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Summary of the results of the survey on teaching by Antoine Morin

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					Summary of the results of the survey on teaching



                      by
 Antoine Morin, Michel Nedzela and Tony Quon
                    for the

        Senate Committee on Teaching

                   April 2001
Executive summary
         The report presents a summary of the results of the 2001 Teaching Survey conducted by the
Senate Committee on Teaching. Electronic versions of the report, copies of the questionnaires, and
files containing raw data for further analyses are available on the Web site of the Center for
University Teaching at http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/cut/ in the Documentation and
Publications section.
         The sample consists of 255 full time professors (from a population of 844) whose profile
(gender, age, rank, language, and faculty) is similar to the population.
         Professors’ views on teaching (Section A) are strikingly similar among ranks, genders and
languages, but vary among faculties. Nevertheless, in most faculties, professors agree that effective
teaching is mostly about stimulating students to think critically and equipping them with independent
learning skills.
          Teaching activities and methods (Section B) also vary among faculties. Overall, lectures are
still the most commonly used method of teaching, and transparencies and chalk board are the media
most commonly used. Email has become an important tool. A large majority of professors (78%)
report devoting half or more of their time to teaching activities, except for professors in the Faculty
of Medicine who devote less time to teaching than to research. Range of student abilities and class
sizes are identified as the major hinderances to teaching. Personal interest in teaching and personal
initiative are clearly the major factors supporting teaching and changes in teaching methods.
         A majority of professors (67%) use computers in courses, mainly for presentations (Section
C). Although large differences exist in current use of computers among faculties (more than 80% of
professors in Engineering and Administration use computers, but only 25% in Law), about two
thirds of professors in all faculties would like to use computers more and 72% expect that they will
have to. Unfortunately, only half of the professors feel that they have sufficient access to computers
and training to introduce more technology in their teaching.
         The opinions of professors regarding the importance of teaching in their carreer (Section D)
have not changed since the previous Teaching Survey in 1989. The vast majority agrees that teaching
skills and quality of teaching should be evaluated at hiring and for tenure and promotion decisions,
but the majority reports that teaching is not given the same recognition as research in making
decisions. Most professors believe that it is because not enough information is available for a fair
appraisal of their teaching. Two thirds of professors judge that the efforts of the University to
support or promote teaching are fairly or very weak. A large majority (80%) agrees that it should be
possible to recognize equally teaching and research for tenure and promotion decisions, 50% agrees
that these decisions could be based mainly on research accomplishments, and a small majority
disagrees with the possibility of spending all of one's time teaching or doing research.
Foreword
         Data collected in the 2001 Survey on Teaching are extensive and this summary of results
only describes the overall average responses and major differences among subgroups believed to be
of interest to a general audience. Those interested in finer details or analyses are welcome to analyze
the data themselves. For this purpose, raw data and supporting information have been made available
electronically on the Web site of the Center for University teaching
(http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/cut/), in the Documentation and Publications section. However,
to preserve anonymity, rank, age and gender information have been omitted in the posted data.
Contact Antoine Morin (amorin@uottawa.ca) if you require assistance with the data. Responses to
open-ended questions and comments received about the questionnaire are also available in their
entirety online.
        We recognize that some of the graphs are hard to read when printed in black and white.
Color graphs that allow better discrimination among subgroups can be found in the electronic
versions available online.
The sample
          This second survey on teaching at the University of Ottawa was conducted during the winter
semester of 2001, almost 12 years after the first one in Fall 1989. The questionnaire was sent through
internal mail in personally addressed envelopes to each of the 844 full time professors and language
teachers whose names were provided by Human Resources. Two weeks after the questionnaire was
sent, a letter was sent out reminding professors of the questionnaire. A week later, email reminders
were also sent to most academic units.
        A total of 255 fully completed questionnaires were returned, for a response rate of 30%
(compared to 55% in 1989). The distribution of respondents by faculty in the sample of returned
questionnaires is roughly similar to the population, although Arts professors are slightly
underrepresented, and Medicine slightly overrepresented in the sample compared to the population
(the same bias was observed in the 1989 sample). Sample composition by rank, gender, and language
was very similar to that of the population.
        All in all, it appears that the professors who responded to the questionnaire share many of
the same characteristics found in the entire population of the University of Ottawa full time
professors.
                                                           Population   Sample/Échantillon
          Faculty/Faculté
                    Administration                              9.1%         10.2%
                    Arts                                       24.2%         19.6%
                    Education/Éducation                         5.6%          5.5%
                    Engineering/Génie                          10.7%          8.5%
                    Health Sciences/Sciences de la Santé        8.4%         10.2%
                    Law/Droit                                   7.5%          6.4%
                    Medicine/Médecine                           7.3%         12.3%
                    Science/Sciences                           11.6%          9.4%
                    Social Science/Sciences Sociales           15.0%         17.8%

          Rank/Rang
                  Full/Titulaire                               40.8%         39.4%
                  Associate/Agrégé                             34.1%         35.6%
                  Assistant/Adjoint                            21.3%         23.5%
                  Lecturer/Chargé de cours                      3.8%          1.7%

          Gender/Genre
                   Men/Hommes                                  68.2%         66.7%
                   Women/Femmes                                31.8%         33.3%

          Language/Langue
                   English                                     59.4%         55.3%
                   Français                                    40.5%         44.7%

          Size/Effectif                                       844           255
Section A- Views on teaching
1-24. How much do you agree with each of the following statements concerning what effective teaching is?

                              Strongly                             Somewhat                            Somewhat                              Strongly
                              disagree                              disagree                             agree                                agree


                                                                        Stimulating students to think in a critical way
                                                                                   Producing independent learners
                                                  Equipping students with independent skills for problem solving
                                                                Helping students to understand important ideas
                                                                      Providing a climate for students to learn
                                                                Displaying enthusiasm for the subject matter
                                                                    Encouraging students to ask questions
                                                                              Motivating students to learn
                                                         Promoting discussion about the subject matter
                                                         Transmitting important knowledge to students
                                  Providing up to date and interesting resource material for students
                                                         Promoting conceptual changes in students
           Setting challenging problems and assignments, and helping students to cope with them
                                                     Recognizing student needs and providing help
                                             Communicating ideas between lecturer and students
                               Letting students know about the basic knowledge of their specialty
                               Challenging students' ideas, so that they may develop themselves
                                                               Supporting and caring for students
                                    Selecting, structuring and interpreting knowledge for students
                              Providing situations where students can learn from each other
                                            Passing on lecturer's experiences to students
                      Giving interesting presentations, using instructional technology


                                    1                                    2                                    3                                    4
  Circles represent the arithmetic mean score and lines span 2 standard errors on each side of the mean, providing a visual representation of an approximate 95%
                                                             confidence interval for the mean score.



          In general, professors agree that all statements somewhat or strongly reflect what effective
teaching is. However, they most strongly agree that effective teaching is about stimulating students to
think in a critical way, producing independent learners, and equipping students with independent
skills for problem solving. Although professors somewhat agree that effective teaching is about
providing situations where students can learn from each other, passing on their experiences to
students, and giving interesting presentations using instructional technology, such statements receive
less support.
         Responses are strikingly similar among ranks, genders, and language. However, differences
exist among faculties. Responses from professors from the faculties of Medicine, Science, and
Education illustrate these differences and span the extremes. In general, professors from the Faculty
of Medicine tend to agree with most statements more strongly than professors from other faculties.
On the other hand, professors from the Faculty of Science tend to agree less strongly than average.
Interestingly, averages for professors from the faculty of Education tend to be either at the low end
or at the high end of the range of responses.
                             Strongly                           Somewhat                             Somewhat                      Strongly
                             disagree                            disagree                              agree                        agree


                                                                    Stimulating students to think in a critical way
                     Education
                                                                               Producing independent learners
                                               Equipping students with independent skills for problem solving
                      Medicine                          Helping students to understand important ideas
                                                           Providing a climate for students to learn
                      Science                           Displaying enthusiasm for the subject matter
                                                             Encouraging students to ask questions
                                                                Motivating students to learn
                                              Promoting discussion about the subject matter
                         Transmitting important knowledge to students
               Providing up to date and interesting resource material for students
                                                     Promoting conceptual changes in students
Setting challenging problems and assignments, and helping students to cope with them
                                        Recognizing student needs and providing help
                                          Communicating ideas between lecturer and students
                  Letting students know about the basic knowledge of their specialty
                            Challenging students' ideas, so that they may develop themselves
                                                Supporting and caring for students
         Selecting, structuring and interpreting knowledge for students
                   Providing situations where students can learn from each other
                                         Passing on lecturer's experiences to students
          Giving interesting presentations, using instructional technology


                                  1                                    2                                    3                         4

                           Circles represent the arithmetic mean score and lines span 1 standard error on each side of the mean.



         The majority of professors (77%) feel confident or very confident in the effectiveness of
their teaching (question 23), although only 61% rate themselves as successful or very successful in
their teaching (question 24). These ratings do not vary among rank, age, faculty, or language,
although women are slightly less confident than men about their level of success in teaching
(p=0.02).
Section B - Teaching activities and methods
25-51. Consider your overall teaching experience. How frequently you do each of the following.

            Education                                                         Never                   Seldom             Occasionally                   Often         Very often


            Law                                                    Include more than one test or assignment in a student's grade
                                                                                                     Encourage student questions during class time
                                                                                                                Follow the course outline carefully
            Science                                               Preview required texts, library resources, and other materials prior to class use
                                      Update reading assignments and in class activities to reflect advancements on the field
                                                                    Consistently provide students with feedback on tests, papers, etc.
                                                                         Specify written course objectives in the course outline
                                                           Provide opportunities for students to express individual viewpoints
          Establish grading criteria and communicate them to students prior to grading papers, exams, etc.
                                                                                                       Use a structured lecture format
                          Design the course taking into account the needs and abilities of the students enrolled in the class
                                    Amend the course to incorporate feedback of students who have previously taken the course
                                                               Have your presentation closely follow the assigned readings
                                     Use activities that emphasize student interaction and collaboration
                                                                    Require a research paper as part of your class
                                                                             Use class discussions
                                                             Include research experiences for your students
                                                       Critically review student essay rough drafts
                                              Consult colleagues teaching a similar course during course planning
                      Require use of writing style manual, proper lab report format, etc.
                         Having students conduct on-line searches, including library data bases
                                                       Anonymously grade student work
                               Seek student opinions about exams and grading methods
                      Require annotated bibliographies or lab reports for student course work
Use objective tests as the primary means for assessing student performance
                        Have individual students responsible for some of the course content
                                           Distribute grades on a curve


                                                                                 1                        2                        3                        4              5

  Circles represent the arithmetic mean score and lines span 1 standard error on each side of the mean. Activities are listed in decreasing frequency when averaged
                                                                        across all faculties.

         Teaching methods and activities vary greatly among faculties, and this is illustrated by the
responses of professors in Science, Education and Law (combining Droit civil and Common Law)
that span the extremes. Since the professors’ profiles (gender, language, rank) vary among faculties, it
is therefore difficult to ascertain whether these subgroups differ. Nevertheless, women report using
all but one (grade anonymously student work) of these 23 activities more frequently than men.
Compared to anglophones, francophones use more frequently a structured lecture format (p<0.0001)
and more frequently critically review student essay rough drafts (p<0.0001). Conversely, anglophones
more frequently use objective tests as primary means of assessing performance (p<0.0001), perhaps
because of larger average class size.
            Overall, 63% of respondents report never distributing grades on a curve.
52-59. How often do you use each of the following methods of teaching?
                                                        Never             Seldom         Occasionally            Often             Very often




                                                                                              Lecture method

                                                                           Seminar method

                                                           Problem-based learning

                                                        Project-based learning

                                                                    Case method

                                                       Experiential method

                                   Collaborative/cooperative learning

                                                        Peer teaching


                                                          1                   2                  3                  4                   5

  Circles represent the arithmetic mean score and lines span 2 standard errors on each side of the mean, providing a visual representation of an approximate 95%
                                                             confidence interval for the mean score.



                                                              Never            Seldom         Occasionally               Often          Very often




                                                                              Lecture method

                                                      Seminar method

                                           Problem-based learning

                                        Project-based learning                                                                        Administration
                                                                                                                                      Arts
                                                  Case method                                                                         Education
                                                                                                                                      Engineering
                                       Experiential method                                                                            Health Science
                                                                                                                                      Law
                    Collaborative/cooperative learning
                                                                                                                                      Medicine
                                                                                                                                      Science
                                        Peer teaching
                                                                                                                                      Social Science


                                                                1                  2                    3                   4                   5

  Circles represent the arithmetic mean score and lines span 1 standard error on each side of the mean. Methods are listed in decreasing frequency when averaged
                                                                        across all faculties.




          Overall, the lecture format is still the most commonly used method of teaching, although
there is large variation among faculties.
60-71. How often do you use each of the following in your teaching?
                                                                  Never                Seldom         Occasionally           Often             Very often



                                                                        Transparencies and overhead projector
                                                                                        Chalk (or white) board
                                                                                                    Email
                                                   Presentation software (e.g. PowerPoint)
                                                                                         Video
                                                                          Slides
                                     Web-based software (e.g. WebCT)
                          Simulation/demonstration software software
                                           Business/scientific software
                            (e.g. Spreadsheets, math tools, databases)
                                         Electronic bulletin board
                                                              Flip chart
                                Interactive televised teaching


                                                                    1                     2                    3                4                   5

  Circles represent the arithmetic mean score and lines span 2 standard errors on each side of the mean, providing a visual representation of an approximate 95%
                                                             confidence interval for the mean score.



                                                          Never               Seldom            Occasionally         Often            Very often



                                            Transparencies and overhead projector
                                                                  Chalk (or white) board
                                                                          Email
                      Presentation software (e.g. PowerPoint)
                                                              Video
                                                    Slides                                                                           Administration
                                                                                                                                     Arts
                     Web-based software (e.g. WebCT)
                                                                                                                                     Education
                                                                                                                                     Engineering
                                                                                                                                     Health Science
                                                                                                                                     Law
                                Electronic bulletin board
                                                                                                                                     Medicine
                                                 Flip chart                                                                          Science
                         Interactive televised teaching                                                                              Social Science


                                                              1                    2                    3               4                  5

  Circles represent the arithmetic mean score and lines span 1 standard error on each side of the mean. Teaching devices are listed in decreasing frequency when
                                                                   averaged across all faculties.




         Overall, low-tech devices remain the most frequently used in the classroom, although there
is considerable variation among faculties, and among individuals within faculties. In particular,
presentation software (e.g. PowerPoint) tends to be either used very often by those who have
adopted it, or seldom/never by those who have not.
73-75. How many hours per week, on average, do you presently devote to teaching activities (i.e. preparing,
organizing, or giving courses; updating course material; preparing educational material such as learning
modules, computer software packages; assessing/grading student learning; advising students; supervising
students during a practicum or some other work or research)?
                                      Administration                      Arts             Education
                                                                  0.5
                                                                                  0.5                    0.5

                 Relative frequency
                                                                  0.4
                                                                                  0.4                    0.4
                                                                  0.3
                                                                                  0.3                    0.3
                                                                  0.2             0.2                    0.2

                                                                  0.1             0.1                    0.1

                                                                  0.0             0.0                    0.0
                                       <5   5-9 10-14 15-19 >20



                                        Engineering Health Science                           Law
                                                                                                         0.8
                                                                  0.7
                                                                                                         0.7
                                                                  0.6             0.3
                                                                                                         0.6
                                                                  0.5
                                                                                                         0.5
                                                                  0.4             0.2                    0.4
                                                                  0.3                                    0.3
                                                                  0.2             0.1                    0.2
                                                                  0.1                                    0.1
                                                                  0.0             0.0                    0.0



                                        Medicine                        Science         Social Science
                                                                  0.5
                                                                                  0.6                    0.5
                                                                  0.4             0.5
                                                                                                         0.4
                                                                  0.3             0.4
                                                                                                         0.3
                                                                                  0.3
                                                                  0.2
                                                                                                         0.2
                                                                                  0.2
                                                                  0.1                                    0.1
                                                                                  0.1
                                                                  0.0             0.0                    0.0




        Time spent on teaching vary considerably within and among faculties. In all faculties but
Medicine, professors devote a minimum of 5-9 h per week to teaching, whereas in Medicine
approximately 40% of professors devote less than 5h per week to teaching activities. Overall, 36% of
repondents devote more than 20h per week to teaching, 47% between 10 and 20 h per week, and
17% less than 10h per week. No statistically significant differences were detected between genders
and languages, nor among ranks.
         One third (33%) of professors report that the time they spend on their teaching has
increased compared to the past, whereas 21% report a decrease (question 74). Forty four percent of
professors devote more or much more time to teaching than to their research, whereas 22% report
devoting less or much less time to teaching than to research (question 75). The majority of
respondents (68%) expect that they will spend about the same amount of time on teaching in the
future, although 21% expect a teaching load increase and 13% a decrease (question 81).
77. What factors do you find hinder your teaching?
                                                        0               20              40             60              80             100




                                    Too wide a range of student abilities

                                        Number of students (too many)

                                     Teaching load too heavy

                                     Research commitments

                         Lack of up-to-date equipment
                                  and facilities
                             Lack of library resources

                            Teaching outside area
                                of expertise


                                                        0               20             40              60             80              100
                                                                                                %
  Circles represent the arithmetic mean score and lines span 2 standard errors on each side of the mean, providing a visual representation of an approximate 95%
                                                             confidence interval for the mean score.



78. What factors support your teaching?
                                                                                               %
                                                         0              20              40              60             80              100




                                                                                            Your interest in teaching

                                                  Reasonable teaching load

                        Availability of equipment and facilities

                                 Workshops, seminars,
                             and other support programs
                          Encouragement of university
                             and faculty administration

                                  Good library resources



                                                         0              20              40             60              80             100
                                                                                                %
  Circles represent the arithmetic mean score and lines span 2 standard errors on each side of the mean, providing a visual representation of an approximate 95%
                                                             confidence interval for the mean score.
79. How do you expect your teaching to change over the next 5 years?
                                                                                                %
                                                          0               20             40                 60          80              100




                                               Computer assisted course delivery

                                                      Multimedia technology

                                     Problem-based learning

                       More distance learning approaches

                                    Experential learning

                                Collaborative learning



                                                          0              20              40                 60          80              100
                                                                                                    %
  Circles represent the arithmetic mean score and lines span 2 standard errors on each side of the mean, providing a visual representation of an approximate 95%
                                                             confidence interval for the mean score.




80. What factors do you think will influence changing your teaching methods?
                                                                                                        %
                                                                0              20              40                60           80              100




                                                                                    Your own initiative or decision
                                                              Student demand or feedback

                                                                Availability of technology

                                                Increased student numbers

                                   Availability of extra funding

                  Resource constraints or lack of funding

                                 University or Faculty policy

                                         Shortage of space

                          Pressure from colleagues


                                                                0              20             40                 60          80               100
                                                                                                        %
  Circles represent the arithmetic mean score and lines span 2 standard errors on each side of the mean, providing a visual representation of an approximate 95%
                                                             confidence interval for the mean score.
Section C -- The Use of Technology in Teaching
82. Usage of computers in courses
        Of those responding to question 82 regarding the use of computers in teaching, 67% say
they use and 31% say they do not use computers. Furthermore, 69% say they would like to use
computers more than they do now. More importantly, of those who say they do not use computers,
54% say they would like to use them.

              Computers used now                                                                     Would use more
        0        20        40         60         80         100                          0         20         40         60             80   100

                                                                Engineering
                                                               Administration
                                                                  Medicine
                                                                  Science
                                                               Health Science
                                                                 Education
                                                               Social Science
                                                                      Arts
                                                                      Law
       0         20        40         60         80         100                          0         20         40         60             80   100

                                %                                                                                    %
                      Circles represent the frequency of positive responses and lines span 1 standard error on each side of the mean.



        Interestingly, the Arts and Law faculties which are the least likely to use computers in their
courses now, are right in the pack when it comes to wanting to use computers more, and two of the
most prolific users of computers, the Science and Engineering faculties, lead the way in wanting to
use them more.
            The use of computers does not appear to differ by age, and there is no difference between
genders.

83. Which of the following describe(s) the purpose(s) for which you use the computer in your course(s)?
(Circle more than one if appropriate)

                         Purpose / Utilisation                                    %          Standard Error / Erreur-type
                         Presentation Tool / Outil de présentation               72%                     3%
                         Tool / Outil                                            54%                     3%
                         Resource / Ressource                                    51%                     3%
                         Teaching Machine / Machine à enseigner                  21%                     2%
                         Simulator / Simulateur                                  17%                     2%


         Clearly the most popular use is as a presentation device (e.g. use of Powerpoint), with uses as
a tool (word processing, spreadsheet, database) and as a resource (as entrance to network for
communications and access to databases) lagging far behind in second and third.
         The least popular uses are as a teaching machine (some form of computer-aided instruction,
such as tutorials or drill and practice), and as a simulator (a model or game that allows students to
make decisions that affect the model and observe resulting changes).
        The following table ranks the various learning activities (question 84) in increasing order of
those for which respondents “definitely would not use” computers; thus, they are in decreasing order
in terms of current plus potential use.
Learning Activity /                  Currently use /        Might use /        Want information /   Would not use /
Activité                             Utilise présentement   Utiliserai peut-   Renseignements       N'utiliserai pas
                                                            être               souhaités
Lectures /
                                               56%               24%                   10%                11%
Cours magistraux
Assignments/
                                               48%               22%                   13%                17%
Travaux et devoirs
Demonstrations /
                                               35%               34%                   14%                17%
Démonstrations
Independent study projects /
                                               37%               27%                   15%                21%
Projets d'étude indépendante
Out of class group projects /
                                               37%               24%                   17%                22%
Projets de groupe hors classe
Essays, term papers, reports /
Dissertations, travaux de session,             43%               18%                   15%                23%
rapports
Testing, examinations /
Contrôle des connaissances,                    16%               35%                   21%                29%
examens
Drill and practice labs /
                                               20%               30%                   14%                35%
Exercices de répétition, labos
Simulations, role playing /
                                               16%               29%                   19%                37%
Simulations, jeux de rôles
Lab experiments, analysis /
Expériences et analyses de                     30%               13%                   12%                44%
laboratoire

85. Please describe briefly your personal vision of the role and uses of computers in teaching and learning.
         The responses mainly comprised descriptions of the specific uses of computers as
summarized above for question 83. The most commonly expressed view was that computers are an
essential tool to enhance and support teaching but do not replace the student/teacher relationship.

86. Please describe briefly what you think should be this institution’s overall vision of computers in teaching
and learning.
       The prevailing response was that the university should provide sufficient computer resources
(equipment and support) and encourage its use wherever professors see a good fit.

87. What problems (if any) have you had in using computers as part of course instruction? What concerns do
you have about academic computer use?
           Common problems include:
           availability of computers (for professors and students) for teaching purposes and of wired
           classrooms,
           system reliability and lack of support,
           students overly dependent on computers and losing ability to read or think,
         lack of time for computer preparation and for development of on-line teaching materials,
         and
         plagiarism.

88. Do you find you are adequately informed about and able to use the electronic resources provided by the
Library Network? Please comment.
         Overall, about 2/3 of the respondents are adequately informed and 1/3 are not.

89. What impact have electronic communication tools (such as email, chat groups, bulletin boards, etc.) had
on your workload as a teacher?
         Overall, the overwhelming opinion was that workloads have increased mainly in responding
to email messages (which demand immediate responses). On the positive side, professors feel that
the ease and accessibility of communication via email is a great help.

90. Do you feel that computers have been effective in helping to achieve the learning objectives of your
course(s)? Please explain.
         Overall, professors are more likely to say they have been effective than not, with many
positive comments regarding better course organization, availability of class materials, and effective
use of good software allowing focus on ideas rather than computing or computational skills.

91. The Future Use of Computers
        Of those reponding to the question of the future use of computers, by far the most, 72%,
expect to use computers more, 23% expect “about the same”, and only 5% expect to use them less.

92. Please outline briefly how and why you anticipate using, more, less or about the same degree of computer
technology in your teaching in the next 5 years.
        The focus of increased computer use appears to be the use of Web sites or WebCT for
course materials and distance education, and the development of on-line courses and quizzes. A
number of respondents say they will use Powerpoint and chat groups.

93-94. Access to Equipment and Training
        Only 46% of respondents agree (somewhat or strongly) that professors have adequate access
to equipment (hardware and software) to introduce more technology into their teaching.
        A slight majority of 52% agrees that they have adequate access to training in order to
introduce more technology into their teaching.
SECTION D - Importance of teaching in career
96-98. Teaching in hiring decisions
          When professors are initially hired at the University of Ottawa their publication output and
research accomplishments are usually well documented in their curriculum vitae. Eighty-nine percent
of the respondents to the survey on teaching (eighty-six percent in the fall of 1989) agree (strongly or
somewhat) that teaching skills should be assessed in some way. But 57% of the respondents (51% in
1989) do not feel that, when they were hired, their file included sufficient information to allow for a
fair appraisal of the quality of their teaching. Of the various means suggested to assess the teaching
skills of a new professor, the preferred approaches are as follows:
         62% agree that the candidates should be questioned about their teaching during an interview
         (47% in 1989);
         60% agree that the candidates should be invited to give one or more seminars (60% as well
         in 1989);
         58% agree that the candidates should be required to provide references relative to his/her
         teaching (49% in 1989); and
         53% agree that the candidates should be invited to teach an undergraduate class (35% in
         1989).

         There are differences among gender and faculty groupings but none are statistically
significant (at the 5% level of significance). Clearly, while there is considerable support for the
assessment of teaching skills at the time of being hired, there is no standard practice.

100-105. Teaching in tenure and promotion decisions
        More than half of the professors (54% compared to 62% in 1989) feel that the persons and
committees making recommendations or decisions do not have sufficient information to make a fair
appraisal of the quality of a professor's teaching. In addition, 70% and 74% feel that their teaching
was not given the same recognition as their publication output and research accomplishments when
they applied for tenure and promotion respectively (57% and 63% in 1989). Most professors feel
(70% for tenure and 71% for promotion) that the true value of their teaching performance was not
considered because the persons and committees making tenure and promotion decisions and
recommendations were mostly interested in research (in 1989, 59% for tenure and 71% for
promotion). Indeed, 29% (for tenure) and 33% (for promotion) say it was “normal” that they would
be assessed mainly as a researcher (25% for tenure and 29% for promotion in 1989). Furthermore,
26% (for tenure) and 27% (for promotion) feel that the persons and committees making tenure and
promotion decisions and recommendations could not determine the true value of teaching
performance because they did not have at their disposal appropriate means of assessing teaching
(18% and 27% respectively in 1989).
        There are some significant differences in faculty groupings as 27% of professors in the
Faculty of Administration (counting those who express an opinion) feel that the persons and
committees making recommendations or decisions did not have sufficient information to make a fair
appraisal of the quality of a professor's teaching compared to 69% in the Faculty of Engineering.
Medicine and Science professors show the greatest support for the view that it was “normal” that
they would be assessed mainly as researchers; half or more agree that this was as it should be when
considering tenure (50 and 60% respectively) or promotions (50 and 57% respectively). In 1989, half
of Engineering and Science professors agreed that it was “normal” that they would be assessed
mainly as a researcher.
106. Teaching dossiers
         When asked whether they would support the preparation of a teaching dossier to better
present their teaching accomplishments at various points in their academic careers, 33% of
professors could not say because they required more information about the teaching dossier. Of
those who know what a teaching dossier is, 83% express support (equally divided between somewhat
agree and strongly agree). Four faculties express a level of support superior to 95%, support in the
Faculty of Arts is the weakest with 68% of respondents agreeing with the preparation of a teaching
dossier.

107-109. Teaching performance vs publication output and research accomplishment
          Over three quarters of the respondents agree that when promotion or tenure is being
considered, the teaching performance of professors should be given the same recognition as their
publication output and research accomplishments (80% for tenure and 77% for promotion). There is
very little change since the fall of 1989 (corresponding percentages were 79 and 77%). There are
differences in faculty groupings as, for both tenure and promotion, between 60 and 70% agree in
Arts, Science and Social Sciences whereas the percentage is between 87 and 100% for Education,
Engineering, Health Sciences, Law and Medicine.
         The respondents are almost equally divided on their agreement with the statement “Few
professors achieve excellence in both research and teaching” (49% agree somewhat or strongly
compared to 61% in the fall of 1989). There is quite a range of responses among faculties with 28%
agreeing in Law compared to 78% in Health Sciences. But differences between gender and rank are
not significant.

110-112 (124). Importance attached to the quality of teaching
        How much importance is placed by the University of Ottawa on the quality of teaching?
More than half (65%) of the professors say that the overall efforts of the University to support and
promote teaching are fairly (43%) or very (22%) weak (these last percentages were respectively 46
and 14% in 1989). Similarly, 88% of the professors agree strongly (48%) or somewhat (40%) that
there should be stronger encouragement for professors to improve their teaching (these last
percentages were respectively 54 and 37% in 1989). Some differences are found between faculty
groupings. Where only 45% of the professors in Administration say that the efforts of the University
to support and promote teaching are very or fairly weak, approximately 90% of the professors in Law
and Science share that opinion.
        With regards to the importance attached to the quality of teaching by the central
administration, Deans or chairpersons, just over half of the respondents (52%) feel that there is not
enough importance (the percentages were 61% for the Central administration and 57% for Deans
and chairpersons in the fall of 1989). Here again, there are differences among faculty groupings.
Forty percent of the professors in Arts are of the opinion that the administration does not attach
enough importance to teaching, whereas between 66 and 100% of the professors in all other faculties
share that opinion (except Education at 55%).
          Question 124 is actually asking what can the University do to provide better support for
your teaching over the next five years. One hundred and fifty two actually have suggestions to that
effect. The majority agrees that the most significant step would be the reduction of teaching load and
class size. Providing the individual professor with better equipment (specifically personal computer
to be used for teaching purposes) and rewarding good teachers are also frequently mentioned.
113-123. Teaching versus research: At the University of Ottawa, it should be possible for a professor to….
                                                   Strongly                 Somewhat         Somewhat     Strongly
                                                   disagree                  disagree          agree       agree



                                               spend equal time on both teaching and research
                              to obtain tenure with equal weight given to teaching and research
                         be promoted with equal weight given to his/her teaching and research
                  be promoted mainly for her/his research accomplishments
             to obtain tenure mainly for his/her research accomplishments
                                                                                                        Administration
                             spend most of her/his time doing research                                  Arts
                                  spend most of her/his time teaching                                   Education
                                                                                                        Engineering
              to obtain tenure mainly for the quality of his/her teaching
                                                                                                        Health Science
                be promoted mainly for the quality of his/her teaching                                  Law
                                                                                                        Medicine
                    spend all her/his time doing research
                                                                                                        Science
                          spend all her/his time teaching                                               Social Science



                                                      1                        2                  3           4


        Overall, the opinions expressed by professors are very consistent with those expressed in
1989 (for more details, please refer to the Appendix):
         A large majority (approximately 84%) agrees that it should be possible to recognize equally
         teaching and research when it comes to tenure or promotion and 88% of the respondents
         believe that it should be possible to spend equal time on both.
         A small majority (between 52 and 59%) agrees that it should be possible to spend most of
         one’s time on research or obtain tenure or promotion based mainly on research
         accomplishments.
         The same size small majority disagrees that it should be possible to obtain tenure or
         promotion based mainly on the quality of teaching.
         Opinions are evenly divided on whether it should be possible to spend most of one’s time
         teaching. Fifty six percent of the respondents agree on the possibility of spending most of
         one’s time doing research. A large majority (84%) disagrees with the possibility of spending
         all of one’s time either teaching or doing research.
         There are some differences of opinions between faculties. Among the most significant are
the following:
         less than 30% of respondents from Arts (23%) and Social Sciences (27%) agree that it
         should be possible to be promoted mainly for the quality of teaching while the
         corresponding percentage is at least 50% for Education (50%), Engineering (58%), Law
         (50%) and Medicine (68%); and
         36% of respondents in the Faculty of Education agree that it should be possible to be
         promoted mainly for research accomplishments compared to 79% in Science and 68% in
         Social Sciences (the same faculties are outliers on the question of tenure mainly for research
         accomplishments with 27%, 74% and 63% respectively).
APPENDIX

Professors were asked to which degree they agree or disagree (somewhat or strongly) with general
statements related to teaching and research from the point of view of promotion, tenure and time
spent. The following table provides the percentages of respondents for each possible answer and
compare them to percentages in 1989.




                                                                        Strongly disagree /




                                                                                              disagree / Plutôt en




                                                                                                                                        Fortement d’accord
                                                                                                                     Somewhat agree /




                                                                                                                                         Strongly agree /
                                                                                                                      Plutôt d’accord
                                                                           Fortement en
                                                                            désaccord /




                                                                                                  désaccord/
                                                                                                  Somewhat
At the University of Ottawa, it should be possible for a
professor to…/
À l'Université d'Ottawa, un professeur devrait pouvoir



be promoted mainly for the quality of his/her teaching /         2001          23                    36                  25                  16
être promu principalement pour la qualité de son                 1989          20                    32                  26                  22
enseignement

to obtain tenure mainly for the quality of his/her teaching /    2001          22                    35                  26                  17
obtenir la permanence principalement pour la qualité de son      1989          20                    31                  27                  22
enseignement

be promoted mainly for her/his research accomplishments /        2001          11                    30                  40                  19
être promu principalement pour ses réalisations de recherche     1989          10                    32                  35                  23

to obtain tenure mainly for his/her research accomplishments /   2001          13                    34                  39                  14
obtenir la permanence principalement pour ses réalisations de    1989          12                    32                  35                  21
recherche

be promoted with equal weight given to his/her teaching and      2001           3                    13                  39                  45
research / être promu sur la base d'une importance égale         1989           5                    15                  31                  49
accordée à l'enseignement et à la recherche

to obtain tenure with equal weight given to his/her teaching     2001           3                    13                  37                  47
and research / obtenir la permanence sur la base d'une           1989           5                    14                  33                  48
importance égale accordée à l'enseignement et à la recherche

spend all her/his time teaching /                                2001          54                    29                   7                  10
se consacrer uniquement à l'enseignement                         1989          42                    32                  14                  12

spend all her/his time doing research /                          2001          51                    33                   8                   8
se consacrer uniquement à la recherche                           1989          34                    35                  17                  14

spend most of her/his time teaching /                            2001          21                    27                  37                  15
se consacrer surtout à l'enseignement                            1989          16                    27                  33                  24

spend most of her/his time doing research /                      2001          18                    26                  42                  14
se consacrer surtout à la recherche                              1989          11                    26                  36                  27

spend equal time on both /                                       2001           4                     9                  41                  47
se consacrer autant à un aspect qu'à l'autre                     1989           5                    12                  35                  48

				
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