Docstoc

DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR BHEAVIORAL GENETICS

Document Sample
DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR BHEAVIORAL GENETICS Powered By Docstoc
					  Mediate Relationship With Environment
                               SOLVE
    OBSERVED BEHAVIOR
                               PROBLEMS:
      NEURAL/               • Find Food
      ENDOCRINE             • Avoid Predators
      MECHANISMS
                            • Shelter
DEVELOPMENT                 • Mate
                            • Parental Care
         GENETIC
         MAKEUP           If solve problems,
                          survive and
                          reproduce.
    HOW & WHY QUESTIONS
HOW QUESTIONS              WHY QUESTIONS
• Genetic basis            • Evolutionary history
• Development              • Functional consequences
• Neurophysiological and
  endocrine mechanisms       ULTIMATE/
                             FUNCTIONAL
  PROXIMATE                  QUESTIONS
  QUESTIONS
DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR
Expostulation
      There was a young man who said “Damn!
      I perceive with regret that I am
      But a creature that moves
      In predestinate grooves,
      I’m not even a bus, but a tram”.

And Reply
      “Young man you should stay your complaint,
      For the grooves that you call a constraint
      Are there to contrive
      That you learn to survive;
      Trams arrive – buses may or they mayn’t.”
DEVELOPMENT OF
BEHAVIOR
Young animal is not simply a part-formed
creature on the path to adulthood. Rather
immature individuals are fully functional organisms.
DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR
•   Nature/Nurture Controversy
•   Experience and Early Development
•   Developmental Homeostasis
•   Learning
•   Play
DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR
 Nature/Nurture Controversy
• Nature?




• Nurture?
DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR
Nature/Nurture Controversy
How manifest itself?
DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR
      Nature/Nurture
• Tabula rasa: Latin, scraped tablet. Blank Slate

• John Locke (1632-1704): Philosopher. An Essay Concerning Human
  Understanding.       Relevance?

• Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). Philosopher. Humankind is
  naturally selfless, untroubled; blights such as greed, anxiety, violence
  are products of civilization.

• Behaviorism: dominated psychology from 1920s – 1960s. See John B.
  Watson (1878-1958).

• See Pinker, S. 2002. The Blank Slate. Viking Press.
DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR
     Meaning of Innate
• Genetically Determined: Differences are
  function of genetic differences. Does not
  mean that trait itself is wholly genetically
  determined or that environmental influences
  on development of trait are lacking.
• Developmentally Stable: Behavior develops
  normally in isolation/deprivation.
DEVELOPMENT
OF BEHAVIOR


Behavior develops out of the interplay of various internal and
external factors. To understand development, necessary not only
to identify factors, but also to analyze processes by which these
factors exert their influence and how different factors interact
with one another.

Illustrate: Hygienic bees and
Brood-cleaning behavior revisited
Interplay between genetic
and environmental
factors
 Hygienic bees may have genetic ability to perform their
brood-cleaning behavior, but age structure of hive influences performance.
Hygienic behavior switches to foraging behavior among workers

 Switch to foraging influenced by “internal environment” of bee: Increasing
titers of juvenile hormone - switch to foraging behavior.

 Timing of switch varies with “needs” of the hive. Sufficient number of older
foragers suppresses hormone levels and … . Influence of social environment.

 Expression of hygienic behavior in worker bees is partly environmentally
controlled. Genotypes of hive mates (other workers) influences behavior.
Interplay between genetic
and environmental factors

Hypothesis: Expression of hygienic behavior in worker bees is
partly controlled by genotypes of hive mates (other workers).

How test this hypothesis?
Manipulate hive-level genetic make-up through selective breeding.

Establish experimental hives with varying proportion of hygienic
bees. Prediction?

Data: Higher proportion of non-hygienic bees, more time devoted
to hygienic activities. Also, delayed switch to foraging behavior

Conclusion:
EPISTEMOLOGICAL CYCLE
              HYPOTHESIS

 Induction                  Deduction


 DECISION                  PREDICTION


 Comparison                Experimentation
                DATA
DEVELOPMENT OF
BEHAVIOR: Feeding
Behavior of Herring
Gull Chicks
                      Herring Gull, Larus argentatus




  Feeding behavior
DEVELOPMENT OF
BEHAVIOR
Experiments of Niko Tinbergen and
Jack Hailman

Development of innate behavior and
the role of experience               Feeding behavior
DEVELOPMENT OF
BEHAVIOR
Development of innate behavior and
the role of experience using model of     Feeding behavior
Parents head [see figure on right]

Pecking Accuracy: newly hatched chick
Only 1/3 accurate, whereas 75% accurate
By 2 days

Positioning

Recognition of Parents
DEVELOPMENT OF
BEHAVIOR:
Maturation or Practice?

 •   Butterfly flight
 •   Smiling in human infants
 •   Frog color preference
 •   Phase differences in migratory locust
 •   Nutcracking in European Red Squirrel
 •   Feeding behavior of newborn garter
     snakes
DEVELOPMENT OF
BEHAVIOR:
Maturation or Practice?

 •   Butterfly flight
 •   Smiling in human infants
 •   Frog color preference
 •   Phase differences in migratory locust
 •   Nutcracking in European Red Squirrel
 •   Feeding behavior of newborn garter
     snakes
DEVELOPMENT OF
BEHAVIOR:
Maturation or Practice?

 •   Butterfly flight
 •   Smiling in human infants
 •   Frog color preference
 •   Phase differences in migratory locust
 •   Nutcracking in European Red Squirrel
 •   Feeding behavior of newborn garter
     snakes
DEVELOPMENT OF
BEHAVIOR:
Maturation or Practice?
Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria




                                       http://ipmworld.umn.edu
DEVELOPMENT OF
BEHAVIOR:
Maturation or Practice?

 •   Butterfly flight
 •   Smiling in human infants
 •   Frog color preference
 •   Phase differences in migratory locust
 •   Nutcracking in European Red Squirrel
 •   Feeding behavior of domestic chicks
DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR:
Maturation or Practice?




See: Cruze, W. 1935. Maturation and learning in chicks.
Comparative Psychology 19: 371-409.
DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR
        BEHAVIOR       SOLVE
                       PROBLEMS
 GENE
 POOL
        DEVELOPMENT



          GENES


                      SURVIVE &
                      REPRODUCE
DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR
Expostulation
      There was a young man who said “Damn!
      I perceive with regret that I am
      But a creature that moves
      In predestinate grooves,
      I’m not even a bus, but a tram”.

And Reply
      “Young man you should stay your complaint,
      For the grooves that you call a constraint
      Are there to contrive
      That you learn to survive;
      Trams arrive – buses may or they mayn’t.”

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:8
posted:3/10/2011
language:English
pages:24