Document Sample
“THE KING'S Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                        “THE KING’S
                                                               GOOD SERVANT, but GOD’S FIRST.”
                                                   HOMAS MORE
                                             Born in London in 1478, Thomas More’s education was informed by the humanistic school of thought
                                             which was gaining momentum during that period. He was required to converse in Latin in his
                                             grammar school and later studied the works of Aristotle. After studying Latin and logic at Oxford
                                             University for two years, More returned to London to study law. He became a barrister in 1501, then
                                            contemplated abandoning law in favor of a life as a monk, going so far as to reside in a monastery for
                                           four years. Though he later returned to law, More continued to observe many monastic practices for the
                                          duration of his life, including self-flagellation and the donning of a hair-shirt as acts of

                                      Upon leaving the monastery, More married Jane Colt, with whom he would have four children: Margaret
                                   (seen onstage in A Man for All Seasons), Elizabeth, Cecily and John. Colt died in 1511, after which he quickly
                                 married again, to Alice Middleton, a widow eight years his senior                                                   Pictured—Portrait of More and family (above); More’s daughter Margaret
                                                                                                                                                     (below); Margaret’s husband (More’s son-in-law) William Roper (lower left).
                          More instituted a regular life of prayer, Scripture study and church attendance for the entire household. He also set up
                     a humanistic curriculum for his children (though classical education for women was almost unheard of at the time),
             ensuring they became skilled in both Latin and Greek in addition to English, as well as offering instruction in music and in sports
such as archery.

The relationship between More and his daughter Margaret was particularly close, and her devotion both to her father and to God is readily
apparent in her letters to him while he was imprisoned.

          Mine own most entirely beloved father.
          I think myself never able to give you sufficient thanks, for the inestimable comfort my poor heart received in the reading of
          your most loving and godly letter, representing to me the clear shining brightness of your soul, the pure temple of the Holy
          Spirit of God…

          Father, if all the world had been given to me, as I be saved it had been a small pleasure, in comparison of the pleasure I
          conceived of the treasure of your letter, which though it were written with a coal, is worthy in mine opinion to be written in
          letters of gold…

          I doubt not, good father…that we may in conclusion meet with you, mine own dear father, in the bliss of heaven to which our
          most merciful Lord hath brought us with his precious blood.

At one point, Margaret wrote her father in an attempt to convince him to take the oath acknowledging Henry as Supreme Head of the Church in
England, to which More responded:

          Wherein as touching the points of your letter, I can make none answer, for I doubt not but you well remember that the matters
          which move my conscience (without declaration whereof I can nothing touch the points) I have sundry times showed you that I
          will disclose them to no man. And therefore daughter Margaret, I can in this thing no further…
                                                                                                        THE KING’S
                                                                                                         “GREAT MATTER.”
                                                                                               ENRY VIII
                                                                         Although perhaps the first image that springs to mind of Henry VIII is that of an overweight womanizer,
                                                                         the young monarch was an accomplished athlete, author and musician. Henry excelled at tennis (a
                                                                         slightly different version of the sport that we play today), wrote a book—with the help, it is believed,
                                                                         of Thomas More—entitled A Defence of the Seven Sacraments (for which Pope Leo X awarded him the
                                                                         title “Defender of the Faith”) and is often credited with the composition of Greensleeves, in addition
                                                                         to several other pieces.
                                                                             Henry was not first in line for the throne; through the precepts of primogeniture, his older brother
                                                                         Arthur was heir to Henry VII. Seeking a politically advantageous match for his successor, the king
                                                                         betrothed Arthur to Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, rulers of

Pictured—A young Henry VIII (above); Anne Boleyn (below); Catherine of   Spain. Soon after, however, Arthur died and Henry became next in line to rule. As Catherine claimed to have
Aragon (lower left).                                                     remained a virgin during her short marriage to Arthur—and the political implications of a connection between
                                                                         England and Spain remaining constant—young Henry was betrothed to Catherine, and the two were married shortly after
                                                                         he became king in 1509.
                                                                             By 1518, only one of Catherine’s six pregnancies had survived infancy: the future Queen Mary I. To that point, however, there had never
                                                                         been a ruling queen of England, and Henry found himself increasingly desperate to sire a son. As Catherine drew closer to the end of her
                                                                         childbearing years, Henry set his sights on Anne Boleyn, the sister of his current mistress. Anne, however, would not agree to become a
                                                                         mistress, further galvanizing Henry’s attempts to divorce Catherine.
                                                                             Despite Henry’s claims that his marriage to Catherine was invalid—Leviticus 18:16 strictly forbids marrying the widow of one’s brother—
                                                                         Catherine’s testimony that she had never consummated her marriage with Arthur showed there was no impediment to her subsequent marriage
                                                                         to Henry.
                                                                             Henry sought a special dispensation from Rome—much like the one granted to initially approve the marriage to Catherine—to end it. But
                                                                         Catherine’s nephew, Charles V, the King of Spain, was in a position to exert pressure on Pope Clement VII, and Henry’s requests were denied.
                                                                             After the subsequent break with the Catholic Church, Henry secretly married Anne in 1533. Aside from the future Queen Elizabeth I,
                                                                         however, Anne was unable to bear Henry a surviving child. Determined to get rid of Anne, Henry accused her of having used witchcraft to
                                                                         seduce him, and provided “evidence” that Anne had engaged in affairs with five other men (including her brother). Strong to the end, Anne was
                                                                         executed in 1536.
                                                                             Henry next married Jane Seymour, who delivered the male heir Henry desired, but at the cost of her own life; Jane died less than two weeks
                                                                         after the birth of the future Edward VI in 1537.
                                                                                                                                                                                            ALL theMEN
                                                          HOMAS CROMWELL
                                                             One of Henry VIII’s most trusted and important advisors, Thomas Cromwell was born in about 1485, the son of a tradesman.

                                                             After studying law, he entered the service of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, and later came to prominence at Wolsey’s expense. He is

                                                             credited with shepherding the king’s 1534 Act of Supremacy (which anointed Henry as “the only Supreme Head in Earth of the

                                                             Church of England”) through Parliament. Though he was instrumental in securing Henry’s divorce from his first wife, Catherine,

                                                            Cromwell’s later insistence that Henry marry Anne of Cleves—a marriage that ended disastrously—led to his own execution in

                                                          1540…which, reportedly at Henry’s insistence, was carried out at the hands of an inexperienced headsman who required several

                                                       attempts to finish the job. Oliver Cromwell (1599–1658), the military leader and politician who led the overthrow of the British

                                                   monarchy, was descended from Thomas Cromwell’s sister, Catherine. (Although she married, her children kept her name.)

             HOMAS HOWARD,                                                                              ARDINAL THOMAS
             3RD DUKE OF NORFOLK                                                                        WOLSEY                                                                                                      HOMAS CRANMER
Thomas Howard (1473–1554) was one of the most powerful nobles in Henry VIII’s               Cardinal Wolsey (c. 1475–1530), reputedly the son of a                                           Thomas Cranmer (1489–1556) was educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, and

court, as well as a battle-tested general. Always anxious to be a loyal supporter           butcher, grew to be the second-most powerful man in                                              entered the priesthood following the death of his first wife. By the time Henry

of Henry, Howard presided over the trial of his friend Sir Thomas More (whose               England (behind the king), before Henry VIII’s displeasure                                       VIII’s “great matter” was in full swing, Cranmer had risen to an influential

conviction on the charge of treason was the result of highly suspect testimony).            led him to a fall every bit as dizzying as his ascension had                                     position, and proved himself a dedicated servant to the king by pursuing the

Howard was the uncle of Anne Boleyn, who would become Henry’s second wife;                  been. Educated at Oxford’s Magdalen College, Wolsey later                                        divorce on the king’s behalf. In 1533, Cranmer became the Archbishop of

when the king determined to get rid of her—via charges of adultery—after she                headed the school before becoming a personal chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury            Canterbury, and was an invaluable advisor both to Henry and Henry’s successor,

could not produce a male heir, Howard oversaw her trial in 1536, handing her a              and, eventually, to Henry VII. When Henry VIII became king in 1509, Wolsey’s own                 Edward VI, during whose reign Cranmer led the Church of England in a more

death sentence despite her questionable guilt. Another of Howard’s nieces,                  fortunes rose as well: by 1515, he had been appointed both a cardinal in the Catholic            Protestant direction. Edward’s death ushered in the reign of Mary I, who wished to

Catherine Howard, became Henry’s fifth wife; when she, too, was executed,                    Church and Lord Chancellor of England, and was a ubiquitous and powerful figure in                return the country to Catholicism. Cranmer was removed from office and charged

Howard fell out of favor with Henry. In 1547, he was stripped of his dukedom and            most affairs of state. Unable to secure an annulment of Henry’s marriage to Catherine in         with both treason and heresy. Wishing to save himself, Cranmer recanted; when he

scheduled to be beheaded—surviving only because Henry died before being able                a timely fashion—though this was hardly Wolsey’s fault, given the pressures put upon             discovered he was to be burned at the stake anyway, he withdrew his recantation

to sign the death warrant. Mary I—who temporarily restored Catholicism to                   Pope Clement VII by the king of Spain (a relative of Catherine’s)—Wolsey was quickly             and thrust his right hand—the hand that had signed the document—into the fire.

England—also restored Howard’s dukedom in 1553.                                             stripped of all power and charged with treason. En route to London, Wolsey fell ill and died.
                                                                                                                                                      THE HOUSE
                                                                                                                                                          of TUDOR

            MAN FOR ALL SEASONS                                                                                                                                                      NGLISH MONARCHS FAMILY TREE
                takes place in London from 1526 through 1535, during the reign of Tudor king Henry VIII.                                                                                 The House of Tudor

Before the Tudor rulers took control of England, the monarchy of the country was incredibly unstable.                                                                                                                                                                 Son / daughter
The years between 1455 and 1487 saw an intermittent civil war between supporters of the House of                                                                                                                                                                    e.— executed
Lancaster (the dynasty of kings that included Henrys IV through VI, all of whom were descended from                                                                 King of England                                                                                 p.— died in childbirth

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster) and the House of York (the dynasty that saw the rule of Edwards IV
and V and Richard III, descendants of Richard, Duke of York). Both houses used a rose as its symbol—                                                                                                                                John of Gaunt,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Duke of Lancaster
a white rose for the House of York, a red rose for the House of Lancaster—and these battles came to                                                                                                                                   1340–1399
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Catherine of Valois
be known as The Wars of the Roses.                                                                                                                                                                                                                     princess of France 1429       Owen Tudor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Great-granddaughter                                               e.1461
    In 1485, with the Yorkist Richard III on the throne, Henry Tudor led the Lancastrian forces into                                                           Edward IV of York
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1455          Edmund Todor
                                                                                                                                                               1442–1461–1470;          1464       Elizabeth Woodville          Margaret Beaufort
the Battle of Bosworth Field. After Richard III died in the midst of this battle, the newly-ascended                                                                                                                                                                   Earl of Richmond
                                                                                                                                                                  1471–1483                             1437–1492                  1433–1509                              1430–1456
Henry VII effectively ended the conflict between Lancastrians and Yorkists by marrying Elizabeth of
                                                                                                                                                                                   Elizabeth of York                      1486                       Henry VII Tudor
York, the daughter of Edward IV, in 1486; this act unified the warring houses.                                                                                                        1466–p.1503                                                    1457–1485–1509

    Henry VII’s reign began what is known as the House of Tudor, a series of five monarchs who ruled
                                                                                                            The Great Hall of Hampton Court. Originally    James IV Stuart
England from 1485 to 1603. These monarchs were:                                                                                                           King of Scotland   1503     Margaret Edmund, Duke            + 2 girls           Mary   1515 Charles Brandon,
                                                                                                            leased by Cardinal Wolsey, Henry VIII
                                                                                                            appropriated the palace for his own use in    1473–1488–1513             1489–1541 of Somerset                              1496–1533       Duke of Suffolk
                                                        Henry VII (1485–1509)                               about 1525, though Wolsey continued to
                                                                                                            live there for several years.                                                                                                                  Others
                                                        Henry VIII (the son of Henry VII; 1509–1547)                                                                                                                            Frances 1533 Henry Grey,
                                                                                                                                                                         Catherine Parr         1543                           1517–1559    Duke of Suffolk
                                                                                                                                                                          1512–p.1548                                                        1517–e.1554
                                                        Edward VI (the son of Henry VIII; 1547–1553)
                                                        Mary I (Edward VI’s elder half-sister; 1553–1558)                                                          Anne of Cleves         1540                                    Jane Grey                Others
                                                                                                                                                                    1509–1557                                             1537–1553 (9 days)–e.1554
                                                        Elizabeth I (Mary I’s younger half-sister; 1558–1603)                                                   Catherine Howard         1540
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Catherine of Aragon
                                                      Henry VII’s great-granddaughter, Lady Jane Grey, served as Queen for all of nine                         Jane Seymour            1536                      Henry VIII        1509–33    princess of Spain  1501 Arthur, Prince of Wales
                                                                                                                                                                1509–p.1537                                   1491–1509–1547                     1485–1536                 1486–1502
                                                 days after the death of Edward VI before being deposed by Mary I and subsequently
                                                                                                                                                                                                       1533    Anne Boleyn
                                                 executed.                                                                                                                                                     1502–e.1536
                                                                                                                                                                                  Edward VI
                                                      The Wars of the Roses, though only tangentially mentioned in A Man for All                                               1537–1547–1553                                            Mary I                     Phillip II of Habsburg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Bloody Mary  1554          King of Spain and Portugal
                                                 Seasons (the character of Wolsey references “The Yorkist Wars,” which would make                                                                  Others                           1516–1553–1558                        1527–1598
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Elizabeth I
                                                 sense, given that Henry VII was a Lancastrian), weighs heavily over the action of the                                                                         1533–1558–1603

                                                 play. Without a male heir to succeed Henry VIII, there were fears that the country
                                                 would once again lapse into the instability present in previous years.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Note: dates are birth and death; intermediate dates are accession to throne.
                                                      It was during the Tudor period that the Renaissance came fully into bloom in
                                                 England, providing an astoundingly high level (both in quantity and quality) of art,
                                                 music, theatre and literature.
                                                                “WE’VE SEVERED the
                                                                   CONNECTION with ROME.”

                                                                                                       EFENDER OF THE FAITH

                                                                              In 1505, as Thomas More was leaving the monastery for life as a lawyer, Martin Luther
                                                                              was just beginning his study of law in Germany. Caught in a fateful thunderstorm,
                                                                              however, a terrified Luther prayed to Saint Anne to save him, promising to become a
                                                                              monk if he were spared—and kept his vow, entering a monastery soon after. Ordained as
                                                                              a priest in 1507, Luther began teaching theology at the University of Wittenberg.
                                                                              Immersing himself in Scripture, Luther came to believe that people receive justice through the
                                                                              grace of God, not through good works.
                                                                                  In 1506, a Dominican monk named John Tetzel began selling indulgences (which promised
                                                                              believers, upon payment, a full pardon of the punishment due for sins committed), a practice that
                                                                              particularly disgusted Luther. On October 31, 1517, as traditional accounts maintain, Luther nailed his 95
                                                                              Theses to the door of his church.
Pictured—This painting, by Girolamo da Treviso, was part of Henry VIII’s          Recognizing Luther as a dangerous man, Pope Leo X declared him a heretic and excommunicated him in 1521. The response from England was
personal collection. The allegorical painting shows the four gospel-writers
stoning the pope (who sprawls across two women representing avarice and       one of immediate support for the Catholic Church. More, on Henry VIII’s instructions, wrote a particularly scatological attack on Luther; later, with the
hypocrisy), and reflects Henry’s increasingly antagonistic view towards the
Catholic Church.                                                              assistance of More, Henry composed an anti-Luther tract entitled A Defense of the Seven Sacraments. For the latter work, the pope conferred upon
                                                                              Henry the title “Defender of the Faith.”
                                                                                  Henry’s support for the Catholic Church would soon evaporate, however, when he began to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of
                                                                              Aragon. The new pope, Clement VII, was loathe to grant special dispensation, as he was under enormous pressure from Charles V, who was both King
                                                                              of Spain and Catherine’s nephew. (Charles’ forces had recently sacked Rome and imprisoned the pope for seven months.)
                                                                                  The pope allowed Henry’s suit for a divorce to be heard in England, with Cardinals Wolsey and Campeggio acting as his commissioners. Though
                                                                              apparently a positive sign for Henry, the pope had instructed Campeggio to stall, and when the trial was adjourned on a technicality, the king’s
                                                                              displeasure found its scapegoat in Wolsey, who was charged under the Statutes of Praemunire (a vague charge roughly defined as acting as to derogate
                                                                              from the king’s authority).
                                                                                  Frustrated, Henry vainly sought to increase the pressure on Rome. When that failed, Henry began to target the English clergy. The Statutes of
                                                                              Praemunire—sufficiently vague as to be useful again—were threatened, first to individual members of the clergy, then against the clergy as a whole.
                                                                              Cowed by Henry’s abuse of power and unable to practically fight these charges, the clergy submitted to Henry’s authority, paying a fine of £100,000 to
                                                                              gain the king’s full pardon.

Pictured—Martin Luther (above); Henry VIII (upper right).
                                                                                                                                                 THE LIFE of
                                                                                                                                               SIR THOMAS MORE
February 7, 1478                                                        April 3, 1507                                                       November 10, 1518                                                  July, 1533
Thomas More is born in London, the son of a successful lawyer.          Martin Luther is ordained a priest.                                 Catherine gives birth to a stillborn child.                        Pope Clement VII declares Henry and Anne’s marriage to be
                                                                                                                                                                                                               invalid and threatens Henry with excommunication.
November 10, 1483                                                       April 21, 1509                                                      1521
Martin Luther is born in Eisleben, Germany.                             Henry VII dies; Henry, Prince of Wales, ascends to the throne       More is knighted by Henry VIII and becomes Undertreasurer.         September 7, 1533
                                                                        as Henry VIII. More composes coronation verses to celebrate         More’s daughter, Margaret, marries William Roper.                  Anne Boleyn gives birth to the future Queen Elizabeth I.
c. 1485                                                                 the inauguration.
Thomas Cromwell, later to be one of the most important figures                                                                              1521                                                               1534
in Henry VIII’s court, is born.                                         June 11, 1509                                                       With help from More, Henry VIII composes an anti-Luther tract      More is questioned by Cromwell regarding his association with
                                                                        Henry VIII marries Catherine of Aragon.                             entitled Defense of the Seven Sacraments, for which Pope Leo X     Elizabeth Barton, the “Holy Maid of Kent,” a Benedictine nun
August 22, 1485                                                                                                                             confers the king with the title “Defender of the Faith.”           who prophesied disaster if Henry VIII divorced Catherine. More
Henry Tudor defeats Richard III in the Battle of Bosworth Field.        1510                                                                                                                                   is cleared of traitorous involvement. Cromwell offers More a
Henry VII’s coronation ushers in the House of Tudor.                    More is appointed under-sheriff of the City of London.              1527                                                               reinstatement to honor and wealth in exchange for his approval
                                                                                                                                            Henry VIII begins an affair with Anne Boleyn; he begins to         of the divorce; More refuses.
September 20, 1486                                                      January 31, 1510                                                    explore the possibility of annulling his marriage to Catherine.
Arthur is born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, becoming heir        Catherine miscarries a daughter.                                                                                                       1534
to the crown.                                                                                                                               May 6, 1527                                                        Anne Boleyn’s second pregnancy ends in a miscarriage.
                                                                        1511                                                                Rome is sacked by a rogue army of Charles V, King of Spain.
June 28, 1491                                                           Jane Colt, More’s wife, dies. More re-marries soon afterwards, to   Pope Clement VII is imprisoned for seven months; upon his          March 23, 1534
The future Henry VIII is born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.       the widow Alice Middleton, who is eight years older than More.      release, the pope would follow a policy of subservience to         Pope Clement VII orders Henry VIII to give up Anne Boleyn or
                                                                                                                                            Charles V—Catherine’s nephew.                                      face excommunication.
1493                                                                    January 1, 1511
More leaves Oxford without a degree and studies at the New Inn          Catherine gives birth to a son, Henry, who dies less than two       1529                                                               March 30, 1534
in London, entering the field of law.                                   months later.                                                       In a special court established to examine the validity of Henry    Parliament passes the Succession Act, declaring children born to
                                                                                                                                            VIII’s marriage to Catherine, Cardinal Wolsey is unable to get a   Henry and Anne to be legitimate successors to the throne. The
1501                                                                    November, 1513                                                      decision favorable to the king.                                    act requires acknowledgment of Henry’s absolute sovereignty.
More begins his close association with the Carthusian                   Catherine gives birth to a son, who dies within the month.
Charterhouse of London, testing his possible vocation to the                                                                                November 29, 1530                                                  April 17, 1534
priesthood.                                                             December, 1514                                                      Charged with treason and on his way to be executed, Wolsey         More is imprisoned in the Tower of London for refusing to swear
                                                                        Catherine gives birth to a son, Henry, who dies within              dies. More has already succeeded him as Lord Chancellor.           to the oath.
November, 1501                                                          the month.
Arthur, heir of Henry VII, marries Catherine of Aragon, daughter                                                                            1531                                                               1535
of Ferdinand II and Isabella I of Spain.                                1515                                                                Henry VIII invents a new title for himself: Supreme Head of the    Cromwell offers More another chance to reconsider his refusal to
                                                                        Thomas Wolsey, a butcher’s son, is appointed Lord Chancellor        Church in England. More considers resigning as Lord Chancellor.    swear to the oath; More refuses.
April 2, 1502                                                           of England.
Arthur dies, leaving Henry, Prince of Wales as the heir to Henry VII.                                                                       May 16, 1532                                                       June 12, 1535
                                                                        1516                                                                A number of bishops and abbots sign off on Henry VIII’s            Sir Richard Rich, a prominent lawyer and one-time friend of More,
1503                                                                    More becomes a member of the Council of the Star Chamber,           complete authority over the Church of England. More resigns        visits More in his cell. On the basis of their conversation, as
Henry is betrothed to Catherine of Aragon, after obtaining              a council of the king, headed by Wolsey, that deals with            as Lord Chancellor.                                                reported to Cromwell by Rich, More is charged with treason. More
dispensation from Pope Julius II, which is necessary because            property titles.                                                                                                                       accuses Rich of perjury.
Leviticus prohibits men from marrying the widow of their brother.                                                                           December 1532
                                                                        1516                                                                Anne Boleyn becomes pregnant by Henry VIII.                        July 1, 1535
1505                                                                    More publishes Utopia, an account of the travels of fictional                                                                          More is tried for treason and found guilty.
Determining he is not called to a celibate, cloistered life, More       voyager Raphael Hythloday.                                          January 25, 1533
leaves the Charterhouse to follow a public life. He marries Jane                                                                            Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn.                                    July 6, 1535
Colt of Essex. They have four children: Margaret, Elizabeth, Cecily     February 18, 1516                                                                                                                      On the scaffold, More declares himself “the king’s good
and John.                                                               Catherine gives birth to a daughter, Mary, who will eventually      May 23, 1533                                                       servant but God’s first” and kisses his executioner in an act
                                                                        rule as Queen Mary I beginning in 1553.                             With the help of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury,         of forgiveness.
1505                                                                                                                                        Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine is declared invalid, and his
Martin Luther enters law school on May 20, but when he is               October 31, 1517                                                    marriage to Anne Boleyn is recognized as legal. More is absent
caught in a lightning storm, he vows to Saint Anne he will              Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses at Wittenberg, marking the        from all festivities surrounding the marriage and Anne’s
become a monk if he is spared. He consequently enters the               beginning of the Reformation in Germany.                            subsequent crowning as queen.
monastery of the Augustinian Hermits at Erfurt.

Shared By: