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									                           CONGRATULATIONS ON YOUR NEW PUPPY!

At Ashburn Farm Animal Hospital we feel that is very important to give you as much
information as we can so raising your puppy will be a fun and rewarding experience. We are
here to help you care for your new puppy so he or she becomes a healthy, well behaved
member of your family. If you find after reading through the enclosed packet that you
have any questions feel free to stop by or give us a call.

                                                             Table of Contents

KEEP YOUR PET HEALTHY AND HAPPY .................................................................................................. 2

IMPORTANT REASONS TO SPAY AND NEUTER ................................................................................ 3

SPAY-NEUTER FACTS.................................................................................................................................... 4

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HEALTHY DOGS ....................................................................................... 5

VACCINATION INFORMATION ............................................................................................................... 7

INTESTINAL PARASITE INFORMATION ............................................................................................ 9

STRATEGIC DEWORMING.......................................................................................................................... 11

ZOONOTIC DISEASE .................................................................................................................................. 12

HEARTWORMS, FLEAS AND TICKS ...................................................................................................... 13

HOUSE TRAINING YOUR PUPPY ............................................................................................................. 15

BASIC RULES TO POTTY TRAINING .................................................................................................... 18

GENERAL GUIDELINES TO TRAINING ............................................................................................... 19

TRAINING YOUR PET TO TOLERATE NAIL TRIMMING .............................................................. 21

DENTAL CARE .................................................................................................................................................23

PREMIUM FOOD .............................................................................................................................................24

HOW TO PUPPY PROOF YOUR HOUSE ..................................................................................................25

TOXIC PLANTS ..............................................................................................................................................26

KIDS AND PETS .............................................................................................................................................28

BATHE YOUR PET ..........................................................................................................................................29

TRAVELING WITH YOUR PET ..................................................................................................................30

We want your pet to enjoy a long and happy life.      That‟s why we‟re providing this pet
health checklist. Use it once a month to discover     problems early, before they become
serious or cause unnecessary pain or expense. By      working together, we can maximize
your pet‟s life span and happiness. If you answer     no to any of the following questions,
please call us immediately.
My pet…
Is acting normally and is in good spirits                           Yes      No
Doesn‘t tire easily after moderate exercise                         Yes      No
Doesn‘t suffer seizures or fainting episodes                        Yes      No
Has a normal appetite and hasn‘t lost or gained much weight         Yes      No
Doesn‘t vomit its food shortly after eating                         Yes      No
Produces normal-appearing bowel movements and urine                 Yes      No
Doesn‘t drag its bottom or chew under its tail excessively          Yes      No
Has a full coat with no missing hair, mats, or excess shedding      Yes      No
Doesn‘t scratch, lick, or chew itself excessively                   Yes      No
Has healthy skin with no dry flakes, greasy feel, or bad odor       Yes      No
Doesn‘t have fleas, ticks, lice, or mites                           Yes      No
Doesn‘t have any lumps or bumps on its body                         Yes      No
Has clean ears with no debris or odor and doesn‘t shake its         Yes      No
head or dig at its ears excessively
Has eyes that are bright, clear and free of matter                  Yes      No
Has normal hearing and reacts as usual to its environment           Yes      No
Walks easily without stiffness or pain                              Yes      No
Has healthy feet and short nails                                    Yes      No
Breathes normally without straining or coughing                     Yes      No
Has normal thirst and drinks the usual amount and frequency         Yes      No
Urinates usual amounts and frequency                                Yes      No
Has a moist nose that‘s free of discharge                           Yes      No
Has clean, white teeth that are free of plaque and tarter           Yes      No
Has pink gums with no redness or offensive breath odor              Yes      No
Dates Checked:


Spay (ovariohysterectomy) =                         Neuter (castration) = removal of the testicles
removal of the ovaries and uterus.                  and spermatic cord.
Ideal age is 4 to 6 months.                         Ideal age is 4 to 6 months.

Spaying your female pet:                            Neutering your male pet:

   If spayed before the first heat cycle, your        Eliminates the risk of testicular cancer, the
    pet has less than 1 percent chance of               second most common tumor in male dogs.
    developing breast cancer.                          Greatly reduces the risk of prostate cancer
   If spayed after 1 heat cycle, your pet has an       and prostatitis.
    8 percent chance of developing breast              Reduces the risk of perianal tumors.
    cancer.                                            Reduces roaming and fighting.
   If spayed after 2 heat cycles, the risk            Eliminates or reduces spraying or marking in
    increases to 26 percent.                            males neutered before 6 months of age or
   After 2 years, no protective benefit exists.        before the onset of these behaviors.
   Pets with diabetes or epilepsy should be           Eliminates the risk and spread of sexually
    spayed to prevent hormonal changes that             transmitted diseases.
    may interfere with medication.                     Eliminates unwanted litters.
   Eliminates the risk of ovarian and uterine
   Eliminates unwanted pregnancies.

Unfortunate Reality

More than 4 million pets are euthanized in U.S. animal shelters each year simply
because they have no home. Many are puppies and kittens less than 6 months old.
Help stop this needless loss of life. Spay or Neuter your pet.

Common Myths

Spaying or neutering your pet does not:
 Cause laziness or hyperactivity
 Reduce its instinct to protect your family or home
 Cause immature behaviors
 Postpone or delay normal maturity
 Alter its personality in any manner

     Our staff can answer your questions about spaying or neutering your pet
          or any other procedure your pet may undergo at our hospital.
                          Please don‟t hesitate to ask!

                              SPAY-NEUTER FACTS

All pets should be surgically/neutered for many reasons:

FEMALES (Spaying - Ovariohysterectomy)
   Prevents signs of estrus (heat).
   Prevents blood stains on the carpet from the ―heat‖ cycle.
   Decreases the overpopulation problem of too many puppies and kittens.
   Decreases the chance of developing mammary tumors later in life.
   Decreases the chance of cystic ovaries and uterine infections later in life.
   Anesthesia is a much less risk at the younger age.
   Prevents breast development if done before breeding age.

MALES (Neutering - Castration)
   Decreases the desire to roam the neighborhood.
   Decreases aggression towards other pets.
   Decreases incidence of prostate cancer later in life.
   Prevents odor of male cat urine.
   Prevents male cat spraying and marking of furniture and walls.

Facts about Spaying/Neutering:
    Personalities are not altered by spaying. Personalities do not fully develop
      until two years of age.
    Aggressiveness and viciousness are not the result of surgery. Personalities will
      ONLY get better!
    Surgical risk is very slight due to modern anesthesia and techniques, but
      there is always be some small risk when an anesthetic is used.
    It is much easier on the pet to be spayed before going through a ―heat‖ cycle,
      due to the smaller size of the reproductive tract.
    The best age to spay or neuter pets is 4-6 months of age.
    Surgery is performed painlessly while your pet is under general anesthesia.
      Postsurgical pain is minimal.
      Most pets go home the same day surgery is performed, althought spays will
      stay overnight.


        Many serious diseases of dogs can be prevented with vaccines. With over 50 million
dogs in the country, your dog is bound to come in contact with an infectious disease at some
time. Even if you always keep your dog indoors, your dog can be exposed to viruses carried
in the air, in dust, or on clothing. Vaccines are an inexpensive protection against costly
treatment or even the premature death of your dog.
        Vaccines for dogs work just like vaccines for people. Researchers have been able to
change viruses so that they are no longer able to produce sickness and disease. When the
safely altered virus is given to your dog, he/she responds by producing antibodies. These
antibodies circulate in your dog‘s blood, protecting him from infection. Giving boosters at
the proper times is critical to the ongoing protection of your dog.

We recommend the following vaccinations for dogs:
  RABIES: Rabies is a fatal infection of the nervous system that attacks all warm-
   blooded animals including humans. Rabies is a public health hazard and a risk to all pet
   owners. Rabies is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal. Even a dog kept
   indoors can come into contact with a rabies carrier in a basement, garage, or attic.
   There is no cure for rabies. Virginia State law requires that all pets be properly
   vaccinated against rabies by 4 months of age. Boosters can be yearly or every three

   DHLP-P (Distemper, Hepatitis, Leptospirosis, Parainfluenza, Parvovirus):
     Distemper is considered to be one of the most dangerous diseases of dogs. It is
       very widespread and nearly every dog will be exposed during his lifetime. Dogs with
       distemper may suffer coughing, vomiting, diarrhea, and other symptoms followed in 1
       to 3 weeks by death.
       Infectious Canine Hepatitis affects the dog‘s liver. It spreads through an
       infected dog‘s urine and exposure can mean anything from a mild infection to death.
       Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection that affects a dog‘s kidneys. Disability or
       even death in severe cases may be possible. Leptospirosis can reside as a low-level
       infection for months or years, infecting other dogs while weakening yours.
       Parainfluenza is an airborne virus affecting the upper respiratory system. It can
       seriously affect older or weakened dogs, especially those under stress.
       Parvovirus made its devastating worldwide appearance in 1978. Transmitted
       through contact with an infected dog‘s feces (flies can be carriers), parvo is a highly
       contagious disease and is usually fatal.
       The first DHLP-P vaccine is given at six weeks of age. A booster is needed every 3-4
       weeks until your puppy is at least 16 weeks. Some breeds are particularly susceptible

      to parvo, and should have a booster at six months. Adult dogs should have a DHLP-P
      every year.

   CORONA: This virus is an intestinal infection resulting in diarrhea, vomiting and
   depression. It can affect a high percentage of dogs and can cause death in young
   puppies. This infection can also make your dog more susceptible to other intestinal
   diseases. The first vaccine is given at 9 weeks and a booster 3-4 weeks later. Adult
   dogs should have an annual booster.

   BORDETELLA: Tracheobronchitis, or Kennel Cough, is an upper respiratory infection
   that shows up as a persistent, dry hacking cough. The disease can last several weeks and
   is highly contagious. Most boarding facilities, groomers, and obedience classes require
   dogs be on the current CKCV vaccine.
   The vaccine is given yearly.

   LYME: Lyme disease, or Borreliosis, is a tick-borne disease affecting both humans and
   animals. It is a rapidly growing problem and has been reported in 47 of 51 states. A
   Lyme vaccine is recommended for sporting dogs, or those who spend time outdoors or in
   heavily wooded areas. The first vaccine is given at 9 weeks, a booster after 2-4 weeks
   and then yearly.

       A vaccine titer test measures the levels of a specific antibody in a dog‘s blood.
antibodies are protective substances produced by an animal in response to stimulation by an
antigen, in this case a vaccine. Although manufacturer‘s labels recommend once a year
vaccination, research shows that many vaccines last longer. Our doctors feel that giving an
owner the opportunity to choose between vaccinating and doing titers is one way to prevent
over-vaccination and vaccine related problems. We recommend vaccine titers for any
patient over 3 years of age that has been vaccinated on a yearly basis. Titers are also
recommended for older pets, those with health issues or those who have had vaccine

At Ashburn Farm Animal Hospital we customize your dog‟s vaccine requirements to meet
  your specific needs. Our doctors will take into consideration breed, lifestyle, and
                    other risk factors before vaccinating your dog.

                     VACCINATION INFORMATION

   Vaccinations are given to prevent the development of specific infectious disease

   Vaccines do not cause disease, but act as a stimulus to your pet's immune system causing it
    to produce antibodies capable of protecting your pet against those specific diseases.

   Antibodies fight disease by killing disease-causing organisms within the body.

   Antibody levels produced by the initial vaccination diminish with time.

   When your pet is revaccinated, its immune system is stimulated to ‗remember‘ the specific
    disease organism and manufacture more of the appropriate antibodies.

   Vaccines are not guaranteed to prevent disease because too many variables are involved.

   The most important factor is the immune system of the individual pet. Like people, pets
    have varying abilities to respond to vaccines and fight off an infection. Some animals
    naturally respond better to vaccination than others.

   Very young pups and kittens, as well as aging pets, appear to have diminished ability to
    respond to vaccinations. In such cases, it is critical that the pet be revaccinated at the
    appropriate interval. An animal that is underweight, pregnant, or stressed because of a
    serious infestation of parasites or other illness also may respond poorly to vaccination.

   If an animal is exposed to disease shortly before or after vaccination, it may not have
    sufficient time to develop immunity from the vaccination before it becomes sick. This often
    occurs in pets adopted from shelters where they have been exposed to all sorts of diseases.
    Remember that it takes time for a disease to develop after exposure, and the vaccine may
    not have enough time to activate the pet's immune system if the disease is already working
    in the pet's body.

   Normal puppies and kittens, which are allowed to nurse, absorb antibodies from their
    mother's milk. This only occurs during the first 6-12 hours of life and is only present in the
    mother's ‗first milk.‘ These antibodies defend against disease until the young animal's
    immune system is able to do so.

   Puppies and kittens need vaccinations to stimulate their immune system as soon as the
    protective level of antibodies they received from the mother's milk have disappeared from
    their blood stream. To determine the exact time at which this level occurs is very

        expensive. Therefore a SERIES of vaccinations is the most inexpensive way to protect
        puppies and kittens against disease, insuring vaccination at the best time.
Each injection in the initial series of vaccinations increases the antibody level of the blood
to a higher number. Each additional vaccine has a ‗stair-stepping effect.‘ When sufficient
injections have been given to get the pet's blood antibodies to ‗the top of the stairs,‘ the
pet is then immunized properly and will have the ability to resist the particular disease when
NOT TOTALLY IMMUNE TO DISEASE! It is very important to return for each
vaccination on time at the recommended intervals to properly protect the pet. It is also
important to "isolate" the new pet as much as possible from other animals until the entire
vaccination series is completed to prevent possible disease resulting from exposure to a
disease before sufficient immunity has developed.


Internal Parasite Prevention:
    Fecal examination of your pet‘s stool should be done every 6 months.
    Use specific dewormers for the type parasite present, as determined by microscopic
      fecal examination. Over-the-counter deworming medications are usually not effective against
      most internal parasites that cause the real problems! We recommend deworming every year
      based on CDC recommendations to keep our environment clean and keep your pet healthy.
    Remove feces from your lawn, street, or kennel daily.
    Exercise your pets in grassy areas not frequented by other animals.
    Prevent your pet from eating rodents, such as mice, rats, and rabbits.
    Prevent your pet from eating earthworms, which spread ―roundworms.‖
    Control fleas!
    Deworm pregnant pets before breeding, and after weaning.
    Use proper hygiene when handling pets and cleaning up stool.

Ascarids: (―Roundworms‖)
    Round; white; 2-4 inches long: may curl up when seen; resemble ―spaghetti‖
    May be vomited up from stomach; or passed in the stool.
    Commonly found in young puppies
    Can be passed through the uterus of the mother or ingested.
    May cause intestinal blockage when found in large numbers.
    Can live in the environment, so re-infestation is common.

    Very thin, almost transparent; 1/4 -1/2 inch long.
    Normally not visible to the naked eye.
    Hook on to the intestine and suck blood, which causes anemia.
    The mother may infect puppies through the milk when nursing.
    May be ingested orally or may actually penetrate the skin (usually through feet).
    Can be contracted by people through the feet
    Causes bloody diarrhea and death when severe.
    Most harmful of all internal parasites!

   Inhabit the lower part of the intestine (colon).
   Causes chronic diarrhea, sometimes containing blood.
   Normally not visible to the naked eye.
   Eggs are ingested from the ground.
   Rare in cats, but very harmful in puppies and adult dogs.
   Difficult to diagnose and treat because of the worms life-cycle.
   Re-infestation is common because they are difficult to eradicate from the environment.

    Short, flat segments (look similar to ―rice‖ or ―cucumber seeds‖), are passed in the stool.
    Adult tapeworms are not passed in the stool.
    Causes a poor appearance and dry skin.
    Often seen on the hair around the rectum or in the environment.
    Difficult to diagnose by microscopic exam like other parasites, unless a segment just
     happens to be present—segments are not passed every day.
    Spread by fleas, or ingestion of rabbits, birds, and other rodents— not by dogs and cats.
    Should treat pet for fleas as well as deworm for treatment

    Microscopic organisim that lives in the intestinal tract.
    Spread from one animal to another through infected feces.
    Most commonly found in kitten and puppies.
    Most common symptom is diarrhea.

    Microscopic organisms infecting the intestinal tract of people, dogs, cats and other animals.
    Contracted through eating contaminated food, stool or water.
    The most common symptom is diarrhea or pale greasy blood-tinged stool.
    Prevents absorption of nutrients, damages intestinal lining, and interferes with digestion.

General Symptoms of Intestinal Parasites
    No symptoms
    Poor body condition
    Dull, dry coat
    Large bloated belly
    Vomiting
    Diarrhea (can be intermittent)
    Increased appetite with no weight gain.

                           STRATEGIC DEWORMING

Internal parasites are often grouped together and called “worms.” Roundworms,
hookworms, whipworms, and tapeworms often infect pets.

The Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the American Association of Veterinary
Parasitologists (AAVP) recommend the deworming of pets on a regular basis. This is called
―Strategic Deworming,‖ and is designed to prevent parasite disease and the shedding of
parasite eggs in your yard and home. This is important because the eggs found in the
environment or shed by your pet can infect members of your family.

Virtually all puppies and kittens are born with internal parasites (worms) or are infected
shortly after birth through the mother‘s milk. Our practice routinely deworms all new
puppies and kittens at least 2 times during our initial preventive care visits. We also
recommend yearly deworming of all pets.

                               ZOONOTIC DISEASE

ZOONOTIC DISEASE is the medical term for any disease that people can ―catch‖ from

More than 150 diseases are transmissible to people (about 1/3 of all known diseases).
Preventing them is important. The main prevention strategy is nothing more than good

Some of the most common zoonotic diseases include:

      Roundworms                                      Cat Scratch Fever
      Hookworms                                       Ringworm
      Tapeworms                                       Scabies
      Toxoplasmosis                                   Tuberculosis
      Coccidia                                        Salmonella
      Giardia

The National Center for Disease Control recommends that veterinarians advise their clients
of the potential risk and take measures to prevent the problem.


      All pets should have an internal parasite test yearly, more frequently if worms are
       seen at home.
      All pets should be given a complete dewormer at least once a year
      Dogs should be given once a month heartworm preventive, which also helps control
       intestinal parasites.
      Pregnant women should not clean out the cat‘s litter box or do any gardening (working
       with the hands in the soil) without wearing gloves.
      Washing hands regularly after handling soil or playing with pets.
      Removing pet droppings from your yard at least 2-3 times/week. Daily is best.
      Keep your pets flea-free.
      Wash all fruits and vegetables thoroughly before eating.
      Do not allow children to go barefoot or sit or lie on playgrounds or beaches where
       they are exposed to pet stools. Hookworm larvae can penetrate the skin
      Clean cat litter boxes daily and wash hands thoroughly afterwards.
      Do not drink water from streams or other sources that may be contaminated with

                    HEARTWORMS, FLEAS AND TICKS


            Modern preventatives are very effective, but are not 100% guaranteed.
             Yearly tests and testing when your dog has been off heartworm prevention is
             strongly recommended because of the risk of death and serious complications
             if your dog was heartworm positive and given preventative.
            Transferred by mosquitoes.
            Adult heartworms live in the pulmonary arteries, females can reach up to 11
             inches and produce thousands of eggs called microfilariae.
            When a mosquito drinks blood from an infected dog, it contracts
             microfilaria, After 2-3 weeks the microfilaria grow into larvae. The larvae
             then position themselves into the mosquito‘s mouth, so the next bite will allow
             them to migrate into the victim‘s tissue.
            Once in a dog the larvae will mature within 5 months into adult worms in the
             heart and blood vessels.
            Symptoms of heartworms may include a cough, exercise intolerance, abnormal
             lung sounds, difficulty breathing, fluid retention, and even death.


            4 stages to a fleas life cycle, although you can only see the adult fleas.
            Adult fleas constitute only about 5% of the entire flea population.
            The life cycle of a flea (adult flea – egg-larvae-pupae-adult) can be completed
             in 14 to 21 days with the proper temperature and humidity.
            Female fleas begin egg production within 36-48 hours after a blood meal and
             egg production can continue for as long as 100 days.
            Flea bites can cause anemia which can be severe enough to lead to death for
             your pet.


               Ticks are blood-sucking parasites that can infest animals and people.
               Ticks attach to the skin and feed on the animal‘s blood.
               Ticks produce a toxin that can cause paralysis and even death.
               Ticks can spread Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lymes disease and
                Ehrlichiosis to both animals and people.
               Tick infestation is more of a problem for dogs and cats who spend a lot of
                time outdoors.
               It is important to thoroughly check your pet after being outdoors and remove
                any ticks that you may find.

         How to safely remove ticks
                   Use tweezers or forceps. Do not use your bare hands; ticks carry
                    organisms that are infectious to people.
                   Hold the tick as close to the skin surface as possible.
                   Pull the tick upward using a steady motion to avoid breaking off the
                    mouthparts in the skin.
                   Dispose of the tick by flushing it down the toilet.
                   Apply antiseptic to the bite site.
                        HOUSE TRAINING YOUR PUPPY

Basic Training

       The best and most reliable way to house train your puppy is to provide frequent
opportunities to eliminate in an appropriate place and to reward this behavior
immediately as it occurs. To do this, walk your puppy on a leash at regular intervals and at
least twice every day. The direct house-training method requires you to be nearby and to
start good lifetime habits from the beginning. Other methods may seem easier and may
appear to demand less initial investment of time. The direct training method, however, is
sure to save you time and energy in the long run.

       Puppies require more frequent walks until they are able to reliably control
themselves. This usually occurs by 6 months of age. The best method of house training is
to take your puppy out within 15-30 minutes after each meal and each nap. These are
predictable moments during the day when bowel and bladder are most full. A wave of
rhythmic contractions along the length of the digestive tract (the gastrocolic reflex) begins
when food or water is swallowed. The contractions are particularly strong after eating,
which explains why a bowel movement is so likely after a puppy eats. Feed your puppy at
scheduled mealtimes and avoid snacks between feedings. The gastrocolic reflex may be
conditioned by feeding your puppy at regular intervals. Allowing your puppy continuous
access to food makes house training more difficult. Prevent ―accidents‖ between meals by
taking your pup out before the accidents occur.

        It is best to leash walk your puppy within 15 minutes or sooner after each meal.
Continue to walk, incorporating play to make it fun, until the puppy has eliminated. If your
puppy is too young to walk on a leash, carry it outside to an enclosed, safe area. Stay
nearby and play with or pet it. If your pup is slow adjusting to leash walks, be patient. Avoid
pulling the leash and allow your pup to take its time. When the pup prepares to eliminate,
begin praising it in a happy and light tone of voice. Continue your praise until the task is
completed. Immediate encouragement is necessary for your pup to learn to eliminate in an
acceptable area. As your dog eliminates, pleasantly say something like ―hurry‖ or ―do it‖ and
give abundant praise. This teaches the pup to void on command so that you won‘t freeze
unnecessarily on a cold winter night while the pup leisurely looks for just the right spot. If
your pup is initially afraid of the leash, leave the leash on while in-doors for brief
periods without holding onto it. When the pup becomes more accustomed to the collar and
leash, take the pup for brief leash walks outside. Daily leash walks throughout a dog‟s life
help maintain good elimination habits.

       Paper training is not the method of choice, contrary to popular opinion. Paper
training encourages the pup to eliminate on newspapers spread over the floor in a
designated area of the home. This can lead to several problems. The first is that you many

confuse your pup by teaching it twice what it need learn only once. When, and if, the pup
has learned to void on the newspapers, it must then be retrained to eliminate outside. The
second problem with paper training is that you may unintentionally teach your pup that it is
acceptable to eliminate inside your home. Though some puppies stay on the paper, many
more ―miss‖ the boundaries set for them. You may think your pup clearly understands that
it should void on paper. Instead, it may learn that it is acceptable to eliminate anywhere in
that room and may begin soiling in a variety of unacceptable areas in your home. Some
owners of small-breed dogs prefer to continue paper training throughout the pet‘s lifetime,
but this should not replace daily walks.

        A third problem stemming from this method of housetraining is the practice of
punishing the pup for eliminating in the house and then taking it immediately outside. Some
owners believe that pressing the pup‘s nose into its own waste discourages it. Others punish
by using a stern voice or by hurriedly grabbing a pup while it is urinating or defecating.
Punishment is often followed by whisking the puppy outside into a big and frightening world,
where the irritated owner impatiently awaits appropriate behavior. While this may be
intended to teach the puppy not to eliminate indoors, the puppy may associate the
punishment with going out and may learn to fear going outside. A confused and frightened
pet is even more likely to spontaneously void when it is threatened! The dog might even
learn to fear elimination in your presence.

       It is pointless to punish your dog at any age for “accidents” that occur in your
home. This is particularly true when there is any delay between the act of soiling and your
discovery of the mess. To be effective, punishment (and praise, for that matter) must
closely follow your pet‟s action. Punishment is not helpful in house training and is
ineffective unless it is given immediately after the ―crime.‖ No matter how frustrated you
may be, clean up the mess and concentrate on the steps to prevent another one.

Crate Training

       Crate training is based on the premise that puppies are unlikely to eliminate in or
near an area used for rest. Crate training is popular among owners who cannot continually
remain nearby to bring the puppy directly outside as described above. Some owners place
the pup in a crate while they are away at work, or absent for short periods or even
overnight. A puppy that naturally resists voiding inside the crate may eventually adjust to
longer periods of crate confinement when you are absent. This method works well for
some dogs, but not for all. Many young puppies are simply unable to control immature
muscles, especially when they are anxious or frightened. Some pups may soil themselves and
even ingest their own waste. For these pups, the direct training method is preferable and
crate training should be abandoned. Some pups do not tolerate this type of confinement,
becoming very agitated and excessively vocal. If the pup initially objects to being closed in
the crate, you will encourage undesirable attention-seeking behavior, such as whining or

barking, by visiting or otherwise comforting the crated pup. Wait a few moments until it is
quiet and calm before checking that all is well. This way, you will not encourage undesirable
behavior nor will you defeat the potential usefulness of the crate. If your puppy‘s
objections seem excessive or unacceptable to you, apply other housetraining techniques

       If you choose to try crate training, begin by selecting a crate that will accommodate
your dog at its anticipated adult size. Your (adult) dog should be able to comfortably
stand and turn to change positions in its crate. If you are purchasing a crate for a large
breed pup, you may decide to obtain several crates of different sizes to accommodate your
growing pet. If you decide to purchase just the one for its adult size, you may partition the
unused space and enlarge the available space as the young dog grows. Consult a veterinarian
about your dog‘s projected maximal growth, particularly if your pet is not purebred. To
introduce your dog to the crate, associate the crate with positive things, such as food and
safe shelter. Leave the door open until there is no sign of fear. Cover a section of the
floor with comfortable and easily laundered bedding, such as a towel or blanket. Play with
your pup, tossing favorite toys into the crate to encourage your pet to consider it a safe
place. This also decreases the likelihood that your dog will soil inside the cage. When the
puppy enters the crate without hesitation at mealtime, gently close the door while it eats.
Keep the door closed for gradually longer periods. Let the pup out when it is calm and quiet.

        The crate is your dog‟s special place where it must never be disturbed or
threatened. The crate must not be linked with punishment or your dog will avoid it.
Encourage your dog to use the crate as a resting place. When the pup is ready to nap, place
it in the crate with a favorite toy or treat. Never place your pup in a crate or try to remove
it from the crate when you are angry. Do not reach in and pull your dog out of its crate. A
dog that is threatened in its crate may aggressively resist leaving it. Teach your dog to
willingly leave the crate on your command, using a simple ―come‖ command in a happy tone
of voice.

The Umbilical Cord Method

       This method of house training is best used with the other techniques detailed
above. Attach your pup to a long leash that is tied to your wrist or waist. This allows it a
certain amount of freedom while ensuring your constant supervision over its activity. The
pup cannot wander away to have an undetected ―accident‖ and you can anticipate the pup‘s
need to void, taking it directly outside. This method may be applied as an alternative to
overnight crate confinement or isolation in another part of your home. The pup may be
leashed to your bed or at least in your bedroom overnight. While some puppies may have
―accidents‖ where they sleep, they may be less anxious when their owners are nearby, and
this may positively affect their behavior.

                     BASIC RULES TO POTTY TRAINING

House breaking your puppy is often a matter of timing and good planning. There are seven
basic rules to potty training:

   1. Puppies must be taken out approximately 15 minutes after eating, drinking, and /or
      playing. Get the puppy on a specific schedule even on weekends. Take him out when
      he wakes up, has eaten, or has been playing.

   2. Only positive reinforcement should be used. Reward the puppy with praise and/or
      play once he has eliminated. Never push a puppy‘s nose in his urine or feces. This
      only encourages him to hide his ―accidents.‖

   3. Set reasonable goals. Do not expect an 8-week old puppy to hold his bladder for
      more than a couple of hours.

   4. Take away the puppy‘s water from 8:00 p.m. until bedtime. You can allow a drink if he
      over-exerts himself or it is warm. (This rule ONLY applies to puppies in house
      training mode. Adult dogs should always have water).

   5. Make sure that the puppy is taken outside just before he goes to bed and
      immediately upon waking.

   6. Clean up accidents thoroughly. Use an enzymatic cleaner to remove scent from the
      area. If you notice that your puppy is urinating in the same spot there may be a
      scent that is attracting them.

   7. If your puppy soils in the house, take some of the feces into the yard so that the
      scent of his own feces will be present in the yard. This will attract him and
      encourage him to eliminate in the yard.

By keeping to the schedule and really rewarding your puppy for eliminating outside, you will
be well on the way to housebreaking. Housebreaking a puppy doesn‘t happen overnight. It
may take a few weeks; it may take a few months. Each puppy is an individual. Stick with a
positive approach and in no time your puppy will be house broken!

Puppies are extremely impressionable. How you train your new pet will have dramatic and
long lasting effects. You can make your puppy a better pet and prevent behavior problems
by following these guidelines:


Establish a routine. Keep the pup‘s meals regularly scheduled to encourage more predictable
elimination patterns. Take your pup out every two hours during the day and as needed at
night. Select one toilet area. Take your pup to the toilet area five minutes after feeding,
awakening, riding in a car, greeting new people, or chewing on toys. Also when you see him
circling or sniffing around. When your pup relieves himself in the appropriate spot,
immediately reward him with a food treat and verbal praise.


Dogs, like their wolf ancestors, are pack hunters. Efficient hunting in a pack requires
a high degree of social organization. Dogs relate to people as pack members. It‟s up to
your family to become “pack leaders” by performing simple exercises and stopping
aggressive play. Failure to do so may cause other problems.

Introduce your pup to a variety of positive experiences. Visit three new places a week
five new people at each place. Take your pup in regular car rides--use a carrier to insure
safer driving.

Brush your pup daily. At the same time, handle your pup‘s feet and ears and open his mouth
for inspection. Massage him all over. If the pup fusses, say ―no‖ firmly. When he is quiet,
talk to him in a soft, pleasant voice. Expose your pup to various types of people, places and
experiences. Take care he has a good experience. Gradually acquaint him to very loud noises,
like that of a vacuum cleaner.

Prevent Bad Habits:

Provide appropriate objects for chewing (NYLA-BONE products, or greenies) and praise the
puppy for chewing on these objects. It is best to rotate toys to prevent boredom. Gently
punish inappropriate chewing (clap hands, shout) while directing the puppy to appropriate
objects. Put your pup in a crate when you are unable to supervise.

Don‘t allow aggressive behavior: Mouthing hands, tug-of-war, jumping up, growling, guarding
food, and nipping. Competition between dog and owner should never be developed, even

when it is playful. To handle aggressive play, stand perfectly still, cross your arms, and
close your eyes to tell your puppy you are not interested in playing ―rough.‖ When the puppy
gives up, go and get an appropriate toy and praise your puppy for playing with it.

Don‘t allow jumping up. Never pet or talk sweetly to a dog that has only two feet on the
ground. Turn away and ignore him! Kneeing, hitting the dog under the chin, and squeezing the
dog‘s paws may actually lead to increased jumping. Make definite decisions about manners.
Will the new dog be allowed on the furniture? Are any rooms ―off-limits?‖ When you tell
your dog ―no,‖ you must be prepared to enforce your decision immediately.

Nothing is Free:

The ―nothing is free‖ technique helps you establish leadership. The concept is to teach your
dog ―nothing in life is free.‖ Your pup must obey a command before he or she gets anything
he or she likes. No food rewards are used. The reward is what the dog wants in the
particular situation, be it love, praise, pats, going out, etc. Don‘t allow your pup to be
demanding in obnoxious ways. The only way your dog should get what he or she wants is by

Additional Training:

Additional training can begin as young as 8 weeks of age. Your dog should learn to:

      Sit and stay on command
      Come when called
      Walk on a leash


       Some dogs and cats resent having their paws held or their nails trimmed. This
intolerance is partly instinctive in young animals, and may also be learned form an unpleasant
experience during nail trimming.

        The living portion of the nail bed contains sensitive nerves and blood vessels. If toe
nails are cut too short, a dog or cat learns that nail trimming is painful. This negative
experience is not easily forgotten. Once a pet has learned to anticipate discomfort when
its feet are touched, its evasive reaction can intensify each time. It may become so
difficult to trim a panicky pet‘s nails that sedation or even general anesthesia is necessary
to accomplish the task.

       If your pet is instinctively cautious about having its feet touched, and even if it
shows no signs of withdrawing its paw, teach your pet that this interaction is not unpleasant.
Before you ever attempt to trim your pet‘s nails, begin by touching its legs, feet and toes,
and associate this with an activity it enjoys. When it is resting, begin petting it, gently
passing your hands over its back and legs. If this is well tolerated, you may wish to give it a
small food treat. Do not try to do too much the first time.

        Gradually manipulate your pet‘s foot more each time. Eventually, you should be able
to slip your fingers in between each toe, gently squeezing each one to flex the nail, applying
gentle pressure as you hold each foot and manipulate the leg. Do not attempt this exercise
when your pet is agitated or playful, as it is most likely to resent any restriction to its
movement. Once your pet tolerates having its feet touched during quiet times, you may
begin to incorporate this into elements of playtime. Train your dog to assume a ―down/stay‖
position when it retrieves a ball, for example and ―shake‖ its paw before continuing the

        If you are unsure of how to trim your pet‘s toe nails, ask your veterinarian or a
technician to show you how. They can show you where the sensitive nerves and blood vessels
are likely to be found. The nail bed is seen as a pinkish triangle at the base of the nail;
however, it may not be evident in dark colored nails.

       There is more variety between the shapes of toe nails in dogs than in cats. Some
pets‘ nails grow in a more curved shape, as compared with those growing more parallel to the
ground. This may determine how short they may be trimmed. Even a skilled professional
can misjudge the depth to which a nail may be trimmed. It is also not uncommon for a pet to
withdraw a foot while the nail is being clipped, because of pressure on sensitive nail areas.

        It is better to cut less than to cut more than necessary! Trim off small sections
at a time and stop well short of the sensitive part of the nail. Cutting the nail too short
results in a painful experience for your pet. Cut your pet‘s nails frequently, a little at a
time, rather than waiting until toe nails are uncomfortable to both your pet and to you. In
this way, nail trimming will become a routine event, rather than a periodic wrestling match.
Continue to manipulate your pet‘s feet and toes between nail trims so that it remains a
familiar sensation.

       If your dog or cat has already had an unpleasant experience with nail trimming, you
can train it to tolerate it by starting from the beginning. Even if you have followed the
preliminary training steps above, start over as if its feet had never been conditioned to
manipulation and gradually desensitize your pet to this interaction once again. Your
veterinarian may recommend a small dose of a mild anti-anxiety medication to facilitate
retraining in extreme cases.

       If your pet overreacts to nail trimming at the veterinarian‘s office during its annual
exam and vaccination, you may wish to schedule a separate appointment for nail trimming.
In some cases, a dog or cat‘s reaction to nail trimming is so extreme that retraining is
difficult and may not be worthwhile. For these unhappy pets, nail trimming is best avoided.

       Most cats rarely need to have their claws cut if they use a scratching post. If a cat
is destructive or aggressive with its claws and either fails to respond to retraining or you
cannot retrain it, declawing may be an alternative. For the dog that enjoys regular outdoor
activity, nail trimming may not be needed. In many cases, walking on pavement maintains a
dog‘s nails at an acceptable length.

                                    DENTAL CARE

       Imagine what your mouth would be like if you went for months without brushing your
teeth! Bad breath, brownish stains on the teeth (especially the back teeth or molars) and
reddened gums are all signs of dental disease. Just like humans‘, pets‘ dental problems
begin with plaque, a soft sticky residue that hardens over time into tarter. Tarter build up
leads to gum infections, loss of teeth, painful abscesses in the mouth and can contribute to
heart and kidney disease.

        Dental care for pets comes in two forms – home care and professional cleaning.
Home care should begin at an early age in both dogs and cats by brushing their teeth at
least once a week to remove plaque before it turns to tarter. You can give treats such as
Greenies, C.E.T chews, or Science Diet T/D to help reduce the amount of plaque and tarter
build-up. Home dental care helps delay when your pet will need to have his teeth
professionally cleaned and it is of tremendous benefit to his health, since they are less
likely to lose teeth or to develop serious consequences of dental infections.

        Depending on the individual pet and other factors such as diet, home dental care, and
general health, a dental cleaning may need to be done every 6 to 18 months. Our doctors
will check your pet‘s teeth at their annual exam to determine if a dental is needed. If you
notice that your pet has bad breath or is having trouble eating you may bring your pet into
the hospital any time at no charge to have a technician examine your pet‘s mouth and to
determine if a dental is necessary.

        Many dogs and cats need to have their teeth professionally cleaned as they get
older. When your pet needs to have a dental cleaning, a general anesthesia is used so that
the doctor can do a thorough exam and cleaning. Blood work may be required a day before
the dental to detect any underlying conditions. The dental procedure includes: cleaning,
scaling, polishing, sub-gingival curettage, flushing and a fluoride treatment. If the doctor
has had to remove any teeth, or has observed signs of infection, antibiotics may be sent
home. Once your pet‘s teeth are cleaned, home care and regular dental checks are strongly
recommended to maintain good oral hygiene.

                                   PREMIUM FOOD
You may think soy protein is just as good as meat protein, but animal-based protein is
the most usable form of protein for animals. Dogs have a much shorter intestine than
humans, and therefore must convert protein much faster to a digestible form.
Vegetable proteins are digested much slower.
    Meat and chicken are the major sources of protein in Premium Foods.
    High quality protein is much easier on the liver and kidneys as your pet
    Diets high in fiber (indigestible material) are healthy for people, but can
      produce loose and frequent stools in our pets.
    Premium Foods are 85--95% digestible.
    Most commercially available foods are only 50-60% digestible!
    Higher digestibility means less and easier housetraining.

Quality Foods are completely balanced. Often you note improved hair coat and
muscle mass in six (6) weeks due to the higher quality ingredients.

      Most pets accept the food readily due to the outside meat or chicken coating.
      Warming the food for 15 seconds in the microwave greatly enhances flavor.
      You will be feeding one-half to one-third less as you do with most commercial

Since an 8-ounce cup of Premium Food weighs less, you will find that you get many
more cups in each bag. Commercial foods usually weigh 1-2 ounces per cup more due
to bulk and fillers.
Feeding costs with Premium Foods will be NO more per month than with the food
you are now using, even though you pay more per bag. Remember you feed
fewer amounts; and also get more cups in a pound of the product.

Premium Foods utilize a “FIXED FORMULA,” which means the ingredients don‘t
change. Most other foods vary the amount of each ingredient, using whatever is the
cheapest at the time ingredients are purchased.
    This often results in diarrhea when a new bag of food is opened.
    This will NOT happen with High Quality Premium Foods.

Examples of Premium Foods we recommend include:

 Innova                         Sensible Choice                  Canidae
California Natural              Wysong                           Pinnacle
IVD                             Back to Basics
Blue                            Flint River

                    HOW TO PUPPY PROOF YOUR HOUSE

Puppies are naturally inquisitive, which can often lead to serious injury. Here are
some tips on how you can make some tips on how you can make your house safer for
the new arrival.

That‟s shocking - Young animals love to chew when they‘re teething. Keep electrical
wires out of reach or use a pet-repellent spray.
They‟d die for some chocolate – Chocolate can be dangerous. It contains theobromine,
a powerful stimulant that is toxic to pets. Sweets, cakes and cookies can also upset a young
animal‘s G.I tract and lead to diarrhea and vomiting, which can be serious.
Treats can be threats – Never give turkey, chicken or rib bones as a treat. They can
splinter and cause serious injury.
Common household killers – Cleaning agents, bleach, ammonia, disinfectants, drain
cleaner, oven cleaner, paint, gasoline, rat poison. Keep them locked up.
Check the antifreeze – Pets are attracted to the odor and sweet taste of antifreeze.
Store it high and tightly sealed, wiping up any spills on the garage floor. Window-washing
solution also contains antifreeze. And remember, engine warmth promotes catnaps, so honk
your horn to wake pets under the hood.
Killer house plants - Poisonous plants include; lilies, philodendron, dieffenbachia,
elephant ear, eucalyptus, spider plants, azalea, ivy, amaryllis, pyracantha, oleander, boxwood,
Jerusalem Cherry, and plant bulbs.
Keep off the grass – If you treat your lawn with chemicals, keep pets away. Read and
follow label directions carefully.
It fit yesterday – Puppies grow rapidly. Collars and harnesses can be rapidly outgrown
leading to serious wounds.
Take care of personal care items, and medications. – Cosmetics, shampoos, skin
creams, hair ―perm‖ solutions, depilatories, suntan lotions, sleeping pills, antihistamines,
aspirin and acetaminophen can all be lethal to pets.
It‟s not a toy – Don‘t leave plastic bags out. Inquisitive young animals can suffocate.
The heat is on – Watch out for hot irons, coffee pots and space heaters. Puppies will
suddenly be able to jump to new heights.
A dip tip – Keep covers on hot tubs and swimming pools. Young puppies can fall in and not
be able to get out.
„Tis the season – Keep holly, mistletoe and especially Christmas tree tinsel out of reach.
Cozy up – Always use a fireplace screen.
Do you eat with that mouth? – Rule of thumb: if any or all of something will fit in a
mouth, it‘s dangerous. Watch out for cigarette butts, rubber bands, balloons, sewing
needles, thread, string, and ribbons and, yes, even pantyhose. Because what goes in must
come out, often via surgery.

                                  TOXIC PLANTS

A. Can cause a rash after contact with skin or mouth
       Chrysanthemum                Poinsettia
       Creeping fig                 Pot mum
       Weeping fig                  Spider mum
B. Irritating, can cause swelling of the mouth, tongue pain, sore lips:
       Arrowhead vine               Majesty
       Boston ivy                   Parlor ivy
       Caladium                     Pathos
       Drunk cane                   Red princess
       Emerald duke                 Saddle leaf philodendron
       Split leaf philodendron      Heart leaf philodendron
       Marble queen
C. Toxic- may contain a wide variety of poisons. Most cause vomiting, abdominal cramps,
   pain. Some cause tremors, heart and respiratory problems, kidney failure.
       Amaryllis                    Ivy
       Asparagus fern               Jerusalem cherry
       Azalea                       Needlepoint ivy
       Bird of paradise             Creeping Charlie
       Crown of thorns              Ripple ivy
       Elephant ears                Sprangeri fern
       Umbrella plant               Glocal ivy

A. Plants that produce vomiting and diarrhea:
       Delphinium                 Ground cherry
       Daffodil                   Fox glove
       Castor bean                Larkspur
       Indian turnip              Indian tobacco
       Skunk cabbage              Wisteria
       Poke weed                  Soapberry
       Bittersweet woody
B. Trees and shrubs that may produce vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain
       Horse chestnut buckeye     Bird of paradise bush
       Rain tree monkey pod       Black locust
       American yew               Apricot, cherry, peach
       English yew                Almond, wild cherry
       Western yew                Japanese plum
       English ivy                Balsam pear
       English holly              Mock orange
C. Outdoor plants with varied toxic effects. Most cause vomiting and abdominal pain, some
   Cause tremors, heart and respiratory problems, kidney failure:
       Rhubarb             Spinach              Pig weed
       Mushrooms           Moonseed            Water hemlock
       Lupine              Tomato vine           May apple
       Buttercup           Nightshade            Dutchman‘s britches
       Poison hemlock      Mescal bean           Angel‘s trumpet
       Matrimony vine
D. Hallucinogens:
       Morning glory       Nutmeg                Periwinkle
       Loco weed           Peyote

E. Convulsions
      China berry
                                   KIDS AND PETS

Pets as Children

       To many owners, pets can symbolize children. They depend on us for attention, social
direction, food and shelter, or care when they are injured or ill. Acquiring a cat or dog is
often one of the first joint decisions made by couples, and the first focus of shared

       Young couples frequently experiment with ―parenting‖ a pet before having children.
When the real children arrive, however, pet owners may suddenly be reminded that pets are
animals, after all.

Introducing Your Pet to a New Baby

         The first rule of introducing your dog or cat to a new baby is that it must be a
gradual process. Pets, especially dogs, need time to adjust to a new family member. When
you learn a child is on the way, review basic obedience skills daily with your dog so that it
will reliably and consistently obey you. The commands to ―sit/stay‖ and ―down/stay‖ are
essential to control your dog and give direction for desirable behavior.

        A curious and affectionate pet can unintentionally harm a baby. A child may be
scratched or even dropped when a friendly dog jumps up on you to investigate. Keep your
pet‘s nails well trimmed. If your pet has any type of behavior problem, resolve it now while
your life is still relatively uncomplicated.

       In anticipation of a baby‘s arrival, take preventative measures. If you are aware of
even the smallest problems with your pet, these are best resolved before the baby comes.
Pre-existing behavior problems are often magnified with time, especially as seen through
the eyes of a sleep-deprived new parent! New parents who are thinking of obtaining a new
pet soon after a child‘s birth should carefully consider the additional investment of time and
energy required and deserved by any pet. If you have any doubts, don‘t adopt a pet until

                                  BATHE YOUR PET

Steps For Proper Shampooing Of Your Pet:

1. Your pet's skin is quite different from human skin. It's thinner, has no sweat glands,
   and has a different PH. Therefore most human shampoos are not satisfactory.
   Neither are many over-the-counter pet shampoo products, especially if your pet has
   any type of skin abnormality or disease.

2. Bathe the pet whenever it is dirty or smells bad. Always use recommended
   products. It is SAFE to bathe whenever necessary.

3. BRUSH and COMB out mats BEFORE the bath.

4. Pack cotton in the ears.

5. Lubricate the eyes with mineral oil, Vaseline, or eye ointment to prevent burning or
   irritating the eyes with the soap.

6. WET THOROUGHLY before applying soap. Use luke warm water for pet‘s comfort. Use
   COOL water if the pet is ―itchy.‖


8. Allow the soap lather to stand on the pet‘s body for 3-5 minutes. (Medicated soaps:
   5-10 minutes.) This step is very important!!

9. Use a sponge to wash the face. Using the fingers is better than any brush for lathering
   and scrubbing the skin!

10. RINSE THOROUGHLY to prevent skin irritation. Make certain all soap residue is

11. Repeat the soap procedure if the pet is extremely dirty.

12. Squeeze hair to remove excess water and dry with a towel.

                          TRAVELING WITH YOUR PET

This checklist should help you have a more enjoyable vacation when traveling with your pet.

      Leash your dog, to prevent injury, avoid loss, and as a consideration for other people.
      Crate train your pet. The crate actually becomes security to your pet. Keep the pet crated
       when the vehicle is moving for security and safety. The crate will help protect the pet in
       case of an accident.
      Be sure the pet wears a collar, Rabies Tag, and ID Tag in case it should become lost.
      Take the usual food. Sudden diet changes are the most common causes of vomiting and
      Never assume you will be able to find special diets away from home carry ample amounts.
       Stick to a routine feeding schedule.
      A supply of drinking water should also be considered to allow gradual change. Simply
       take a gallon jug , add new water to the jug as the home water is used out of the
      Don‘t forget any prescribed medications required by your pet.
      Take the pet‘s vaccinations records and rabies certificate. Many motels and campgrounds
       are now requiring proof of vaccinations.
      When driving, stop every two (2) hours to exercise the pet and give water.
       Tranquilizers and carsickness medications are available from our hospital, and we
       also have herbal remedies for your pet.
      Be responsible for your pet‘s eliminations. Take it to suitable places for urination. Carry a
       supply of plastic bags which can be placed on the hand-then turned inside out after the
       stool is grasped in your hand.
      Never leave your pet unattended in the car.
      Consider the feelings of others before taking your pet to visit friends or relatives. Be sure
       they have no allergy problems and really do not mind the pet accompanying you.


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