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Recognition

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									 Leonardo Marušić
University of Zadar
Recognition of HEC
(Higher Education Qualifications)


Before 1997 (or later) – Nostrification
(substantial)

1997 – Lisbon convention

Since 1997 (or later) – Recognition
(formal)
Nostrification
HEC obtained in country A
Recognition needed in country B


Documents submitted to an equivalent HEI in
country B with a curriculum similar to the one in
country A for which the nostrification is sought.
Nostrification

HEI in country B compares the programs in detail
(curriculum, course syllabi and duration etc.), and:
• if there are no major differences – issues a HEC
• otherwise – requires additional exams or even
additional coursework (which can take years)

New HEC is used in country B instead of the
original one
Problems

Duration of the process (too long)


Mobility (limited)


European Higher Education Area
(dysfunctional)
Solutions
Bologna process (3 cycle)

ECTS

Qualification Framework
(EQF and NQF)

Recognition of HEC
Recognition
HEC obtained in country A
Recognition needed in country B


Why is the recognition needed?

•Employment in country B (professional recognition)
•Access to higher education in country B (academic
recognition)
Professional recognition
Documents submitted to relevant body
(agency, ENIC/NARIC) on national level


The body issues a document
(administrative order) of recognition


The document is used for employment
together with the original HEC
Professional recognition
Process is formal and based on Lisbon Convention
Article VI.1
To the extent that a recognition decision is based on the knowledge and
skills certified by the higher education qualification, each Party shall
recognize the higher education qualifications conferred in another
Party, unless a substantial difference can be shown between the
qualification for which recognition is sought and the corresponding
qualification in the Party in which recognition is sought.

Comparison of educational level (based on acces
requirements, learning outcomes, ECTS ...)

No comparison of details of curricula, and courses
Academic recognition
Documents submitted to the HEI on which
enrolment is sought
The HEI issues a document of recognition

The document is used for enrolment
together with the original HEC
Process is formal and based on Lisbon Convention

Some comparison of details of curricula, and
courses is possible (elements of nostrification)
Recognition of periods of
study
Lisbon Convention
Article V.1

Each Party shall recognize periods of study completed within the
framework of a higher education programme in another Party. This
recognition shall comprise such periods of study towards the
completion of a higher education programme in the Party in which
recognition is sought, unless substantial differences can be shown
between the periods of study completed in another Party and the part
of the higher education programme which they would replace in the
Party in which recognition is sought.
Recognition of periods of
study - Lisbon Convention

Article V.2

Alternatively, it shall be sufficient for a Party to enable a person who
has completed a period of study within the framework of a higher
education programme in another Party to obtain an assessment of that
period of study, upon request by the person concerned, and the
provisions of Article V.1 shall apply mutatis mutandis to such a case.
Recognition of periods of
study - Lisbon Convention
Article V.3

In particular, each Party shall facilitate recognition of periods of
study when:

a) there has been a previous agreement between, on the one hand, the
higher education institution or the competent authority responsible
for the relevant period of study and, on the other hand, the higher
education institution or the competent recognition authority
responsible for the recognition that is sought; and

b) the higher education institution in which the period of study has
been completed has issued a certificate or transcript of academic
records attesting that the student has successfully completed the
stipulated requirements for the said period of study.
Recognition of periods of study
It is performed by the qualification-awarding HEI through
Recognition of credits (i.e. it is based on ECTS)

It is less formal and more substantial then the recognition
HEC (i.e. with even more elements of nostrification)


ECTS is based on workload students need to achieve the
expected learning outcomes
Workload indicates the time students typically need to
complete all learning activities related to a course.
Learning outcomes describe what a learner is expected to
know, understand and is able to do after completition of
the course.
ECTS
ECTS User Guide, February 6, 2009
Credits awarded in one programme may be
transferred into another programme, offered by
the same or another HEI.
This transfer can only take place if the degree-
awarding HEI recognizes the credits and the
associated learning outcomes.

Partner HEIs should agree in advance on the
recognition of periods of study abroad.
Recognition of credits
It is a process through which an institution
certifies that certain learning outcomes achieved
and assesses in another institution satisfy certain
requirements of the programme they offer.

Decisions are made on the basis of reliable
information on the learning outcomes achieved, as
well as on the means of assessment and validation.
HEIs should make their recognition policies known
and easily accessible.
Recognition of credits
Given the diversity of programmes and HEIs, it is unlikely
that the credits and learning outcomes of a single
educational component in different programmes will be
identical.

Therefore, a flexible approach to recognition of credits
obtained in another context is recommended. “Fair
recognition” rather then perfect equivalence is to be
sought.

“Fair recognition” should be based on the learning
outcomes – i.e. what a person knows and is able to do -
rather than on the formal procedures that have led to the
completion of a qualification or its component
Recognition of credits
It is facilitated by use of the ECTS key
documents:

• Course Catalogue
• Student Application Form
• Transcript of Records
• Diploma Supplement
• Learning Agreement
• Recognition Sheet

(if they exist)
Learning agreement
In the case of agreed student mobility, the three parties
involved – the home institution, the host institution and the
student – should sign a Learning Agreement for mobility
prior to the mobility period. In such cases, recognition of
the credits by the home institution is automatic if the
conditions stipulated in the learning agreement have been
fulfilled.

This document approves students programmes of study
abroad and ammends them as needed.

Recognition Sheet is an additional document to be signed by
the same parties, which guarantees full recognition of such
programmes by the responsible academic body.
Learning agreement
All learning components to be followed abroad should be
listed in the Learning Agreement. Where a student is
awarded credits for learning components other than those
specified in the Learning Agreement it is up to the home
institution to decide whether or not to recognize these. In
case of changes to the programme of study agreed with the
learner, the Learning Agreement may be amended, but the
amended version must be signed again by the same three
parties concerned within an agreed period of time.

Suggestion: Agreements should not only be made with
institutions with similar programmes, but also with those
with complementary programmes, thus providing further
opportunities to the students.
Conclusion
If there is an agreement between the HEIs regarding the
student mobilty and recognition of periods of study, i.e. if
Learning Agreement and Recognition Sheet have bene
signed, recognition is a simple formal procedure.

If, however, there is no such agreement, recognition of
periods of study requires detailed evaluation of courses,
assesment methods etc., which makes it a complicated
procedure simmilar to nostrification.

Therefore, it is reccomanded that a HEI should integrate
mobility in its programmes and assure that Learning
Agreement and Recognition Sheet are signed.

								
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