuring legitimacy in Universities & Colleges.
    Access and Equity . . . Not such a
              Golden Age
REMEMBER:        Women not allowed to vote . . .

Pioneer women in Physical Education:
   Delphine Hanna
   Ethel Perrin
   Jessie Bancroft
   Amy Morris Homans
   Elizabeth Burchenal
   Blanche Trilling

        Access and Equity . . . Not such a
                  Golden Age
REMEMBER:                     African-Americans lack full
constitutional rights . . .

Colleges that accepted black students:
      Springfield College
      Oberlin College
      Sargent School for Women

       Consolidation & Specialization
                      (1930 – present)

 Cultural & Global Context (1930 – 1940):
1. 1929 - Wall Street collapse w. the Great

2. Changes in economic and social systems:
    1935-Social Security Act
    1935-Wagner Act
    Work Progress Administration (WPA)
    Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC))
    National Youth Administration (NYA)
              Consolidation & Specialization
                        (1930 – present)

  Cultural & Global Context (1930 – 1940):

3. Effects of World War I, Russian Revolution, and the
   Great Depression contribute to rise of Germany’s and
   Italy’s quest for expansion and influence . . .
   World War II (1939-1945).

4. Automobile, radio (and now TV) also influence the
   evolution of Sport, Fitness and Physical Education.

    Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education -
              The Depression Years
 Significant cutbacks in funding for Sport.

 Spectatorship drops, while participation increases. (Softball)

 Participation more democratized.

 Federal & private programs boost participation (i.e.,
    building of facilities and programs targeting youth –
    Little League Baseball).
   Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education -
             The Depression Years
 APEA’s membership actually increases throughout

 NEA institutes Physical Education Teacher Education
   program evaluation.

 AAHPE becomes department in NEA.

 1938: The Physical Education Curriculum (3-6 week
   block plan format).

   Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education -
              World War II Years
 WW II shifts focus back to Physical Fitness, including
    in school Physical Education programs.

 War Training camps included extensive sport,
    fitness and recreation facilities and programs.

 War Years precipitated the research specialization in
    Physical Education that would explode in the 1960s as
    the Kinesiology discipline movement.

 Emergence of Adapted Physical Education.
   Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education -
           Post-World War II Years
 Cultural & societal shifts:
    > Birth of “suburbs”
    > Higher education enrollment soars
    > The Baby Boom

 Expansion of Sport through the growth of
   spectator sports:
    >   Growth in the number of teams in prof. sport.
    >   Golf becomes a sport for the general public.
    >   Olympics return in 1948 in London
    >   Growth in Collegiate Sports, w. increased media
        coverage .                                      27
  Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education -
       Post-World War II Years (cont’d.)
 School Physical Education in the post-
   war years:
    > Sports and games become more dominant.
    > Emergence of “lifetime sports” in the curriculum.
    > BUT . . . .

 1954:
    > JOPER: Minimum Muscular Fitness Tests in
      School Children” (Kraus & Hirschland, 1954).
    > President’s Council on Youth Fitness formed (1958).
    > Physical fitness focus renewed in school programs.
               Mid 1950’s and on

 More social and cultural shifts:
    > Generational clashes in the 50’s and 60’s.

    > 1954 - “Brown v. Board of Education”.

    > 1956 - Civil Rights movement – Rosa Parks.

    > 1957 - Sputnik launch in USSR.

 Influence on Sport, Fitness and Physical Education?
                Mid 1950’s and on

 More social and cultural shifts:
    > 1962 - The Silent Spring (Carlson) (Adv. Educ.)

    > 1965 - Consumer movement – Ralph Nader.

    > 1972 - Title IX: Equal access to sport for women.

    > 1975 – PL 94-142 (rights of people w. disabilities).

    Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education
          from the mid 1950’s and on
 Explosion of Women’s sport.

 Emergence of outdoor / wilderness sports.

 Racial integration in sports at all levels.

 Youth sports expand in both number of sports
   and participants.
  Fitness Renaissance and the Aerobics Era

 Fitness becomes “fashionable” in the 60’s and
  70’s . . . The thing to do .

 Private sector grabs on to it.
 Kenneth Cooper publishes “Aerobics” and
   forms the Cooper Aerobics Institute (
 Increasing scientific support for “Adopt & value
   a physically active lifestyle” across entire
     Physical Education since the 1950’s

 Lifetime sports gain place in school programs.

 Cooperative games emerged as a
   countermovement against the strong push for
   competition (Sputnik)

 “Discipline of Physical Education” > Knowing
    vs. doing.

  Physical Education since the 1950’s (cont’d.)

 New philosophies and approaches emerge:
    > Adventure Education.
    > Movement Education (fr. England).
    > Social & Personal Responsibility Model
       (Hellison, 1984).
    > Sport Education (Siedentop, Hastie & van der Mars, 2004)
    > Teaching Games for Understanding (Almond,
       Bunker & Thorpe, 1983).

 Title IX . . . Opportunities and challenges:
     > More equal access for both boys and girls.
     > Having to share budgets and facilities.
       Academic Discipline Movement

   Title IX . . . Opportunities and
   > More equal access for both boys
and girls.
   > Having to share budgets and

    The “Academic Discipline” Movement

 The birth of Physical Education as an
   “academic discipline” . . . to ensure its
   legitimacy in Universities and Colleges.

 A redefinition of the field away from the applied
   professional enterprise.

 Emergence initially of Exercise Physiology:
     > American College of Sports Medicine
       formed in 1954.
 The “Academic Discipline” Movement (cont’d.)
 Other sub-disciplines emerge:
     >   Biomechanics.
     >   Motor Learning.
     >   Sport Psychology.
     >   Sport Sociology.
     >   Sport History.
     >   Sport Philosophy.

 Each form their own organizations, and start
   publishing their own scientific journals.

 The “Academic Discipline” Movement (cont’d.)

 AAHPERD adjusts both its name and structure.
 The National Association for Sport and Physical
   Education (NASPE) creates “Academies” that
   resemble the academic-discipline movement to
   guard against the splintering (See Box 2.5).

 The “Academic Discipline” Movement (cont’d.)
 Strong influence on the Physical Education
   curriculum in Colleges and Universities:

     > Specialized Graduate programs emerge.

     > Knowledge gained via research becomes
       prominent in u-grad teacher preparation
       courses (i.e., courses in Ex. Phys.; Motor
       Learning; Sport Psych.; Biomechanics,

 The “Academic Discipline” Movement (cont’d.)
 A backlash from Physical Education Teacher
   Education (PETE) leaders:

    > Study of human movement v. Human
      Movement itself and the development of
      teaching skills.

    > Recognized the need to engage in research
      on teaching-learning processes in school
      physical education.
 What’s in a name?
   Physical Education v. Kinesiology.          40

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