Docstoc

Bella Riva Golf Estate

Document Sample
Bella Riva Golf Estate Powered By Docstoc
					             WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS
              TEL/FAX: 021-887 4000               15 Mount Albert Street         P.O. Box 6118
            e-mail: nelia@withersenviro.co.za     STELLENBOSCH 7600                UNIEDAL 7612

  ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING IMPACT ASSESSMENTS AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS




          Bella Riva Golf Estate


                                     SAGE WISE 67 (PTY) LTD

                    DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT


                  The proposed development of Bella Riva Golf Estate on:
                 Portion 1 of the Farm Lichtenburg No. 175 (entrance road)
                          Remainder of Farm Lichtenburg No. 175
             Portions 1 (Farmika) and 2 (Bella Riva) of Farm Louwenhof No. 123
                     Remainder (Eikenhof) of Farm Louwenhof No. 123

                                                DURBANVILLE




Compiled by: Aubrey Withers and Nelia Human

January 2009

DEA&DP Reference: E12/2/3/2-A4/126-0272/06
Job No: 06/10/1165
       A.W.WITHERS Pr. Sci. Nat. BSc(Hons) (Geology)         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS (Pty) Ltd.
       Inc. Reg. No. 99/023003/07
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                    Page
1.    INTRODUCTION                                                                             1
1.2   Property Components                                                                      1
1.3   Initial Proposals                                                                        2
1.4   Listed Activities                                                                        4
1.5   EIA Process Followed to Date                                                             5
1.6   Structure of this Report                                                                 7
2.    ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PRACTITIONER (EAP)                                              8
    2.1    Role and Competence of the EAP                                                      8
    2.1.1 Role within Integrated Specialist Fields                                             8
    2.1.2 Experience as Environmental Practitioner                                             8
2.2 Terms of Reference                                                                         9
3.    THE PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT                                                               11
3.1 Preferred Development Proposals and Alternatives                                          11
    3.1.1 Alternative 1: Preferred Alternative                                               11
    3.1.2 Alternative 2                                                                      12
    3.1.3 Alternative 3: No Go Option                                                        12
3.2 Engineering Services                                                                      12
    3.2.1 Potable Water                                                                      13
    3.2.2 Sewage                                                                             13
    3.2.3 Stormwater                                                                         14
    3.2.4 Irrigation Water                                                                   18
    3.2.5 Domestic Solid Waste                                                               19
    3.2.6 Electricity                                                                        19
    3.2.7 Street Lighting                                                                    20
    3.2.8 Energy Conservation                                                                20
    3.2.9 Telephone                                                                          20
    3.2.10 Access and Internal Road Network                                                  20
    3.2.11 Emergency Services                                                                21
    3.2.12 Security                                                                          21
3.3 Comment on Services from CoCT and Eskom                                                   21
3.4 Environmental Evaluation                                                                  21
    3.4.1 Surrounding Land uses                                                              21
    3.4.2 Biophysical Characteristics of the Property                                        22
    3.3.5 Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Surrounding Area                             24
4.    NEMA ENVIRONMENTAL SCOPING AND EIA PROCESSES                                           25
4.1 Aims of the EIA Process                                                                    25
4.2 PHASE 1: Submit the NEMA EIA Application Form                                              25
4.3 PHASE 2: Background Information Document                                                   26
4.4 PHASE 3: Public Meeting                                                                    26
4.5 PHASE 4: Scoping Phase: Draft Scoping Report                                               26
4.6 PHASE 5: Scoping Phase: Final Scoping Report                                               27
4.7 PHASE 6: EIA Phase: Draft Environmental Impact Report                                      28
4.8 PHASE 7: EIA Phase: Public Participation Process                                           28
4.9 PHASE 8: EIA phase: Final Environmental Impact Assessment Report                           29
4.10 Administration of Record of Decision                                                      29
4.11 Appeal Process                                                                            29
5.    PLANNING CONTEXT                                                                       31
5.1 Responsible Local Authorities and Decision Making Government Departments                   31
    5.1.1 Environmental Approval                                                             31
    5.1.2 Rezoning and Subdivision                                                           31
    5.1.3 Spatial Development Framework                                                      31
    5.1.4 Agricultural Land                                                                  31
    5.1.5 Heritage                                                                           31
                              WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                              i
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

      5.1.6   Removal of Restrictions                                                        32
6.    PLANNING GUIDELINES WITH RESPECT TO THE EXISTING PLANNING FRAMEWORKS
      WITHIN THE TYGERBERG AREA AND THE WESTERN CAPE DEVELOPMENT
      GUIDELINES                                                       33
6.1 Urban Structure Plan (Guide Plan) for the Cape Peninsula (1988)                    33
6.2 Tygerberg Spatial Development Framework (1998)                                     33
6.3 Provincial Spatial Development Framework (2005)                                    33
6.4 Metropolitan Spatial Development Framework (MSDF)(1996)                            35
6.5 Rural Management Framework: City of Cape Town (May 2002)                           35
6.6 Provincial Urban Edge Guidelines (December 2005)                                   36
6.7 Guidelines for Golf Courses, Golf Estates, Polo Fields and Polo Estates in the Western
    Cape (December 2005)                                                               38
    6.7.1 Objectives                                                                  38
    6.7.2 Guiding Development Criteria                                                38
6.8 Guideline on Public Participation in the Western Cape (July 2006)                   42
6.9 Guideline on Alternatives in the Western Cape (September 2007)                     43
6.10 Cape Town 2030 Future Plan / SDF and District Planning                            44
7.    LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO THE PROPOSED
      BELLA RIVA GOLF COURSE DEVELOPMENT                          46
7.1 The South African Constitution                                                            46
7.2 Environmental Legislation                                                                 46
    7.2.1 The National Environmental Management Act                                          46
    7.2.2 National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act                                 47
7.3 National Heritage Resources Act                                                           48
8     SPECIALIST STUDIES: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                    52
8.1 Agricultural Soils Analysis                                                            52
    8.1.1 Agricultural Soils                                                            52
    8.1.2 Recommendations                                                               54
8.2 Preliminary Assessment of Groundwater Resources and Boreholes at the Proposed Bella
    Riva Golf Estate                                                                       54
    8.2.1 Main findings of report                                                       55
    8.2.2 Recommendations                                                               56
8.3 Preliminary Geotechnical Investigation                                                 58
    8.3.1 Geotechnical Investigation                                                    58
    8.3.2 Findings and Recommendations                                                  59
8.4 Archaeological Impact Assessment of Proposed Development on Portions 1 and 2 of
    Farm No 123 (Bella Riva & Farmika), Fisantekraal, Durbanville Magisterial District     60
    8.4.1 Results                                                                       60
    8.4.2 Recommendations                                                               60
8.5 Heritage Impact Statement and Notice of Intent to Develop for Heritage Western Cape 60
    8.5.1 Findings                                                                      61
    8.5.2 Recommendations                                                               61
8.6 Social Impact Assessment of the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate in Fisantekraal, City of
    Cape Town                                                                              61
    8.6.1 Findings                                                                      62
    8.6.2 Conclusion                                                                    62
    8.6.3 Recommendations                                                               63
8.7 Economic Impact Assessment of the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate in Fisantekraal,
    City of Cape Town                                                                      63
    8.7.1 Conclusion                                                                    64
    8.7.2 Recommendations                                                               65
8.8 Botanical Impact Assessment of the Bella Riva Golf and Botanical Assessment of the
    Mosselbank River and floodplain adjacent to the development to the Bella Riva Golf
    Estate Fisantekraal                                                                    66
    8.8.1 Botanical Impact Assessment of the Bella Riva Golf                            66
    8.8.2. Botanical Assessment of the Mosselbank River & flood plain                   67
                              WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                         ii
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

8.9 Landscape Design Guidelines                                                68
    8.9.1 Landscape Vision                                                   68
    8.9.2 Public Landscaping                                                 68
    8.9.3 Private Landscaping Plans                                          69
8.10 Freshwater Assessment: Proposed Bella Riva Development Mosselbank River near
    Fisantekraal                                                               69
8.11 Visual Impact Assessment                                                  71
    8.11.1 Recommended Mitigation Measures                                   72
8.12 Proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate Traffic Impact Assessment                 74
    8.12.1 Conclusions                                                       74
    8.12.2 Recommendations                                                   76
8.13 Architectural Guidelines and Design Codes                                 76
    8.13.1 Vision                                                            76
    8.13.2 Site Development Guidelines                                        76
    8.13.3 Building Design Guidelines                                        77
9   POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE DEVELOPMENT
    79
9.1 Assessment Methodology                                                                     79
9.2 Insignificant Issues                                                                       83
     9.2.1 Security Issues                                                                    83
     9.2.2 Provision of Educational Facilities                                                84
     9.2.3 Community involvement in the project                                               84
     9.2.4 Skills Survey                                                                      84
     9.2.5 Documentation During EIA Process                                                   85
     9.2.6 GAP Housing                                                                        85
     9.2.7 Crushing of raw material on site                                                   85
     9.2.8 Public Meetings and Community Involvement                                          85
     9.2.9 Length of Comment Period during Scoping Phase                                      86
     9.2.10 Buffer with Corobrick Site                                                        86
     9.2.11 Loss of Heritage and Archaeological Value of Landscape.                           87
     9.2.12 Impact on vegetation                                                              87
     9.2.13 Impact of Equestrian Centre                                                       88
     9.2.14 Cumulated Impacts on Public Services and Recreation                               88
9.3 Potentially Significant Impacts                                                            90
     9.3.1 Biophysical Issues                                                                 90
     9.3.2 Socio-Economic Issues                                                             103
     9.3.3 Engineering Services Issues                                                       111
     9.3.4 Planning Issues                                                                   123
10. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                                          129
10.1 Introduction                                                      129
10.2 The Main Conclusions Summarised from the EIA Process include the following:
     130




                              WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                               iii
                               DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1:    Regional Locality of the Proposed Bella Riva Golf Course Development,
             Durbanville.

FIGURE 2:    Arial Photo of the Proposed Bella Riva Golf Course Development,
             Durbanville.

FIGURE 3:    Alternative 1 (Preferred Alternative) of the Proposed Bella Riva Golf
             Course Development, Durbanville.

FIGURE 4:    Alternative 2 of the Proposed Bella Riva Golf Course Development,
             Durbanville.

FIGURE 5:    Scoping and EIA Process

FIGURE 6:    Botanical Assessment of the Proposed Bella Riva Golf Course
             Development, Durbanville.




                   WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                                 iv
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

LIST OF TABLES

Attached

TABLE 1a:      Comments and Responses to Background Information Document and
               First Public Meeting

TABLE 1b:      Comments and Responses to the Draft Scoping Report and Subsequent
               Meetings with Community Leaders

In document:

TABLE 2:       Peak Run-Off Volumes

TABLE 3:       Relevant Legislation Applicable for the Proposed Development

TABLE 4:       Potential for Wine Grapes and Perennial crops on Farm Bella Riva

TABLE 5:       Potential for Wine Grapes and Perennial crops on Farm Farmika

TABLE 6:       Potential for Wine Grapes and Perennial crops on Farm Lichtenburg

TABLE 7:       Recommended equipment and pumping schedules for the pump tested
               boreholes at Bella Riva

TABLE 8:       Criteria for the evaluation of impacts

TABLE 9:       Definition of significance ratings

TABLE 10:      Chemical Physical properties of Pesticides




                     WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                                v
                           DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS

PHOTOGRAPH 1:     Farms Eikenhof and Bella Riva are run primarily as intensive
                  cattle and pig feedlots (under roof).

PHOTOGRAPH 2:     Views seen to the east of the Bella Riva site. Looking towards the
                  “Drie Pieke” in the Jonkershoek Valley, Stellenbosch.

PHOTOGRAPH 3:     Extensive wheat farming takes place on the three farms to be
                  used for the development of the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate.
                  Note the sand mining in the right background of photo.

PHOTOGRAPH 4:     The mining of sand also takes place within a shallow valley on
                  the Eikenhof Farm.

PHOTOGRAPH 5:     Views seen from the proposed Bella Riva Site, looking towards
                  Cape Town and Table Mountain in the west. The Mosselbank
                  Farmstead is seen in the photo.

PHOTOGRAPH 6:     Kaolin mining takes place on the farm to the east of the proposed
                  golf estate. Kaolin is used in ceramics, clay tiles and brick
                  manufacturing industries.




                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                                vi
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1:     Application for Scoping to DEA&DP

APPENDIX 2:     Acknowledgement of receipt and acceptance for the Application

APPENDIX 3:     Background Information Document

APPENDIX 4a:    List of IAP’s obtained from Municipality
APPENDIX 4b:    Distribution list for notes recorded at first public meeting
APPENDIX 4c:    Written comments from registered IAP’s up to first public meeting
APPENDIX 4d:    Written comments from registered IAPs on DSR
APPENDIX 4e:    Registered IAP’s
APPENDIX 4f:    Memorandum of Understanding

APPENDIX 5a: Advertisement of BID and public meeting
APPENDIX 5b: Notice Board 1, advertising BID and public meeting

APPENDIX 6a: Notes recorded at first public meeting
APPENDIX 6b: Minutes of meeting with Corobrick Representatives

APPENDIX 7a:    Plan of Study (POS) for EIA
APPENDIX 7b:    Letter from DEA&DP accepting FSR, but rejecting POS for EIA
APPENDIX 7c:    Amended POS for EIA
APPENDIX 7d:    Letter from DEA&DP accepting amended POS for EIA

APPENDIX 8a: Advertisement of DSR for public comment
APPENDIX 8b: Notice Board 2: Advertisement of DSR for public comment

APPENDIX 9a:    Advertisement of FSR for public comment
APPENDIX 9b:    Notice Board 3: Advertisement of FSR for public comment
APPENDIX 9d:    Advertisement of DEIR for public comment
APPENDIX 9e:    Notice Board 4: Advertisement of DEIR for public comment

APPENDIX 10: Agricultural soil potential of the properties (Mr Bennie Schloms)

APPENDIX 11: Geotechnical Investigation of the applicable properties (SRK Consultants)

APPENDIX 12: Social Impact Assessment (Jonathan Bloom)

APPENDIX 13: Economic Impact Assessment (Jonathan Bloom)

APPENDIX 14: Groundwater and borehole resources assessment (SRK Consultants)

APPENDIX 15: Archaeological Impact Assessment (UCT Archaeological Contracts Office)

APPENDIX 16a: Heritage Impact Assessment (Maretha Geldenhuys)
APPENDIX 16b: Record of Decision from Heritage Western Cape

APPENDIX 17: Visual Impact Assessment (CNvD)

APPENDIX 18: Aquatic/Freshwater Impact Assessment (Toni Belcher)

APPENDIX 19a: Vegetation Assessment of development area (Charlie Boucher)
APPENDIX 19a: Vegetation Assessment of Mosselbank River and floodplain (Charlie
              Boucher)

APPENDIX 20: Traffic Impact Assessment (Africon)

                      WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                               vii
                                DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



APPENDIX 21: Landscaping Guidelines (Planning Partners)

APPENDIX 22: Architecture Design (Staunch Voster)

APPENDIX 23a: Engineering Services (Africon)
APPENDIX 23b: Stormwater Management (Africon)

APPENDIX 24: Correspondence from City of Cape Town Municipality regarding services

APPENDIX 25: Environmental Management Plan




                     WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                              viii
                                             DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Architectural review Committee                                                          ARC

Background Information Document                                                         BID

Black Economic Empowerment                                                              BEE

Cape Action Plan for the People and the Environment                                     CAPE

City of Cape Town                                                                       CoCT

Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act                                              CARA

Cape Metropolitan Area                                                                  CMA

Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning                            DEA&DP

Department of Minerals and Energy                                                       DME

Department of Water Affairs and Forestry                                                DWAF

Draft Spatial Development Framework                                                     DSDF

Draft Scoping Report                                                                    DSR

Environment Conservation Act (Act 73 of 1989)                                           ECA

Environmental Control Officer                                                           ECO

Environmental Impact Assessment                                                         EIA

Environmental Impact Report                                                             EIR

Environmental Management Plan                                                           EMP

Environmental Management System                                                         EMS

Home Owners Association                                                                 HOA

Interim Sectoral Urban Edge                                                             ISUE

Interested and Affected Parties                                                         IAPs

Integrated Development Plan                                                             IDP

Land Use Planning Ordinance, Ordinance 15 of 1985                                       LUPO

Mean Annual Run-Off                                                                     MAR

Metropolitan Open Space System                                                          MOSS

National Environmental Management Act, Act 107 of 1998                                  NEMA

National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment                                                NSBA

Participatory Learning and Action                                                       PLA


                                  WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                              ix
                                             DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

Property Owners Association                                                             POA

Power of Attorney                                                                       POA

Public Participation Process                                                            PPP

Participatory Rural Appraisal                                                           PRA

Record of Decision                                                                      ROD

South African National Botanical Institute                                              SANBI

Site Development Plan                                                                   SDP

South African Heritage Resources Agency                                                 SAHRA

Spatial Development Framework                                                           SDF

Traffic Impact Assessment                                                               TIA

Tygerberg Spatial Development Framework                                                 TSDF

Western Cape Educational Department                                                     WCED

Western Cape Nature Conservation Board                                                  WCNCB

Withers Environmental Consultants                                                       WEC

Fisantekraal Waste Water Treatment Works                                                WWTW




                                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                               x
                                        DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE


1.    INTRODUCTION
      The proposed Bella Riva Golf Course Estate was originally initiated by Messrs sage
      Wise 67 (Pty) Ltd under the Environment Conservation Act (Act 73 of 1989) (ECA).
      During the time it took to reach agreement with land owners and the City of Cape Town
      regarding the establishment of the new Fisantekraal Waste Water Treatment Works
      (WWTW) on the Bella Riva site, the National Environmental Management Act 1998(No.
      107 of 1998) (NEMA) was promulgated. It was therefore decided to withdraw the ECA
      Application and resubmit a new application in terms of NEMA.


1.1   Property Components

      The proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate comprises five portions of land, namely:

      Portion 1 of the Farm Lichtenburg No. 175                              (entrance road)
      Remainder of Farm Lichtenburg No. 175                                   75.7024 ha
      Portions 1 (Farmika) of the Farm Louwenhof No.123                      102.3912 ha
      Portion 2 (Bella Riva) of the Farm Louwenhof No.123                     41.9181 ha
      Remainder (Eikenhof) of Farm Louwenhof No. 123                         180.4804 ha
      TOTAL                                                                  400.4921ha

      (Hereafter referred to as “the application area or the property”).

      The developer of the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate, Messrs Sage Wise 67 (Pty) Ltd.
      has an agreement with each of the owners of the above properties for the development
      of a golf estate.

      The consolidated application area total about 370ha, excluding the southern entrance
      road over Portion 1 of the Farm Lichtenburg No. 175, and the proposed WWTW (±31ha),
      a 50 Ml/day wastewater treatment plant, to be developed by the City of Cape Town and
      recently approved for the lower western section of the Bella Riva Farm. The application
      area is located approximately 10km northeast of Durbanville and east of both the R302
      to Malmesbury and the Mosselbank River (Figure 1).

      Figure 2 shows an aerial photograph of the application area with the various properties
      involved, as well as surrounding land uses. The geographical coordinates of the
      application area are approximately 33°45’49” S and 18°43’25” E. Both the R302 and the
      R312 roads provide access to the property. The 21 digit Codes for the properties
      involved, are:

      C01600000000017500001, C01600000000017500000,                   C01600000000012300001,
      C0160000000001230002, C01600000000012300000.




                              WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                    1
                                     DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




      Figure 1: Location of Proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate and proposed access roads, shown
      on 1:50 000 geographical map.


1.2   Initial Proposals

      The developer, Messrs Sage Wise 67 (Pty) Ltd. originally initiated the application with
      the following development proposal:

         •   Gate House
         •   Club House
         •   Hotel, Conference Centre and Spa
         •   Maintenance Building
         •   Waste Water Treatment Plant (CoCT)
         •   Parking
         •   Golf Academy
         •   School Site

                             WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                  2
                                 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

   •   Church
   •   Retail
   •   Town Square
   •   Olive Plantation
   •   Public Open Space
   •   Recreational Grounds
   •   2030 Affordable Medium Density Units
   •   72 (300m²) Medium Density Units
   •   150 (180m²) Medium Density Units
   •   133 (150m²) Medium Density Units
   •   557 (750m²) Single Residential Erven

This initial application has been superseded by a Preferred Alternative and Alternative 2
as provided in the table below.




                                  Preferred Alternative

Messrs Sage Wise 67 (Pty) Ltd. has aligned itself to the Policy Guidelines for Golf
Course and Polo Field Developments (December 2005) issued by the Department of
Environmental Affairs and Development Planning (DEA&DP).

To undertake this initial development proposal, the property has to be rezoned from
Agriculture Zone I to various Zones in terms of the Scheme Regulations for the
jurisdiction area of the Tygerberg Administration of the City of Cape Town. These zones
include the following: Open Space Zone II, Resort Zone II, Special Use, Residential
Zone I, Residential Zone II and Institutional Zone I. In addition, infrastructure has to be
constructed and dams have to be built.


                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                    3
                                       DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

1.3   Listed Activities

      On the 21 April 2006 the Minister of Environmental Affairs promulgated Regulations in
      terms of Regulation 4(6) of the regulations published in the Government Notices
      (Government Notice R385, R386, R387) in terms of Section 24(5) of the National
      Environmental Management Act, 1998 (Act No. 107 of 1998) (NEMA). The NEMA EIA
      regulations came into effect on the 3 July 2006 to repeal the Environment Conservation
      Act 73 of 1989 (ECA) and also introduced new provisions regarding environmental
      impact assessments.

      The proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate triggers a number of listed activities in terms of the
      NEMA EIA Regulations (R. 386 and R. 387) and therefore dictates a Scoping and
      Environmental Impact Assessment Process (i.e. full EIA). These listed activities include:

      Government Notice R386:
      1     The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or
            infrastructure, for-
            (k) the bulk transportation of sewage and water, including stormwater, in
            pipelines with -
                      (i) an internal diameter of 0.36m or more; or
                      (ii) a peak throughput of 120 litres per second or more;
            (m) any purpose in the one in ten year flood line of a river or stream, or within
            32 metres from the bank of a river or stream where the flood line is unknown,
            excluding purposes associated with existing residential use, but including –
                      (i) canals; (ii) channels; (iii) bridges; (iv) dams; and (v) weirs
      (n)   the off-stream storage of water, including dams, and reservoirs, with a capacity
            of 50 000 cubic metres or more;
      4     the dredging, excavation, infilling, removal or moving of soil, sand or rock
            exceeding 5 cubic metres from a river, tidal lagoon, tidal river, in-stream dam,
            floodplain or wetland
      7     the above ground storage of dangerous goods, including petrol, diesel,....., in
            containers with a combined capacity of more than 30 cubic metres but less than
            1000 cubic metres at any one location or site;
      15    The construction of a road that is wider than 4m or that has a reserve wider
            than 6m, excluding roads that fall within the ambit of another listed activity or
            which are access roads of less than 30m long;
      16    The transformation of undeveloped, vacant or derelict land to –
            (b) residential, mixed, retail, commercial, industrial or institutional use where
            such development does not constitute infill and where the total area to be
            transformed is bigger than 1 ha;
      17    Phased activities where any one phase of the activity may be below a threshold
            specified in this Schedule but where a combination of the phases, including
            expansions or extensions, will exceed a specific threshold;
      18    The subdivision of portions of land 9ha or larger into portions of 5ha or less.

      Government Notice R387:
      1     The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or
            infrastructure, for–
            (p) the treatment of effluent, wastewater or sewage with an annual throughput
            capacity of 15 000 cubic metres or more;
            (t) any purpose where lawns, playing fields or sports tracks covering an area of
            10 ha or more, will be established;
      2     Any development activity, including associated structures and infrastructure,
            where the total area of the development area, or is intended to be, 20ha or
            more.



                             WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                    4
                                      DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

1.4   EIA Process Followed to Date

      The developer Messrs Sage Wise 67 (Pty) Ltd. has appointed Withers Environmental
      Consultants (WEC) as the Independent Environmental Assessment Practitioner (EAP) to
      undertake the application in terms of the National Environmental Management Act
      (NEMA) (Act 107 of 1998). TV3 Architects and Town Planners were appointed as the
      consulting Town Planners to undertake the application in terms of the Land Use
      Planning Ordinance (LUPO), (Ordinance 15 of 1985). Specialist consultants have been
      appointed to conduct specialist investigations and assessments on issues raised by
      IAPs and officials throughout the EIA Process.

      A full description of the EIA process is contained in Section 4 below. A brief summary of
      the process is give below:

      An Application for the Scoping and EIA Process of the proposed development was
      submitted to DEA&DP, on 10 November 2006 (Appendix 1); acknowledgement of
      receipt and acceptance for the Application was issued by DEA&DP on 24 November
      2006 (Appendix 2).

      The EIA Process could not begin until such time as an agreement between the land
      owner, Sage Wise 67 (Pty) Ltd and the City of Cape Town had been reached with regard
      to the sale of a portion of the Bella Riva Farm for the purpose of a 50Ml/day Waste
      Water Treatment Works (WWTW). In addition, clarity on the design of the WWTW had
      to be obtained from the City of Cape Town. Originally, the WWTW would have been
      placed in the upper eastern section of Bella Riva Farm. The golf course was designed
      accordingly.

      When the City of Cape Town eventually settled on the design of the WWTW, they chose
      to develop it on the lower section of the property. This necessitated redesign of the
      Bella Riva Golf Estate. Apart from the design of the WWTW, the alignment of the
      sewage pipeline had to be finalised. As a result of the above, the Scoping Process for
      the Golf Estate was only initiated in November 2007.

      Apart from the above, the approval of a large Ammonia Storage Depot at the adjacent
      Mellish Station needed to be clarified. It was only after an appeal and a court case that
      this issue was resolved.

        o   Background Information Document (BID) was compiled (Appendix 3), which
            served as the first information release to the public regarding the proposed Bella
            Riva Golf Estate;

        o   a list of IAPs was obtained from the City of Cape Town: Tygerberg Administration
            (Appendix 4a);

        o   the BID was sent to all these IAPs, landowners and occupiers of property adjacent
            to and within 100m of the property boundary; the Municipal Councillor of the ward;
            and the relevant organs of state;

        o   an advertisement was placed in the local newspaper The Tygerburger and
            regional newspapers, Cape Times and Die Burger on Friday, 9 November 2007,
            informing interested and affected parties (IAPs) of the proposed development, the
            availability of the BID and venue and time of the public meeting (Appendix 5a);

        o   two notice boards were also put up on site, one on the western entrance road and
            the other on the eastern entrance road, informing IAPs of the BID and Public
            Meeting to be held on 22 November 2007 (Appendix 5b);


                             WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   5
                                 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



  o    the public meeting was held at the Fisantekraal Primary School Hall on 22
       November 2007;

  o    a list of IAPs who attended the first public meeting was drawn up and notes
       recorded at the public meeting (Appendix 6a) were distributed to all registered
       IAPs (Appendix 4b);

  o    all registered IAPs were included into the DSR (Appendix 4c);

  o    all comments and responses raised during the public meeting and written
       comments regarding the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate were analysed and
       divided into various environmental categories and key issues. The EAP and
       specialists provided a response to these comments and issues raised and these
       were put into a comment/response table (refer to Table 1a);

  o    these comments, together with the EAP’s and Specialist consultants’ responses,
       have been incorporated into a DSR;

  o    a Plan of Study for EIA (Appendix 7) was compiled;

  o    the DSR was made available on Wednesday 12 March 2008 at the Durbanville
       Library and the Fisantekraal Clinic, as was advertised on 12 March 2008 in the
       local Tygerburger newspaper and Regional News Papers The Cape Times and
       Die Burger (Appendix 8a);

  o    IAPs were invited to provide written comments and any concerns and issues
       relating to the proposed development by Friday 11 April 2008;

  o    two notice boards were also attached to the fence on site informing IAPs of the
       availability of the DSR (Appendix 8b);

  o    all the written and verbal comments received and issues raised on the Draft
       Scoping Report, were included in a second comments/response table (refer to
       Table 1b);

  o    the DSR was revised according to the written comments received (Appendix 4d),
       and the Final Scoping Report was submitted to DEA&DP on 30 April 2008 for
       acceptance to continue into the EIA Phase of the project;

  o    a Plan for Study for EIA (POS) was included in Appendix 7a of the FSR;

  o    in a letter dated 2 June 2008 DEA&DP indicated that the FSR was accepted but
       that the Plan of Study for EIA was rejected (Appendix 7b);

  o    an amended POS (Appendix 7c) was submitted to DEA&DP for acceptance on
       12 June 2008 and was accepted by DEA&DP on 1 August 2008 (Appendix 7d).

The following Specialist Studies were undertaken to assist in the initial planning and the
public participation process of the proposed development:

   •    Agricultural soil potential of the properties (Mr Bennie Schloms)
   •    Geotechnical Investigation of the applicable properties (SRK Consultants)
   •    Socio-Economic Impact Assessment (Jonathan Bloom)
   •    Groundwater and borehole resources assessment (SRK Consultants)



                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   6
                                       DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

      Based on the results of the Scoping Process, the following Specialist Studies were
      undertaken during the EIA phase of the project to assist in determining the significance
      of the potential impacts, and putting forward the necessary mitigation/enhancement for
      reducing negative impacts and promoting positive impacts, namely:

         •   Archaeological Impact Assessment (UCT Archaeological Contracts Office)
         •   Heritage Impact Assessment (Maretha Geldenhuys)
         •   Visual Impact Assessment (CNvD)
         •   Aquatic Impact Assessment for the wetlands and river course (Toni Belcher)
         •   Vegetation Assessment of the property as well as the Mosselbank River and
             floodplains (Charlie Boucher)
         •   Traffic Impact Assessment (Africon)
         •   Landscaping (Planning Partners)
         •   Architecture Design (Stauch Voster)

      The results of all the specialist studies undertaken have been incorporated into this
      report, the Draft Environmental Impact Report (DEIR). The DEIR was available as from
      21 January 2009 at the Durbanville Library and the Fisantekraal Clinic, as was
      advertised on 21 January 2009 in the local Tygerburger newspaper and Regional News
      Papers The Cape Times and Die Burger (Appendix 9a). An Open Day and Public
      Meeting is to be held on the 11 February 2009. IAPs were invited to provide written
      comments and any concerns and issues relating to the proposed development by 23
      February 2009. The DEIR will be revised according to the comments received before
      being submitted to the authorities for a Record of Decision (ROD).


1.5   Structure of this Report

      Section 1 of the report is a brief introduction to the proposed project and the process
      followed to date. Section 2 highlights the role of the EAP in the application and presents
      the Terms of Reference for the EAP. Section 3 describes the proposed development,
      the services to be provided and the affected environment of the subregion and the site of
      the proposed development. Section 4 summarises the NEMA environmental Scoping
      and EIA processes Section 5 identifies the responsible local authorities and decision
      making government departments. Section 6 is a brief summary of planning guidelines
      with respect to the existing planning frameworks within the Tygerberg area and the
      Western Cape development guidelines. Section 7 highlights the legal and administrative
      considerations related to the proposed Bella Riva Golf Course Development. Section 8
      is a summary of the conclusions and recommendations of the specialist studies. Section
      9 reviews the possible environmental impacts and presents various mitigation measures,
      which will assist in reducing adverse impacts and enhancing positive impacts. Section
      10 presents the conclusions and recommendations of the report.




                             WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                    7
                                                      DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE


2.      ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PRACTITIONER (EAP)

2.1     Role and Competence of the EAP

        The role of the EAP is to manage the application for an environmental record of decision
        on behalf of the applicant. The EAP must adhere to all relevant legislation and
        guidelines, ensuring that the reports contain all the necessary and relevant information
        required by the competent authority to make a decision (GN No. R385 of 2006,
        Regulation 18). It is the responsibility of the EAP to perform all work relating to the
        application in an objective, appropriate and responsible manner.

        Aubrey Withers, the director of Withers Environmental Consultants, completed his
        Bachelor of Science in Geology (Honours) at the University of Port Elizabeth in 1978.
        Mr Withers is a registered natural scientist with the South African Council for Natural
        Scientific Professions. He is also a member of professional bodies such as the
        Geological Society of South Africa, the International Association for Impact Assessments
        of South Africa and the Groundwater Division of the Geological Society of South Africa.


2.1.1   Role within Integrated Specialist Fields

        Withers Environmental Consultants is a professional environmental consultancy
        providing a wide range of specialist expertise in the integrated1 environmental field to the
        land use and development planning, civil engineering and environmental fraternity, and
        local and government authorities. The consultancy offers a wide range of experience in
        all aspects of environmental concern:

        The use of Bioregional Planning Principles in environmental planning for Spatial
        Planning projects (such as Spatial Development Frameworks for local Municipal areas
        and Regional Planning for large District Municipalities);

             •    Policy guidelines on spatial development and conservation issues for ensuring
                  that the environmental opportunities and constraints offered by the applicable
                  planning area will foster long term sustainable development proposals;

             •    Environmental planning input at the local level at the inception of proposed
                  development projects, to ensure that anticipated environmental impacts are
                  minimised. Many of these regionally-based policy formulation and detailed
                  development projects rely on facilitating extensive public participation
                  programmes to ensure that public sentiments are taken into consideration in an
                  objective and transparent manner;

             •    Environmental impact assessments of development projects are conducted in
                  accordance with the Integrated Environmental Management procedure for
                  obtaining the relevant authorisation in terms of the Regulations of the National
                  Environmental Management Act (Act 107 of 1998).


2.1.2   Experience as Environmental Practitioner

        Mr. Withers has 12 years experience in lecturing, minerals exploration, groundwater
        development (specifically in Namibia, Northern Province, North West Province and

        1
          The term "integrated" implies that it pulls together social, economic, biophysical, spatial, cultural and political concerns
        into a single set of processes, in which the relationship between these concerns is considered.


                                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                                         8
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

        Western Cape Province), and geotechnical geology, civil engineering and building
        construction, and 19 years in professional practice as an Environmental Practitioner,
        undertaking such tasks as:

            •   environmental planning for the compilation of Spatial Development Frameworks
                (Structure Plans);

            •   paving the way for the formation of potential Biosphere Reserves, i.e. bioregional
                planning;

            •   environmental impacts of a host of development projects from large housing
                projects, resort developments, engineering projects of all facets to large and
                small nature reserves;

            •   compiling environmental management plans for such projects and supervising
                the implementation of such projects as the environmental control officer (ECO).

        Mr Withers is ably supported by three professional staff members:

            •   Nelia Maritz has an Honours Degree in African Vertebrate Biodiversity Studies
                and four years of experience in the environmental consultancy field. She is
                currently completing her MPhil in Environmental Management at the University of
                Stellenbosch;
            •   Riette Fourie has as a Masters Degree in Town and Regional Planning with 10
                years relative experience in the town planning and environmental fields;
            •   Charl Cilliers has a MSc in Botany and two years relative experience in the
                environmental field; and
            •   Elize le Roux has an Honours degree in Conservation Ecology and six months
                experience in general EIA practice.

        WEC is also supported by a host of specialists in the field of natural sciences, social
        sciences, archaeological and heritage and the economic fields.


2.2     Terms of Reference

        The following Terms of Reference were presented by Messrs Sage Wise 67 (Pty) Ltd. to
        the independent environmental consultant: Withers Environmental Consultants (Pty) Ltd.

        As the appointed environmental consultant, the following Terms of Reference
        should be carried out:

      a) Undertake an environmental evaluation of the applicable property to get an
         understanding of its biophysical characteristics and natural processes prevailing on it
         and assess the proposed development proposals in terms of environmental
         characteristics (constraints and opportunities) of the property. Put forward any
         anticipated impacts that might be considered at this stage of the EIA process. Suggest
         any specialist studies that may be required to provide additional information on the
         significance of these impacts and mitigation that may be necessary to reduce negative
         impacts and enhance positive impacts of the proposed development.

      b) Co-ordinate the early start of the recommended specialist studies with the view to
         the compilation of an initial Environmental Opportunities and Constraints Plan
         (EO&CP) to be used in the guidance of developing an initial Site Development Plan for
         the proposed Bella Riva Estate development.



                                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   9
                                    DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

c) Together with the specialist consultants, assist the appointed consulting Town Planners
   and Engineers with the development of the optimum Site Development Plan (SDP)
   that will have the least impact on the environment (both biophysical and social
   environments). The initial EO&CP should be used to develop the SDP. It is understood
   that as more detailed information is provided by the various specialist studies that the
   EO&CP may need revision, and similarly, the SDP may need to be adapted accordingly.

d) Undertake the applicable EIA Scoping Process in terms of the Regulations of the
   National Environmental Management Act (Act 107 of 1998) to provide the relevant
   information for the Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning
   (Integrated Environmental Management) (DEA&DP), and any other government officials,
   to be able to make informed decisions and to issue a Record of Decision for the
   proposed Golf Course Estate on the application area.

e) As part of the EIA Scoping Process, a comprehensive public participation process
   must be entered into. This process is to provide all the relevant information to the public,
   NGO’s, CBO’s and government officials, and to allow for adequate time for the public to
   respond to such information. The issues raised by IAPs must be taken into
   consideration in assessing the impacts of the proposed development and, making
   amendments to the proposed development (i.e. put forward alternative development
   options).

f) In terms of the EIA Scoping Process, it is necessary to put forward and assess
   alternative development options for the property in order to reduce any significant
   impacts that may arise. The necessary mitigation to enhance any positive impacts and
   reduce any negative impacts that may arise as a result of the proposed development
   must be suggested.

g) Facilitate any additional specialist studies that may be required to assist with the
   planning and future management of the proposed development, on behalf of Sage Wise
   67 (Pty) Ltd.

h) Make the necessary environmental management recommendations (mitigation/
   enhancement) for the construction and the operational phases of the proposed
   development in a Draft Environmental Management Plan (EMP), to ensure a sustainable
   development in the future.




                           WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                    10
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE


3.      THE PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT
3.1     Preferred Development Proposals and Alternatives

        The Proposed Development is foreseen to take on a mixed use character, with the aim
        of promoting employment opportunities for the surrounding communities and to create a
        living environment where it is possible to choose between a variety of housing and
        accommodation options. It must be noted that the number of units and erven, and the
        detailed layout of the site, are by no means finalised and that the public participation
        process, together with the results of the specialist studies, may still dictate the outcome
        of the final proposals.

3.1.1   Alternative 1: Preferred Alternative

        The Site Development Plan (Figure 3) represents the Preferred Alternative. Revisions to
        the layout since the Draft Scoping Report were necessary, due to further comments from
        County Fair’s representatives, who indicated the need for the facility to maintain a 300m
        buffer zone around the chicken houses. The proposed land uses are foreseen to include
        the following:

           •   an 18 hole golf course with clubhouse
           •   an 80 room hotel with 100 associated chalets
           •   a club house with amenities such as health club; sport centre; conference centre;
               restaurant
           •   administrative building with workshop
           •   780 group housing and town housing erven
           •   494 smaller estate erven : 400m² - 600m²
           •   247 bigger estate erven : 800m² - 1000m²
           •   712 GAP Housing/Affordable Housing
           •   5 equestrian smallholdings
           •   primary school, crèche and church sites
           •   mixed business/commercial sites (±1.6 ha)

        A total of 2238 residential units are therefore proposed

        The proposed new WWTW, which is situated on the lower portion of the Farm Bella
        Riva, is accommodated in the layout of the proposed development by providing a large
        open space perimeter around it. The golf course will be irrigated, utilising the treated
        effluant of the Treatment Works.

        It is considered to provide the proposed development with 3 accesses:

        Access 1: Main Entrance
        The main entrance is proposed at the existing intersection with the R302 via the existing
        road that leads to the old Mellish Railway Station. A traffic impact assessment has
        determined the scope of this intersection and the upgrades needed to make it functional
        in terms of traffic flow.

        Access 2: East Entrance
        This access is planned along an existing gravel road running in a north-south direction
        on the eastern boundary of the property and intersects with the R312 at a point 4km east
        of the R302/R312 intersection.




                                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   11
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

        Access 3: South Entrance
        The access will be directly from the R312, at a point opposite the existing entrance to the
        Fisantekraal Low Cost Housing development. The access road will include the
        construction of a bridge across the Mosselbank River tributary. It crosses the abutting
        owner’s land and curves away from the County Fair chicken breeding facilities to the
        most southern corner of the application area where it curves into the property to meet up
        with the proposed internal road system.

3.1.2   Alternative 2

        Alternative 2 (Figure 4) differs from the preferred alternative with regard to density and
        proposed land uses. A light industrial component is proposed in this alternative, but no
        GAP housing. Revisions to the layout were necessary due to further comments from
        IAPs, officials and NGO’s that were obtained throughout the scoping process. The
        proposed land uses are foreseen to include the following:

           •   an 18 hole golf course with clubhouse
           •   a mashie golf course
           •   an 80 room hotel with 100 associated chalets
           •   a club house with amenities such as health club; sport centre; conference centre;
               restaurant
           •   administrative building with workshop
           •   480 group housing and town housing erven
           •   730 smaller estate erven : 400m² - 600m²
           •   380 bigger estate erven : 800m² - 1000m²
           •   5 equestrian smallholdings
           •   primary school, crèche, 2 church sites
           •   mixed business/commercial sites
           •   light industrial site

        A total of 1595 residential units are therefore proposed. The same accesses as for the
        preferred alternative are proposed.


3.1.3   Alternative 3: No Go Option

        In terms of the “No Go” option, the land would remain undeveloped, i.e. the status quo
        remains the same and the land will continue to be used for agricultural purposes of
        various forms.

3.2     Engineering Services

        A Bulk Engineering Services Report was compiled by Africon Consulting Engineers
        (Appendix 23a). Africon was requested to compile an engineering services report for
        the rezoning application of the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate Development on the
        farm Bella Riva north of Durbanville. The report is based on the land uses and layout as
        received from TV3 Architects on August 2008. Africon met with the City of Cape Town
        officials, responsible for the Oostenberg region on 22 May 2006 to discuss the services
        for the proposed development. Africon has also accompanied the client on various
        occasions in discussions with The City of Cape Town – Wastewater Department,
        regarding the interface with the proposed Fisantekraal Waste Water Treatment Works.
        The outcomes of these discussions are contained within the report.




                                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   12
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

3.2.1   Potable Water

        The construction of the Spes Bona 15Ml reservoir for the City of Cape Town: Tygerberg
        Administration was completed in 2004. Potable water will be obtained from a future
        connection on the 800mm diameter pipeline next to the R302 Road and supplied to the
        estate via an approximately 5.0km long pipeline to be constructed as part of this
        development. This supply pipeline will consist either of a 450mm diameter GRP pipe for
        the Preferred Alternative or a 400mm diameter GRP pipeline for Alternative 1. On
        completion, the proposed new development would have the following total potable water
        demand:




        The capacity of the proposed 400mm diameter bulk supply pipeline to the Golf Estate is
        250 l/s and can be allocated as follows (under instantaneous flow conditions):

        Bella Riva        = 160.6 l/s
        Spare             = 89.4 l/s
        TOTAL             = 250.0 l/s

        The capacity of the proposed GRP bulk supply pipeline to the Bella Riva Golf Estate at a
        maximum flow rate of 1.2 m/s can be summarised as follows (under instantaneous flow
        conditions):




        Water will be reticulated to all houses, Estate units and other facilities via a pipe network
        consisting of uPVC pipes, of various diameters. The entire Bella Riva Estate would be
        supplied with water under gravity feed.

        An integrated water management system will be implemented to save water. Water
        saving devices will also be specified by the architects to reduce water use, such as low
        flow showerheads, aerator tap fittings, dual flush toilets and water saving urinals.


3.2.2   Sewage

        Sewage will be drained to the future 50Ml/day Fisantekraal Waste Water Treatment
        Works (WWTW) to be constructed on the property (Bella Riva Farm). All sewage flow
        emanating from the development would drain to the new WWTW via the internal
        reticulation network and/or be pumped from low lying areas. The estimated sewage yield
        from both proposed development alternatives are shown in the table below:




                                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                     13
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




        The treated sewage effluent (TSE) from the WWTW would drain to a maturation dam, to
        be constructed on the WWTW site, from where it would be distributed for irrigation
        purposes to surrounding farms and the Bella Riva Golf Estate. The developers of the
        Bella Riva Golf Estate plan to construct an additional tertiary treatment facility (“Polishing
        Plant”) where TSE received from the WWTW would be treated. This treated effluent from
        the polishing plant would be used for irrigating the golf course and other landscape
        areas on the golf estate and provide a constant water supply to all other water features
        on the estate. Irrigation of domestic gardens with TSE will also take place.


3.2.3   Stormwater

        3.2.3.1 Residential

        Due to the topography of the property only limited volumes of stormwater will enter the
        property from the surrounding properties and therefore stormwater management will
        mainly consist of controlling stormwater run-off generated internally from this
        development. The rain- and stormwater from the site, the roofs of houses and buildings,
        roads and other hard surfaces would be collected and directed towards natural drainage
        lines via a combination of rainwater pipes, open road side channels, catch pits and an
        underground stormwater pipe system. The necessary erosion control measures and
        energy dissipaters would be implemented at the outlets of the stormwater pipes and
        channels before the stormwater is discharged into stormwater drainage lines, detention
        ponds or natural streams, as described in the Stormwater Management Report.

        The stormwater drainage system will be designed for a 1:5 year storm. During a 1:100
        year storm, the runoff will be drained from low points, cul-de-sacs and open channels
        towards detention dams where attenuation of the flood peak will take place before the
        water is disposed of into the watercourses. The attenuated flood peaks, will drain
        underneath the railway line towards the Mosselbank River running along the western
        side of the development. The boundary of the estate falls outside the 1:100 year
        floodplains of the Mosselbank River and its tributary (Appendix 23a).

        3.2.3.2 Golf Course

        In order to ensure very rapid drainage of the golf course after heavy rains, effective side-
        and-cross drainage will have to be installed under all proposed fairways, greens, tees,
        etc. The golf course stormwater drainage network will consist of a combination of cut-off
        channels, catch basins and stormwater pipes to drain surface run-off water from low
        areas and other features on the golf course to natural streams and ponds.

        Excess irrigation water will be drained by a network of underlying subsurface drains
        installed by the golf course contractor. The excess irrigation water and subsurface water
        on the golf course will be collected by this system and recycled to the irrigation dams
        and thereby prevent it from entering the stormwater system and natural river courses.

        3.2.3.3 Stormwater Management

        Africon has compiled a separate Stormwater Management Plan (Appendix 23b) that
        describes in more detail the proposed methodology for the management of stormwater
        generated from the proposed development.

                                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                      14
                                 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

The purpose of this report is to address stormwater issues generated from the proposed
development and to discuss the general stormwater management measures to be
implemented. Stormwater management takes into consideration both quality and
quantity of run-off in order to protect downstream water courses and ecosystems, while
ensuring that suitable measures for dealing with abnormal rainfall events and flooding
are implemented

3.2.3.3.1 Design Philosophy
The standard stormwater guidelines for residential developments as given in the
“Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design” (CSIR “Red Book”) as well as
SANRAL’s Drainage Manual will be employed for the design of the entire stormwater
system.

Minor Flows
The internal stormwater system that will consist of a pipe network, road side channels
and inlet structures will drain the roads and other hard surface areas. This system will
typically be designed to have sufficient capacity in order to accommodate a 1:5 year
return period rainfall event (this is defined as a rain storm which will statistically only
occur once in every five years in that it is an event with the probability of exceedence of
only 20%).

The installation of the internal stormwater system, as described above, will concentrate
stormwater run-off in certain areas. This will require the implementation of erosion
control measures and the construction of detention facilities, such as dams or ponds,
where the attenuation of the post development stormwater run-off peak will take place to
prevent erosion and flooding in areas downstream of this development.

Major Flows
During rainfall events with a return period larger than 1:5 years, roads, walkways, cut-off
channels and open spaces will act as overland escape routes to drain run-off towards
detentions ponds (which include the proposed golf course and landscaping feature dams
and ponds) and eventually the natural river course (Mosselbank River).

Stormwater ponding and overflowing at low points in the roads would be directed via
earth channels to the detention facilities. The Site Development Plan (SDP) should make
provision for stormwater servitudes at strategic positions in order to ensure proper
escape routes to prevent the possibility of flooding and damage to properties.

The attenuation structures will be designed to have sufficient capacity to convey and
attenuate the 1:50 year return period rainfall event. The attenuated post development
stormwater will then finally be released into the Mosselbank River. A stormwater analysis
and the provision of a flood line for the 20, 50 and 100 year flood recurrences in the
Mosselbank River and its tributary has been prepared by Africon. The property is
situated above the 100 year Mosselbank River floodline, and there are no restrictions to
the development with regards to these floodlines.

3.2.3.3.2 Outlets
The positioning of stormwater outlet structures and the overall discharge methodology
plays a critical part in an effective stormwater management system. The main aim of a
stormwater system is to minimize the concentration of stormwater as far as practically
possible. This can be achieved by installing more outlet structures with smaller
catchment areas. This further includes the construction of stilling basins and energy
dissipaters at the outlet structures to reduce the velocity and prevent scouring and
erosion (Appendix 23b).




                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   15
                                 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

3.2.3.3.3 Stormwater Management Techniques

The factors to consider in stormwater management fall broadly into two main categories,
namely those related to quantity and those related to quality.

Volumes, Flows and Peaks: Management of Stormwater Quantity
Any development brings about changes to the natural environment of a site, which in
turn has an effect or disrupts the natural hydrological cycle. Changes such as:

Increase in impermeable surfaces (roads, roofs etc) resulting in lower infiltration, higher
run-off volumes and velocities
Changes to natural flow routes through earthworks, infrastructure and shaping of terrain.
Changes to local water course environment and ecology

The peak run-off volumes for each catchment area were individually calculated (Table
2). The different catchment areas for pre and post development scenarios are illustrated
in Appendix 23b. The average increase in runoff from pre to post development runoff is
approximately 68%.

Table 2: Peak Run-Off Volumes




The management of these post-development run-off quantities for the proposed
development should be carefully planned in conjunction with the specific layout. Each
catchment area currently drains toward a stormwater pipe or box culvert as illustrated,
and discharges into the downstream Mosselbank River. The increase in run-off volumes
and velocities can be problematic and detrimental to the receiving water course
downstream of the property and could cause severe erosion. Stormwater designs should
therefore be based on restricting the volume and peak flow of run-off to pre-development
levels. This should be achieved through the implementation of the following
recommended practices:

Infiltration
Impermeable areas such as roads, parking areas and roofs cause substantial increase
in run-off and prevent natural infiltration. These areas should be kept to a minimum
through careful planning of required road widths, number of parking bays, etc. Infiltration
should also be actively encouraged in other areas through the placement of infiltration
trenches and structures in order to recharge the underground water table.

Instead of concentrating stormwater flow towards one point, numerous small outfalls
representing small catchment areas should be placed around the development together
with infiltration trenches. If the volume is too high, the infiltration trench is likely to


                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   16
                                 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

become saturated. It is therefore important to keep the catchment area small through the
design of the stormwater system, road alignments and earthworks.

As mentioned above, open side channels will be used along roads and sections of roads
that do not provide direct access to residential erven. Side channels with longitudinal
slopes flatter than 4% will be earth channels and those between 4% and 10% will be
grass lined channels. Both earth and grass channels promote infiltration. For slopes
steeper than 10% (1:10) the channels will be stone pitched or lined with Reno
mattresses to prevent scouring and erosion. The utilization of Reno mattresses creates a
high friction factor and thereby reduces the velocity of stormwater.

The installation of Reno mattresses and gabion boxes in steep sloping channels acts as
energy dissipaters and stilling basins. These structures are also used as silt traps to
prevent the loss of silt to the natural water courses. Silt that gets trapped on the Reno
mattresses acts as a growing medium for vegetation which thereby accelerates the
reestablishment of natural vegetation. This rehabilitated vegetation also acts as a
dissipation medium, resulting in attenuated run-off.

Stormwater Treatment
Stormwater quality is always of particular concern, especially where there is potential for
a development to adversely affect the quality of the stormwater run-off discharging into a
natural water course.

Pesticides and artificial fertilizers, which are typically used on golf courses contaminates
the stormwater runoff generated from the development. Over time, unavoidable
contamination of stormwater can also be expected from the residential areas, especially
after long dry spells. This occurs from contaminants that accumulate on road and
surfaces during these dry spells that get washed down into the stormwater infrastructure
and eventually into the natural water courses.

An effective method of treatment of stormwater is through wetlands or reed beds, which
function as a natural filter. The construction of weirs with Gabion boxes and Reno
mattresses in natural water courses as well as detention ponds and dams could be used
to serve the same function as wetlands, should vegetation and reeds be planted in these
water bodies. The establishment of shallow ‘vlei’ areas in the stormwater channels and
along dams edges would also assist in the purification process of contaminated
stormwater.

These water bodies would not only address the water quality; it will also meet a range of
urban design objectives such as:
   • Landscape and aesthetics
   • Passive recreation
   • Ecological services
   • Urban run-off flow management

The construction of indigenous grass lined channels along roads and cut-off channels
with flat slopes is another natural method of removing contaminants from stormwater.

All of the above methods effectively reduce the velocity of stormwater flow and thereby
ensure the refurbishment of phosphates into the soil and groundwater and acts as an
interception method for nitrates.

Stormwater Harvesting
Stormwater runoff would be harvested for irrigation purposes. Design of the stormwater
network would be made to divert most of the stormwater generated on site to the golf
course irrigation and feature dams and ponds.


                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                    17
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



        The harvesting of stormwater for residential usage has also been considered. Roof run-
        off from individual erven can be collected in rainwater tanks to be utilized primarily for
        garden irrigation. Apart from reducing the run-off from individual erven, rainwater usage
        can reduce domestic consumption of potable water when utilized for irrigation purposes.
        Harvested irrigation water should however be properly treated to prevent health risks
        when in contact with humans or animals. The installation of overflow soaking pits from
        the storage tanks can assist in the recharging of groundwater.

        Attenuation
        As mentioned in the paragraphs above, a number of detention dams, ponds, stilling
        basins and other gabion structures will be used to attenuate the stormwater runoff.
        Detention dams and ponds would serve as storage facilities for stormwater runoff
        harvesting to supplement irrigation water requirements of the golf course and estate,
        thereby reducing the peak flow and assist in the water polishing process and aesthetic
        appeal.

        Wetlands would be created and existing wetlands rehabilitated to enhance attenuation
        and infiltration as prescribed by the wetland specialists. The construction of wetlands
        together with the recycling of stormwater for irrigation purposes by means of storage
        dams and ponds will have the added benefit to recharge the groundwater volumes in the
        substrata through infiltration.

        A number of water features will be situated throughout the proposed development as
        indicated on the site development plan. These ponds and dams would gravitate from the
        most upstream to the most downstream dam. During a storm they effectively break the
        speed of the runoff and act as energy dissipaters. The further downstream dams would
        act as detention ponds. The detention pond functions by allowing large flows of water to
        enter but limits the outflow by having a small opening at a low point of the structure. The
        size of this opening is determined by the 1: 5 year flood volume and the capacity of
        downstream culverts to handle the release of the contained water. During a 1:50 year
        storm, the structure would retain water for a limited time, thereby reducing the peak flow
        conditions. When the level of the dam reaches full capacity, the spillway passes the
        water downstream (with dissipation structures) to be channelled toward the downstream
        culverts and the Mosselbank River. The peak post-development runoff is thereby
        attenuated by restricting the overflow from the detention ponds to be as close as
        practically possible to the peak pre-development run-off. Continuous maintenance will
        however have to be applied to these attenuation structures to prevent sedimentation,
        which restricts the functioning and effectiveness thereof.

        The golf course will effectively contribute to stormwater harvesting and will also act as
        detention facilities. The fairways, especially those positioned parallel to steep natural
        contours, will be shaped in such a way to prevent overland surface flow over the golf
        course. The shaping of the fairways will change the steep gradient characteristics of the
        natural contours into several low points (bunkers, swales and depressions). These low
        points will be drained by catch basins and subsurface drainage tiles into drainage pipes
        and discharge into water features or detention ponds, assisting in the re-use of
        stormwater. Cut-off channels, positioned upstream and parallel to these fairways, will
        prevent overland flow from entering the golf course. The water from these cut-off
        trenches will be connected to the stormwater system of the estate or discharge directly
        into the water features.

3.2.4   Irrigation Water

        The irrigation water required for the golf course, road verges and open areas will be
        obtained as treated effluent from the proposed new WWTW.


                                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   18
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

        A separate irrigation water demand report will be conducted at a later stage to evaluate
        the actual irrigation requirements for the specific area, taking into consideration the
        climatic conditions and availability of water.


3.2.5   Domestic Solid Waste

        Refuse will be collected and temporarily stored at central points in the proposed
        development area. The internal maintenance team of the development will undertake
        this. The City of Cape Town: Tygerberg Administration or a private company will then
        collect the refuse from these central points on a weekly basis. An integrated waste
        management system will be implemented. An ethic of recycling will be promoted
        amongst the residents and staff within the proposed development.


3.2.6   Electricity

        3.2.6.1 Demand

        Electricity demand for the development is estimated with the following criteria:
           • Single phase supplies to all the group/town house type of residential
           • Three phase supplies to all the 800-1000m² residential erven
           • Single phase supplies to all the 400-600m²

        A point of supply will be made available by ESKOM from their existing supply lines to the
        properties, and subsurface power cables will connect the facilities and houses from mini-
        substations. Post tap type luminaries will provide street and area lighting, with input
        from architects and other's alike.

        The After Diversity Maximum Demand (ADMD) of the group/town house type residential
        units is expected to be around 3kVA. The ADMD of the 800-1000m² erven units are
        expected to be around 10kVA and the ADMD of the 400-600m² residential units are
        expected to be around 5kVA. The aggregate of all other loads like retail, hotel, public
        lighting, church, school, street lighting etc would be in the order of 2500kVA. With an
        allowance of 3000kVA for the WWTW, the total load can be expected to be in the region
        of 150000kVA.

        3.2.6.2 Supply

        The Internal Main backbone shall be an 11kV underground cable network. This Internal
        Primary system shall feed mini substations, optimally positioned for an effective LV
        system. The Secondary system shall be a network of underground LV main feeder
        cables between the mini substations and Street Kiosks. These Street kiosks shall feed
        erven per underground LV cables. Buildings such as the Hotel might be served with a
        medium voltage connection.

        There is not presently sufficient medium voltage (11kV) bulk capacity available from
        Eskom, who is the supply authority for this area, but there is adequate High Voltage
        (66kV) supply available at Pheasantekraal. A new 66/11kV step down substation will be
        required with 2 X 20MVA transformers initially. The developer will be required to cover
        the cost of the substation on a pro rata basis, which could be up to 90% of the costs.
        The lead time for such a substation would be three years.

        Street kiosks shall be used as breaker and metering domains. Metering shall be of the
        pre-pay metering type. Metering of streetlight energy usage shall be done at mini
        substations and the account shall be billable to the estate. Metering of communal service


                                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                    19
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

         energy usage shall be done at mini substations and the account shall be billable to the
         estate.

3.2.7    Street Lighting

         Some of the street lighting might be privately owned by the Estate. Metering of streetlight
         energy usage shall be done at mini substations and the account shall be billable to the
         estate. Architectural freedom shall dictate the type of streetlights where it is privately
         owned but otherwise, it will be to municipal standards.


3.2.8    Energy Conservation

         Note should be taken that there are presently energy and capacity constraints in South
         Africa, a situation that is expected to remain with us for up to ten years. Supply is being
         made available under an interim requirement that consumers reduce their consumption
         by 10%. Measures should be built into the development to demonstrate compliance to
         this requirement.

         Note that energy conservation is an end user activity. Construction of dwellings and
         buildings should thus be energy efficient, energy efficient lamps and light fittings should
         be implemented and the same applies for the eventual appliances to be used.

3.2.9    Telephone

         Local Telkom supplies shall be available and no problems are foreseen. A full internal
         Telkom reticulation system consisting of underground ducts and accessible junction
         boxes will be installed for telephone and other communications services. The duct
         system will link to all individual portions. A dedicated room will be provided for exchange
         equipment.

3.2.10   Access and Internal Road Network

         According to the preliminary investigation of the impact on the local transport systems
         resulting from the proposed development, the following upgrading of the road network
         will be required.

         The main access to the proposed estate will be gained from the R302 via the existing
         road that leads to the old Mellish Railway Station.

         The proposed upgrading work on the access road will include the construction of a new
         railway bridge crossing. Initial meetings and discussions with Transnet indicated that
         they approve in principal the proposal to construct a railway bridge crossing. The final
         bridge design will be done according to Transnet’s technical guidelines and their
         approval.

         A second access road is planned along an existing gravel road that runs in a north south
         direction on the eastern boundary of the property an intersects with the R312 at a point
         approximately 4km east of the R302/R312 intersection.

         A third access to the high density residential area in the southern end of the
         development will be from the R312, at a point opposite the existing entrance to the
         Fisantekraal Low Cost Housing development. The access road will include the
         construction of a bridge across the Mosselbank River tributary.




                                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   20
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

         The internal road network will consist of roads of various widths according to function of
         the particular road and will provide access to the residential properties and other
         facilities. Emphasis will be laid on traffic calming and slow speeds by reducing road
         widths and with the application of the appropriate geometric road design (see Appendix
         23a).

         The pavement designs would be based on anticipated traffic volumes and ground
         conditions. The design life of the proposed pavement is 20 years on provision that
         repairs to the surface will be necessary in order to maintain its skid resistance and
         impermeability.

         Turning circles and intersections should be constructed with concrete paving blocks for
         prolonged design life and aesthetic reasons. The rest of the estate roads would be
         designed and constructed with an asphalt surface finish.

         A new station on the Lichtenberg property opposite the high density residential
         component of the development is proposed. Such a station will greatly enhance the
         public transport network for the proposed devlopment.

3.2.11   Emergency Services

         The Tygerberg Municipality would supply emergency services. All roads will be designed
         and constructed to accommodate access by fire engines and other emergency vehicles.

3.2.12   Security

         An electrified perimeter fence with closed circuit television would be erected around the
         entire development. Site entry would be regulated through a central owner/visitors gate
         house as well as two service entrances. A 24hour mobile guard would further patrol the
         fence, golf course and residential areas.


3.3      Comment on Services from CoCT and Eskom

         The Municipality of CoCT and Eskom have indicated that they have the required
         capacity for potable water, sewage treatment and solid waste removal to be able to
         service the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate Development (Appendix 25).


3.4      Environmental Evaluation

3.4.1    Surrounding Land uses

         Farms Eikenhof and Bella Riva are run primarily as intensive cattle and pig feedlots
         (under roof) (Photo 1). The fields are used for grazing (Photo 2), growing cereal crops
         (Photo 3), and ready lawn. A mining permit was issued by the Department of Minerals
         and Energy for the mining of laterite gravel and sand on the Eikenhof farm (Photo 4).
         The permit expires on 29 April 2009. The sand and laterite sources on the two properties
         have essentially been exhausted. The owner is currently renting out Farmika farm for
         horse stabling and a riding school. Horse paddocks are provided around the main
         homestead. The remainder of the farm is used for growing cereal crops. There is no
         significant stands of primary natural vegetation remaining on these farms. This has been
         confirmed by Dr. Charlie Boucher, the appointed botanist for this project. The
         Lichtenburg Farm has of recently been used for quad bike trails. No agricultural activities
         on the Lichtenburg Farm have been undertaken for many years.


                                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   21
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

        Surrounding land uses comprise agriculture (Photo 5), mining of clay (Photo 6), sand
        and gravel and a light aircraft airport. The farm to the east of Eikenhof and Bella Riva is
        used for the mining of kaolin clay by Corobrick for face bricks; dairying takes place on
        the Mosselbank farm to the west of the property; cereal crops are grown on the farms to
        the north; and chickens are raised on the County Fair farms to the south.

        The Fisantekraal airport is located 1km to the southeast of the property. Other features
        of the area are brick quarries and agriculturally related light industrial buildings. Due to
        these activities and the expansion of industrial, urban and township development
        outwards from Durbanville, the character of the once rural area south of Durbanville is
        changing rapidly.


3.4.2   Biophysical Characteristics of the Property

        3.4.2.1 Topography and Drainage

        The Fisantekraal area topography is characterised by shallow valleys that incise into the
        foothills of the Tygerberg. The property lies within the wider valley of the Mosselbank
        River and gently slopes, fairly evenly from east to west towards the Mosselbank River.
        The Tygerberg (altitude ±400m) is located approximately 15km to the southwest of the
        property and Paarlberg (altitude ±650m) is located approximately 20km to the east. The
        elevation on the property varies from about 120msl to 75msl. A number of shallow east-
        west drainage alignments are present on the property, but no empheral streams occur.
        Drainage occurs towards the northerly flowing seasonal Mosselbank River. No rock
        outcrop is evident on the property.

        The Mosselbank River is the last remaining seasonal river in the Cape Metropolitan Area
        with an approximately 50 day zero base flow period. Its tributaries rise in the foothills of
        the Tygerberg, approximately 10km south of the property, from where it flows northerly
        for approximately 30km until its confluence with the Diep River. This river flows into the
        sea at Milnerton and forms part of the Rietvlei estuary system.

        The depth of the perched, winter groundwater level in the Bella Riva area is <2m. The
        regional water level is generally <10m below ground level. However, in areas where
        over-exploitation of groundwater resources has occurred, such as Bella Riva, the
        groundwater level has declined by up to 50m or more. It is evident that the Bella Riva
        production boreholes are totally over-utilized and should the present rate of abstraction
        continue, the boreholes will dry up within the next 1-2years.
        The source of irrigation water to the golf course will be the use of treated sewage
        effluent from the recently approved Fisantekraal WWTW. The use of treated effluent
        from the proposed treatment works for irrigation on the golf course and surrounding
        farms could have a significant positive impact on maintaining the ephemeral
        characteristic of the Mosselbank River, but caution will have to be exercised that
        pollution of the watercourse and wetlands (which occur on either side of the river) do not
        occur. To prevent such polluting the developers will install a “polishing plant” to remove
        excess phosphates and nitrates from the treated effluent. In addition, treated effluent will
        be pumped to a gravity drainage system through the golf course, which will contain
        ponds, detention dams and other water features. Reeds within these water features will
        also assist in removing remaining nutrients from the treated effluent.

        A number of boreholes are in use on the site. These have been tested and have
        moderate sustainable yields (1.5l/s). The quality is generally poor because of high iron
        content. These boreholes will not be used for the development.




                                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                    22
                                 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

3.4.2.2 Climate

Northern Durbanville has a typically Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and
cool, wet winters. The site falls in a winter rainfall region with a Mean Annual
Precipitation (MAP) of approximately 531 mm whereas the Mean Annual Evaporation
(MAE) is approximately 1485 mm. The prevailing wind directions are the south easterly
and the north westerly, with south westerly winds also known to occur frequently.

3.4.2.3 Geology and Soil

The proposed development site is situated on the eastern edge of the Tygerberg hills
and gently slopes towards the Mosselbank River that flows south to north. The rolling
topography of the site is characteristically formed from the underlying weathered shales
of the Malmesbury Group. The formation is composed of phyllite, greywacke and
quartzitic sandstone, and covered in places by loamy or sandy soils. A band of alluvium
occurs along the Mosselbank River.

The general soil profile comprises a thin topsoil horizon comprising fine sand lying on a
weakly defined laterite horizon, which in turn lies on insitu weathered Malmesbury
shales. The soils have been determined to have a poor agricultural potential. Thick sand
deposits have developed within the shallow valleys of the rolling landscape, while thicker
laterite deposits have developed on the higher ground. No prominent natural drainage
lines exist on the property.

3.4.2.4 Fauna and Flora

Traditionally the area north of Durbanville up to and even beyond Malmesbury supported
Renosterveld vegetation, but now only fragments of natural vegetation remains. The
natural vegetation has been replaced with agriculture (wheat farms and grazing
pastures). The same is true for this property, no intact community of natural vegetation
remains on the property. Some of the alien invasive species that occur on the site are
Port Jackson (Acacia saligna), Rooikrans (Acacia cyclops) and Blue Gum Trees
(Eucalyptus grandis).

Most of the natural vegetation that still occurs in the area (not on the property) is
concentrated in the riverine area of the Mosselbank River. The vegetation comprises a
combination of low scrub, grasses and sedges, rushes and reeds in the wetter areas.
The Arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica) and Cotula coronpifolia also appears seasonally
along this watercourse.

Although very little natural vegetation remains on the property, a number of reptile, bird
and small mammal species have been noted on the property and within the riverine
habitat of the Mosselbank River. Various game birds have also been noted on the
grasslands of the various farms. Blue cranes have also been seen on the property.
Because of the agricultural activities on the property, no breeding birds or mammals
have been noted.

3.4.2.5 Archaeology and Heritage

A Stage 1 Archaeological Impact Assessment (AIA) (Appendix 15) and a Stage 1
Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA) (Appendix 16a) have been undertaken to determine
if any archaeological significant material or any heritage resources of intrinsic
significance are present on the property.

The Archaeology Contracts Office of UCT was appointed to conduct an Archaeological
Study for the application area and only one site was noted, but it is deemed of little
archeological significance.

                       WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   23
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



        Marietha Geldenhuys of Heritage Matters was appointed as Heritage consultant.
        According to her initial survey of the property, there are very little heritage or natural
        assets on the property. The existing structures are mostly houses, offices, stables and
        sheds and not older than 60 years or representative of a specific architectural style. One
        building, however, namely the homestead on Eikenhof is older than 60 years. The
        developer plans to use this building as an administrative centre and do not intend to do
        alterations to it.


3.3.5   Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Surrounding Area

        Prof. Jonathan Bloom was appointed to conduct a socio-economic assessment
        (Appendix 12a) of the application area. The necessary scoping and ground
        investigation for the specific study was completed during January 2008.

        To be able to involve the Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel communities, as well as the
        farmers and their staff of the surrounding farms, in a more meaningful way, it was
        decided to appoint Prof Jonathan Bloom to undertake a social assessment. This
        assessment assisted to highlight the social make up of the communities, their
        aspirations of the proposed development and their concerns. This initial social
        assessment has been used in the Scoping Report to add to the issues already raised by
        the community leaders of the Fisantekraal Community specifically. A second meeting
        was also held on 26 March 2008 with the Fisantekraal Forum, where the leaders of the
        community raised more issues to be addressed during the EIA Phase of the project, and
        requested that a Development Forum be formed to ensure that the concerns of the local
        Fisantekraal community were taken into consideration and were adequately addressed.
        They also requested that a formal social accord (memorandum of agreement) be signed
        between themselves and the developer.

        There is currently a great deal of unemployment in the lower income groups within the
        Fisantekraal area. In terms of providing job opportunities, the proposed development is
        well placed to offer the necessary social upliftment of the Fisantekraal residential area.
        The proposed development would have a positive socio-economic benefit to
        Fisantekraal and the region. These include the creation of permanent jobs (including
        hotel staff, waiters, caddies, golf course attendants, domestic workers, gardeners,
        security staff; management etc.) and training, the generation of rates and taxes for
        Tygerberg Municipality, and increased tourism in the area. It is anticipated that this
        development will boost the local Tygerberg (Fisantekraal/Durbanville) area and the
        regional economy.




                               WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   24
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE


4.    NEMA ENVIRONMENTAL SCOPING AND EIA PROCESSES

4.1   Aims of the EIA Process

      The aims of the EIA Process are to investigate issues that have been identified in the
      Scoping phase and for this purpose to:

            •   Identify important physical, biological, social, economic and cultural aspects of
                the environment that may be affected by the proposed activity;
            •   Provide IAPs the opportunity of commenting on the development proposals;
            •   Provide information on the methodology adopted in assessing the potential
                impacts that have been identified, including any specialist studies or specialised
                processes that have been undertaken;
            •   Assess the potential negative and positive environmental issues, potential
                impacts including cumulative impacts of the proposed development alternatives
                on the surrounding environment and the IAPs issues and concerns related to the
                proposed development;
            •   Provides the necessary mitigation measures to ensure that all identified
                environmental impacts are kept to a minimum and include these in a Draft
                Environmental Management Plan for the Construction and Operational Phase of
                the development;
            •   Provide the decision-making authorities with information in an accurate, unbiased
                and credible manner to enable a reliable and informative decision to be made
                with regards to the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Bella Riva Golf Course.

      The EIA Process in terms of NEMA for this rezoning application has been divided into 8
      Phases (Figure 5) as described below:


4.2   PHASE 1: Submit the NEMA EIA Application Form

      (a)        An Application form was submitted to DEA&DP in terms of the newly
                 promulgated regulations in terms of Section 24(5), read with Section 44, and
                 Sections 24 and 24D of NEMA. These regulations were published in GN No.
                 R385, R386 and R387 in Government Gazette No. 28753 on the 21 April 2006
                 and came into effect on 3 July 2006.

      (b)        As such, the new application for undertaking the Scoping and EIA processes in
                 terms of NEMA was submitted to DEA&DP on the 10 November 2006
                 (Appendix 1). This document contained the necessary background information
                 of the site and the type of listed activities applied for. No notifications of
                 exemptions or amendments were included in the application. A letter of
                 consent from the registered property owners, a locality map, and a site
                 development plan of the preferred alternative to be considered during the
                 application, was attached to the application.

      (c)        The DEA&DP’s letter of acknowledgement of receipt of the Scoping and EIA
                 Application Form and permission to proceed with the Scoping process was
                 received on 24 November 2006 (Appendix 2).

      (d)        Within the Application form provision has been made to apply for exemption
                 from any of the NEMA EIA Regulations. It should be noted that no application
                 for any exemptions were applied for during this application process for the



                                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                  25
                                     DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

             proposed Bella Riva Golf Course Estate Development as was indicated in the
             NEMA EIA Application Form submitted to DEA&DP on 10 November 2006.


4.3   PHASE 2: Background Information Document

      (a)    A list of interested and affected parties (IAPs) (Appendix 4a) was obtained
             from the Tygerberg Municipality that could play a role in the Scoping Process,
             which included owners and occupiers of land adjacent to Bella Riva Golf Course
             Estate (including those within a 100m radius from the border of the property),
             the relevant authorities and government officials and the Municipal Ward
             Councillor, all of whom have been invited to comment on, and/or approve the
             rezoning proposals.

      (b)    A BID (Appendix 3) was compiled to inform IAPs of the proposed development
             and where it is located, what the environmental constraints of the property are,
             and what anticipated impacts could arise from the proposed development. The
             BID was sent by email and post (Appendix 4a) to the owners and occupiers of
             land adjacent to Bella Riva Golf Course Estate, as well as the relevant
             authorities and government officials and the Municipal Ward Councillor. Copies
             of the BID were also placed in the local Fisantekraal Library and at the
             Durbanville Library for collection by the public.

      (c)    An advertisement of the Scoping Process, calling for the registration of IAPs
             and the availability of the BID for comment, was placed in the local Tygerburger,
             (English and Afrikaans) and two regional newspapers, Cape Times and Die
             Burger newspapers on 9 November 2007 (Appendix 5a). The public meeting
             was also advertised at the same time.

      (d)    Two notice boards (Notice 1) were also fixed to the fence of the site at its
             western and eastern entrances, informing IAP’s people of the Scoping and
             Environmental Process taking place, the availability of the BID and notification
             of the Public meeting that was held (Appendix 5b).


4.4   PHASE 3: Public Meeting

      (a)   A public meeting was held at the Fisantekraal Primary School Hall on 22
            November 2007. A presentation of the proposed development was made by the
            Environmental Consultant and Town Planners. The Socio-Economic Specialist
            also attended the meeting and was available for questioning by the attending
            IAPs. The opportunity was given to IAPs to provide comments and raise key
            issues. Notes of the meeting were recorded and distributed to all registered IAPs
            (Appendix 6) and attendees the meeting.

      (b)   IAPs were requested to provide written comment on, or raise any key issues that
            they anticipated might arise from the construction and operation of the proposed
            development by 15 January 2008.

      (c)   The verbal and written comments received from IAPs arising from the first public
            meeting were analysed and key issues raised were grouped into key
            environmental categories (Table 1a).


4.5   PHASE 4: Scoping Phase: Draft Scoping Report


                            WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                  26
                                    DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

      (a)   The purpose of the NEMA DSR is to provide IAPs with all the relevant
            information on the proposed development which includes the necessary
            background information regarding the surrounding environment, and preliminary
            results from specialist studies, including the biophysical and the socio-economic
            environments, the local spatial planning for the region and the more detailed
            development proposals of the site. The issues and comments made by IAPs
            and the responses of the EAP and specialists have also been incorporated into
            the DSR.

            Alternative development proposals are also considered, which could include
            location alternatives, activity alternatives, design and layout alternatives,
            different technologies to be used, demand alternatives, input alternatives,
            routing alternatives and scale alternatives, as is necessary in terms of the
            environmental legislation (ECA, Act 73 of 1989, and NEMA, Act 107 of 1998).
            The DSR provide the IAPs with the necessary feedback on how their comments
            from the BID and Public Meeting were dealt with. The DSR also summarises
            the issues raised by the IAPs up to that stage.

      (b)   All supplementary specialist reports that have been undertaken to date, such as
            the preliminary civil engineers report, agricultural soil study, geohydrology and
            geotechnical studies was attached to the DSR for IAPs’ perusal.

      (c)   The availability of the DSR on Wednesday 12 March 2008, was advertised for
            public review and comment (in English and Afrikaans) on 12 March 2008 in the
            local Tygerburger newspaper and in the Cape Times and Die Burger
            (Appendix 8a). Written comment from IAPs was received on or before Friday
            11 April 2008. All registered IAPs were informed of the availability of the DSR
            and that their written comments must be forwarded to the EAP by 11 April
            2008.

      (d)   Second notice boards were put up at the eastern and western entrance fences
            of the property, informing people of the availability of the DSR and the comment
            period (Appendix 8b).

      (e)   All interested and affected parties have been given 30 days to register as IAPs,
            and or comment on or raise any key issues that they anticipate could arise from
            the proposed development.

      (f)   A register was opened containing only the IAPs that have applied in writing to
            be registered, or have attended the public meeting or that have provided written
            comments. The register was updated during the EIA phase (Appendix 4e).

      (g)   The written comments from IAPs regarding the DSR (Appendix 4d) were
            analysed and any key issues raised were grouped into key environmental
            categories (Table 1b).


4.6   PHASE 5: Scoping Phase: Final Scoping Report

      (a)   The DSR was revised according to the comments received from IAPs
            (Appendix 4d) to form the Final Scoping Report (FSR).

      (b)   Comments from IAPs were collated, analysed and grouped into key
            environmental categories and the Environmental Practitioner provided
            corresponding responses to such comments. This data is included into the
            report and attached as a second Table (Table 1b).


                           WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                  27
                                    DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



      (c)    The potentially significant impacts identified during the Scoping process
             undertaken where highlighted in the FSR and recommendations were made for
             the need for additional specialist studies to be undertaken during the EIA phase
             of the project to determine the significance of such potential impacts and what
             mitigation could be employed to reduce such impacts to acceptable limits.

      (d)    The FSR, including the Plan of Study (POS) for Environmental Impact
             Assessment (Appendix 7a) was submitted to DEA&DP on 30 April 2008 for
             acceptance to proceed to the EIA phase of the project.


4.7   PHASE 6: EIA Phase: Draft Environmental Impact Report

      (a)    The FSR was accepted by DEA&DP on 2 June 2008, but the POS was
             rejected. The amended POS (Appendix 7c) was submitted on 12 June 2008
             and was accepted by DEA&DP on 1 August 2008.

      (b)    The recommended additional specialist studies where overseen, and the results
             of the studies and possible revisions to the proposed alternatives with the
             professional team where discussed.

      (c)    Based on the results of the specialist studies, additional alternative
             development options or revisions of the existing alternatives have been put
             forward in order to reduce any significant impacts that are anticipated to arise
             as a result of the proposed development. The Preferred Alternative and the
             other development alternatives where assessed on an equal level of detail.

      (d)    The Draft Environmental Impact Report (DEIR), this report, was compiled,
             including the results of specialist studies, the significance of and duration of
             potential impacts and any recommended mitigation for reducing such significant
             impacts.


4.8   PHASE 7: EIA Phase: Public Participation Process

      (a)    The DEIR has been advertised for written comment from IAPs in the local
             Tygerburger, and regional (Die Burger and Cape Times) newspapers on 21
             January 2009. A Public Open Day Meeting will be held on 11 February 2009
             with the EAP and the specialist consultants to provide their input and discuss
             the findings of the DEIR and the results of the specialist studies with IAPs.

      (b)    IAPs will be given 33 days to respond in writing to the development proposals
             as contained in the Draft EIR (i.e. by 23 February 2009). Collate responses
             from IAPs and analyse and group issues into key environmental categories.

      (c)    The comments of the IAPs will also need to be discussed by the professional
             team to determine how such comments can best be incorporated into the
             planning of the development proposals.

      (d)    The public participation process will be appended to the Final EIR. The FEIR
             will include all the comments from the IAPs on the DEIR, collated into various
             key categories with responses to comments made.

      (e)    The register of IAPs will be revised and will only contain the IAPs that have
             registered, with the Scoping and EIA phases.


                           WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                  28
                                      DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




4.9    PHASE 8: EIA phase: Final Environmental Impact Assessment Report

       (a)    Revise the DEIR according to the findings of the specialist studies and public
              participation process undertaken to date to form the FEIR, providing all the
              necessary mitigation that is required to reduce the significance of the impacts.
              The significance of the potential impacts will be assessed for all of the
              alternatives.

       (b)    All registered IAPs will have an additional 30 day period to review and provided
              comment on the FEIR.

       (c)    Submit the FEIR to DEA&DP for authorisation.

       (b)    Only registered IAPs will be notified of the outcome of the authorisation (Record
              of Decision).

4.10   Administration of Record of Decision

       (a)    Once a ROD has been received from DEA&DP, the registered IAPs will be
              informed of the ROD and their right to an appeal process, should the application
              be authorised. Should the application not be approved, the proponent also has
              the right to an appeal process. Notification of the lodgement of any appeals will
              be sent to each registered IAP.


4.11   Appeal Process

       (a)    Once a ROD has been received from DEA&DP, the EAP will inform registered
              IAPs within 10 days of their right to an appeal process, should the application
              be authorised. Should the application not be authorised, the proponent also
              has the right to an appeal process.

       (b)    The period for notifying DEA&DP of the intent to appeal is 10 days. Appeals
              must be lodged in writing to the Member of Executive Council on an official
              appeal form within 30 days after the notice of intention to appeal has been
              lodged. Notification of the lodgement of any appeals will be sent to each
              registered IAP and the applicant.

       (c)    An appeal may be lodged with the Minister against any one of the following
              decisions on an application taken by the Department:
              Granting or refusal of an environmental authorization to undertake a listed
              activity in terms of the NEMA EIA Regulations;
              o The granting of an exemption application;
              o Withdrawing an environmental authorization in terms of Regulation 47;
              o Amending an environmental authorization in terms of Regulations 40 and
                  44; and
              o the disqualification of an EAP in terms of Regulation 19.




                             WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                  29
                                DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

Figure 5: Flow chart of EIA Process in terms of NEMA




                       WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                  30
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE


5.      PLANNING CONTEXT

5.1     Responsible Local          Authorities     and     Decision     Making      Government
        Departments

        The property falls within the jurisdiction area of the City of Cape Town: Tygerberg
        Administration. Legal procedures in terms of various applicable legislations are
        applicable to the proposed development and must all be followed and adhered to before
        the proposed development can go ahead.


5.1.1   Environmental Approval

        The application is subject to the provisions of the regulations promulgated in terms of
        NEMA dated 21 April 2006. In terms of the NEMA, the authorising agency of the
        application is DEA&DP: Director: Integrated Environmental Management in Cape Town.


5.1.2   Rezoning and Subdivision

        The rezoning and subdivision application will be dealt with by the Tygerberg
        Administration in terms of LUPO. With approval of rezoning, the Scheme Regulations of
        the Tygerberg Division will be amended in terms of the above mentioned Ordinance. The
        de-proclamation of certain roads on the property and the accompanying public
        participation will be handled in terms of LUPO.


5.1.3   Spatial Development Framework

        In terms of the Municipal Systems Act, 2000, the recommendations of the Spatial
        Development Framework (SDF) for the Tygerberg Administration will be applicable to the
        application area. In terms of the SDF, the application area abuts on, but falls outside,
        the urban edge for the Administration. The properties do however fall within the rural
        Development Area of the City of Cape Town.


5.1.4   Agricultural Land

        In terms of the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act, (Act 43 of 1983) and the
        Subdivision of Agricultural Land Act, (Act 70 of 1970), the Department of Agriculture
        must consider the rezoning application for approval. The soil potential of the property
        was fully examined during the soil survey undertaken (Appendix 10).

        A geotechnical investigation and a preliminary groundwater assessment were also
        undertaken for the property (Appendices 11 and 14). According to the soil survey
        undertaken for the property, housing and the golf course will be sited over very low, to
        low potential soils in terms of its potential for wine grapes or any other perennial crops.


5.1.5   Heritage

        The provisions as contained in Section 38 of the Heritage Resources Act (Act 25 of
        1999), which requires that comment / approval be obtained from Heritage Western Cape
        for the rezoning of a property that exceeds 1ha, or inter alia a development proposal on


                                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   31
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

        a site in excess of 5000m² which is deemed to significantly alter the character of the site,
        needs to be complied with. To consider the application in terms of the relevant Act,
        Marietha Geldenhuys of Heritage Matters has been appointed to undertake this study
        and applied to Heritage Western Cape (HWC) for approval. In their Record of Decision
        HWC (Appendix 16b) has stated no objections to the development on the condition that
        a Visual Impact Assessment is conducted for the development and that this be
        submitted to HWC for scrutiny.


5.1.6   Removal of Restrictions

        Restrictions in the title deeds of the properties, which might prevent the continuation of
        the proposed development, has been researched and noted within the Conveyance
        Certificates. These documents will be presented to the authorities during the Rezoning
        process. If any removal of restrictions is needed, this will be applied for simultaneously
        with the rezoning application, in terms of the Removal of Restrictions Act, 1967.




                                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                    32
                                       DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE


6.    PLANNING GUIDELINES WITH RESPECT TO THE EXISTING
      PLANNING FRAMEWORKS     WITHIN THE TYGERBERG AREA
      AND THE WESTERN CAPE DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES
      In order to plan the Bella Riva Golf Estate in a holistic manner, it is important to
      understand the forward planning frameworks of the Fisantekraal-Klipheuwel area and
      ensure that the development strategies contemplated conform to such forward planning.


6.1   Urban Structure Plan (Guide Plan) for the Cape Peninsula (1988)

      The Urban Structure Plan (Guide Plan) for the Cape Peninsula (1988 Vol. 1) sets out
      guidelines for the spatial development of the Cape Peninsula. Part of the application
      area is (Farm 175 Lichtenburg) is included within the jurisdiction of the Urban Structure
      Plan. In terms of the Urban Structure Plan the particular property is designated for
      agricultural purposes and therefore an application needs to be made for the amendment
      of the Urban Structure Plan to allow for urban development purposes on this property.

6.2   Tygerberg Spatial Development Framework (1998)

      A Spatial Development Framework (SDF) is compiled in accordance with the
      requirements of the Municipal Systems Act, 2000 (Act 32 of 2000). The Tygerberg
      Spatial Development Framework (TSDF) is a sectoral plan of the Tygerberg
      Municipality’s Integrated Development Plan (IDP) and has as its main purpose to provide
      general direction in the creation of integrated, sustainable and habitable regions, cities,
      towns and residential areas.

      The application area is located within the northern rural area of the TSDF, but outside
      the urban edge to development, as prescribed by the TSDF.

      Planning for future housing development must ensure that residential neighborhoods are
      integrated with existing urban development and must be based on principles that will
      ensure safe, secure, convenient and healthy living environments.

      The proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate meets most of the criteria by the TSDF and strives
      for sustainable development opportunities but is currently beyond the desgnated urban
      edge.


6.3   Provincial Spatial Development Framework (2005)

      The PSDF policy proposals are mainly concerned with what is necessary to achieve the
      general vision and objectives of the Province i.e. what must be done to put the Province
      on an environmentally sustainable, socially just, and economically efficient path. The
      policy proposals are considered in terms of three strategies (Resource Conservation,
      Urban Restructuring and Regional Linkages and Human Resource and Economic
      Development) with the three main areas of intervention and analysis, namely: the
      Natural Environment; Built Environment; and Socio-Economic Trends.

      According to the PSDF all land in the Province will fall under one of the following
      designations:
              •       Core Areas
              •       Buffer Areas
              •       Intensive Agriculture Areas
              •       Urban Edge Areas

                              WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   33
                                 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

        •        Urban Development

The Bella Riva Golf Estate property is currently zoned agriculture and is situated on the
urban edge of Durbanville. The draft policy proposals regarding agricultural areas and
urban edges are therefore applicable to the proposed development.

According to the policy proposal, intensive agriculture areas have no biodiversity
potential, but play an essential role in the production of food and fibre necessary for
sustaining human life and contributing to the cash economy and export market of the
Province. This land use also contributes to the unique character of the Province. Land
designated as intensive agriculture is under severe pressure near the urban edge of fast
growing urban settlements. Strict protection of intensive agriculture is required in these
instances.

The document suggests that all existing intensive agriculture (ploughed and permanently
cultivated lands) on low, medium and high potential soils should be protected from urban
development and will not be required for biodiversity conservation purposes except
where they may fall under defined Ecological or River Corridors. Current legal controls
under Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (CARA) and Department of Minerals
and Energy (DME) should be enforced.

According to the PSDF the urban edge has two functions. The primary function is to
contain the outward growth of urban settlements so as to achieve their restructuring to
address apartheid spatial patterns and urban functional inefficiencies. Thus, the role of
the urban edge is seen as restricting the land area of urban settlements until such time
as average gross densities of 25 dwelling units or 100 people per hectare are achieved.
This may take 5 to 10 years. The second function of the urban edge is to protect land
designated as Core, Buffer and Intensive Agricultural areas.

In order to effectively redirect inwardly the current urban development dynamic of urban
sprawl the outward expansion needs to be halted so as to focus urban development
opportunities inwards. The PSDF requires that Urban Edges shall be defined around the
boundaries of urban settlements to enable them to achieve an average settlement
density of 25du/ha within 10 years in those settlements that do experience growth. In
the interim before Local Municipal SDF defines the Urban Edge line, the current limit of
urban development, taken from the centre of the settlement, shall be defined as the
urban edge.

Exceptions to the Restriction of urban development outside the urban edge that can
demonstrate as their primary motivation biodiversity conservation or agricultural
sustainability could be considered in the following circumstances. A development
application must pass a three-stage test.

Firstly, the application should comply with the following:
           1)      an Environmental Audit according to the Triple Bottom Line
                   Relationship Framework;
           2)      a “Design with Nature” approach to site planning;
           3)      an Environmentally Sustainable approach to building design;
           4)      does not generally exceed the current building footprint on the
                   property; and
           5)      respect rural/townscapes and identified heritage resources.

Secondly, if appropriate, the proposed development must provide satisfactory
agricultural and biodiversity offsets.
Thirdly, the application should not create a precedent that would inflate land values or
otherwise prejudice broad developmental goals especially the Land Restitution
programmes.

                       WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   34
                                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

      Resorts and chalet type accommodation are therefore encouraged and not freehold
      tenure, because of the tendency to require much larger units and more infrastructures
      which has a higher impact when people own and use property in their individual
      capacity.

      On densification the PSDF states that the average residential density in urban
      settlements should be increased to 25du/ha within 10 years. This implies that densities
      may be appropriately low at 3 - 6 Du/ha on the urban periphery but should increase to 40
      - 60 Du/ha at or near the centre.

      Currently, urban settlements in the province appear to have a low average density of
      approximately 12Du/ha. This is too low for most civil infrastructure to be provided
      economically, for public transport services to run conveniently, to ensure that public
      facilities are well supported and that especially SMMEs and informal trades have viable
      thresholds. Increasing residential densities (as a proxy for population density) will help
      to address all of these issues. It should be noted that PSDF does not propose a
      uniform density throughout a settlement between its urban edges. Rather an
      average density, that may vary from low densities on the periphery to high densities in
      the centre, is proposed.

      The PSDF further states that scenic quality and visual impact is very important, and that
      foreign or unsympathetic styles of layout and buildings shall be discouraged or
      prohibited. Only ecological buildings or contemporary building designs that can
      demonstrate how they respond to the climatic, scenic and cultural heritage of the
      Western Cape in traditional or modern designs shall be permitted.

      The PSDF identifies certain potential economic development locations. One of these
      potential economic development locations is tourism; i.e. the development of the whole
      Province’s tourism potential with Tourism Development Areas, and in particular
      retirement, golf and eco-estates.


6.4   Metropolitan Spatial Development Framework (MSDF)(1996)

      This document guides the form and location of the physical development in the CMC on
      a metropolitan scale. The framework is based on a defined vision of a well-managed,
      integrated, metropolitan region in which development is intensified, integrated and
      sprawl-contained. The application area is located outside the urban edge2 of the MSDF.
      No further mention is made or land use proposed, for the application area.

6.5   Rural Management Framework: City of Cape Town (May 2002)

      This policy framework identified that, in addition of protecting the rural area in terms of its
      agricultural and environmental significance, there is also a need to accommodate a
      range of space extensive uses and support facilities peripheral to the City of Cape
      Town’s urban edge. Four composite areas that are suitable for accommodating a
      greater mix of rural activities were identified and were called Rural Development Areas.
      The purpose of a Rural Development Area (RDA) is to govern activities peripheral to and
      outside the urban edge. According to the Rural Management Framework Study, the
      application area is located within a RDA, namely the Fisantekraal - Klipheuwel RDA. The
      area extends east-west between and straddling the Bellvillle-Malmesbury railway line
      and the R302 (Klipheuwel Road), and north-south between Klipheuwel and Lichtenburg
      Road (Fisantekraal). The RDA identified the following activities:

      2
        Urban edge is defined as a line drawn around an urban area as a growth boundary, that is, the outer limit of urban
      areas, with the intention of establishing limits beyond which urban development should not be permitted (as defined by the
      Provincial Urban Edge Policy and Guidelines: Draft 1, March 2005).


                                      WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                                     35
                                       DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



               •        Agri-associated “nuisance industries”;
               •        Land reform;
               •        Rural-based tourism;
               •        Metropolitan and sub-regional infrastructure;
               •        Rural living; and
               •        Rural based accommodation and facilities to support rural ventures
                        and environmental conservation attractions.

      Broad land use guidelines for the Fisantekraal-Klipheuwel Rural Development Area
      are as follows:

         •   Mixed farming, together with “nuisance agri-industry” (e.g. mushroom cultivation)
             and space extensive agri-productions (eg. Poultry battery houses).
         •   Land reform programmes.
         •   Agri-village for farm worker accommodation, with such a village forming a
             functional part of Fisantekraal and possibly linked to a commonage to provide
             agricultural/community garden opportunities for Fisantekraal.
         •   Extractive industry (sand and clay mining), brick making and ceramic product
             manufacturing.
         •   Environmental upgrading of Mosselbank River and associated wetlands, the
             introduction of agricultural set-backs and the establishment of an ecological
             corridor, together with linkage to the Metropolitan Open Space System (MOSS).
         •   Optimise utilisation of Mikpunt smallholding area through densification and
             diversification.
         •   Optimise employment of Klipheuwel as a rural node, together with the acquisition
             of a commonage area for new farmer/community garden development.
         •   Appropriate location of proposed metropolitan infrastructure and facilities,
             including a proposed regional sewage treatment works and regional cemetery.

      Judging by the nature of the land uses / activities proposed for the Fisantekraal -
      Klipheuwel RDA is clear that the area will be subject to various related environmental
      impact considerations. It could be argued that the envisaged uses could be significantly
      more detrimental to the environment than any of the impacts that are likely to be
      generated by the proposed golf course and related residential development. Specifically
      the issue of visual impact needs to be considered. In this regard it is argued that the
      envisaged rural uses in terms of extent and scale could be significantly more intrusive in
      the rural landscape than that of limited clustered residential nodes.

      In view of the above we believe the question to be answered is whether a residential
      based golf course development in nature could be considered to be compatible with the
      rural based uses as envisaged for the RDA or not.

      With possibly the exception of some of the rural nuisance based industries (how would
      these impact on the Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel communities and should it be located
      within the RDA at all?) we believe that a level of compatibility can be achieved. In fact it
      could be argued that the Bella Riva development could in fact kick start, support and or
      contribute to realising a number of the specific land use goals as identified for the
      Fisantekraal - Klipheuwel RDA above.


6.6   Provincial Urban Edge Guidelines (December 2005)

      Rapid urbanisation and urban growth in many urban areas of the Western Cape raises
      concern over the sustainability of the growth and the effect on the environment, which is
      one of the main resources of the Province. Urban edges are one of the land use

                              WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                    36
                                 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

management measures available to direct and contain growth, both temporally and
spatially. Consequently the Provincial Urban Edge Guidelines were drawn up to
determine urban edge guidelines for the establishment and management of urban edges
by the local authorities.

The function of an urban edge is two-fold, namely:

   •   It is growth management tool, used to limit urban sprawl and the outward growth
       of urban areas, in favour of densification and infill development, to ensure the
       more efficient use of resources and land within the urban area; and
   •   It is a conservation tool, used to exclude certain elements of the environment
       from the urban area, in order to protect and preserve it, or to discourage its
       development in the short and medium term, while the long term implications are
       uncertain.

According to the Provincial Urban Edge Guidelines the following issues, criteria and
factors are regarded as informants when considering establishing an urban edge for an
urban area:

   •   Prominent landform and character areas;
   •   Valuable soils;
   •   Hydrology (surface and ground water features);
   •   Ecological resources (aquatic and terrestrial);
   •   Protected areas (conservation sites);
   •   High intensity / potential agricultural resources;
   •   Service infrastructure (barrier effect);
   •   Service infrastructure (capacity and reach);
   •   Vacant / under-utilised land in urban area;
   •   Higher order roads, access routes and transport infrastructure;
   •   Cadastral boundaries of adjoining land units;
   •   Availability of developable land in urban area;
   •   Growth requirements over 10 - 20 years;
   •   Land use applications for new development;
   •   Visual impact;
   •   Cultural / heritage resource area;
   •   Ownership of land and existing land use rights;
   •   Informal settlements;
   •   Urban agriculture and small scale farming;
   •   Bio-regional spatial planning categories (core and buffer); and
   •   Density policy for residential developments in rural towns.

The determination of an urban edge must be undertaken, with due consideration of the
growth potential of the area, the local situation and the context within which each part of
the edge is being determined.

In view of the above considerations it is argued that the Bella Riva proposal constitutes
an urban edge site which abuts an existing determined urban edge, and which in future
may very well be considered for inclusion within the urban edge. The Bella Riva proposal
therefore does not constitute a “leap frog” development pattern that could potentially
compromise the defined urban edge unduly.




                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   37
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

6.7     Guidelines for Golf Courses, Golf Estates, Polo Fields and Polo Estates in
        the Western Cape (December 2005)

        The DEA&DP launched the Rapid Review of Golf Course and Polo Field Development
        late in 2004. The final Policy Guidelines was published during December 2005.

        These policy guidelines are intended to facilitate national and provincial goals of
        appropriate development and to introduce certainty and consistency into the
        development process.

        It promotes creative innovative approaches to golf course and polo field developments
        and strives to ensure that all aspects of society benefit from economic growth and
        development and the country’s natural resources.

        The guidelines put forward promote sustainable development and takes human well-
        being, social health and human development into account with particular emphasis on
        the fact that these are directly linked to the state of natural systems.

        The document also recognises that economic development and job creation are
        priorities in the Province and are critical objectives in the context of sustainable
        development.

6.7.1   Objectives

        The objectives of these policy guidelines are as follows:

           a) To promote responsible development, both from an environmental and socio-
              economic perspective, taking into consideration the imperative for transformation,
              that does not detract from the comparative advantages of the Western Cape.
           b) To protect, enhance and maintain the natural resources and unique biodiversity
              of the Western Cape, as a basis of the future socio-economic development and
              human well-being of all inhabitant of the province.
           c) To support the implementation of sustainable development principles as reflected
              in the Bill of Rights in the Constitution (Act 108 of 1996), Section 2 of NEMA,
              Section 3 of the DFA, the Province’s development agenda known as iKapa
              Elihlumayo (the Province’s Growth and Development Strategy).
           d) To support and enhance the implementation of bioregional planning in the
              Province, as reflected in the Provincial Spatial Development Framework, the
              National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (10 of 2004), the Coastal
              Zone Policy and Cape Action for People and the Environment as well as
              municipal integrated development plans.
           e) To promote well functioning, integrated urban settlements, and to prevent urban
              sprawl.
           f) To inform decision-making with respect to golf and polo estate developments in
              all spheres of government, based on the principle of cooperative governance.
           g) To provide clarity into the application and assessment process, by clarifying
              requirements without creating expectations.
           h) To improve the effectiveness of public participation.

6.7.2   Guiding Development Criteria

        The Draft Policy Guidelines deal in paragraph 6 with the Location Principles. The
        approach used was to identify three zones namely: Urban areas, Core Areas and Buffer
        Areas. Different principles were generated for each location. The proposed development
        falls into the latter location.


                                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                  38
                                 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

Buffer Areas

With regard to the location and description of buffer areas, the Guidelines make the
following statements:

Buffer areas include remaining natural habitat in endangered and vulnerable
ecosystems, including remnants, .....natural habitat in less threatened ecosystems and
extensive agricultural areas. These buffer areas do not include intensive agricultural
areas. No golf courses, golf estates, polo fields and polo estates should be allowed in
intensive agricultural areas.

Criteria for Location

Criterium (a):
The development will result in achieving long term biodiversity goals, i.e. the
development takes place on degraded or disturbed land, which is not deemed as being
of conservation significance and will result in the rehabilitation and ongoing maintenance
of a significant land parcel/habitat/natural resources; and/or

EAP Comment: The project meets with this requirement. The development will take
place on land degraded and disturbed and is in fact transformed by agriculture. Nature
conservation and a biodiversity protection aims will be achieved by removing large
volumes of treated effluent from the Mosselbank River that would otherwise have meant
flow during the dry summer periods. In addition, the River is currently being polluted by
the existing piggery and cattle feedlot.

Criterium (b):
Where socio-economic imperatives are such that consideration of development is
warranted, that is, where economic development opportunities are extremely limited and
a golf course or polo development is the only proven option to achieve socio-economic
goals ….;

EAP Comment: At this stage the project meets with this requirement. There are major
socio-economic imperatives that must be addressed in this broad area (Fisantekraal and
Kliphuewel) or as determined by the socio-economic assessment. The evaluation of the
alternative land-use options has revealed the viability of the golf course option.

Criterium (c):
The development will result in securing the viability of a significant agricultural unit or
contribute significantly to land reform objectives;

  i.    the maximum number of units is such that it will not promote secondary
        development (e.g. service station, shopping centre, retail activities) on or around
        the site such that a new unplanned development node is created;

EAP comment: The project meets with this requirement. For such an enormous piece of
land, the proposed development has a range of densities (from higher density adjacent
to the current urban edge to lower densities further away from the urban edge).The
overall density is relatively low and is located on low agricultural potential soils.

  ii.   the area has not been designated as being of sufficient cultural significance by
          heritage authorities (SAHRA, Heritage Western Cape or the local authority) to
          warrant it a “no-go” area for development;

EAP comment: The project area has not been designated as such. A Heritage
consultant has been appointed to conduct a Heritage Impact Assessment for the


                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   39
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

development. No significant heritage resources will be impacted upon and a positive
ROD has been obtained from HWC.

 iii.   the development does not contribute to urban sprawl and/or result in ‘leap
        frogging’ existing urban development;

EAP comment: Discussions between the developer, the town planner and the City of
Cape Town are ongoing. The development does not constitute what is commonly
referred to as “leap frog” development as it follows on the existing urban context.

 iv.    the development does not take place on unique high, or medium value
        agricultural land as defined within the Western Cape context, using the
        Department of Agriculture’s accepted definition of the potential of such land, or
        on land that is considered suitable for current and future agricultural activities as
        determined through the Department’s Land Care/Area Wide Planning initiatives;

EAP comment: According to the Agricultural Soil Potential Analysis of Mr. Bennie
Schloms, the soils on the application area are in general of low potential and not suitable
for the planting of vineyards or the growing of crops. The land is not currently under
intense agriculture (ploughed and permanently cultivated lands).

  v.    the area has not been designated as being appropriate for the establishment of
        emerging farming enterprises by the relevant authorities (e.g. Department of
        Land Affairs, Department of Agriculture; municipality);

EAP comment: Although the property lies within a designated Rural Development Area,
this property, which is owned by a number of private owners, has not been designated
for emergent farmers.

 vi.    the water resources (surface and groundwater) required to supply the
        development are not designated as being stressed by Cape Nature (River
        Conservation Unit) and/or the DWA&F and/or the relevant Catchment
        Management Agency;

EAP comment: A Geohydrology Assessment has been conducted by SRK Consulting.
The groundwater source was determined to be under stress, i.e. over-utilised. Mitigating
recommendations regarding the water resources are included in the report. Irrigation
water for the golf course will be provided through the City of Cape Town’s Fisantekraal
WWTW facility. Boreholes will not be used as a source of water for the development.

vii.    the site does not fall within the buffer zone of the coast as defined by relevant
        legislation, policies or plans, or within 30m of the edge of a cliff located on the
        coastline, or within 30m of the high watermark, or on primary dunes or on dune
        systems that are mobile;

EAP comment: The project meets with this requirement.

viii.   the development will not impact on habitats or ecosystems that are defined as
        being of critically endangered status by Cape Nature and/or SANBI;

EAP comment: The project meets with this requirement. There are no such habitats or
ecosystems.

 ix.    the site does not negatively affect the role, function, public enjoyment and status
        of open space systems/networks, designated sites of cultural significance and/or
        sites identified as being of conservation significance;


                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                     40
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

EAP comment: The land is currently private agricultural farms. The character of the
development includes the ample provision of open space, including the recreational
addition of the golf course. A Heritage specialist has been appointed to investigate
matters concerning the cultural significance of the application area. The findings confirm
that there are no sites of exceptional heritage value located on the site.

  x.    the development will not disrupt significant biodiversity corridors, particularly
        coastal corridors as determined by Cape Nature and/or SANBI on the basis of
        available spatial biodiversity information (e.g. fine scale plans);

EAP comment: The project meets with this requirement. The planning of the project is to
introduce several corridors that will be landscaped with locally indigenous, water-wise
plants. Although exotic trees may be used in the landscaping, they will not be invasive.
The Mosselbank River corridor will not be affected by the proposed development.

 xi.    the site does not fall within the buffer zone along a river, stream or other natural
        surface water feature, as determined by the relevant authority/ies (municipality
        and/or DWA&F and/or Catchment Management Agency and/or River
        Conservation Unit at Cape Nature), or where the buffer zone has not been
        determined, within the 1:100 year floodline (refer to Urban Zone Section 7.2.1);

EAP comment: The project does not fall within such a restriction area, although the
Mosselbank River flows to the west of the property.

xii.    the development will not be located adjacent to a river that is designated as
        being pristine, near pristine or stressed by the DWA&F and/or the relevant
        Catchment Management Agency and/or the River Conservation Unit at Cape
        Nature;

EAP comment: The proposed development will not impact on the Mosselbank River. The
Mosselbank River is generally in a poor state of health, being polluted within its upper
catchment by the release of treated effluent and other industrial activities. Use of the
treated effluent from the WWTW will prevent the release of such water into the
Mosselbank River thus assisting to maintain its seasonal character.

xiii.   the development will not derive its water supply from a river system that has been
        determined as being pristine or near-pristine or stressed by Cape Nature (River
        Conservation Unit) and/or the Department of Water Affairs & Forestry and/or the
        appropriate Catchment Management Agency;

EAP comment: The project meets with this requirement. The water management
structure of the proposed golf estate is designed to reduce any stress on the river
systems. Treated effluent from the Bella Riva WWTW will be used.

xiv.    the development will not result in the permanent removal or deviation of
        traditional access or commonages used by local communities and the public (e.g.
        access to the coast);

EAP comment: There are no traditional access routes or commonages over the
property.

xv.     the development will not result in alteration of the landscape form (e.g. as a result
        of cut and fill); and

EAP comment: The project meets with this requirement. No landscape form will be
altered other than in normal construction and building activities. The natural delineation


                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                     41
                                        DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

      of the land is such that in the construction of the golf course, a minimal alteration of the
      landscape form is possible.

      xvi.   the development will not result in or contribute to visually obtrusive or ‘ribbon’
             development along the coastline or along cliffs and ridges.

      EAP comment: The project meets with this requirement. Particular care will be used to
      structure the development by "hiding" structures by avoiding structures in visually
      intrusive positions, by "camouflaging” structures with the use of plants, architecture
      sympathetic to the area and mechanisms such as earth coloured materials and paints
      and design features to reduce visibility of the proposed development as a whole.


6.8   Guideline on Public Participation in the Western Cape (July 2006)

      In terms of the public participation process to be followed during Scoping and EIA, this
      Guideline document recommends that the public participation process must be
      undertaken after the application has been submitted (at least). It is further noted that the
      public participation process must be followed during the Scoping phase as well as during
      the EIA phase.

      The regulations defines “interested and affected party” as –

      “an interested and affected party contemplated in section 24(4)(d) of the Act, and which
      in terms of that section includes –
           a) any person, group of persons or organization interested in or affected by an
              activity; and
           b) any organ of state that may have jurisdiction over any aspect of the activity;”

      Notice to all of these IAPs must be given by the EAP by:

         a) Fixing a notice board on-site;
         b) Giving written notice, to all IAPs, amongst others to landowners and occupiers
            adjacent to and within 100m of the property boundary; the municipal councillor of
            the ward; and the relevant organs of state;
         c) Placing an advertisement in one local newspaper or any official Gazette, and if
            necessary in one regional newspaper.

      IAPs must be provided with a reasonable opportunity to comment. A minimum of 30
      days must therefore be allowed for IAPs to make such representations, with a minimum
      notice of 14 days to be given for a public meeting. Notification periods that run over
      holiday periods may have to be extended to provide reasonable opportunities for IAPs to
      comment in certain instances.

      Where IAPS include rural or historically disadvantaged communities or people with
      special needs (e.g. a lack of skills to read or write, disability, or any other disadvantage)
      the following could be considered:
         ∼   Advertise on the local radio in a local language at an appropriate time;
         ∼   Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Participatory Learning and Action (PLA)
             approaches and techniques could be used to build capacity of these IAPs and to
             engage and participate more effectively;
         ∼   Existing community structures, committees and leaders must specifically be
             approached;
         ∼   Public meetings should be held at suitable venues and times;


                              WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                     42
                                       DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE


         ∼   Determine the need for separate meetings with vulnerable and marginalised
             groups;
         ∼   Appropriate access to information to be provided; and
         ∼   Reasonable assistance to people with special needs.

      When deciding what level of public participation should be followed, the scale of
      anticipated impacts of the proposed project, the sensitivity and the degree of controversy
      of the project and the characteristics of the potentially affected parties must be
      considered.

      Only those IAPs that submitted written comments and/or attended public meetings or
      have requested in writing to be added to the register will be recorded in the register as
      IAPs. Only registered IAPs will be notified of the outcome of the application and the
      appeal process to be followed. IAPs must disclose any direct business, financial,
      personal or other interests which they may have in the approval or refusal of an
      application. IAPs must be given access to and the opportunity to comment on Basic
      Assessment/Scoping/EIA report in writing before it is submitted to DEA&DP.

      In these Reports the EAP must report on:
         ∼   the steps taken to notify potential IAPs;
         ∼   provide proof that notice boards, advertisements and notices have been
             displayed, placed or given to IAPs;
         ∼   provide a list of all persons, organisations and organs of state that were
             registered as IAPs during the Scoping Phase;
         ∼   Provide a comments-response report summarising the issues raised by IAPs,
             date of receipt of and the response of those issues;
         ∼   Copies of any comments received form IAPs.


6.9   Guideline on Alternatives in the Western Cape (September 2007)

      A full public participation process is being followed for this EIA application. One of the
      key criteria to be taken into account by DEA&DP is the consideration of “any feasible
      and reasonable alternative to the activity which is the subject of the application and any
      feasible and reasonable modifications or changes to the activity that may minimise harm
      to the environment”. The details of the investigation, assessment and identification of all
      possible alternative of the proposed development should therefore be included in the
      Environmental Impact Report. The “feasibility” and “reasonability” of an alternative will
      be measured by the general purpose, requirements and need of the activity and how it
      impacts on the environment and the community that may be affected by the activity.
      Different types of alternatives to be considered include: location alternatives, activity
      alternatives, design and layout alternatives, and different technologies to be used,
      demand alternatives, input alternatives, routing alternatives and scale alternatives. It is
      the responsibility of the EAP to consider all feasible and reasonable alternatives as well
      as the no development option for the project. During the public participation process,
      IAPs must be allowed to comment on all the proposed alternatives. DEA&DP must be
      provided with the relevant information with regards to the chosen alternatives including
      the details on the process of identifying alternatives and the impacts of each alternative.

      A number of Alternatives have been considered during the Scoping process. Two
      Alternatives have been screened out:
      One due to layout changes of the WWTW on the Bella Riva Farm; and


                              WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                   43
                                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

       A second one due to bio-controls insisted on by County Fair for their adjacent chicken
       breeding farm.

       Due to discussions with the Planning Department of CoCT, the Preferred Alternative of
       the Final Scoping Report has been changed to reflect the required higher densities
       associated with the current planning changes to the Fisantekraal region.

6.10   Cape Town 2030 Future Plan / SDF and District Planning

       It is understood that the City of Cape Town is currently embarking on a process of
       drafting what is referred to as District Plans for all of the eight Districts that make up the
       City of Cape Town Municipal Area. These District Plans are to replace all of the current
       planning documents / policies (see paragraphs 1 to 3 and 7 above) currently being
       implemented / administered by the City. The Combined District Plans underpin what is
       referred to as a Citywide Spatial Development Framework which in turn is informed by
       the Future Cape Town 2030 Argument. The above is depicted in the schematic diagram
       below.




       Source: Adopted from a Draft Presentation titled “Future Cape Town: An argument for the long term Spatial Development
       of Cape Town – City Spatial Planning and Urban Design Department, Dated November 2007”


       Whilst the above planning initiatives form part of a current ongoing planning process and
       debate within the City and therefore has no specific status at present, it is relevant in so
       far as it provides insight into the current thinking and debate relating to the future
       planning of the City of Cape Town Municipal Area. To this end the Bella Riva application
       area is located within what is considered to be a potential future growth corridor of the
       City, extending from Durbanville in the direction of the Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel
       settlements. The motivation for the inclusion of the application area within the urban
       edge of the City of Cape Town is primarily based on the above future development
       corridor consideration.


                                      WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                                  44
                               DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

Due to the pressure for low cost and subsidised housing within the Fisantekraal area, a
recent development application for the expansion of the Fisantekraal node to the east
has been launched which is also currently beyond the urban edge.




                       WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                 45
                                           DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE


7.      LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO
        THE PROPOSED BELLA RIVA GOLF COURSE DEVELOPMENT

7.1     The South African Constitution

        The “environmental guarantee’ clause in the Bill of Rights section of the Constitution of
        South Africa, Section 24, states that every person shall have the right to the following:

              a) An environment that is not harmful to their health nor well being; and
              b) To have that environment protected for the benefit of present and future
                 generations, through reasonable legislative and other measures, which:
                     • prevents pollution and ecological degradation;
                     • promotes conservation; and
                     • secures justifiable economic and social development and use of natural
                         resources while promoting justifiable economic and social development.

        This development strives towards upholding this clause of the Constitution.


7.2     Environmental Legislation

7.2.1   The National Environmental Management Act

        The National Environmental Management Act (NEMA), (Act 107 of 1998), provides for
        co-operative environmental governance by establishing principles for decision making on
        matters affecting the environment, institutions that will promote co-operative governance
        and procedures for coordinating environmental functions exercised by organs of state;
        and to provide for matters connected therewith.

        The principles set out in NEMA, Section 2, have relevance to the proposed development
        of the Bella Riva properties, including the following:

        (2)       Environmental management must place people and their needs at the forefront
                  of its concern, and serve their physical, psychological, developmental, cultural
                  and social interests equitably.

        The recommendations for mitigating certain potentially significant impacts have been
        made and will be implemented in terms of an approved EMP.

        2(3)      development must be socially, environmentally and economically sustainable.

        The triple bottom line of this project will be met.

        2(4)(a)Sustainable development requires the consideration of all relevant factors
               including the following:
           i.  that the disturbance of ecosystems and loss of biodiversity are avoided or,where
               they cannot be altogether avoided, are minimized and remedied;
          ii.  that pollution and degradation of the environment are avoided, or where they
               cannot be altogether avoided, are minimized and remedied;
         iii.  that the disturbance of landscapes and sites that constitute the nation’s cultural
               heritage is avoided, or where it cannot be altogether avoided, is minimized and
               remedied;
         iv.   that a risk-averse and cautious approach is applied, which takes into account the
               limits of current knowledge about the consequences of decisions and actions;


                                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                    46
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

          v.      that negative impacts on the environment and on people’s environmental rights
                  be anticipated and prevented, and where they cannot be altogether prevented,
                  are minimized and remedied;

        2(4)(b) Environmental management must be integrated, acknowledging that all
                elements of the environment are linked and interrelated, and it must take into
                account the effects of decisions on all aspects of the environment and all people
                in the environment by pursuing the selection of the best practicable
                environmental option.

        2(4)(c) Environmental justice must be pursued so that adverse environmental impacts
                shall not be distributed in such a manner as to unfairly discriminate against any
                person, particularly vulnerable and disadvantaged persons.

        2(4)(d) Equitable access to environmental resources, benefits and services to meet
                basic human needs and ensure human well-being must be pursued and special
                measures may be taken to ensure access thereto by categories of persons
                disadvantaged by unfair discrimination.

        2(4)(f)    The participation of all interested and affected parties in environmental
                   governance must be promoted, and all people must have the opportunity to
                   develop the understanding, skills and capacity necessary for achieving
                   equitable and effective participation, and participation by vulnerable and
                   disadvantaged persons must be ensured.

        2(4)(g) Decisions must take into account the interests, needs and values of all
                interested and affected parties, and this includes recognising all forms of
                knowledge, including traditional and ordinary knowledge.

        2(4)(i)    The social, economic and environmental impacts of activities, including
                   disadvantages and benefits, must be considered, assessed and evaluated, and
                   decisions must be appropriate in the light of such consideration and
                   assessment.

        2(4)(r)    Sensitive, vulnerable, highly dynamic or stressed ecosystems, such as coastal
                   shores, estuaries, wetlands, and similar systems require specific attention in
                   management and planning procedures, especially where they are subject to
                   significant human resource usage and development pressure.

        The EIA Scoping process followed to date for the proposed Bella Riva Golf Course
        development has taken the above principles and guidelines into account and only those
        development areas that will have little or no permanent impacts on the surrounding
        environment have been earmarked for development purposes. Sensitive areas, on the
        other hand, have been earmarked for conservation. In addition, a comprehensive public
        participation process has been undertaken for EIA Scoping Process in terms of Chapter
        6 of Government Notice R.385 on the NEMA regulations.

7.2.2   National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act

        The National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act, (Act 10 of 2004), provides for
        the management and conservation of South Africa’s biodiversity within the framework of
        the National Environmental Management Act, 1998; the protection of species and
        ecosystems that warrant national protection; the sustainable use of indigenous biological
        resources; the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from bioprospecting involving
        indigenous biological resources; the establishment and functions of a South African
        National Biodiversity Institute; and for matters connected therewith.


                                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                  47
                                       DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



      In terms of Chapter 4 of the Above Act:

      52. (1) (a)       The Minister may, by notice in the Gazette, publish a national list of
                        ecosystems that are threatened and in need of protection.
                  (b)   An MEC for environmental affairs in a province may, by notice in the
                        Gazette, publish a provincial list of ecosystems in the province that are
                        threatened and in need of protection.

      (2)               The following categories of ecosystems may be listed in terms of
                        subsection:
      (1) (a)           critically endangered ecosystems, being ecosystems that have
                        undergone severe degradation of ecological structure, function or
                        composition as a result of human intervention and are subject to an
                        extremely high risk of irreversible transformation;
            (b)         endangered ecosystems, being ecosystems that have undergone
                        degradation of ecological structure, function or composition as a result
                        of human intervention, although they are not critically endangered
                        ecosystems;

            (c)         vulnerable ecosystems, being ecosystems that have a high risk of
                        undergoing significant degradation of ecological structure, function or
                        composition as a result of human intervention, although they are not
                        critically endangered ecosystems or endangered ecosystems; and
            (d)         protected ecosystems, being ecosystems that are of high conservation
                        value or of high national or provincial importance, although they are not
                        listed in terms of paragraphs (a), (b) or (c).

      (3)               A list referred to in subsection (1) must describe in sufficient detail the
                        location of each ecosystem on the list.

      No threatened ecosystems occur on the property, the whole of which was previously
      used for agriculture (feed lot and cereal crop production) and commercial mining
      operations.


7.3   National Heritage Resources Act

      The National Heritage Resources Act, (Act 25 of 1999), provides for the management of
      national heritage resources, to set norms and maintain national standards for the
      management of heritage resources in South Africa, and to protect heritage resources of
      national significance, so that heritage resources may be bequeathed to future
      generations.

      In terms of the above Act, Section 34 (1), refers to Structures and states:

      No person may alter or demolish any structure or part of a structure, which is older than
      60 years without a permit issued by the South African Heritage Resource Agency
      (SAHRA).

      Section 35 (4) relates to archaeology, palaeontology and meteorites, and states that: no
      person may, without a permit issued by SAHRA,
         a) destroy, damage, excavate, alter, deface or otherwise disturb any archaeological
             or paleontological site or any meteorite;
         b) destroy, damage, excavate or remove from its original position, collect or own
             any archaeological material or paleontological material or object or meteorite;


                              WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                     48
                               DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

   c) trade in, sell for private gain, export or attempt to export from the Republic any
      category of archaeological or paleontological material or object,
   d) bring onto or use any equipment which assists in the detection or recovery of
      metals or archaeological and paleontological material or objects

Section 38 of the act further stipulates that any person who intends to undertake a
development categorised as –
1(a) the construction of a road, power line, pipeline … exceeding 300m in length;
(c) any development or activity which will change the character of a site
(i) exceeding 5, 000m2 in extent, … or
(d) the rezoning of a site exceeding 10, 000m2 in extent, …
must …, notify the responsible heritage resources authority and furnish it with details
regarding the location, nature and extent of the proposed development.
A Phase I Archaeological Impact Assessment and a Heritage Impact Assessment has
been undertaken and has been sent to HWC for approval.
The legislation that has generalised relevance to the proposed development of the Bella
Riva properties is summarised in Table 3.




                       WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                  49
                                              DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

         TABLE 3 : Relevant Legislation Applicable for the Proposed Bella Riva Golf
         Course Development
NAME OF ACT          PRIMARY FUNCTIONS                                     RESPONSIBLE AUTHORITY
National             To provide for co-operative environmental             Department of Environmental Affairs
Environmental        governance by establishing principles for             and Tourism, Provincial Government
Management Act,      decision making on matters affecting the              (DEA&DP), Local Authority
107 of 1998          environment, institutions that will promote co-
                     operative governance and procedures for co-
                     ordinating environmental functions exercised
                     by organs of state; and to provide for matters
                     connected therewith
National Heritage    To set norms and maintain essential national          Heritage Western Cape (South
Resources Act, No.   standards for the management of heritage              African Heritage Resources Agency)
25 of 1999           resources and to protect heritage resources
                     of national significance.
Hazardous            To provide for the control of substances              Department of Environmental Affairs
Substances Act,      which may cause injury or ill-health to or            and Tourism, Provincial Government
No. 15 of 1973       death of human beings by reason of their              (DEA&DP) and Local Authorities
                     toxic, corrosive, irritant, strongly sensitizing or
                     flammable nature; to provide for the
                     prohibition and control of the importation,
                     manufacture, sale, use, operation, application
                     modification, disposal or dumping of such
                     substances and products; and to provide for
                     matters connected therewith.

Land Use Planning    Control of land use planning and rights               Municipality
Ordinance, 15 of
1985
National             To provide for the management and                     Department of Environmental Affairs
Environmental        conservation of South Africa’s biodiversity           and Tourism
Management           within the framework of the National
Biodiversity Act,    Environmental Management Act, 1998; the
No. 10 of 2004       protection of species and ecosystems that
                     warrant national protection; the sustainable
                     use of indigenous biological resources; the
                     fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising
                     from bio prospecting involving indigenous
                     biological resources; the establishment and
                     functions of a South African National
                     Biodiversity Institute; and for matters
                     connected therewith.
Agricultural         To provide for the management and                     Department of Agriculture
Resources Act, No.   conservation of South Africa’s Agricultural
43 of 1983           Resources within the framework of the
                     Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act.
National Water Act   To provide for fundamental reform of the law          DWAF
No. 36 of 1998       relating to water resources.
Subdivision of       Regulates the subdivision of agricultural land        Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Land
Act, 1970, No. 70
of 1970

         In meeting the requirements of the above planning frameworks, legislation and
         Provincial policy guidelines, and in keeping with the findings of the EIA process
         conducted for this development proposal, a number of specialist studies were
         commissioned to firstly assist with the planning of the development plans and secondly
         to assess the significance of the potential impacts (positive and negative) that could
         develop as a result of the proposed development.


                                   WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           50
                                DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE

In addition, the specialist studies undertaken have provided recommendations for
mitigating negative impacts or enhancing positive impacts and in certain instances the
monitoring of impacts. All these recommendations have been included into the draft
Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for the proposed construction and operational
phases of the development (Appendix 26).

The section below describes the more important salient conclusions and
recommendations of the specialist reports carried out to date for the proposed Bella Riva
Golf Estate development during the EIA Phase of the project.




                       WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                  51
                                           DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




8        SPECIALIST    STUDIES:                               CONCLUSIONS                    AND
         RECOMMENDATIONS
         The following specialist studies were carried out for the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate
         development:

           •   Agricultural Soil Study (Appendix 10);
           •   Preliminary Assessment Of Groundwater Resources and Boreholes at the
               Proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate (Appendix 14);
           •   Geotechnical Investigation (Appendix 11);
           •   Archaeological Impact Assessment of Proposed Development on Portions 1 and 2
               of Farm No 123 (Bella Riva & Farmika), Fisantekraal, Durbanville Magisterial
               District (Appendix 15);
           •   Heritage Impact Statement and Notice of Intent to Develop for Heritage Western
               Cape (Appendix 16a);
           •   Social Impact Assessment of the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate in Fisantekraal,
               City of Cape Town (Appendix 12a);
           •   Economic Impact Assessment of the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate in
               Fisantekraal, Cape Town (Appendix 12b);
           •   Botanical Impact Assessment of the Bella Riva Golf Estate (including farms
               Lichtenberg 175 & Eikenhof 123, including portions Farmika 123/1, Bella Riva
               123/2), Fisantekraal (Appendix 19a);
           •   Botanical Assessment of the Mosselbank River and floodplain adjacent to the
               development to the Bella Riva Golf Estate Fisantekraal (Appendix 19b).
           •   Bella Riva Golf Estate Landscape Design Guidelines (Appendix 21);
           •   Freshwater Assessment: Proposed Bella Riva Development Mosselbank River
               near Fisantekraal (Appendix 18);
           •   Visual Impact Assessment Bella Riva Golf Estate(Appendix 17);
           •   Proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate Traffic Impact Assessment (Appendix 20);
           •   Architectural Guidelines and Design Codes (Appendix 22);

        Summaries of the findings of these specialist studies are presented below. Specialists
        assessed the preferred development option as well as the two alternatives put forward.


8.1     Agricultural Soils Analysis

8.1.1   Agricultural Soils

        To assist the Town Planners with the designing of the SDP, Mr Bennie Schloms
        conducted three Soil Analysis Assessments for the application area Bella Riva, Farmika
        and Lichtenburg indicating where the high, medium and low quality soils were located on
        the properties with respect to perennial crops and vineyards. In general the properties
        were found to have very low to low potential agricultural soils which are unsuitable for
        perennial crops and vineyard.

        The soil potential survey of the proposed golf estate is depicted on Figure 1 of Appendix
        10 which shows the physical and morphological limitations of map units.

        The terms of reference for all three soil surveys were as follows:

           •   Undertake a detailed soil survey of the farms to determine the inherent properties,
               mainly physical and morphological , of the soils;


                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          52
                                      DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




     •    Compilation of soil maps (scale 1:5000) on a base map supplied by TV3 Town
          Planners, to describe the natural distribution of the soils.
     •    Description of the soils in the different map units in terms of their physical and
          morphological properties.
     •    Evaluation of the relative potential of the soils in terms of the vigour of wine grapes
          (perennial crop) with supplementary irrigation.

Summary of recommendations for Farm Bella Riva:

It is clear from the table below that the potential of the majority of the soils on Bella Riva is
very low to low in terms of its potential for wine grapes or any other perennial crop.

Table 4: Potential for Wine Grapes and Perennial crops on Farm Bella Riva

Rating                      Number       of            % of total                Potential for
                            profile pits                                         wine grapes
≤2                          17                         7,9                       Very Low

>2 - ≤3                     53                         24,8                      Very Low –
                                                                                 Low
>3 - ≤4                     113                        52,8                      Low

>4 - ≤5                     31                         14,5                      Low           –
                                                                                 Medium
>5 - ≤6                     0                          0                         Medium

>6 - ≤7                     0                          0                         Medium        –
                                                                                 High
>7                          0                          0                         High


Summary of recommendations for Farm Farmika:

It is clear from the table below that the potential of the majority of the soils on Farmika is
very low to low in terms of its potential for wine grapes or any other perennial crop.

Table 5: Potential for Wine Grapes and Perennial crops on Farm Farmika

Rating                      Number       of            % of total                Potential for
                            profile pits                                         wine grapes
≤2                          5                          5,3                       Very Low

>2 - ≤3                     23                         24,8                      Very Low –
                                                                                 Low
>3 - ≤4                     47                         50,0                      Low

>4 - ≤5                     18                         19,1                      Low           –
                                                                                 Medium
>5 - ≤6                     1                          1,1                       Medium

>6 - ≤7                     0                          0                         Medium        –
                                                                                 High

                   WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            53
                                           DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



        >7                        0                          0                         High

        Summary of recommendations for Farm Lichtenburg:

        It is clear from the table below that the potential of most of the profiles for wine grapes or
        any other perennial crop of the soils on Lichtenburg No 175 are very low to low, which
        makes quality grape and virtually any other crop production, impossible.

        Table 6: Potential for Wine Grapes and Perennial crops on Farm Lichtenburg

        Rating                    Number       of            % of total                Potential for
                                  profile pits                                         wine grapes
        ≤2                        48                         51,1                      Very Low

        >2 - ≤3                   22                         23,4                      Very Low –
                                                                                       Low
        >3 - ≤4                   18                         19,1                      Low

        >4 - ≤5                   5                          5,3                       Low           –
                                                                                       Medium
        >5 - ≤6                   1                          1,1                       Medium

        >6 - ≤7                   0                          0                         Medium        –
                                                                                       High
        >7                        0                          0                         High


        It is therefore concluded that in terms of the low potential of the soils covering the property
        that other land uses can be undertaken without affecting the agricultural production
        potential of the farms currently under consideration.

8.1.2   Recommendations

        No recommendations were put forward by Mr. Schloms for increasing the agricultural
        potential of the soils which, give the very low rating of the soils, would be prohibitively
        expensive to ameliorate.

        The low potential of the soils for perennial crops and vineyards covering the whole of the
        property, a change in land use from agriculture to other more favourable land uses is
        viable.


8.2     Preliminary Assessment of Groundwater Resources and Boreholes at the
        Proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate

        SRK Consulting was appointed by Withers Enviromental Consultants cc, on behalf of
        Messrs Sagewise 67 (Pty) Ltd, to assess the yield potential of the groundwater resources
        and boreholes of the Bella Riva area for water supply to the planned new golf estate.

        The following broad study objectives were outlined in the Terms of Reference (ToR):
           • Collate all hydrogeological data for the local catchment.



                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            54
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




           •   Conduct a census of the boreholes in the study area to collect hydrological data
               such as current water levels, abstraction rates and volumes, EC and pH of water,
               equipment installed, etc.
           •   Conduct controlled pump testing of the five strongest production boreholes with
               reported yields of between 6.3 and 30 l/s. This will be done according to DWAFs
               minimum requirements, i.e. a multiple rate test, a constant yield test and a water
               level recovery test. During the pump testing nearby boreholes will be monitored to
               determine the effects of abstraction on them.
           •   Conduct a down-hole camera survey of the five production boreholes to determine
               in what state the casing and side walls are.
           •   Assess the exploitation potential of the five production boreholes as well as the
               aquifer (s), i.e of the well field.
           •   Determine the catchment (recharge) area (groundwater management unit), which
               is of relevance to the aquifers supplying the boreholes.
           •   Determine the recharge to and current abstraction from these aquifers.
           •   Determine the current groundwater quality in the area.
           •   Calculate the water balance to determine if there is an adequate supply of surplus
               groundwater available to provide the golf estate’s current and future water
               demands
           •   Design a monitoring programme for the aquifer(s) from which the existing
               production boreholes abstract water.


8.2.1   Main findings of report

           •   Relatively good quantities of groundwater can be located in the Bella Riva area in
               quartzitic rock types which fracture readily under stress.
           •   The groundwater resources at Bella Riva are heavily over utilized with a resultant
               significant decline in the water levels. The current abstraction from GMU G21E-1of
               ~340,000 m3/a is 92% of the mean annual recharge of 368,600 m3/a, whilst this
               volume exceeds the recharge by 82,444 m3/a during dry spells.
           •   Based on the yield testing results the estimated long term sustainable yields of the
               tested boreholes TP9, TP10, TP12 and TP13 are 1.0, 2.3, 1.0 and 1.8 l/s x 24
               hrs/day x 365 days/annum, respectively. This equates to a combined yield of 6.1
               l/s x 24 hrs/day or 527 m3/day (192,355 m3/annum), which is only 38 - 27% of the
               reported annual demand of ~500,000 – 700,000 m3.
           •   Over a 8 hr/day pumping schedule the yields are 1.73, 4.00, 1.73 and 3.12 l/s
               respectively, which equates to a total of 305 m3day (111,216 m3/annum).
           •   Although the calculated sustainable yields are much lower than the present
               pumping rates, these yields should be revised after a year or so to compensate for
               the water level recovery as a result of the lower abstraction rates. For this purpose
               a proper monitoring programme must be initiated.
           •   Under the present scenario the four tested boreholes can supply only ~12% of the
               required peak demand of the proposed golf course. Although additional
               groundwater sources can be developed in the areas least affected by the over
               abstraction from the irrigation boreholes (e.g. along the western and southern
               boundaries of the property) the total demand of 25 - 50 l/s cannot be supplied by
               the groundwater resources of this property.
           •   The general authorization for this property or volume of groundwater that can be
               abstracted without a groundwater permit (license) is 85,500 m3/annum, which is 17
               - 12% of the expected demand.
           •   In general, the production boreholes are in a poor condition and risky to use due to
               major construction flaws. Most important is the lack of slotted casing installed at
               the unstable fractured zones. The camera survey furthermore revealed lost


                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           55
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



               equipment in boreholes TP10 and TP12. All of these could result in pumping
               equipment becoming irretrievably stuck in the boreholes at any time.
           •   The chemical analysis indicate that the groundwater resources in the Bella Riva
               area have been polluted by irrigation with waste water from the stock feed lots and
               are unfit for human consumption.

        Therefore, boreholes and aquifers used for domestic purposes have to be protected in
        order to minimize the pollution risk.


8.2.2   Recommendations
        Based on the above conclusions, SRK recommend the following if boreholes are to be
        used in the develpment:

           1. Boreholes TP10, TP12 and TP13 have to be reconstructed and equipped with
              sufficient steel casing of good quality (min. wall thickness 5mm) and properly
              slotted at the required intervals to safeguard these boreholes from collapsing. Most
              likely the boreholes will have to be re-drilled as it is suspected that the present
              casing will be irretrievable due to corrosion. The boreholes must be completed to a
              final depth of at least 120m.bgl.

           2. The four pump tested boreholes should be equipped and utilised as indicated in
              Table 7 below.

        Table 7: Recommended equipment and pumping schedules for the pump tested
        boreholes at Bella Riva.




           3. Preferably the production boreholes should be decommissioned for a period of at
              least one year to allow recovery of the aquifers. During this time water levels must
              be monitored regularly by implementing a monitoring programme. The data
              collected must be accessed by a hydrogeologist to determine the rate of recovery
              and if one year of decommissioning is sufficient.

           4. The measuring of water levels in all the production boreholes and other nearby
              unused boreholes must be implemented immediately as part of the groundwater
              monitoring programme. Water levels must be measured at least once a month. For
              best management results the data should be captured into an Aquimon database –
              a computer programme specifically designed by SRK Consulting for groundwater
              monitoring. This software must be installed on the water manager’s computer for
              easy access of the data and management of the resource.

           5. Volume meters must be installed on all the pump outlets in order to calculate the
              volumes of groundwater abstracted. Hour meters must also be installed at each


                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                         56
                               DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



   pump in order to calculate the pump yields. This will give an early indication of a
   malfunctioning pump or volume meter.

6. Readings must be taken from these meters simultaneously with the water level
   measurements and this data must also be entered in the Aquimon database.

7. For the purpose of water level measurements a piezometer tube of nominal 25mm
   ID (Class 6 irrigation pipe) must be installed in each production borehole to about
   1m above the pump inlet.

8. A hydrogeological consultant must be appointed to process and report on the
   monitoring data on a yearly basis and, if required, made adjustments to the
   sustainable yields.

9. Production borehole TP15, which is used for domestic purposes, has to be pump
   tested in order to calculate the sustainable yield of this borehole. A water sample
   for macro-chemical and microbiological analyses should also be taken during the
   pump test. (Note: As this borehole is the sole source for household water at
   present and therefore could not be taken out of commission, it could not be pump
   tested during the recent pump testing programme.)

10. New production boreholes should be constructed to have a minimum diameter of
    200mm down to the depth of the pump inlet with sufficient casing installed to
    guarantee trouble free insertion and removal of equipment.

11. In order to safeguard the groundwater supplies from contamination and equipment
    from theft and damage, two zones of protection must be established around each
    production borehole:
      a. Inner Protection Zone
       The inner protection zone is an area of at least 50m x 50m, centred on the
       actual borehole. The following measures must be applied in this protection
       zone:
          •   No pit latrines, VIP’s, soak-aways or septic tanks – to prevent effluent
              from percolating into the aquifer and borehole;
          • No storage of fuel, lubricants or other hazardous substances without a
             leak prove;
          • Production boreholes for domestic use must be equipped with a sanitary
             seal – to prevent contaminated surface water and spilled fuel from
             percolating down the casing into the borehole;
          • Concrete collar around borehole casing must be at least 100mm higher
             than the floor or surface level to prevent spilled fuel, water from leakages,
             wash water, etc to enter the borehole;
          • No ponding of surface water – the area must be sloped for surface water
             to drain away from this zone;
          • Vegetation, other than trees and large bushes, should be maintained in
             this zone – Note: Roots of bushes and trees present near boreholes often
             grows into the borehole where it can cause considerable problems;
          • The borehole and pumping equipment must be housed in a lockable pump
             house. For this purpose a remove-able cage manufactured out of
             galvanised steel mesh and corrugated steel sheets is recommended. This
             cage, rather than a brick building, is recommended as it can be readily
             removed in case the borehole is damaged beyond repair or if it needs to
             be re-developed and cleaned.




             WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           57
                                            DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



                    •   The production borehole, as well as other monitoring boreholes in the
                        area, must be properly sealed to prevent entry of reptiles, insects, birds
                        and small rodents.
                     • The entire area should be properly fenced with a lockable gate to prevent
                        unauthorised entry and to exclude animals. The gate must be positioned
                        and of such a type that allows easy vehicle access.
                     • A signboard must be erected on the gate warning people of the dangers
                        and that unauthorised entry is not allowed.
                 b. Outer Protection Zone
                    The outer protection zone should cover an area of at least 500 m x 500 m and
                    the following measures should be applied within this zone:
                        ∼   No water-borne sewerage, soak-aways or new pit latrines;
                        ∼   No stock watering points or pens;
                        ∼   No abattoirs and other hazardous industries such as workshops, metal
                            plating factories, petrol filling stations, etc.
                        ∼   No cemeteries or disposal of solid waste or sewage.
                        ∼   Existing pit latrines and septic tanks with 100 m of the borehole must be
                            properly sealed;
                        ∼   No new housing or industry developments should be allowed in this
                            zone.

                    Town planners and developers must be made aware of these protection zones
                    for future planning and development. These zones must be clearly marked on
                    the maps for each town and the restrictions for each zone clearly noted.

        It could be concluded that, in view of the considerable decline in water levels in the Bella
        Riva production boreholes (‫06 – 04ﻤ‬m), the sustainable yield of these aquifers have been
        exceeded since abstraction commenced here. In the engineer’s view, these boreholes
        should be decommissioned and allowed to recover for at least a year. This recovery
        should be carefully monitored by implementation of a groundwater monitoring programme
        and hydrogeologist must access the data after one year.

        In light of the above findings the developer has taken a decision not the use these
        boreholes for the proposed development.


8.3     Preliminary Geotechnical Investigation

8.3.1   Geotechnical Investigation

        SRK Consulting was appointed by Sagewise 67 (Pty) Ltd to undertake a preliminary
        geotechnical investigation of the Bella Riva Golf Estate site during December 2004 and
        again in May 2005 to assess the geotechnical nature of the soils of the site with respect to
        foundation designs for building and roads including an assessment of the general
        allowable ground bearing capacity, suitability of soils for use as construction materials for
        golf course and whether any areas of instability exist. This commission also included the
        mapping of the various soil types on the property. Potentially problematic soils where to
        be identified and the general level of the water table was determined. The production of
        the preliminary geotechnical report guided the golf course and general development use
        planning.

        Terms of reference for the study were:


                            WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                        58
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



        Provide an assessment of the nature and engineering properties of the soils underlying
        the site;
                  • The production of a soils map indicating the distribution of soils and the
                     positions of test pits;
                  • The identification of any potentially problematic soils;
                  • An assessment of the general suitability of the soils for use as construction
                     materials for the golf course and related infrastructure;
                  • An assessment of probable founding requirements for houses including an
                     assessment of the general allowable ground bearing capacity
                  • The determination of the general level of the water table; and
                  • The production of a preliminary geotechnical report that will guide golf park
                     land use planning.

        153 test pits were excavated over the properties and logged for their geotechnical
        characteristics. Fourteen 2m long Drop-weight Cone Penetrometer (DCP) Test were
        conducted across the site to obtain an indication of the consistency of the soils.
        Representative samples of the various soil types were obtained from different locations for
        classification of soil types and the determination of general compaction properties. Most of
        the materials sampled were potentially suitable for road construction.

        Appendix 11 indicates the distribution of the engineering geological soils mapping units
        that occur on the properties. These mapping units define areas within which the soils,
        both transported and residual, have a relatively uniform profile and therefore exhibit
        generally uniform engineering and foundation properties and behaviour. Most soil types
        were found to be suitable for strip foundations.


8.3.2   Findings and Recommendations

        The site is considered suitable for the development of a golf estate from a geotechnical
        perspective and no fatal flaws were evident. Note should however be taken of the
        following:

           •   A well defined topsoil layer is generally not evident and there may therefore be a
               deficiency of good quality topsoil for the golf course.

           •   Soil boundaries indicated on the Soil Map are gradational and atypical soil profiles
               are possible within the mapped area.

           •   Cutting in to the soils in Area C should be avoided since residual clay occurs at
               shallow depth. Should the sandy soils above the clay layer be removed in this
               area, drainage might become problematic.

           •   Should houses be built in areas underlain by a thick sand profile in situ compaction
               will be required to improve the soil density. This is easily achievable using a heavy
               vibratory roller.

           •   Area A contains a thick sand profile and sand can be borrowed from this area for
               general shaping of the golf course. Water features could be developed within the
               excavated sand pits but any water feature may require lining unless excavation
               takes place down to the expected underlying clayey soils. Clayey soils derived
               from the in situ weathering of the Malmesbury Group shales could probably be
               sourced from the site or from nearby clay pits.



                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           59
                                           DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




           •   The ferricrete profile located in Area F is a valuable source of construction
               materials for roads.

           •   Potentially problematic soils where generally absent and will not affect the location
               of housing. In situ compaction is needed in sandy area. Potentially expansive soils
               where generally not encountered.

           •   More detailed geotechnical evaluations will be required for individual structures.


8.4     Archaeological Impact Assessment of Proposed Development on Portions 1
        and 2 of Farm No 123 (Bella Riva & Farmika), Fisantekraal, Durbanville
        Magisterial District

        An Archaeological Impact Assessment for undertaken by D. Halkett and P. Hine of
        Archaeology Contracts Office, Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town for
        the Proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate Development in April 2008.

8.4.1   Results

        Only one archaeological site was identified on this extensive property, namely a single
        stone artefact scatter of probable Early Stone Age. Its context is, however, severely
        compromised. The site is relatively small containing few artefacts and is associated with
        an old gravel terrace and silcrete “raft”. It may be possible that previous farming activity in
        the area resulted in the diminished visibility of sites.

8.4.2   Recommendations

        The single archaeological site is of low heritage significance and no mitigation is
        suggested. No further archaeological work is required.

        The proposed development would therefore have no impact on the archaeological
        resources of the property.

8.5     Heritage Impact Statement and Notice of Intent to Develop for Heritage
        Western Cape

        Notification of Intent to Develop to Heritage Western Cape, as is required in terms of
        Section 38(1) of the National Heritage Resources Act, was submitted by Maretha
        Geldenhuys of Heritage Matters.

        Terms of Reference for the Heritage Consultant were as follows:
           • To identify the nature of the potential impacts. This is an appraisal of the type of
              effect the construction and operational phases of the development will have on the
              affected environment. This description should include what is to be affected and
              how it is affected.
           • To assess the potential impacts of the development, which include the magnitude,
              spatial scale and duration of effects, the probability of occurrence and the
              confidence levels;
           • To propose mitigation or enhancement measures to reduce or enhance the
              potential impacts that could arise, and monitoring of recommendations that may
              need to be taken up in the Environmental Management Plan (EMP).



                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            60
                                           DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



8.5.1   Findings

        Very little heritage remain on the property. The existing structures are mostly houses,
        offices, stables and sheds and not older than sixty years or representative of a specific
        architectural style. One building, however, namely the homestead on Eikenhof, is older
        than 60 years. The developer plans to use this house as a sales office and does not
        intend to do any structural alterations to it.

        No Heritage Register lists this building and it does not fall within a conservation area.


8.5.2   Recommendations

           •   Surrounding buildings should be built in complimentary architectural styles to the
               homestead.

           •   If ever the homestead is to be demolished or altered, an Annexure A (Section 34
               of Act 25 of 1999) application must be submitted to HWC.

        The proposed development would therefore have no impact on the heritage resources of
        the property.

        Heritage Western Cape has provided their approval for the proposed development
        (Appendix 16b).


8.6     Social Impact Assessment of the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate in
        Fisantekraal, City of Cape Town

        Prof. Jonathan Bloom of Multi-Purpose Business Solutions undertook the Social Impact
        Assessment for the Bella Riva Golf Estate in April 2008. The study was done over a
        period of 6 weeks and relied primarily on traditional appraisal methods. The different
        impacts were then assessed using the impact rating methodology indicated. It should be
        noted that this report should be read together with the Economic Impact Assessment
        Report.

        The terms of reference and scope for the Social Impact Assessment covered the
        following:
             • Prepare a socio-demographic profile and assess the current social status of the
                communities affected by the development;
             • Assess perceptions of the proposed project, aspirations, fears, social interaction,
                cohesion, sense of place etc., among the broader community through personal
                face-to-face interviews that cover all community groupings;
             • Consider the views of businesses most likely to be affected by the development
                and assess potential participation, training, skills development requirements and
                BBBEE procurement options in sectors most likely to be affected by the project;
             • Convene discussions and interviews with key stakeholder groupings in District C of
                the City of Cape Town with specific reference to Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel, the
                Tygerberg Administration and NGOs operating in the area to obtain their input on
                the project and the anticipated impact on communities and surrounds; and
             • Prepare a framework for a Social Monitoring and Evaluation programme and skills
                assessment.




                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            61
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



8.6.1   Findings

        The residents of Fisantekraal essentially represent Coloured and Black communities, with
        a number of African immigrants, especially from Zimbabwe and the democratic Republic
        of Congo. Many of the community leaders originate from the Black community and they
        use their political contacts to address problems in the informal settlement, according to
        Mr. Mabaso of the Health Forum. There is limited interaction between the Coloured and
        Black communities, although the youth find it easier to interact with one another.

        The only significant development in Fisantekraal in the last 9 years was related to the
        construction of housing and a number of infrastructure projects. The only retail outlets in
        the area are houses that have been converted to spaza shops. Fisantekraal benefited
        from the large-scale development in the Durbanville area in the form of employment
        creation. The lack of housing is a serious problem with an estimated 5 000 residents
        currently living in the informal settlement. The population is growing rapidly and it is
        estimated that between 12 000 and 20 000 persons live in the area currently. Businesses
        in Tyger Valley and Durbanville provide employment to many of the Fisantkraal residents,
        while many of the local builders work in Durbanville and Klipheuwel.

8.6.2   Conclusion

        The communities and stakeholders are all aware that in terms of the future, Fisantekraal
        and Klipheuwel require opportunities for job creation, infrastructure provision, and
        community development and upliftment. In the opinion of Prof. Bloom the Bella Riva
        development is well located to provide these opportunities. It is essential for the
        Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel communities to see economic imperatives being balanced
        with social values and social benefits in the surrounding disadvantaged communities.

        The anticipated benefits associated with the proposed development are largely economic
        in nature and would serve to strengthen the social fabric that needs attention in
        Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel. The development will also result in increased rates and
        taxes for the City of Cape Town.

        There are also a number of concerns that have been identified:
           • The influx of construction workers into the area during the construction phase of
               the development. This will increase the housing problem in the area.
           • The development may cause extra strain on existing infrastructure in the area if no
               contribution to or assistance with the upgrading of existing infrastructure is
               forthcoming from the developer.
           • The scale of the development will most likely contribute to the growth of property
               values in the area, and thus increase rates and taxes.
           • There is a major concern that the developer may not consider the interest of the
               community by contributing to social investment initiatives.
           • Discussions with the communities also highlighted concerns related to preferential
               procurement and the uptake of local labour. A policy of “Fisantekraal First” must be
               implemented.
           • It is unclear if the Bella Riva development will have an inclusionary housing policy.
           • It is also unclear what will happen to the present farm workers on the properties.

        It is the opinion of Prof. Bloom that at this stage the economic benefits of the project
        outweigh the social cost.




                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          62
                                             DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



8.6.3   Recommendations

        Pre-construction      If the proposed development is approved by DEA&DP, a skills survey and
                              audit of the local capacity to provided labour during the construction phase
                              should be done before the commencement of the construction phase.
        Pre-construction      The findings of the skills audit must be used to design an Employment
                              Strategy coupled to a Human Capital Development Plan that aims to use the
                              maximum number of local contractors and labour. The plan would included:

                              Setting up a local recruitment office in the area prior to the project
                              commencing. The developer should initiate the activity during the first phase
                              of the development after which the employment office becomes the
                              responsibility of the contractor (s) collectively under the guidance of the
                              developer.
                              the development of a database of local contractors and
                              the design of an appropriate skills training programme in conjunction with the
                              contractors. The developers must also ensure that local contractors are
                              invited to tender for work and terms and conditions should be included in
                              RFQ and RFP documentation. The details of these requirements should be
                              set out in the Environmental management Plan for the project and from part
                              of a Social; Engagement Plan.
        Pre-construction      A Social Engagement Plan should be prepared that serves as a
                              management framework for the implementation of three key activities, i. e.
                              (1) employment creation and skills development, (2) small business
                              development and capacity building, and (3)social investment. It should form
                              part of the social contract between the Developers of the Bella Riva project
                              and the Fisantekraal communities. The “contract” should form the building
                              blocks for future community upliftment and economic development and
                              growth in the area. The targets specified in Section 6.4 of the Social Impact
                              Assessment (Appendix 12a) should form part of the monitoring and
                              evaluation mechanism proposed for the social engagement of local
                              communities and businesses in the development of the Bella Riva project.
        Pre-construction      A communication strategy should be devised to inform the locals of the
        Construction          opportunities that will accrue from the Bella Riva development. It became
                              clear from the research that people are unaware of the possibilities and how
                              they may be involve themselves in the opportunities that the project present.
                              A clear unequivocal statement of a “Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel First”
                              employment and business procurement policy must be communicated to the
                              local residents and businesses.
        Pre-construction      A plan for the relocation of the affected farm workers and the construction of
                              housing for them must be done prior to commencement of the development.

8.7     Economic Impact Assessment of the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate in
        Fisantekraal, City of Cape Town

        Prof. Jonathan Bloom of Multi-Purpose Business Solutions undertook the Economic
        Impact Assessment for the Bella Riva Golf Estate in April 2008.

        Please note that figures used in the study have been obtained for the construction phase
        from indicative estimates used in the construction industry, while expenditure from similar
        project components and Prof. Bloom’s own research were used to reflect the impact
        during the operational phase. This report should be read together with the Social Impact
        Assessment Report.

        The objectives of the economic impact study are as follows:

           •   To comment on the financial feasibility of the project and its compatibility with
               economic and spatial planning;

                           WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                              63
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




           •   To ascertain the overall direct monetary benefits, i.e. direct GGP (Gross
               Geographic Product) and job creation potential on the Cape Town Metropolitan
               (CMA) economy, as well as the Western Cape province and South African
               economies;
           •   To determine the indirect/induced contribution to employment and income (GDP)
               for the CMA, the Western Cape province and South African economies;
           •   To qualitatively assess un-quantifiable socio-economic benefits and cost related to
               the development of the Bella Riva development;
           •   To state potential externalities relevant to the development project, which should
               be read together with the Social Impact Assessment;
           •   To ascertain the extent of economic linkages, leakages and revenue transfer
               associated with the Bella Riva development; and
           •   To offer a perspective on local community and small business development arising
               from the construction and operational phases of the Bella Riva development.


8.7.1   Conclusion

        Several economic benefits will result from the development, but a large part of the initial
        benefits will be limited to the construction phase and an effort must be made to ensure
        benefits from the commercial components have both the desired social and economical
        impact. The economic benefits of the development also outweigh the economic cost
        associated with revenue transfer and leakages and the opportunity cost of alternative land
        use for the development area. The soil survey done for the area indicates that the soils
        are of poor agricultural potential and large area of the site is lying fallow at present. In
        order to mitigate the pointers for a Social Engagement Strategy and the Monitoring and
        Evaluation Plan (Section 7.2 and 6 respectively of the Social Impact Assessment
        Appendix 12a) must be implemented.

        The economic benefits of the project include the potential to create employment and skills
        transfer opportunities in the community of Fisantekraal during the construction phase. The
        development will also result in increased rates and taxes for the local authorities. This
        study must also be considered together with the risks and mitigations proposed in the
        Social Impact Assessment. There is however some concerns that have been identified,
        namely:
        There is not sufficient capacity for certain skills in the local community and labour may
        have to be imported. Although this may stimulate demand for local business over time, the
        associated social impacts are of concern;
        Small business may have technical capacity but are not geared for the large scale of the
        proposed development. They will need assistance to gear themselves financially and
        contractually.
        Small building contractors and small businesses will likely not have the capacity to obtain
        individual contracts. The ability and knowledge to forge and develop business-to-business
        linkages is a concern and may preclude existing local business from obtaining work over
        the duration of the construction phase.




                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           64
                                             DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




8.7.2   Recommendations

        The following recommendations are proposed as part of the project implementation and
        ongoing activities of the Bella Riva development and are intended to address and mitigate
        against the risks highlighted above:

        Pre-construction      A social engagement plan must be introduced, which essentially entails the
                              development of capacity among locals to become part of mainstream
                              construction and operating activities over the construction and operational
                              phases.
        Pre-construction      A skills assessment of the available labour must be conducted in
                              Fisantekraal.

                           WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            65
                                              DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



        Pre-construction      A labour desk must be established through a collaborative effort between the
                              developer and the contractor, which shall cater for locals and manage the
                              inlux of non-Fisantekraal residents. The possibility of exploring this activity in
                              conjunction with other developments planned for the area must be
                              considered to further enhance synergy.
        Construction/         Goods and services must as far as possible be procured from existing
        Operations            businesses and services in the CMA
        Construction/         Local expertise and labour must be used as far as possible
        Operations

8.8     Botanical Impact Assessment of the Bella Riva Golf and Botanical
        Assessment of the Mosselbank River and floodplain adjacent to the
        development to the Bella Riva Golf Estate Fisantekraal

        Dr Charlie Boucher was appointed by sage Wise 67 (Pty) Ltd. to undertake a vegetation
        assessment of the proposed development property to describe the vegetation currently
        present on the property (Appendix 19a). In addition Dr. Boucher was appointed to
        describe and map the current vegetation of the Mosselbank River and Flood Plane to
        provide base line information for comparing any changes that may be ascribed to possible
        impacts from the operation of the golf estate (Appendix 19b).

        The brief for the Botanical Assessments was to examine, describe and map the
        vegetation on the property currently known as the Bella Riva Golf Estate, which comprises
        the farms Lichtenberg 175 and Eikenhof 123, including portions Farmika 123/1, Bella Riva
        123/2 as well as in the Mosselbank River floodplain opposite the properties.


8.8.1   Botanical Impact Assessment of the Bella Riva Golf
        8.8.1.1 Results

        Potential vegetation on the site is Swartland Shale Renosterveld. Mucina & Rutherford
        (2006) describe the Swartland Shale Renosterveld as a fynbos shrubland in which small-
        leaved shrubs are prominent, with Asteraceae being particularly abundant to dominant.
        The properties Eikenhof and Farmika are functional grain (mainly wheat) and stock farms
        (primarily cattle and sheep, with some horses), while sand mining is also actively
        undertaken. Artificial pastures have been created in some areas that were previously
        under cereal crops. An off-road track has been created through the erstwhile grain farm,
        Lichtenberg 175. The locations of the different functional units on the properties are
        indicated in Figure 6.

        Twenty of the 45 species recorded during the vegetation survey are exotic to the region
        and usually to South Africa. This high proportion of exotic species is indicative of the
        highly disturbed and secondary nature of the property. Grasses and herbs dominate the
        vegetation. Two units of secondary vegetation are described in the report that are
        characterised by different intervals since last disturbance and by current grazing practices.

        Artificial pastures
        This secondary vegetation on previously cultivated soil is dominated by many exotic short
        grasses (regularly annual or biennial) and herbs, including Arctotheca calendula, Cynodon
        dactylon, Lolium multiflorum, Pennisetum clandestinum and Raphanus raphanistrum.
        Secondary Dicerothamnus rhinocerotis-Hypochaeris radicata community
        This community is found on the Lichtenburg property around the off-road race track. It
        was previously cultivated for grain crops but has not been utilized for any farming in the
        recent past thus some scattered shrubs associated with more stable natural vegetation in
        the area (e.g. Dicerothamnus rhinocerotis, Felicia filfolia, Helichrysum crispum and


                           WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                                 66
                                            DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



         Senecio rigidus) are slowly returning. Geophytes, which are normally associated with
         Renosterveld vegetation, were not seen.

         8.8.1.2 Discussion and Conclusions

         Swartland Shale Renosterveld as a vegetation type is poorly represented by the
         Secondary Dicerothamnus rhinocerotis-Hypochaeris radicata community. This community
         is in the early stages of recovery following recent cultivation, with some scattered shrubs
         associated with more stable natural vegetation in the area.

         The vegetation on the farm is not linked or adjacent to any other natural dryland
         vegetation. It is adjacent to the Fynbos vegetation on the Fisantekraal Airdrome but
         would not form any meaningful contribution to that vegetation such as by linking it to the
         Mosselbank River as the previous link has been totally disrupted by sand and clay mining
         and cultivation. It would require excessively costly rehabilitation, with little fundamental
         gain, to re-establish a link through the proposed development. No dryland botanical
         reason could be identified to justify restricting this development.

         The wetland vegetation along the Mosselbank River is disassociated from direct
         connection to the properties discussed here by a railway line and a highly disturbed area
         created during the recent construction of a sewage pipeline adjacent to the railway line
         servitude wich will serve the approved WWTW. The approved City Council’s sewage
         treatment works would contribute water required by the golf course in the proposed
         development. It is proposed, through the Bella Riva development, to reduce the
         detrimental releases of treated nutrient-enriched water and increased flow volumes from
         the sewage works into the Mosselbank River, as originally proposed, by first utilizing the
         water in the golf estate. The flows into the river would be attenuated by and recycled
         through a system of ponds and dams on the estate.


8.8.2.   Botanical Assessment of the Mosselbank River & flood plain

         The four natural indigenous vegetation communities of the Mosselbank River and its flood
         plain, namely: Aponogeton distachyos ponds, Typha capensis beds, Phragmites australis
         beds and the Fuirena hirsuta stream fringing vegetation, are best included within the
         “Critically Endangered” Cape Lowland Alluvial Vegetation given their species content,
         their location along and in lowland rivers or streams and the substrate they are found on.

         The invasive waterweed Eichhornia crassipes is present in the Mosselbank River
         upstream of the R312 Bridge over the river. Should Eichhornia crassipes populations in
         the Mosselbank River increase below the R312 Bridge, then the source of nutrient
         enrichment should be identified and remedial actions taken to reduce enrichment levels
         (see water quality information contained in the report by the aquatic scientist, A. Belcher in
         Appendix 18). This should control the invasion by this weed. The planned new waste
         water treatment works, in combination with the utilization of the additional water produced
         on the Bella Riva golf estate, together with the construction of water scrubbing ponds and
         the cessation of cattle feedlots will all contribute to an improvement in the quality of water
         entering the Mosselbank River in this particular section.

         Typha capensis is a useful indicator plant that can be used to monitor for nutrient
         enrichment in a system. If it out-competes Phragmites australis, for instance, then this
         could be an indication of an increased nutrient load, which should be identified as rapidly
         as possible, because the Western Cape rivers are basically nutrient-poor systems.
         Controlling or limiting encroachment by Typha capensis requires reducing the source of



                          WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           67
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



        nutrient pollution, removing existing nutrient-rich sediments, removing plants by
        mechanical or chemical control and by keeping water levels high for as long as possible.

        There is a tendency for some small areas along the river backwater channels and
        floodplain meadows to exhibit brackish conditions, which is indicated by the vegetation
        being less dense and even open and the cover of the halophyte, Triglochin striata,
        increasing. These areas should be monitored carefully as an increase in area would
        indicate an increase in salinities through reduced leaching of salts by freshwater flooding.

        The Mosselbank River, including its floodplain meadows, is an important linkage for fauna
        between the Sandplain Fynbos around the Fisantekraal airdrome and the vegetation
        along the Diep River. The river appears to function reasonably well through the study
        area although the invasion by exotics has a negative effect on pollution remediation and
        water quantity in the system.

        The vegetation maps produced in this study are intended to be used to assess changes to
        overall distribution patterns of the vegetation along the Mosselbank River. This is to serve
        as a control measure against which to assess changes, both negative and beneficial, to
        the natural system as indicated by the spatial distribution and content of the vegetation
        and to monitor whether the operation of the golf course is playing any part in any
        deterioration of the Mosselbank River system where it flows past the proposed Bella Riva
        Golf Estate.


8.9     Landscape Design Guidelines

        Planning Partners where appointed to compile a Landscape Design Guideline for both
        public and private areas of the Bella Riva Golf Estate.

        Terms of reference for the establishment of landscape design guidelines were as follows:
           • To identify the nature of the potential impacts. This is an appraisal of the type of
              effect the construction and operational phases of the development will have on the
              affected environment. This description should include what is to be affected and
              how it is affected.
           • To assess the potential impacts of the development (all alternatives), which
              include the magnitude, spatial scale and duration of effects, the probability of
              occurrence and the confidence levels;
           • To propose mitigation or enhancement measures to reduce or enhance the
              potential impacts that could arise, and monitoring of recommendations that may
              need to be taken up in the Environmental Management Plan (EMP).

8.9.1   Landscape Vision
        The aim of the landscaping guidelines is to ensure that the golf estate will fit into the
        current agricultural/rural pattern of the Durbanville area. To maintain continuity in the
        landscape character, owners will be required to conform to certain conditions,
        specifications and restrictions. The intention of the guidelines is to encourage “Water-
        wise” indigenous landscapes and gardens.



8.9.2   Public Landscaping
        The integration of public and private landscaping will be important to the overall
        appearance of the development. Aspects of the integration may fall within the private
        gardens while other aspects will form part of the public landscape.


                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           68
                                            DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




        Elements of the Public Landscaping are the following:
           1. Road hierarchy, including important entrances and intersections will be celebrated
              with boulevard and squares utilising trees and other planting to indicate hierarchy
              to increase the legibility of the road networks.
           2. Screening of undesirable views or framing of desirable views could be achieved
              with trees following an agricultural vernacular pattern of windbreaks and orchards.
              Such view framing and screening could be enhanced with landscaped berms and
              werf walls.
           3. Public open space/ green belts and out of play areas become a visual extension of
              the gardens, the borrowed landscapes which add value to the various properties.
              Property owners should allow for informal pedestrian access to these public
              spaces from their gardens. Formal pedestrian paths should be developed through
              the green belt system, interconnecting the development on a secondary level.
              Care should be taken with public paths not to impact on the privacy of property
              owners.
           4. The interface between public landscaping and private gardens should appear
              seamless, with planting bends and lawn tying up on either side of the property
              boundary. The levels of the property and gardens should be similar to the adjacent
              levels of the public landscaping.
           5. The interface on the road side of the property compared to the green belt and out
              of play side of the property should be designed with the following in mind:
                a) Landscape lighting should be minimal to reduce lighting pollution on the out of
                    play and green belt side of the property;
                b) Hard landscape elements such as water features, sculptures should be
                    limited to the road side of the property;
                c) Pots and stepping stone in the landscape would be allowed on both sides of
                    the property;
                d) Hard landscaping of gardens with stone chip, bark mulch or similar should be
                    limited and only allowed on the road side of the property;
                e) Palms or any tropical appearing plants such as ferns will only be allowed on
                    the road side of the property; and
                f) The side boundaries of the properties must be heavily planted with trees and
                    scrubs to create a screen from adjacent properties.


8.9.3   Private Landscaping Plans
        Garden Planting Plans and Irrigation Plans must be submitted to the Property Owner
        Association (POA) for approval. The POA will in turn submit the plans to Planning
        Partners for final approval. For full details of the guidelines for Planting and Irrigation plans
        and list of recommended plant species see Landscaping Report in Appendix 21 and
        Environmental Management Plan in Appendix 25.

8.10    Freshwater Assessment: Proposed Bella Riva Development Mosselbank
        River near Fisantekraal

        Toni Belcher was appointed by Messrs sage Wise 67 (Pty) Ltd to undertake a freshwater
        assessment of the Mosselbank River adjacent to the proposed Bella Riva development.
        The terms of reference for the study was to undertake a specialist study on the river
        health of the Mosselbank River where it runs past the site of the proposed Bella Riva golf
        estate. This is seen to include:
            • An assessment of the rivers current environmental characteristics, especially water
                quality, which will provide a baseline for the river condition prior to the
                development as well as inform mitigation measures that would need to be taken


                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                              69
                                   DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



       relating to the expected impact of the proposed development on the aquatic
       ecosystem.
   •   The establishment of a long term monitoring programme to check whether any
       pollution of the Mosselbank River system is taking place as a result of the
       operation of the golf estate and the release of treated effluent from the WWTW into
       the river. The monitoring programme will be set up in conjunction with the City of
       Cape Town, who will be responsible for the management of the WWTW.

The report was aimed at providing an initial freshwater assessment of the Mosselbank
River to inform the Environmental Impact Assessment process for the proposed
development.

The ecological condition of the middle reaches of Mosselbank River at the proposed
development site are considered to be largely modified, while the ecological importance
and sensitivity of the river is moderate to low. Thus, the river and the associated riparian
zone should be protected by a development setback or buffer of preferably that
recommended by the Western Cape Provincial Spatial Development Framework, i.e. 30m.
This buffer will provide at least some protection from the impacts of the proposed
development. In addition, all development should remain above the 1 in 50 year flood line.

Stormwater generated on the site should preferably not be discharged to the stream, as
this would impact on both the flow and quality in the river and in future alter its character.
Retention ponds or off-stream wetland areas should be constructed to mitigate the impact
of the stormwater on the river. Measures should also be put into place to prevent litter,
rubble and other waste materials from being deposited in the river.

The river riparian zone should as far as possible be rehabilitated and incorporated into the
development as an aesthetic feature. Rehabilitation work should include erosion control
measures; should it be deemed necessary, improvement of existing river crossings to
ensure that they do not impede the flow of the river, and areas that are currently
overgrown with invasive alien plants should be subjected to an invasive alien plant
removal programme and the banks should be replanted with indigenous plants.

The Environmental Management Plan (EMP) formulated for the proposed development
during its construction and operation phases, in accordance with the requirements of the
EIA regulations should ensure that the existing riparian ecological structures and functions
remain intact after the construction phase is complete. The recommended plan should
include the following, amongst others:

   •   The maintenance of a protective buffer area, minimum of 30m (establishment of
       dense growth of indigenous existing and suitable cosmopolitan indigenous shrub
       species);
   •   Clearing or felling of alien invasive trees within the stream margin and wetbanks;
   •   Retaining and rehabilitation of existing indigenous trees and plants;
   •   The removal of obstructions that particularly block the channel flows and the
       construction of structures promoting erosion control (buffer, hard structures, etc.);
       and
   •   Minimising activities that lead to elevated levels of turbidity. Bulldozing and the use
       of other mechanical machinery in the riparian zone should also be prevented as far
       as possible.

It is envisaged that, should the proposed development take place with a properly designed
and implemented EMP in place, the impact will be of a low significance due to the fact that
the river is already in a degraded state, and that the planned development will not go
below the 1 in 50 year flood line.

                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           70
                                         DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



       In addition, the river is separated from the proposed golf estate by the railway line and
       servitude for the pipeline for the WWTW. The opportunity exists to improve on the current
       state of aquatic ecosystem. This requires removal of alien invasive plants from the riparian
       zone, creation of stormwater retention or wetland areas to mitigate stormwater runoff,
       removal of litter and rubble, and the re-vegetation of the riparian areas with indigenous
       riparian plants that will provide a buffer area between the river and the surrounding
       development. Monitoring of the river water quality and aquatic habitat integrity should take
       place to allow for adaptive management of stormwater run off and other activities on the
       development site.

       It is recommended that the developer approach the private riparian owners adjacent to the
       proposed golf estate to form a conservancy to manage the riparian zones.


8.11   Visual Impact Assessment
       CNdV where appointed by Sage Wise 67 Pty (Ltd) to assess the visual impact of the
       proposed Bella Riva development.

       The scope of work of this specialist study was to assess the visual implications of the
       development of a golf estate and associated housing, conference facilities and hotel on a
       site north of Durbanville. The following areas will be covered in this report:
           • Describe the existing visual characteristics of the site and its environs.
           • Determine the area from which the proposed development will be potentially
               visible (i.e. the viewshed).
           • Assess the visual impact of the development from key areas within the viewshed.
           • Propose possible mitigation measures.

       The land uses between the urban edge and the proposed development are diverse
       activities; these include light industrial, a Memorial Park, Tydstroom Chicken Factory, the
       Goedemoed Radio Site, County Fair and the Corobrick factory. The Fisantekraal
       settlement and the Fisantekraal station, with the related buildings lies 0,5 km South of the
       site. The Klipheuwel Settlement and the Mikpunt smallholding settlement lies 5 km to the
       North of the proposed development.

       The application area slopes predominantly to the west with views over the agricultural
       lands towards Durbanville in the south west and, in the distance, Table Mountain. Views
       to the north are curtailed by the koppies, with glimpses of homesteads and treelines in the
       landscape. Distant views to the east are of the Slanghoekberge, the Wemershoekberge
       and Simonsberg.

       The site has a relatively small viewshed because of the nature of the surrounding hills.
       Major views will be from the R302, the surroundings farms and a limited area of the
       northern suburbs of Durbanville. Views will be possible from the mountains to the south
       but these views are not considered significant because of the mitigating effect of distance,
       (25 km and further.)

       The overall significance of the visual impact is anticipated to be medium-high during the
       construction period falling to medium over time, if full mitigation is implemented.

       The nature of the development and its uses are not highly compatible with the current use
       of the immediate surrounding land, but is felt that due to its proximity to Fisantekraal and
       the industrial areas to the South, it should be read as an extension of the existing
       development.



                       WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           71
                                           DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



8.11.1   Recommended Mitigation Measures

         General
         The nature and character of the surrounding landscape should be considered when
         discussing and amending the current layout. The fact that the topography of the proposed
         development creates a relatively high visual impact increases the need for adequate
         mitigation measures to be considered and implemented. There are specific areas that
         should be considered for mitigation where the visual impact is highest. These visual areas
         include; the entrance roads to the development and their management, and the edges of
         the development on the R302. Specifically the eastern boundary of the proposed
         development where all proposed housing should not exceed heights of 4.5m. The existing
         treelines and natural features which currently aid in obscuring views should be kept.
         These treelines will also maintain the rural character of the area. It is proposed that all
         roads are planted with avenues of trees at a spacing of at the most 10m centre to centre.

         Massing
         It is essential that all buildings be kept as low as possible. The following is recommended:
              • It is proposed that building forms are broken up and that the coverage is no more
                  than 50% of the erf.
              • Buildings to be predominantly single story with a height restriction of 5m
              • Houses with permission to build ‘solder’ rooms have a height restriction of 6m.
              • Double storey buildings are to have flat roofs and a maximum height of 8m.
              • All building heights are to be measured parallel to the natural ground level before
                  any excavation has taken place.
              • Buildings are not to be set on plinths – cut and fill is to be kept to a minimum.
              • Retaining walls should be no higher than 1.2m.
              • It is proposed that side building lines on erven are a minimum of 3m (6m in total).
              • Landscape guidelines must specify tree planting in these areas.
              • Buildings to be rectilinear.

         Architectural Style and Finishes
            • A binding architectural guideline document is to be drawn up and applied across
                the project.
            • The architectural style is to be consistent throughout the development although
                ‘local’ differences within the different buildings and functions are appropriate.
            • Lighting, street furniture, paving, etc. are to be controlled by the guideline
                document so that consistency can be achieved.
            • Predominant colours are to be natural colours for walls and dark grey for roofs,
                with the colours used for elements such as windows being consistent.

         Parking Areas and Roads
         Parking areas which are normally not visually obtrusive can become a visual liability when
         full of brightly coloured vehicles or at times of the day when the sun can cause an intense
         visual impact through reflections and glare.
              • Road surfaces should be kept as narrow as possible and preferably be finished in
                  as natural a looking material as possible.
              • Parking area should be finished in as natural a colour as possible.
              • All parking areas must be designed so that the vehicles are shielded from view
                  over as large an area as possible.
              • At least one tree per 4 bays must be mandatory.

         Fencing
            • No tall security fencing is to be allowed in the development.
            • The use of such security aids as razor wire is not to be allowed.

                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           72
                                 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




   •   Areas are to be demarcated by the use of tree lines and hedges rather than any
       use of any other form of formal fencing.
   •   Boundary fencing must not be solid walls, razor wire or vibracrete.
   •   Boundary fencing should be steel palisade fencing in dark grey or black, without
       masonry columns and base walls

Lighting and Signage
   • Light pollution and spillage needs to be minimised so as not to create the
       impression that urban development has been dropped into the rural landscape at
       night. Likewise the signage should be appropriate to the rural nature of the
       development and the surroundings.
   • All lighting is to be shielded so that only the area needing to be lit is lit.
   • No naked light sources should be visible from outside the development.
   • Only reflected light is to be visible.
   • Where necessary street lighting is to be low level bollard type.
   • No uplighting onto buildings should be allowed although limited uplighting into
       trees and shrubs can be used provided the light sources are not visible.
   • Signage to be limited in size so as to be readable but not overwhelming.
   • The colours used for the signage are to compliment the colours in the landscape.
       No bright, inappropriate colours are to be used.
   • No neon or backlit signs are to be allowed although sensitive uplighting onto signs
       can be used provided that no light source is visible.
   • No floodlighting or bright security lights should be allowed anywhere on site.

Tree Lines and Landscaping
The long-term visual success of the development depends as much on the landscaping as
it does on the architecture and layout. In time the landscaping should be predominant in
the visual experience of those seeing the development from afar.
    • A comprehensive landscape masterplan and landscape guideline document need
        to be drawn up that will establish a planting theme for the entire development.
    • Where possible existing tree lines are to be retained and over time replaced.
    • New tree lines are to be planted as soon as possible.
    • It is suggested that the use of alien tree species that are considered part of the
        cultural landscape, and that are not invasive be allowed.
    • It is essential that adequate shade trees, berming and screen planting be
        mandatory in all parking areas.

Entrance Buildings
Entrance buildings must be set back from view and be as small a scale as possible.
Lighting to be kept to a minimum. No floodlighting.

Mitigation Measures during Construction
    • The site must be kept tidy at all times
    • Building material stockpiles must be protected from dispersion into the surrounding
       terrain by wind or water,
    • A concerted effort must be made to minimise dust generation and its effect on the
       surrounding buildings and dwellings.
Controlling Future Development
    • Any future changes, improvements or extensions to the development must be
       subject to a separate visual impact assessment.
    • All individual erven shall be sold together with landscape and architectural
       guidelines.




                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                         73
                                           DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




            •   An Architectural Review Committee (ARC) must be set up to review all plans. A
                qualified professional architect and landscape architect should serve on the
                committee.
            •   The ARC must approve all plans prior to the local authority approving any building
                plans.
            •   Architectural and landscape plans must form part of submissions by individual
                owners to the ARC.
            •   Future owners shall be policed by the homeowners association/ Body Corporate.

8.12     Proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate Traffic Impact Assessment

         Sage Wise 67 (Pty) Ltd appointed Africon to prepare a Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA)
         for Bella Riva Golf Estate, Durbanville, Western Cape. This TIA investigates the impact of
         the proposed development on the surrounding road network and major intersections.

         This TIA investigates the impact of the proposed development on the surrounding road
         network and major intersections.

         The objectives of the study are as follows:

            •   To quantify potential peak hour trip generation for the proposed development;
            •   To assess the traffic impact of the proposed development on the surrounding
                existing road network;
            •   To assess the proposed access configuration; and
            •   To identify any improvements that may be required to access roads and the
                surrounding road network.

8.12.1   Conclusions
         From the results obtained the following conclusions are drawn:

            •   The land for the development is being used for farming activities.

            •   The development will gain access off the R302 and R312 on the western and
                southern side of the development.

            •   The existing intersections in the vicinity of the proposed development carry low
                traffic volumes while the intersections on the R302 in Durbanville are carrying high
                traffic volumes.

            •   A number of road network changes and improvements are planned in the vicinity
                of the development that will have an impact on the future distribution of traffic in
                the area (See Appendix 20).

            •   Three accesses are proposed for the development serving different areas of the
                development interlinked with each other via the internal circulation road network
                namely:
                 ∼   Access A is approximately 3 000m from the R302/R312 intersection on the
                     R302. This access will act as the main access to the development located at
                     the centre of the development.
                 ∼   Access B will mainly provide access to the GAP and Group housing
                     developments in the Lichtenburg area via a link on the eastern side of the
                     Fisantekraal Industrial area from the R312. This access is approximately



                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           74
                               DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



         450m from the Fisante Kraal intersection on the R312 which is approximately
         1 300m from the R302/R312 intersection.
     ∼   Access C provides access to the back of the development which could be
         used as the primary services access as well as for the Farmica and Bella
         Riva development areas. Access C is approximately 1 950m from the
         Fisantekraal intersection on the R312. This could be a good location to join
         the R312 for the realignment of the M167 in future.

•   The estimated morning and afternoon peak hour trip distribution are 2 117 trips
    with 593 entering and 1 524 trips leaving the development in the morning peak
    hour and vice versa for the afternoon peak hour.

•   The trips were generally distributed to the north (R302), south (R302) and east
    (R312) to a ratio of 10%, 60% and 20% respectively.

•   The capacity analysis shows that currently only the R302/Langeberg Road
    intersection is operating at Level of Services (LOS) of E while all the others are
    operating at an LOS better than E.

•   All the existing and new intersections will have to be upgraded to accommodate
    the increase in traffic resulting from the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate and the
    Fisantekraal Industrial Park as follows:
     ∼   One lane per direction between Access A and the R302/R312 intersection
     ∼   One lane per direction between the R304/R312 intersection and Access B
     ∼   Two lanes per direction between Access B and the R302/R312 intersection
     ∼   Two lanes per direction for the first 500m along the R302 on the southern leg
         of the R302/R312 intersection.
     ∼   Two lanes per direction for the first 500m on the northern leg of the
         Brackenfell/R302 intersection
     ∼   Two lanes per direction between the Brackenfell/R302 and Lubbe
         Street/R302 intersections
     ∼   Two lanes per direction between the Lubbe Street/R302 and Langeberg/R302
         intersections
     ∼   All the access roads only require 1 lane per direction.
     ∼   Public transport services in the area are limited to the Fisantekraal low cost
         housing settlement opposite the Fisantekraal Industrial Park next to the R312.
         The Fisantekraal station provides a rail linkage to Belville and the greater
         CMA and areas to the north (Malmesbury, Moorreesburg and the West
         Coast).

•   It is estimated that the development will require the services of 2 buses and 28
    minibus taxis to deliver and 2 buses and 21 minibus taxis to pick up commuters at
    the development in the morning and vice versa in the afternoon peak hour.

•   High pedestrian movements are predicted for the development to and from
    Fisantekraal.




             WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          75
                                            DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



8.12.2   Recommendations


         It is recommended that:
              • Old and outdated road signs are replaced along the main routes to the
                  development and new road signs installed where required.
              • All the accesses have at least two entry and one exit lane to allow for the
                  registration of visitors entering and leaving the development.
              • All booms at the access gates are fitted with proximity card readers to allow for a
                  high service rate when entering and leaving the development.
              • Pedestrian/cycling facilities be developed throughout the development and along
                  the access roads.
              • Provision is to be made for taxi parking.
              • A new station should be provided to the development.
              • The proposed upgrading of the intersections be implemented in a phased manner
                  as development progress.
              • All detail road designs be approved by the relevant authorities before
                  implementation.
              • Traffic signals only be installed once warranted in accordance with the 4Q/6Q
                  warrants for signals as specified in the South African Traffic Signs Manual, Volume
                  3.
              • The development be approved from a traffic engineering point of view based on
                  the results contained in this report and the conditions listed.


8.13     Architectural Guidelines and Design Codes

         Stauch Vorster Architects & Urban Designers have been appointed by the developer to
         establish architectural guidelines for the proposed Bella Riva Development (refer to
         Appendix .22)

8.13.1   Vision
         The vision for Bella Riva is to create a distinctive, appealing and appropriate ‘South
         African’ living environment through the seamless application of appropriate urban,
         landscape and architectural design principles to the immediate site context. A feeling of
         overall cohesiveness, integrity and quality of the development is sought which adds
         “address-value” and appreciated property values to each micro development within the
         Bella Riva estate.

         The architectural style will aspire to reflect contemporary South African living, appropriate
         in style, form, materials and sensitivity to the very unique local context. There are many
         spectacular and interesting contrasts which provide the canvas for rich and diverse
         architectural expression, guided within a broad but considered design framework. Bella
         Riva Golf Estate recognises the long term effect of development on the natural
         environment, and will therefore demand strong consideration for ecologically sound
         design principles.

8.13.2   Site Development Guidelines

         Zoning
         No erf may be subdivided or rezoned for any other use than for a single dwelling with
         outbuildings.




                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            76
                                              DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



         No more than 2 erven may be consolidated with prior written permission from the HOA in
         which case the owner will be liable for the combined levy pertaining to each particular erf
         and any additional costs.

         All architectural guidelines will apply to consolidated erven to achieve the intended
         outcome as pertaining to each individual erf.

         Density
         Density shall not exceed more than one dwelling per erf.

         Coverage

         Floor Area Ratio
         Bulk for all residential erven is 0.5.

         The area of the first floor is limited to 60% of the total ground floor area under roof.

         Height
         Maximum 2 storeys. (Mezzanine floors, attics and loft rooms will not count as separate
         storeys).

         All residential erven to have a 5m street building line together with a 2m built-to line
         towards either side.

         Swimming Pools
         Each individual resident is responsible for the necessary safety precautions regarding
         swimming pools and water features.

         Response to Views
         The higher lying erven on the Bella Riva site has distant views of Table Mountain to the
         south, and the Hottentots Holland Mountains to the east. The predominantly farmland
         surrounds, allows for pleasant views across an undulating green landscape during most of
         the year.


8.13.3   Building Design Guidelines
         Building design guidelines address the overall design and set minimum standards of
         shared amenity for all buildings within the Estate.

         Building Design Guidelines
         Without imposing a strict and prescriptive architectural style, the building design
         guidelines concentrate on aspects that are able to achieve the level of integrity sought,
         while still allowing for variety to emerge. These aspects are:

         1. The adherence to guidelines dealing with the mass and form of buildings will result in a
            human scaled environment with a good balance between building mass and open
            space.
         2. The architectural treatment of specific elements of the buildings, promoting richness
            and uniqueness.
         3 The prescription of materials of a high quality and enduring appearance, achieving both
            harmony and timelessness.
         4. Prescribing the architectural treatment of the edge conditions of erven, resulting in an
            effective yet elegant and vibrant interface between the private and the public domain.
         5. In general, the discouragement of buildings following design fashions that simply copy
            or reinterpret historical styles in favour of appropriate contemporary architectural


                           WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            77
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



  responses suitable to the context and climate of the immediate environment and
  surroundings.

Mass and Form of Buildings and Climatic Control Devices

   •   In its massing, residences should be simple rectangular forms, or a geometrically
       elegant combination of rectangular forms.
   •   The placing of building mass on the site should contribute positively to the spatial
       quality of both the public environment, i.e. the streetscape, and to private spaces
       such as courtyards and private back yards.
   •   Facades longer than 6m should be broken up, i.e. stepped in plan, resulting in
       articulated facades.
   •   Out-buildings should be of similar character as the main residence, and be
       spatially integrated with the residence as a whole.
   •   The use of chimneys are encouraged. Simple geometries should be used.
   •   A combination of pitched roofs and flat concrete roofs are encouraged to create
       visually interesting streetscapes, to moderate scale, and to provide the opportunity
       for glimps views and view corridors between pitched roof sections for homes
       perhaps further from the views.
   •   Shade devices such as louvre screens, pergolas, awnings, veranda’s or stoeps,
       whether used as horizontal, vertical or angled projections from the façade line of
       the building are strongly encouraged and should form an integral part of the
       building’s architecture.
   •   Passive solar design devices, solar energy, renewable & alternative energy
       sources must be installed in a visually unobtrusive fashion, preferably on flat roofs.
   •   Central energy fund approved Solar-heated geysers are compulsory for all
       dwellings. These should be incorporated into the buildings to form part of the basic
       structure and should be clearly shown and annotated on approval drawings.




                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           78
                                        DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




9     POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED BELLA RIVA GOLF
      ESTATE DEVELOPMENT

9.1   Assessment Methodology

      All the issues raised by IAPs during the EIA Process conducted thus far regarding the
      proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate development have been divided into a number of key
      environmental categories. In turn the issues themselves have been divided into key
      groups. The issues raised by IAPs during the two Public meetings and comments
      received regarding the DSR and FSR have been captured and summarised in the notes
      recorded from such interactions (Appendices 6a). All the written responses received
      from individual IAPs, NGO’s and authorities (Appendices 4a and d) have also been
      captured. The issues described below have been summarised from these Appendices
      and the corresponding summary Tables (Tables 1a and b), which include theEAP and
      specialist consultants’ responses to such IAP comments.

      In addition to the issues and impacts raised by the IAPs, NGO’s and authorities, it is also
      incumbent on the independent environmental consultant to assess the impacts of the
      activities to be undertaken in the proposed development, not necessarily raised by IAPs
      etc., but which are generalised impacts of development or listed activities in terms of
      NEMA EIA Regulations, namely: (R. 386)1 (k), (m), (n), 4, 7, 15, 16, 17, 18 and (R. 387) 1
      and 2 namely.:

      Government Notice R386:
      1     The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or
            infrastructure, for-
            (k)       the bulk transportation of sewage and water, including stormwater, in
            pipelines with -
                      (i) an internal diameter of 0.36m or more; or
                      (ii) a peak throughput of 120 litres per second or more;
            (m)       any purpose in the one in ten year flood line of a river or stream, or
                      within 32 metres from the bank of a river or stream where the flood line
                      is unknown, excluding purposes associated with existing residential use,
                      but including –
                      (i) canals; (ii) channels; (iii) bridges; (iv) dams; and (v) weirs
            (n)       the off-stream storage of water, including dams, and reservoirs, with a
                      capacity of 50 000 cubic metres or more;
      4     the dredging, excavation, infilling, removal or moving of soil, sand or rock
            exceeding 5 cubic metres from a river, tidal lagoon, tidal river, in-stream dam,
            floodplain or wetland
      7     the above ground storage of dangerous goods, including petrol, diesel,....., in
            containers with a combined capacity of more than 30 cubic metres but less than
            1000 cubic metres at any one location or site;
      15    The construction of a road that is wider than 4m or that has a reserve wider than
            6m, excluding roads that fall within the ambit of another listed activity or which
            are access roads of less than 30m long;
      16    The transformation of undeveloped, vacant or derelict land to –
            (b) residential, mixed, retail, commercial, industrial or institutional use where such
            development does not constitute infill and where the total area to be transformed
            is bigger than 1 ha;
      17    Phased activities where any one phase of the activity may be below a threshold
            specified in this Schedule but where a combination of the phases, including
            expansions or extensions, will exceed a specific threshold;

                      WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           79
                                       DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



18        The subdivision of portions of land 9ha or larger into portions of 5ha or less.

Government Notice R387:
1     The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or
      infrastructure, for–
      (p)       the treatment of effluent, wastewater or sewage with an annual
      throughput capacity of 15 000 cubic metres or more;
      (t)       any purpose where lawns, playing fields or sports tracks covering an
      area of 10 ha or more, will be established;
2     Any development activity, including associated structures and infrastructure,
      where the total area of the development area, or is intended to be, 20ha or more.

The issues raised do not reflect any particular order nor have they been ordered in any
way according to their anticipated severity of impact or significance.

All these comments and issues were analysed and divided into a number of key
categories, namely:

     •   Biophysical Impacts
     •   Planning Impacts
     •   Engineering Impacts
     •   Socio-Economic Impacts
     •   Public Participation Issues

The potential environmental impacts that could arise from the development of the
proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate are considered below, together with the proposed
mitigation or enhancement that is necessary for reducing the potentially negative effects
or enhancing the potentially positive effects; and any monitoring that may be required. In
addition, the severity of the impact is assessed with and without mitigation in terms of the
extent, status, magnitude and duration. Based on this assessment the anticipated,
ultimate significance of the potential impact is given. In assessing all the environmental
issues raised by IAPs and the EAP, and relating them to potential environmental impacts
that could arise from the proposed development, it was clear that certain issues raised
would not form significant impacts. These issues were therefore screened out of the
assessment process. Only those issues that were anticipated to form significant
environmental impacts were assessed further. For completeness sake, these so-called
insignificant issues have also been recorded below.

In most instances, the judgement call, whether an issue or impact is significant or
not, has been made by the respective specialist consultant. Where the specialist
consultant has not specifically stated the potential impacts significance, the
environmental consultant has inferred such significance based on the conclusions
reached by the specialist consultant. The specialist consultants verified the
interpretation of the environmental consultant in the above regard.

Where issues raised relate to more than one key category or key group, they have either
been duplicated in more than one category or group, or have been divided according to
those categories or groups best suited to the issue raised.

This section outlines the methodology used to assess the significance of the potential
environmental impact raised. For each impact, the EXTENT (spatial influence), STATUS
(negative or positive), MAGNITUDE and DURATION (time scale) are described.




                  WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                             80
                                            DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



        The resultant criteria are then used to ascertain the significance of the impact, with and
        without the use of the proposed mitigation measures. Tables 8 and 9 below, provide the
        scale used to assess these variables, and define each of the rating categories used.

        Table 8: Criteria for the evaluation of impacts
 CRITERIA         CATEGORY                                      DESCRIPTION
EXTENT or        Regional (R)        Beyond 5 km of the proposed development.
spatial
                 Local (L)           Within 5 km of the proposed development.
influence of
impact           Site specific (SS) On site or within 100 m of the site boundary.
                                     Bio-physical and/ or social functions and/ or processes are severely
                 High (H)
                                     altered (60-100%).
                                     Bio-physical and/ or social functions and/ or processes are notably
MAGNITUDE        Medium (M)
                                     altered (30-60%).
of NEGATIVE
                                     Bio-physical and/ or social functions and/ or processes are slightly
IMPACT (at       Low (L)
                                     altered(10-30%).
the indicated
                                     Bio-physical and/ or social functions and/ or processes are negligibly
spatial scale)   Very Low (VL)
                                     altered(<10%).
                                     Bio-physical and/ or social functions and/ or processes remain
                 Zero (Z)
                                     unaltered(0%).
                                     Bio-physical and/ or social functions and/ or processes are vastly
                 High (H)
                                     enhanced (60-100%).
                                     Bio-physical and/ or social functions and/ or processes are notably
MAGNITUDE        Medium (M)
                                     enhanced (30-60%).
of POSITIVE
                                     Bio-physical and/ or social functions and/ or processes are slightly
IMPACT (at       Low (L)
                                     enhanced (10-30%).
the indicated
spatial scale)                       Bio-physical and/ or social functions and/ or processes are negligibly
                 Very Low (VL)
                                     enhanced (<10%).
                                     Bio-physical and/ or social functions and/ or processes remain
                 Zero (Z)
                                     unaltered (0%).
                 Construction (C)    Up to 2 years.
                 Short Term (S)      0-5 years (after construction).
DURATION of
                 Medium Term
impact                               5-15 years (after construction).
                    (M)

                 Long Term (L)       More than 15 years (after construction).

                 Definite (D)        >95% chance of the potential impact occurring.

PROBABILITY      Probable (Pr)       20% - 95% chance of the potential impact occurring.
of occurrence    Possible (Po)       5% - 20% chance of the potential impact occurring

                 Improbable (Im)     <5% chance of the potential impact occurring.
                                     More than adequate amount of information and understanding of the
                 Certain (C)         bio-physical and/ or social functions and/ or processes that may
                                     potentially influence the impact.
CONFIDENCE                           Reasonable amount of information and understanding of the bio-
levels           Sure (S)            physical and/ or social functions and/ or processes that may potentially
                                     influence the impact.
                                     Limited amount of information and understanding of the bio-physical
                 Unsure (U)          and/ or social functions and/ or processes that may potentially
                                     influence the impact.

        The SIGNIFICANCE of an impact is derived by taking into account the assessed extent,
        magnitude, duration and probability of each identified impact. The means of arriving at

                           WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                              81
                                            DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



       the different significance ratings is explained in Table 9. The significance of each impact
       for the Primary Application, Alternative 1 and the No Go Development option is
       summarised in Table 11 at the end of this chapter.

       Table 9: Definition of significance ratings (positive and negative)

SIGNIFICANCE
                    LEVEL OF CRITERIA REQUIRED
RATINGS
High (H)            •        High magnitude with a regional extent and long term duration.
                    •        High magnitude with both a regional extent and medium term duration or a
                        local extent and long term duration.
                    •        Medium magnitude with a regional extent and long term duration.
Medium (M)          •        High magnitude with a local extent and medium term duration.
                    •        High magnitude with a regional extent and short term duration or a site
                        specific extent and long term duration.
                    •        High magnitude with either a local extent and short term duration or a site
                        specific extent and medium term duration.
                    •        Medium magnitude with any combination of extent and duration except site
                        specific and short term or regional and long term.
                    •        Low magnitude with a regional extent and long term duration.
Low (L)             •        High magnitude with a site specific extent and short term duration.
                    •        Medium magnitude with a site specific extent and short term duration.
                    •        Low magnitude with any combination of extent and duration except site
                        specific and short term.
                    •        Very low magnitude with a regional extent and long term duration.
Very Low (VL)       •        Low magnitude with a site specific extent and short term duration.
                    •        Very low magnitude with any combination of extent and duration except
                        regional and long term.
Neutral (N)         •       Zero magnitude with any combination of extent and duration.




                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                                82
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




TABLE ABBREVIATIONS                                           SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT
Ref.        Reference
Prim. Appl. Primary Application
No. Mit.    Without Mitigation
With Mit. With Mitigation                                   COLOUR CODING FOR
SIGNIFICANCE LEVELS                                       SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT
N           Neutral                               H MH M ML L VL
                                                                          N
                                                                            VL L ML M MH H
VL          Very Low                              (-) (-) (-) (-) (-) (-)   (+) (+) (+) (+) (+) (+)
L           Low
M-L         Medium to Low
M           Medium
M-H         Medium to High
H           High
+           Positive Impact
-           Negative Impact

        As noted above, a comprehensive list of issues raised by IAPs is contained in Tables
        1a&b.


9.2     Insignificant Issues

        Selected issues that have been raised in the Scoping Process have been screened out of
        the assessment process as their potential impact on the biophysical and socio-economic
        environments have been considered to be insignificant. For completeness these
        insignificant issues, together with a brief explanation as to why they are not considered
        significant, are listed below.


9.2.1   Security Issues

        Potential Impact:

        The management of County Fair feel that the uncontrolled influx of strangers accessing
        the property is cause for major concern for them, as this may have a severe impact on
        safety and security and could result in theft from their operation. Other than the Main
        Access Road, the proposed access points will attract additional traffic to the area and over
        County Fair’s property, over which County Fair will have no control, and which will
        compromise its mandatory bio-security measures. People walking on the road could
        wander off onto the farm, entering restricted areas.

        Discussion and Mitigation:

        The three entrance roads to the proposed development will be well away from the County
        Fair property and the proposed development will be suitably fenced. No access to the
        proposed development will traverse over County Fair property. It is also expected that
        County Fair should take responsibility for their own security and put in place measures to
        prevent trespassing. According to the provisions of the Department of Agriculture for the
        requirements of approval for a private quarantine facility (which they are) the property
        must be security fenced with the fencing a minimum of 10m from the buildings and a
        perimeter fence a minimum of 10m from the security fence and there must be only one
        entrance to the facility and this must be controlled. The proposed development cannot be

                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                               83
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



        held responsible for trespassing that occurs from the public roads that enter the area. The
        trespassing of vehicles or pedestrians gaining entry to the proposed development will
        therefore, not have any impact on the security measures of County Fair.

9.2.2   Provision of Educational Facilities

        Potential Impact:

        It is expected of the Western Cape Education Department (WCED) to provide educational
        facilities in new developments which include residential erven and or units. The current
        norm for the building of new schools is: 1 primary school for every 1000 residential erven;
        and 1 secondary school for every 2000 residential erven. The WCED requests that the
        above be taken into consideration.

        Discussion and Mitigation:

        One Primary School site will be provided as per the requirements of Western Cape
        Education Department. In addition, provision will also be made for a number of crèches
        within the development.

9.2.3   Community involvement in the project

        Potential Impact: Not enough community involvement in the project

        He question was asked: How will the community be involved in the decision making
        processes and establishment of the Golf Course Development and how many groups in
        the community will be investigated?

        Discussion and Mitigation:

        A full Socio-Economic Impact Assessment has been undertaken for the EIA phase of the
        project, which means that all the different components within the two most affected
        communities (Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel) were researched and documented. In
        addition, the surrounding farming community were also included in the study. Prof J.
        Bloom and N. Arendse have been directly involved with the Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel
        communities as from end-January 2008. They have assisted various members of the
        community to fill out the questionnaires that where needed to complete the study. The
        local communities will be kept up to date with the progress of the EIA and a public
        meeting for the EIA phase is scheduled for 11 February 2009. The IAPs will also be able
        to view and comment on the final EIR.


9.2.4   Skills Survey

        Potential Impact:
        The IAPs recommends that the local peoples’ skills must be surveyed and applied within
        the development.

        Discussion and Mitigation:
        Skills audits are only undertaken once the development has been approved. A skills audit
        will be undertaken by the developer/contractor before the commencement of construction.
        Such a recommendation has been included as one of the development components in the
        Environmental Management Plan for this project.



                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          84
                                           DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



9.2.5   Documentation During EIA Process

        Potential Impact:

        The IAP would like the project documentation to contain all the details of the project and
        any negotiation processes should be captured in writing. The whole community must
        have access to the documents after the recommendations have been finalised. During the
        First Public Meeting an IAP requested a summary of the initial Environmental Impact
        Study and other previous studies.

        Discussion and Mitigation:

        The EIA process was still in its early stages at the time when the above comment was
        received, and all available information was presented at that stage. As more information
        became available it was included in subsequent documents that were shared and will
        continue to be shared with the IAPs. An executive summary of the main documents
        (Scoping Report and EIR) will be translated into Xhosa and included in such documents.


9.2.6   GAP Housing

        Potential Impact:

        Is there going to be GAP housing facilities in the proposed development and at what
        percentage of the total development?

        Discussion and Mitigation:

        The proposed development will include GAP housing units which will be subsidised by the
        developer. Approximately 10% of the total proposed development opportunities will be set
        aside for GAP housing.

9.2.7   Crushing of raw material on site

        Potential Impact:
        It has been proposed that the rocks excavated on site during earthworks/ dam building etc
        as well as any buildings that are to be demolished are crushed on site and re-used as
        sub-base for the project.

        Discussion and Mitigation:
        A Geotechnical Survey undertaken by SRK Consulting Geotechnical Engineers has
        indicated that certain laterite deposits do exist on the property and could be used for the
        construction of roads. If the laterite is lumpy, it can be crushed by a mobile crushing plant
        to the desired sized material suitable for road building. The building rubble from
        demolished structures can be crushed and used as fill for construction or landscaping.
        The necessary measures to reduce dust will be undertaken and has been included in the
        EMP.

9.2.8   Public Meetings and Community Involvement

        Potential Impact:

        The IAPs requests that a meeting be held with all the relevant stakeholders and the
        community where they can talk about the issues at hand in private. The advertisement of
        the meetings and the development information should be done on a wider scale. Some

                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            85
                                           DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



         IAP where not satisfied with the selection of the venues used in the public participation
         process.

         Discussion and Mitigation:

         All the relevant stakeholders were informed of the first public meeting and advertisements
         were placed in the local and regional newspapers. Meetings were also held with the
         Forum of Fisantekraal. Advertisements were placed in the local and regional newspapers
         and a load hailer was used on the evening of the meeting to inform residents of
         Fisantekraal of the public meeting. In addition, a Socio-Economic Study has been
         undertaken with the involvement of the local communities, where face to face interviews
         were held. Fliers in both Xhosa and Afrikaans were distributed within the Fisantekraal
         community to inform.

         Since the Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel communities will potentially be impacted on the
         most by the proposed development (i.e. centre of gravity), it was decided to have the
         public meeting as close to such communities and the applicable property as possible.
         The venue of the Fisantekraal School Hall was therefore considered an ideal venue for
         public meetings.

         A number of meetings have been held with the Fisantekraal Community Forum and a
         Memorandum of Understanding has been signed between the developers and the Forum,
         regarding the proposed development.


9.2.9    Length of Comment Period during Scoping Phase

         Potential Impact:

         The fact that comments have to be submitted to the EAP by 14 December 2007 indicates
         a lack of consideration for the general public. Most NGO’s have their final meetings on or
         by the 22 November 2007, giving them insufficient time to call meetings and submit
         comments. The IAPs requests an extension of the comment period.

         Discussion and Mitigation:

         The comment period was extended from the statutory 30 day period to the 15 January
         2008. It was interesting that only one comment was forwarded to the EAP on 15 January
         2008 (County Fair’s representative).


9.2.10   Buffer with Corobrick Site

         Potential Impact:

         There needs to be plans put into place to protect the future residents of the Golf Course
         development against dust and noise pollution from the Corobrick Clay quarry.

         Discussion and Mitigation:

         The comment of the IAP has been taken into account with the finalised Site Development
         Plan. An earth berm will be erected on the border to the Corrobrick site. The berm will be
         landscaped with water-wise indigenous plants. This will simultaneously protect residence
         from any possible dust and noise pollution from the quarry and act as a visual mitigation
         measure for visual impact of houses on the horizon line.

                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          86
                                             DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



9.2.11   Loss of Heritage and Archaeological Value of Landscape.

         Potential Impact:

         Concern was raised about the influence of the use of treated effluent on the surrounding
         bio-physical environment, especially with regard to archaeological and natural resources.


         Discussion and Mitigation:
         The development has been planned with the precaution principle in mind. The developers
         will install a “polishing plant” to remove excess nitrates and phosphates from the treated
         effluent obtained from the WWTW. The Geotechnical and Groundwater Study indicated
         that the groundwater will not be polluted.

         An archaeological impact assessment done by D. Halkett and P. Hine of the Archaeology
         Contracts Office, Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town found a single
         archaeological site which is of low heritage significance on the site and no mitigation is
         suggested.

         Very little heritage remain on the property. The existing structures are mostly offices,
         stables and sheds and not older than sixty years or representative of a specific
         architectural style. One building however, namely the homestead on Eikenhof, is older
         than 60 years. The developer plans to use this house as a sales office and does not
         intend to do any structural alterations to it. No Heritage Register lists this building and it
         does not fall within a conservation area.

         There will therefore be no impact of the proposed development on archaeological or
         heritage resources.


9.2.12   Impact on vegetation

         Potential Impact:
         It seems unlikely that there is no natural vegetation left on the property.

         Discussion and Mitigation:
         Dr Charlie Boucher was appointed to conduct a vegetation survey of the proposed
         development site. In describing his results Dr Boucher stated that the properties Eikenhof
         and Farmika are functional grain (mainly wheat) and stock farms (primarily cattle and
         sheep, with some horses), while sand mining is also actively undertaken. Artificial
         pastures have been created in some areas that were previously under cereal crops. An
         off-road track has been created through the erstwhile grain farm, Lichtenberg 175.

         Twenty of the 45 species recorded during this survey are exotic to the region and usually
         to South Africa. This high proportion of exotic species is indicative of the highly disturbed
         and secondary nature of the property. Grasses and herbs dominate the vegetation. It is
         therefore concluded that the proposed development will have no significant impact on the
         natural vegetation of the development site.




                          WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            87
                                            DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



9.2.13   Impact of Equestrian Centre

         Potential Impact

         It has not been indicated that an Equestrian Centre will be located on Portion 1 of Farm
         Louwenhof No. 123 (Farmika). It has not been indicated how far from County Fair’s
         operations horses will venture when going out on a trail. The disease carrying risks
         associated with animals such as horses are of great concern to County Fair. It is the
         control of the environment in which the horses are kept which is of concern, and not the
         horses themselves which pose the actual threat. The application does not deal with the
         services required for operating an equestrian centre, such as the cleaning of the stables
         and the disposal of waste. The application does not set out the measures to be taken to
         ensure that the horses do not escape and roam into the roads and onto neighbouring
         farms.

         Discussion

         The equestrian centre will indeed be located to the north of the development as indicated
         on the Preferred Site Development Plan. An equestrian centre is currently being operated
         on the Farmika farm without any apaprent negative impacts on County Fair’s chicken
         farm. If the intended horse trails pose a problem to the operations of County Fair they will
         be relocated according to a mutual agreement. Vermin do not tend to follow horses on
         out-rides and flying insects occur everywhere, even on County Fair’s property, where it
         has been noted a number of cattle are being kept.

         The breeding of vermin and flies are generally associated with stables and cow sheds
         (kraals) and the level of the breeding of such vectors is related to the hygiene of such
         facilities. In addition, because the dung of horses tends to be dry, the likelihood of flies
         breeding in their dung is low. The existing Braams Voerkrale (cattle and pig feed lots)
         probably pose a greater threat in terms of the breeding of vectors, because of the
         “wetness” of their dung and the sheer numbers kept on the farm. We are not aware of
         any impacts being caused by the operation of the feed lot to the west of the County Fair’s
         operation.

         In order to prevent diseases in horses, their stables need to be kept in a good hygienic
         state. The “mucking out” of the stables and the removal of such material can be used for
         the production of compost or simply removed from the property. We do not foresee the
         stabling of a number of horses to constitute any significant impact to the County Fair
         operations. The estate will be surrounded by a security fence and security personnel will
         frequently check the perimeter fencing and that of the horse paddocks. Refer to the EMP
         (Appendix 25) of for more detailed manure management of the Equestrian Centre.


9.2.14   Cumulated Impacts on Public Services and Recreation

         Potential Impact:

         Cumulative Impacts on Public Services and Recreation

         Public Services
         Public services are provided to the community as a whole, usually from a central location
         or from a defined system. The resources base for delivery of the services, including the
         physical service delivery mechanisms, is financed on a community-wide basis. Usually,
         new development will create an incremental increase in the demand for these services;
         the amount of the demand will vary widely, depending on both the nature of the

                            WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                        88
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



development (residential vs. industrial, for instance) and the type of services, as well as
on the specific characteristics of the development (such as senior housing vs. family
housing).

The impact of a particular project on public services and facilities is generally a fiscal
impact. By increasing the demand for a type of service, a project could cause an eventual
increase in the cost of providing the service (more personnel hours to patrol an area,
additional fire equipment needed to service buildings etc.). While these impacts are not
considered to be environmental issues they are addressed below.

Schools
The proposed township development may place an additional stress on the schools in
Durbanville area. Planning should take into account the number of additional school sites
that are required to accommodate the growth of the town.

Fire Service
Fire protection to the project site is provided by the City Cape Town Municipality. As Cape
Town grows the municipality will have to give attention to ensure that the fire services are
adequate to service the new developments.

Police Service
Police protection services are provided to Durbanville and the proposed development site
by South African Police Force. The force in Durbanville is currently understaffed and any
increase in crime will place the existing force under stress.

Waste Management
The construction of new developments will place additional pressures on the existing
waste facilities.

Discussion

If the development is approved it is recommended that the approval be conditional to the
developer implementing the following recommendations:

The developer must successfully implement the mitigation measures which have been
incorporated into the design of the project as well as the additional mitigation measures
recommended by this environmental assessment.

An Environmental Management Plan based on the conditions of approval should be
drafted for the construction of the Lifestyle Village and made available be available before
construction commences.

No significant modifications to the project, as described in the project description, should
be made. Any such modification must be reported to the authorities and will be subject to
their approval and if necessary a supplementary environmental assessment.




                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           89
                                           DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




9.3     Potentially Significant Impacts

        The following potentially significant Impacts and Issues have been raised by IAPs. Each
        of these impacts will be addressed in more detail in terms of the proposed development
        and the two alternative development options put forward.

           •   A          Biophysical Issues

           •   Negative aquatic impacts;
           •   Negative impact of WWTW;
           •   Negative impact on environmental bio-security;
           •   Possible pollution of groundwater;
           •   Impact of use of treated effluent for irrigation;
           •   Impact of nutrients & pesticides;
           •   Increase in biodiversity of the area.

           •   B          Socio-Economic Issues

           •   Impacts on Fisantekraal and surrounding communities;
           •   Impact of removal of land from agriculture (Agricultural value of land);
           •   Impact on employment opportunities;
           •   Economic viability/ financial feasibility.

           •   C          Engineering Issues

           •   Impact of creation of new dams on the site;
           •   Cumulative impact of traffic in the area;
           •   Impact of construction or upgrading of roads and other infrastructure;
           •   Storage & handling of diesel;
           •   General impacts associated with the construction and management of golf
               courses.

           •   D          Planning Issues

           •   Urban edge issues;
           •   Impact on the character of theresurrounding rural area;
           •   Visual impact.


9.3.1   Biophysical Issues
        9.3.1.1 Aquatic Impacts

        Potential Impact:

        Concern has been raised about the impacts of abstracting water from the already stressed
        Mosselbank river system in the area and about changing the flow of the river from
        seasonal to perennial.

        Furthermore the construction of a bridge (See Appendix 23a) over the Mosselbank River
        at the current access to the R302 will trigger the following listed activities:

        1         The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated structures or
        infrastructure, for-

                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           90
                                   DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



(m) any purpose in the one in ten year flood line of a river or stream, or within 32 metres
from the bank of a river or stream where the flood line is unknown, excluding purposes
associated with existing residential use, but including –
        (i) canals; (ii) channels; (iii) bridges; (iv) dams; and (v) weirs
4         the dredging, excavation, infilling, removal or moving of soil, sand or rock
exceeding 5 cubic metres from a river, tidal lagoon, tidal river, in-stream dam, floodplain or
wetland

Discussion:

The Mosselbank River is already an impacted system with poor water quality due to the
Kraaifontein WWTW and pollution from urban and industrial run-off. Despite this the river
it is still one of the few rivers in the Cape Town Metropolitan area that maintains its
seasonal flow regime. Due to Urban Impacts (mainly the creation of impermeable surfaces
and thereby increasing run-off) and inputs of treated sewage effluent from waste water
works, the flow of water in most river systems has become perennial.

Water from the already stressed Mosselbank River will not be used for the irrigation of a
golf course or landscaped areas. Treated waste from the new Fisantekraal WWTW will be
used. The developers will install a “polishing plant” to remove excess nitrates and
phosphates from the treated effluent obtained from the WWTW. The design of the access
bridge over the Mosselbank River will not impede river flow or cause a diversion of the
main channel. The existing low water level bridge does impede flow during flooding and
causes the river to flood upstream (back-up). During high flooding events this entrance
cannot be used and the alternative eastern entrance has to be used. The new bridge will
therefore have a positive impact in that this entrance will always be open. The flow of the
river during flood events will also be improved.

The excavation of footing for the bridge in the adjacent wetlands of the Mosselbank River
will be undertaken during the dry summer months and will not have a lasting impact on
vegetation or cuase any sedimentation of the river.

Stormwater system for the development will be based on restricting the volume and peak
flow of run-off to pre-development levels (See Appendix 23b). A number of detention
dams, ponds, stilling basins and other gabion structures will be used to attenuate the
stormwater runoff. In addition, adjacent farms will probably also take the treated effluent
for irrigation purposes.

A qualified wetland specialist, namely Toni Belcher, has been appointed to evaluate the
potential impact of the proposed Bella Riva development on the Mosselbank river system,
(see below for a discussion of her main findings and Appendix 18 for the full report). As
the Mosselbank River is not located on the properties identified for the development, the
developers can only suggest rehabilitation methods to the landowners and ensure that no
activity on the development site has a negative impact on the Mosselbank River.

Mitigation:

   •   Baseline information has been collected to determine the state of the Mosselbank
       River at present.
   •   Monitoring stations should be placed upstream, across from and downstream of
       the development to monitor any changes in water quality or quantity.
   •   The flow of the river must not be impeded by the design of the bridge crossing.
   •   No treated effluent or stormwater run-off may be released directly into the river
       system.



                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           91
                                     DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




   •   Recommendations for the stormwater management of the development can be
       summarised as follows:
         ∼    Promotion of onsite infiltration
         ∼    Minimise concentration of stormwater
         ∼    Re-use of stormwater for irrigation and household use
         ∼    Installation and rehabilitation of wetlands
         ∼    Maintain pre-development run-off levels
         ∼    Enforcement of management principles
         ∼    Identify escape routes for major floods

Assessment:
                                            Significance of Impact
               Prop.
  Potential             Extent Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                Dev.
   Impact
               Option No With No With No With No With No With No With
                       Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.
               Prim.              M    L                           M    L
  Negative                                             D      D             C     C
               Appl.             (-)  (-)                          (-) (-)
  Aquatic                         M    L                           M    L
   Impact       Alt. 1  R SS                   L       D      D             C     C
                                 (-)  (-)                          (-) (-)
(Mosselbank
   River )  No Go                    Z     Z                Im   Im   N      N      C     C


Management and Monitoring:

Environmental management objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of
the proposed development have been finalised and approved.

The Draft Environmental Management Plan addresses water management issues (refer
Appendix 25).


Possible impacts of proposed development on the Mosselbank River as per
Specialist Study Freshwater Assessment: Proposed Bella Riva Development
Mosselbank River near Fisantekraal by Toni Belcher (Appendix 18)

Due to the distance of the proposed development from the Mosselbank River, the
expected impact is likely to be small. At its closest point, the distance of boundary of the
development site to the river is approximately 25 to 30m. In addition, a railway line and the
sewage pipeline runs between the site and the river and provides an additional physical
boundary. Possible impacts on the river are listed below, however the extent and
magnitude of the impacts is expected to be very low:

• Impact - water quality impairment:
There is a potential risk, during the construction phase of the development, as well as
after completion of the development, for some impairment of the surface water quality to
occur. An increase in suspended solids in the stream can be expected as a result of
increased erosion at the proposed development site due to removal of the cover
vegetation as well as the increased availability of soil at the construction site.
Contamination of the streams may also occur as a result of other pollutants utilized during
the construction process. After completion of the proposed development, there exists a
potential for polluted runoff to impact on the quality of the water in the river. Of particular
concern is the use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of the golf course.

                  WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           92
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




Significance of impacts without mitigation: Moderate negative impact

Proposed mitigation: Runoff from the construction site, and the development site once
completed, should be prevented from directly entering the river, but should be diverted
through screens, off-channel retention ponds or constructed wetland areas, or re-used on
the development site. A riparian buffer area with a minimum of 30 m should be maintained
to reduce the impact of runoff from the developed site’s activities on the river after the
construction phase.

Significance of impacts after mitigation: Provided that the mitigation measures are
effectively implemented, the water quality-related impacts of the developments should be
limited.

• Impact - loss of riparian habitat and bed/bank modification:
A likely impact of the proposed development is the loss of in-stream and riparian habitat
and modification to the bed or banks of the stream, at the proposed development site and
immediately downstream. One could expect loss of riparian vegetation along the river, as
a result of an alteration to the flow or water quality in the Mosselbank River (see other
impact bullets), or it the proposed development activities be allowed to take place within
the riparian zone. This is however deemed as unlikely due to the proximity of the site to
the river.

Significance of impacts without mitigation: Localised moderate to low impact – loss of
aquatic habitat integrity and bed/bank modification could be expected. In addition, the
disturbance of aquatic habitat during and after the construction activities will provide an
opportunity for invasive alien plants to establish within the riparian zone.

Proposed mitigation: During the construction phase of the project, the impact on the
riparian zone of the river system should be kept to a minimum. After the construction
phase, any impacted areas within the riparian zone should be rehabilitated, specifically to
revegetate the area with suitable vegetation. A buffer strip of at least 30m should be
maintained to protect the river from the impacts of the development. Activities associated
with the development should be kept to a minimum within this riparian buffer area. Follow-
up work should be carried out after rehabilitation to ensure that no invasive alien plants
establish themselves within the riparian zone.

A buffer refers to a riparian area adjacent to the water body that comprises of natural or
near-natural vegetation, designed to protect aquatic and riparian areas from the impacts
associated with various human activities. Buffers serve to reduce the levels of sediment
and pollutants directly entering the rivers and wetlands. A buffer zone should therefore be
adopted to protect aquatic habitat from the impacts associated with any proposed
development.

Significance of impacts without mitigation: Localised moderate to low impact – loss of
aquatic habitat integrity and bed/bank modification could be expected. In addition, the
disturbance of aquatic habitat during and after the construction activities will provide an
opportunity for invasive alien plants to establish within the riparian zone.

• Impact - flow modification:
A potential impact of the proposed development is a change in runoff from the site due to
a change in land cover, as well as a change in the wastewater discharge to the river.

Significance of impacts without mitigation: Low impact


                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          93
                                    DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




Proposed mitigation: The hydrological impacts on aquatic ecosystems, associated with
proposed development result from a change of runoff characteristics due to an increased
hardening of surfaces. It is recommended that the impact of stormwater runoff on the river
be mitigated as for the water quality impacts. That is by constructing stormwater retention
dams or wetland areas that will attenuate stormwater flows and diffuse runoff to the river.

Significance of impacts after mitigation: Neglible impact if the recommended
environmental flows are properly implemented.

• Cumulative impacts
With effective implementation of the recommended mitigation measures, the condition of
the Mosselbank River could be maintained at the desired level of ecosystem functioning.
In fact, with the proposed mitigation measures the river condition could improve from the
existing situation, which would be of benefit to the development. Monitoring of the river
water quality and aquatic habitat integrity should take place to allow for adaptive
management of stormwater run off and other activities on the development site.

9.3.1.2 Impacts of WWTW on surrounding area and proposed development

Potential Impact: Noise and Odour

Noise from the WWTW should be confined to a mechanical “hum” from the motors of the
aerators and clarifiers.

Malodour is the obvious nuisance associated with a WWTW, especially in this case where
the Fisantekraal WWTW serves a region extending to Kraaifontein and Durbanville, with
long retention times in the sewage reticulation system. Under such circumstances the
sewage tends to be very odorous (septic) by the time it reaches the treatment works. The
other main nuisance is the collection and removal of dewatered sludge from the WWTW.
This will involve 5 or 6 trucks per day, increasing in number as the flow to the WWTW
increases.

Discussion:

Potential buyers in the estate will be well aware of the location of the WWTW. A large
buffer area has been created between any residential components and the WWTW. The
large landscape buffer zone should absorb most if not all of the mechanical noise
generated by the WWTW. The impact of noise on the golf estate should therefore be
negligible. It is also proposed that the effluent inlet will be covered at the cost of the
developer to reduce the spread of odours. It is thus felt that the WWTW will not have a
significant impact on the proposed development.

The sludge is to be dewatered at the WWTW, which would greatly reduce any malodours.
In addition, the dispatch of sludge would be directly into trucks with no or little storage time
on site.

Mitigation:

  •   Creation of buffer area
  •   Buffer zone is to be landscaped (earth berms) and planted with water-wise
      indigenous plants.
  •   Covering of effluent inlet into sewage ponds.
  •   Keep storage time of dry sludge on site to a minimum.


                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                             94
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




Assessment:
                                         Assessment of Impact
             Prop.
   Potential         Extent Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
              Dev.
    Impact
             Option No With No With No With No With No With No With
                    Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.
             Prim.             M                              M    VL
                                   VL             Pr    Im               C     C
  Impact of  Appl.            (-)                             (-)  (-)
 WWTW on the Alt. 1    SS      M            L                 M    VL
                                   VL             Pr    Im               C     C
 development                  (-)                             (-)  (-)
                No Go               Z    Z                Im   Im    N      N     C      C

Management and Monitoring:

Environmental management objectives have been defined in the draft EMP. These
objectives will be revised after the components of the proposed development have been
finalised and approved.

9.3.1.3 Negative Impact on Environmental Bio-security for County Fair facilities

Potential Impact: Non-effective management

The proposed development may increase the risk of disease transmission to such a level,
as to render County Fair’s operation not commercially sustainable. County Fair’s
representative indicates that several open water features form part of the proposed
development. This would lead to an increase in the population of wild birds in the area.
The greatest carriers of diseases in chickens are wild birds, and an influx of wild birds
would therefore bring additional risks to County Fair’s operations.

A buffer zone from County Fair’s chicken houses is indicated on the SDP. International
standards require this buffer zone to be 1km from the chicken houses in order to curb the
risk of infection. However, County Fair is willing to accept a buffer zone of between 300
and 400 meters from its chicken houses.

The buffer zones are only indicated around County Fair’s existing chicken houses and it
appears from the SDP that a Medium density residential zone is proposed for the area in
between the buffer zones. Should County Fair decide to expand its operations and build
between the current chicken houses, on the border of the Bella Riva Golf Estate, the
Medium Residential block will restrict such development (bearing in mind the mandatory
non-development zones that have to be kept from chicken houses). Therefore, the buffer
zone should extend the full extent of County Fair’s property so as not to limit any future
development on the property.

The buffer zone must be measured from the nearest point of the closest chicken house to
the proposed development, and must be applied uniformly from that point through the
development – even if that means that in some parts the buffer zone exceeds 400m.

Access to and from County Fair’s laying farms are carefully monitored and controlled.
There are strict regulations with regard to cleaning of vehicles visiting the farm. Farm
workers must also abide by stringent hygiene regimes. This is to ensure that poultry is not
infected with disease. Other than the Main Access Road, the proposed access points will
attract additional traffic to the area and over County Fair’s property, over which County
Fair will have no control, and which will compromise its mandatory bio-security measures.
People walking on the road could wander off onto the farm, entering restricted areas.


                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          95
                                 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Contaminated seeds or other elements may be brought onto the site by vehicles,
spreading disease to the chickens.

Discussion:

The developers have been in constant contact with the management of County Fair over
the past few years to assess the potential impacts of the proposed development on their
operations. Certain agreements, for e.g. regarding buffer zones, have been discussed
and reached. There are 3 existing dams on the County Fair property in close proximity to
the chicken houses. Similarly the surrounding farms all have dams on them and the
Mosselbank River runs close to the County Fair property. We therefore do not believe
that the dams (water features) on the golf estate will have any significant impact on the
operations of County Fair.

In all the meetings held between senior personnel of County Fair and the developers, a
buffer zone of 300 meters has been agreed to. This agreement will be honoured as
indicated during the meeting of 31 October 2007. During our October meeting it was
suggested that the 300 meter zone around the chicken houses would suffice. In previous
meetings with County Fair it was also mentioned that the chicken houses themselves
need to be a certain distance from each other to prevent infections spreading from one
house to the other. Taking into account the current distances between each chicken
house it would be unlikely that another chicken house could be built between the two
chicken houses on the western boundary of the County Fair property. It is considered
unfair practice that County Fair can dictate to surrounding property owners what they may
or may not do on their own properties. If bio-security measures are such an issue with
County Fair then their chicken houses should be placed inland of their own boundaries to
ensure their bio-security measures are kept intact. As indicated in all the meetings
between the two parties, the developers of the golf estate wish to maintain open and
cordial dialogue channels with County Fair.

No access to the proposed development will traverse over County Fair property. As
mentioned above, a security fence will surround the proposed development. In addition,
the County Fair property is also fenced. The trespassing of vehicles or pedestrians
gaining entry to the County Fair property and the movement of staff, visitors, deliveries
and residents the proposed development will therefore not have any impact on the bio-
security measures of County Fair.

Mitigation:

   •   No access to the development will be over County Fair property
   •   A 300m buffer area will be maintained between the development and the County
       Fair chicken houses
   •   All fences between the properties will be regularly checked and maintained
   •   Open communication will be kept between the developers and County Fair, so that
       any future issues that may develop can be dealt with in a cordial and timeouse
       manner.




                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                         96
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Assessment:
                                           Assessment of Impact
               Prop.
   Potential           Extent Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                Dev.
    Impact
               Option No With No With No With No With No With No With
                      Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.
               Prim.             L                               L   VL
                                     VL             Pr    Im               C     C
 Impact on the Appl.            (-)                             (-)  (-)
  County Fair Alt. 1     SS      L            L                  L   VL
                                     VL             Pr    Im               C     C
  Bio-security                  (-)                             (-)  (-)
               No Go               Z     Z               Im    Im    N      N     C      C

Management and Monitoring:

The above recommendations have been included in the Draft EMP. Environmental
management objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of the proposed
development have been finalised and approved.

9.3.1.4 Possible pollution of groundwater

Potential Impact:

An IAP has questioned the effect of current and additional abstraction from groundwater
resources on and surrounding the property and the possible pollution of groundwater
sources by the irrigation of golf course with treated effluent and run-off from the
development.

The IAP contended that large areas of Open Space will presumably be covered with
lawns, trees, shrubs and plants. These will need to be maintained with regular watering.
It is envisaged that “sanitised” water (used for irrigation) from the WWTW will seep into
the ground and into the groundwater and lawns, trees, shrubs and plants will presumably
be maintained with pesticides, compost and fertiliser. These will all seep into the ground
and groundwater, possibly having a detrimental effect on the groundwater used by County
Fair. Trees and other plants will in all likelihood draw water from the groundwater,
impacting on the availability of groundwater.

Discussion:

Currently the cattle and pig feedlots business is run on the property which uses
groundwater for its needs. A specialist geohydrology report was undertaken by SRK for
the development and recommended that no groundwater be used. As such the
development will not impact on the groundwater through abstraction in the area.

It is highly unlikely that seepage water will penetrate the deep clay layers covering the
property and reach the water table (aquifer) being used by County Fair. The catchment
area for the aquifer used by County Fair is to the east of the applicable properties. In
addition, the hydraulic gradient on the site of the golf estate is to the west towards the
Mosselbank River and not towards the County Fair property.

Because of the clay deposits on the property, a perched water table exists. It is this
perched water table (some 5 to 10 meters deep) that will sustain the vegetation on the
property. The aquifer system used by County Fair is in excess of 10 meters deep and will
not be impacted on in any way by the proposed development. The Geotechnical and
Groundwater Study indicated that the groundwater will not be polluted.


                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          97
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Mitigation:

   •   Treated effluent from the WWTW will first be pumped to a polishing dam to remove
       excess nitrates and phosphates before the water is used for irrigation purposes.
   •   The development will not make use of groundwater for irrigation of the golf course.
   •   The quality of the groundwater should be monitored to ensure that pollution of the
       groundwater is not taking place.

Assessment:
                                         Assessment of Impact
             Prop.
   Potential         Extent Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
              Dev.
    Impact
             Option No With No With No With No With No With No With
                    Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.
             Prim.             L   VL                          L   VL
                                                  Pr    Im               C     C
             Appl.            (-) (-)                         (-)  (-)
  Impact on                    L   VL                          L   VL
                       SS                   L
 Groundwater Alt. 1                               Pr    Im               C     C
                              (-) (-)                         (-)  (-)
                No Go               Z     Z                Im   Im    N      N     C      C

Management and Monitoring:

The above mitigation has been included into the Draft EMP. Environmental management
objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of the proposed development
have been finalised and approved.

9.3.1.5 Impact of Use of Treated Effluent for Irrigation

Potential Impact: Effect of Using Treated Sewage Affluent for Irrigation on the
Property

The IAP wanted to know what precautions would be taken to prevent water logging and
pooling of effluent in any location; the possible pollution of underground water and
surface; water due to seepage or otherwise; fly breeding; causing a public health hazard;
odours and secondary pollution and runoff from the use of treated sewage effluant.

Discussion:

The re-use of treated effluent for irrigation has a positive impact on water conservation by
reducing the amount of potable water required for irrigation of the golf course, public open
spaces and private gardens and reducing the quantity of treated effluent released directly
into the Mosselbank River from the new WWTW of the CoCT on the Bella Riva farm.

The developers will be installing a “polishing” dam at the Fisantekraal sewage works to
remove excess phosphate and nitrates. Pathogens in th etreated effluent will be killed
when passing itthrough UV lights to be installed at the WWTW. The use of such tertiary
treated effluent will prevent the pollution of the streams and ground on the property and
therefore the rivers downstream. Any remaining phosphates and nitrates in the treated
effluent would be taken up by the vegetation of the receiving environment.

No negative impacts on the groundwater should therefore take place (refer to paragraph
9.3.1.4 above). Similar no vectors will breed in irrigated areas and no malodours should
arise.




                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           98
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Mitigation:

   •   The treated effluent must pass through a system of UV lights to kill off bacteria and
       pathogens.
   •   The treated effluent must be stored in a “polishing” dam where excess nutrients
       will be removed by wetland vegetation.
   •   Pumping treated effluent through a system of water features on the golf course
       before final collection in a series of irrigation dams will ensure that the water is
       suitably purified before use.
   •   A series of cut-off drains will channel excess irrigation seepage and stormwater
       runoff to such water features for reuse in the irrigation system, thus preventing any
       pollution of soils or their waterlogging.
   •   All stormwater run-off from the golf estate must also be channelled into the water
       features.
   •   The creation of artificial wetlands/ filtering reedbeds would assist with the
       purification of irrigation return flows. Suspended solids could settle out in the
       stormwater detention dams.
   •   The quality of the tertiary treated sewage effluent must be regularly checked for
       excess phosphates and nitrates. If excess quantities are present, the treated
       sewage effluent should be recycled through the water features and reedbed
       systems on the golf course before used for irrigation.
   •   Proposed water storage facilities or aesthetic water features should not lead to
       degradation of sensitive aquatic ecosystems further downstream within the
       Mosselbank River.
   •   Monitoring of the water quality of all aquatic ecosystems on site will be an
       essential part of both the construction and operational environmental management
       plans.

Assessment:
                                            Assessment of Impact
               Prop.
   Potential            Extent Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                Dev.
    Impact
               Option No With No With No With No With No With No With
                       Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.
               Prim.              M                              M
 Impact of Use Appl.                   Z             Pr    Im          N    C     C
                                 (-)                             (-)
   of Treated                     M                              M
                Alt. 1  L SS           Z       L     Pr    Im          N    C     C
  Effluent for
   Irrigation
                                 (-)                             (-)
               No Go              Z    Z             Im    Im    N     N    C     C

Management and Monitoring:

The above mitigation measures have been incorporated into the Draft EMP.
Environmental management objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of
the proposed development have been finalised and approved.

9.3.1.6 Impact of Nutrients and Pesticides used on the golf course

Potential Impact: Negative impact of increased nutrients and pesticides and
insecticide on surrounding areas.
Golf courses use a significant amount of nitrogen fertilizer, and there is concern that
nitrogen leaching could affect groundwater supplies.




                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           99
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Discussion:
United States Golf Association decided in 1989 to sponsor a significant amount of
research on environmental issues related to golf courses. The area identified to receive
the greatest amount of work concerned the effects of fertilizers and pesticides on surface
and groundwater resources. In other words, studies were conducted on the major
pathways of chemical fate in the environment, including leaching, runoff, plant uptake and
utilization, microbial degradation, and volatilization and other gaseous losses.

Nitrogen Leaching
The following are some of the conclusions or trends observed from the nitrogen leaching
studies:
    • Generally, properly maintained turf allows less than 1% of the nitrogen applied to
        leach to a depth of just over 1m.
    • When more nitrogen is applied than is needed, both the amount and the
        percentage of nitrogen lost increases.
    • Sandy soils are more prone to leaching losses than clayey soils.
    • Nitrogen leaching losses can be greatly reduced by irrigating lightly and frequently,
        rather than heavily and less frequently.
    • Leaching losses can be reduced by applying nitrogen in smaller amounts on a
        more frequent basis.
    • Irrigating bermuda grass and tall fescue turf with adequate amounts (no drought
        stress) of moderately saline water did not increase the concentration or amount of
        nitrate leached.
    • Higher amounts of salinity in the root zone, drought, or the combination of these
        two stresses caused high concentrations and amounts of nitrate to leach from both
        a tall fescue and bermuda grass turf. This suggests that the capacity of the root
        system of the turf is impaired by drought, high salinity, or both, and that
        management modifications may be needed to prevent nitrate leaching.
    • In putting green construction, mixing peat moss with sand significantly reduced
        nitrogen leaching compared to pure sand root zones during the year of
        establishment.
    • Light applications of slow-release N sources on a frequent interval provided
        excellent protection from nitrate leaching.

Nitrogen Runoff
The following are some of the conclusions or trends observed from the nitrogen runoff
studies:
    • Dense turf cover reduces the potential for runoff losses of nitrogen.
    • Significant runoff losses are more likely to occur on compacted soils.
    • Much greater N runoff occurred when soil moisture levels were high, as compared
       to moderate or low.
    • Buffer strips reduced nitrogen runoff when soil moisture was low to moderate at
       the time of the runoff event, but not when soil moisture levels were high.
    • Nitrogen runoff was significantly less when a slow release product (sulphur-coated
       urea) was used compared to a more soluble product (urea).

Pesticide Leaching
In terms of results, very little pesticide leaching occurred with most products, generally
less than 1% of the total applied. Generally speaking, the physical and chemical
properties of the pesticides proved to be good indicators of the potential for leaching,
runoff and volatilization. Products that exhibit high water solubility, low soil adsorption
potential, and greater persistence are more likely to leach and run off. The following are
some of the conclusions or trends observed from the pesticide leaching studies:



                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                         100
                                    DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




   •   Dense turf cover reduced the potential for leaching losses of pesticides;
       conversely, more leaching occurred from newly planted turf stands.
   •   The physical and chemical properties of the pesticides were good indicators of
       leaching potential.
   •   Current pesticide fate models used by the United States Environmental Protection
       Agency over-predict the leaching loss of most pesticides applied to turf.
   •   Generally, sandy soils are more prone to leaching losses than clayey soils.
   •   The average DT90 (days to 90% degradation) in turf soils generally is significantly
       less than established values based upon agricultural systems. Thus, leaching
       potential for most pesticides is less in turfgrass systems.
   •   Turfgrass thatch plays an important role in adsorbing and degrading applied
       pesticides.

Pesticide Runoff
The following are some of the conclusions or trends observed from the pesticide runoff
studies:
    • Dense turf cover reduces the potential for runoff losses of pesticides.
    • The physical and chemical properties of pesticides are good indicators of potential
        runoff losses.
    • Heavy textured, compacted soils are much more prone to runoff losses than sandy
        soils.
    • Moist soils are more prone to runoff losses than drier soils.
    • When soil moisture is low to moderate prior to rainfall events, buffer strips are very
        effective at reducing runoff losses of pesticides.
    • Application of soluble herbicides to dormant turf can produce very high levels of
        runoff losses.

It is generally found that the use of treated effluent, even “polished” still contains traces of
phosphates and nitrates. When irrigated, such excess nutrients are taken up by the grass
cover of fairways and greens, thus necessitating less need for fertilizer. Based on the
above research and use of treated effluent, and the physical characteristics of the area
(thick clay deposits and gentle slopes), it is highly unlikely that fertilizer and pesticides
used on the Bella Riva golf estate will cause pollution of the groundwater and surrounding
environment.

Mitigation:

   •   Incorporate buffers (untreated vegetation zones) between any surface water
       bodies and areas receiving pesticides and fertilizer.
   •   Buffers should be made as wide as possible. The effective width of a buffer is
       dependent upon slope, size of watershed, resource functional value and other
       factors.
   •   Maintain buffers at mowing heights of 3 inches or higher.
   •   Avoid application of pesticides and fertilizer after heavy rain or irrigation.
   •   Use pesticides that possess chemical properties that are less conducive to runoff
       (such as low water solubility and high adsorption coefficients).




                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            101
                                    DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Assessment:
                                              Assessment of Impact
                 Prop.
   Potential             Extent     Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                  Dev.
    Impact
                 Option No With     No With No With No With No              With   No     With
                        Mit. Mit.   Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.      Mit.   Mit.   Mit.
                 Prim.              M-L L-VL                      ML        VL
                                                        Pr   Po                     C      C
   Impact of     Appl.              (-) (-)                       (-)        (-)
 nutrients and            L   SS    M-L L-VL      L               ML         VL
                 Alt. 1                                 Pr   Po                     C      C
  pesticides                        (-) (-)                       (-)        (-)
                 No Go               Z     Z               Im    Im    N      N     C      C

Management and Monitoring:

The above mitigations have been included into the Draft EMP. Environmental
management objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of the proposed
development have been finalised and approved.

9.3.1.7 Increase of Biodiversity in the Area.

Potential Impact

At present the development site is almost a uniform environment with very low habitat
diversity and thus a very low number of fauna and flora utilise the area. The creation of
additional habitat diversity in the area (landscaping with water-wise indigenous trees and
scrubs, especially those carrying fruit and berries) may lead to the increase of biodiversity
on the site.

Discussion

Every golf course consists of highly managed areas (the greens and tees), less intensively
managed areas (the fairways) and non-playing areas (natural habitat or rough). The
extent of each area owes much to the architect who designes the course and subsequent
management, but the non-playing areas generally represent between 25% and 40% of the
total area of the course. This represents a significant amount of land that can be used for
“nature conservation” purposes. In addition, the open space of the residential estate and
private gardens can also add up to 40% of the area of the estate for “conservation”
purposes.

The potential therefore exists for new golf course estates to enhance local biodiversity
significantly if appropriate habitats are created from relatively species-poor farmland, used
for intensive agriculture. In order to best promote biodiversity, native species of plants
should be established, because they support a greater diversity of animals, such as
insects and birds, than do exotic plants. Research has shown that in all cases, the
diversity of organisms over a season was significantly higher on the golf course than it
was on the nearby cultivated land. These preliminary data show that if cultivated land is
converted into a golf course development, then the variety of habitats that can be created
can lead to an enhancement of local biodiversity.

The development of the Bella Riva Golf Estate can therefore have a positive impact on
enhancing the biodiversity of this otherwise depauperate and sterile environment.




                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          102
                                            DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



        Mitigation

           •   One important ecological initiative is the Valderrama Declaration (1999). This was
               issued in November 1999 and identified the advantages of golfers and
               environmentalists working together for ‘the benefit of golf, the environment and
               people’. It was signed by representatives of the United States Golf Association
               (USGA), the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, the European Golf
               Association, the International Olympic Committee, the World Wide Fund for
               Nature, the United Nations Environment Programme and the European
               Commission.
           •   In the USA, the Audubon Society and the USGA have created the Audubon
               Cooperative Sanctuary System for golf courses. This programme is designed to
               enhance active participation in conservation by golf courses, thereby improving the
               quality of courses for wildlife.
           •   All the roughs and open spaces associated with the golf course and the open
               spaces and private gardens of the estate must be planted with water-wise locally
               indigenous vegetation. Exotic, non-invasive trees can be used in the landscaping
               as such trees are fast growers.
           •   A detailed landscape architectural guideline has been prepared for this project
               (Appendix 21). A detailed planting plan must be provided to the consulting
               botanist for ratification before final landscaping plans are completed.

        Assessment:
                                                      Assessment of Impact
                         Prop.
           Potential             Extent     Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                          Dev.
            Impact
                         Option No With     No With No With        No With No       With   No     With
                                Mit. Mit.   Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.    Mit. Mit. Mit.   Mit.   Mit.   Mit.
                         Prim.              VL    M                          VL      M
                                                                   Po   Pr                  C      C
                         Appl.              (+) (+)                          (+)    (+)
           Impact on                        VL    M Long Term                VL      M
                         Alt. 1   SS   L                           Po   Pr                  C      C
          Biodiversity
                                            (+) (+)                          (+)    (+)
                         No Go               Z     Z               Im    Im    N      N     C      C

        Management and Monitoring:

        The above mitigation measures have been included in the Draft EMP. Environmental
        management objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of the proposed
        development have been finalised and approved.

9.3.2   Socio-Economic Issues
        9.3.2.1 Impacts on Fisantekraal and Surrounding Communities

        Potential Impact: Economical Benefits and Community Involvement
        The IAPs enquired about possible benefits to local small businesses as a result of the
        development. The IAPs are concerned that the Fisantekraal community will not benefit
        from the development.

        The IAPs are of the opinion that the developers and all their contracting companies should
        be registered and BEE compliant. Further, for the duration of work on site and for an
        additional 24 month period, they should continue with support to the community in
        identified projects to aid development in Fisantekraal. Projects identified are: the long
        term engagement of a medical advisor to conduct a medical demographic study and
        implement an integrated health programme for the community, as well as various
        employment opportunities. The communication with the local communities must be

                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          103
                                   DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



formalised by means of a Developer’s Forum comprising members from Fisantekraal
community, the developer, WEC and Professor Bloom.

Discussion:

It is anticipated that marketing (including advertising and promotion), construction,
maintenance, landscaping services, wholesale trade, equipment maintenance and repair
services, food, beverage and catering services, and transportation within the area, among
others, would benefit from the Bella Riva Golf Estate. In terms of the Provincial Guidelines
for Golf Estates, the developer has a socio-economic obligation towards the affected
communities. As such, a detailed socio-economic study has been done to firstly
understand the dynamics of the local communities and secondly, to ascertain what level of
skills is present that can be used in the development and what training can be given for
future jobs and other entrepreneurial opportunities. A social accord would culminate out
of such a study between the local communities and the developer. A policy will be
adopted where various contractors must give preference to labour from the local
communities.

In addition, the contractors should provide on the job training to enhance skills in the area.
The obligations of the developers will be included in the conditions of the Record of
Decision (ROD) to be issued by DEADP. The ROD will serve as a binding contract and
the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) will part of the conditions of the ROD and
must be implemented.

The developers are compliant with BEE commitments. Once the Social Accord has been
completed (once a positive ROD has been issued) the developer will have a very good
idea of what the most pressing community needs are. Negotiations with the developers
and the HOA (still to be formed) in terms of a social accord will need to be negotiated
together with the community structures.

The establishment of a Developer’s Forum will be formalized during the EIA phase of the
project. A Memorandum of Understanding (Appendix 4f).has been signed by the
Fisantekraal Development Forum and the develpers. This agreement will culminate into a
Social Accord once the proposed devlpemnt has been approved.

According to the Economic Impact Assessment (Appendix 12b) done by Prof. Bloom for
the development several economic benefits will result from the development, but a large
part of the initial benefits will be limited to the construction phase and an effort must be
made to ensure benefits from the commercial components have both the desired social
and economical impact. The economic benefits of the development also outweigh the
economic cost associated with revenue transfer and leakages and the opportunity cost of
alternative land use for the development area.

The soil survey done for the area indicates that the soils are of poor agricultural potential
and large areas of the site are lieing fallow at present. The economic benefits, therefore,
of the proposed golf estate will have a far greater positive economic impact on the area in
general and for Durbanville/Fisantekraal in particular than the present agricultural
economic spin-offs. In order to mitigate the economic pointers for enhancing the socio-
economic gains, a Social Engagement Strategy and the Monitoring and Evaluation Plan
(Section 7.2 and 6 respectively of the Social Impact Assessment Appendix 12a) must be
implemented.

The economic benefits of the project include the potential to create employment and skills
transfer opportunities in the community of Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel during the



                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          104
                                   DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



construction phase. The development will also result in increased rates and taxes for the
local authorities.

The socio-economic assessment must also be considered together with the risks and
mitigations proposed in the Social Impact Assessment. There is however some concerns
that having been identified, namely:
    • There is not sufficient capacity for certain skills in the local community and labour
        may have to be imported. Although this may stimulate demand for local business
        over time, the associated social impacts are of concern;
    • Small business may have technical capacity but are not geared for the large scale
        of the proposed development. They will need assistance to gear themselves
        financially and contractually.
    • Small building contractors and small businesses will likely not have the capacity to
        obtain individual contracts. The ability and knowledge to forge and develop
        business-to-business linkages is a concern and may preclude existing local
        business from obtaining work over the duration of the construction phase.

Mitigation Measures

   •   Pre-construction:
       ∼   A social engagement plan must be introduced, which essentially entails the
           development of capacity among locals to become part of mainstream
           construction and operating activities over the construction and operational
           phases.
       ∼   A skills assessment of the available labour must be conducted in Fisantekraal
           and Klipheuwel.
       ∼   A labour desk must be established through a collaborative effort between the
           developer and the contractor, which shall cater for locals and manage the
           influx of non-Fisantekraal residents. The possibility of exploring this activity in
           conjunction with other developments planned for the area must be considered
           to further enhance synergy.
       ∼   Skills training of selected candidates should be undertaken prior to
           construction. Other skills training programmes should be undertaken on the
           job.

   •   Construction/ Operations
       ∼   Goods and services must as far as possible be procured from existing
           businesses and services in the CMA, especially in the Bellville/Durbanville
           area.
       ∼   Local expertise and labour must be used as far as possible

Assessment:
                                             Assessment of Impact
               Prop.
   Potential           Extent      Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                Dev.
    Impact
               Option No With      No With No With         No With No        With   No     With
                      Mit. Mit.    Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.     Mit. Mit. Mit.    Mit.   Mit.   Mit.
               Prim.                L    M                            M       H
                                                           Pr   Pr                   C      C
               Appl.               (+) (+)                           (+)     (+)
  Impact on                         L    M Long Term                    M      H
                Alt. 1      R                              Pr    Pr                  C      C
 Communities                       (+) (+)                             (+)    (+)
                                    L
                No Go                    Z                 Im    Im    N      N      C      C
                                   (+)

                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            105
                                   DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Management and Monitoring:

The above mitigation measures have been included in the Draft EMP. Environmental
management objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of the proposed
development have been finalised and approved.

9.3.2.2 Impact of Removal of Land from Agriculture

Potential Impact:

The soil potential needs to be fully examined and possible alternative agricultural uses for
the property need to be adequately assessed. Questions have been raised regarding the
possible viability of the land for agricultural purposes. The effluent produced by the
wastewater treatment works will be to a high standard and suitable for agricultural use
(e.g. vegetable farming). Alternative uses (e.g. agriculture) of the effluent need to be
assessed.

Discussion:

The soil potential of the property as a whole was fully examined by Mr Bennie Schloms,
who undertook the necessary soil surveys. A geotechnical investigation and a preliminary
groundwater assessment for the application area were also undertaken by SRK
Consulting. According to the soil survey undertaken for the property, housing and the golf
course will be sited over very low, to low potential soils in terms of its potential for wine
grapes or any other perennial crop (eg. vegetables). The land is therefore restricted in
terms of the type of agricultural crops that could be economically produced.

The geotechnical soil conditions are favourable for the envisaged structures of the
proposed development.

Whilst the existing cattle and pig feedlots do provide another agricultural activity, their
operation is not reliant on good soils. The cattle and pig feedlots will transfer to another
site. Currently the feed lots are causing pollution of the environment. The proposed golf
course development is also not reliant on good quality agricultural soils, it will produce a
greater socio-economic benefit than agriculture and it will not cause any pollution of the
surrounding environment. In addition, the golf estate will use a lot more treated effluent
than will any agricultural venture on this land.

The availability of effluent water is one of the main reasons why a Golf Estate is proposed
on the property. It is agreed that the increase in water availability may increase the
agricultural potential of the property. However, the high clay content of the soil profile
indicates that the soils would be hydromorphic, i.e. waterlogged during winter. In addition
it would be more expensive to ameliorate the soils for agriculture than for a golf course
and that the economic return and job offers of developing a Golf Estate will be far greater
than from agriculture. The economic viability of the proposed development and that of
agriculture has been assessed as part of the specialist economic assessment of the
proposed development (refer paragraph 9.3.2.4 below).

Mitigation:

N/A




                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           106
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Assessment:
                                              Assessment of Impact
                 Prop.
   Potential              Extent Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                  Dev.
    Impact
                 Option No With No With No With No With No With No With
                         Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.
                 Prim.              M    L                         M     L
   Impact of                                           Pr    Po               C     C
                 Appl.             (-) (-)                         (-)  (-)
  removal of                        M    L Long Term               M     L
                  Alt. 1  L SS                         Pr    Po               C     C
  agricultural
      land
                                   (-) (-)                         (-)  (-)
                 No Go              Z    Z                Im   Im    N      N     C      C

Management and Monitoring:

N/A

9.3.2.3 Impact of Employment Opportunities

Potential Impact

IAPs have indicated that labour (skilled/ unskilled) should be sourced from the local
communities of Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel, while others have indicated that all golf
course personnel should be sourced exclusively from the Fisantekraal Community and
trained via accredited courses (initially at the cost of the developer; thereafter the Home
Owners Association (HOA) of the proposed estate). During and prior to development all
companies should ensure employment of Fisantekraal residents with structured pre-
employment training. Ideally up to 15% of labour should be sourced from the Fisantekraal
community. This must be open to auditing and verification and monthly reports to the
community via a Developer’s Forum.

Long term employment must be provided for persons from the community as well as the
provision of structured training courses. Levies from the Homeowners Association of the
proposed estate can be used to fund long term projects in Fisantekraal.

Discussion

A social accord should be entered into between the developer and the local communities
(Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel). As such, locally sourced labour will be used in the
construction and operational phases of the development.           The Fisantekraal and
Klipheuwel communities are seen as the first option in terms of employment needs for the
development. A comprehensive social procedure needs to be put in place to involve the
community, once approvals have been obtained.

A social accord could also be entered into between the local communities and the HOA to
ensure long term employment and training benefits. In this regard it may be possible to
set up a social trust fund to support the needs of the community. A Memorandum of
Understanding (Appendix 4f) has been signed by the developer and the community as to
the responsibilities of each during the development of the proposed Bella Riva Golf
Course.

According to the Social Impact assessment done for the development by Prof. Bloom
(Appendix 12a), the anticipated benefits associated with the proposed development are
largely economic in nature and would serve to strengthen the social fabric that needs
attention in Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel.



                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                        107
                                    DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Mitigation

   •   Pre-construction:
       ∼     A skills survey and audit of the local capacity to provided labour during the
             construction phase should be done before the commencement of the
             construction phase.
       ∼     The findings of the skills audit must be used to design an Employment Strategy
             coupled to a Human Capital Development Plan that aims to use the maximum
             number of local contractors and labour. The plan would include:
             Setting up a local recruitment office in the area prior to the project
             commencing. The developer should initiate the activity during the first phase of
             the development after which the employment office becomes the responsibility
             of the contractor(s) collectively under the guidance of the developer.
       ∼     The development of a database of local contractors
       ∼     The design of an appropriate skills training programme in conjunction with the
             contractors. The developers must also ensure that local contractors are invited
             to tender for work and terms and conditions should be included in RFQ and
             RFP documentation. The details of these requirements should be set out in the
             Environmental Management Plan for the project and from part of a Social
             Engagement Plan.
       ∼     A Social Engagement Plan should be prepared that serves as a management
             framework for the implementation of three key activities, i. e.
                    employment creation and skills development;
                    small business development and capacity building; and
                    social investment.
             It should form part of the social contract between the Developers of the Bella
             Riva project and the Fisantekraal communities. The “contract” should form the
             building blocks for future community upliftment and economic development and
             growth in the area. The targets specified in Section 6.4 of the Social Impact
             Assessment (Appendix 12a) should form part of the monitoring and evaluation
             mechanism proposed for the social engagement of local communities and
             businesses in the development of the Bella Riva project.
       ∼   A plan for the relocation of the affected farm workers and the construction of
           housing for them must be signed between the relevant parties prior to
           commencement of the development.
   •   Construction:
       A communication strategy should be devised to inform the locals of the
       opportunities that will accrue from the Bella Riva development. It became clear
       from the research that people are unaware of the possibilities and how they may
       involve themselves in the opportunities that the project presents. A clear
       unequivocal statement of a “Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel First” employment and
       business procurement policy must be communicated to the local residents and
       businesses.




                  WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                         108
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Assessment:
                                            Assessment of Impact
               Prop.
   Potential           Extent     Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                Dev.
    Impact
               Option No With      No With No With       No With No        With   No     With
                      Mit. Mit.    Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.   Mit. Mit. Mit.    Mit.   Mit.   Mit.
               Prim.                L    M                          M       H
                                                         Pr   Pr                   C      C
               Appl.               (+) (+)                         (+)     (+)
  Impact on                         L    M Long Term                  M      H
                Alt. 1     R                              Pr   Pr                  C      C
 Employment                        (+) (+)                           (+)    (+)
                                    L
                No Go                    Z                Im   Im    N      N      C      C
                                   (+)

Management and Monitoring:

The above mitigation measures have been included in the Draft EMP. Environmental
management objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of the proposed
development have been finalised and approved.

9.3.2.4 Economic viability of the Proposed Development

Potential Impact:

The IAP questions the level of certainty that the proposed development will still be viable
in future and requests that this be quantified by an appropriately qualified economic
specialist.

Discussion:

Professor Jonathan Bloom has conducted an Economic Impact Assessment (Appendix
12b) for the proposed development. The project will be phased over a period of 10 years.
According to Prof. Bloom it can be ascertained from the business model of the
development that value will be added to certain sections of the property by vesting the
rights and on-selling the sub-divided properties to investors and other developers. In
terms of a risk-assessment, the approach adopted by the developer is the norm used, with
a clear focus on minimising risk through project phasing and adding value. The value
addition is generally large and provides funding for other components undertaken.
Phasing the development is an attempt to minimise the risk of current economic
conditions and negative growth in the residential sector.




                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          109
                                    DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




Mitigation:

N/A
Assessment:
                                              Assessment of Impact
                 Prop.
   Potential             Extent     Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                  Dev.
    Impact
                Option No With      No With No With No With No              With   No     With
                        Mit. Mit.   Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.      Mit.   Mit.   Mit.
                 Prim.               M    L                        L        VL
                                                        Pr   Pr                     C      C
  Economic       Appl.               (-) (-)                      (-)        (-)
                                    M-H M     Medium              ML          L
Viability of the Alt. 1     L                           Pr   Pr                     C      C
                                     (-) (-)    Term              (-)        (-)
development
                 No Go               Z     Z               Im    Im    N      N     C      C

               WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            110
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



        Management and Monitoring:

        N/A

9.3.3   Engineering Services Issues

        9.3.3.1 Impact of Creation of New Dams

        Potential Impact: Negative Impact of Dams

        The following questions (impacts) were requested by an IAP:
        Where and how large will the proposed dams be? With what water will they be filled?
        How will these dams affect downstream users in terms of water availability, their water
        rights and safety (e.g. a dam wall breaking)? How much water will reach the Mosselbank
        River and will the natural ecology of the spring be disrupted?

        Discussion:

        No natural run-off and borehole water will be used for irrigation purposed on the property.
        The natural ground water table will therefore not be impacted upon. It is proposed to use
        treated effluent for irrigation purposes. To reduce any possible pollution of the receiving
        environment, the developers will construct a tertiary treatment plant (polishing) at or near
        the Fisantekraal WWTW to remove excess nitrates and phosphates, other dissolved
        solids and pathogens from the treated effluent.

        The engineers and the aquatic specialist will ensure that the chosen irrigation system
        complies with DWAF standards and that the necessary approvals are obtained. No water
        will be extracted from the Mosselbank River and no instream dams will be constructed.
        There are no natural springs on the property. No streams will be diverted and no run-off
        from the golf estate will reach the Mosselbank River. The receiving environment of the
        Mosselbank River and the property will therefore not be significantly impacted upon.

        Mitigation

           •   All dams are to function as off-stream dams and must not impede the natural flow
               of any drainage line or the Mosselbank River.
           •   Detention dams for stormwater run-off from roads and roofs will be allowed to
               overflow into Mosselbank River only in extreme flooding situations. The quantity
               and quality of water entering the Mosselbank River must equate to or be an
               improvement on the current situation by using much of the treated effluent from the
               Bella Riva WWTW by the proposed development and adjacent farms.. Run-off
               must not impact on the seasonal character of the Mosselbank River.
           •   Detention dams for run-off from fairways and from subsurface drainage will be
               connected to cut-off drains and such water will be recycled into the irrigation
               system. These dams will be lined to prevent pollution of groundwater and the
               Mosselbank River.
           •   The dams must comply with strict safety regulations to prevent failure (most of the
               dams will be excavated into the surface and be founded in the subsurface clay
               layers,) and be properly lined to prevent impacts on local groundwater systems.




                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          111
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Assessment:
                                            Assessment of Impact
               Prop.
   Potential            Extent Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                Dev.
    Impact
               Option No With No With No With No With No With No With
                       Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.
               Prim.              L   VL                          L   VL
                                                      D    D                C     C
               Appl.             (-)  (-)                        (-)  (-)
 Impact of new                    L   VL   Medium                 L   VL
                Alt. 1     L                          D    D                C     C
     dams                        (-)  (-)    Term                (-)  (-)
               No Go               Z     Z               Im    Im    N      N     C      C

Management and Monitoring:

Water quality monitoring of the Mosselbank River, the detention ponds and irrigation dams
must continue. If pollution is noted, its source must be determined and mitigation put in
place to prevent pollution of the receiving environment.

9.3.3.2 Cumulative Impact of Traffic in the Area

Potential Impact: Congestion on present road infrastructure

The creation of the Bella Riva Golf Course Development will undoubtedly have an impact
on traffic congestion in the area. As further developments are approved in the area
greater traffic impacts will result.

Discussion:

To guide the development in addressing and mitigating the impact of the increased traffic
Africon Consulting Engineers where appointed to compile a transport impact assessment
(TIA). From the results obtained from the TIA, the following conclusions are drawn:

   •   The land for the development is being used for farming activities (intensive feedlot
       and sand mining).

   •   The development will gain access off the R302 and R312 on the western and
       southern side of the development.

   •   The existing intersections in the vicinity of the proposed development currently
       carry low traffic volumes while the intersections on the R302 toward and in
       Durbanville are carrying high traffic volumes.

   •   A number of road network changes and improvements are planned in the vicinity
       of the development that will have a positive impact on the future distribution of
       traffic in the area (See Appendix 20).

   •   Three accesses are proposed for the development serving different areas of the
       development interlinked with each other via the internal circulation road network
       namely:
        ∼   Access A is approximately 3 000m from the R302/R312 intersection on the
            R302. This access will act as the main access to the development located at
            the centre of the development.
        ∼   Access B will mainly provide access to the GAP and Group housing
            developments in the Lichtenburg area via a link on the eastern side of the


                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                         112
                               DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



         Fisantekraal Industrial area from the R312. This access is approximately
         450m from the Fisante Kraal intersection on the R312 which is approximately
         1 300m from the R302/R312 intersection.
     ∼   Access C provides access to the back of the development which could be
         used as the primary services access as well as for the Farmica and Bella
         Riva development areas. Access C is approximately 1 950m from the
         Fisantekraal intersection on the R312. This could be a good location to join
         the R312 for the realignment of the M167 in future.

•   The estimated morning and afternoon peak hour trip distributions for the
    development when fully developed are estimated to be 2 117 trips with 593
    entering and 1 524 trips leaving the development in the morning peak hour and
    vice versa for the afternoon peak hour.

•   The trips were generally distributed to the north (R302), south (R302) and east
    (R312) to a ratio of 10%, 60% and 20% respectively.

•   The capacity analysis shows that currently only the R302/Langeberg Road
    intersection is operating at Level of Services (LOS) of E while all the others are
    operating at an LOS better than E.

•   All the existing and new intersections will have to be upgraded to accommodate
    the increase in traffic resulting from the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate and the
    Fisantekraal Industrial Park as follows:
     ∼   One lane per direction between Access A and the R302/R312 intersection
     ∼   One lane per direction between the R304/R312 intersection and Access B
     ∼   Two lanes per direction between Access B and the R302/R312 intersection
     ∼   Two lanes per direction for the first 500m along the R302 on the southern leg
         of the R302/R312 intersection.
     ∼   Two lanes per direction for the first 500m on the northern leg of the
         Brackenfell/R302 intersection
     ∼   Two lanes per direction between the Brackenfell/R302 and Lubbe
         Street/R302 intersections
     ∼   Two lanes per direction between the Lubbe Street/R302 and Langeberg/R302
         intersections
     ∼   All the access roads only require 1 lane per direction.
     ∼    Public transport services in the area are limited to the Fisantekraal low cost
          housing settlement opposite the Fisantekraal Industrial Park next to the R312.
    These upgrades will be made as the various phases of the development are
    undertaken.
•   It is estimated that the development will require the services of 2 buses and 28
    minibus taxis to deliver and 2 buses and 21 minibus taxis to pick up commuters at
    the development in the morning and vice versa in the afternoon peak hour.

•   High pedestrian movements as predicted between Fisantekraal and the
    development.

•   It is predicted that the proposed new station adjacent to the light density portion of
    the development will increase the use of rail transport for commuters.



             WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          113
                                   DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Mitigation:

Old and outdated road signs are replaced along the main routes to the development and
new road signs installed where required.
All the accesses have at least two entry and one exit lanes allow for the registration of
visitors entering and leaving the development.
All booms at the access gates are fitted with proximity card readers to allow for a high
service rate when entering and leaving the development.
Pedestrian/cycling facilities be develop throughout the development and along the access
roads.
The proposed upgrading of the intersections be implemented in a phased manner as
development progress.
All detail road designs be approved by the relevant authorities before implementation.
Traffic signals only be installed once warranted in accordance with the 4Q/6Q warrants for
signals as specified in the South African Traffic Signs Manual, Volume 3.
The development be approved from a traffic engineering point of view based on the
results contained in this report and the conditions listed.

Assessment:
                                             Assessment of Impact
                Prop.
   Potential            Extent     Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                 Dev.
    Impact
                Option No With     No With No With No With No              With   No     With
                       Mit. Mit.   Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.      Mit.   Mit.   Mit.
                Prim.              MH    M                       MH         M
                                                       Pr   Pr                     C      C
   Impact o     Appl.              (-)  (-)                      (-)        (-)
 traffic on the Alt. 1     R        M   ML Long Term              M        ML
                                                       Pr   Pr                     C      C
      area                         (-)  (-)                      (-)        (-)
                No Go               Z     Z               Im    Im    N      N     C      C

Management and Monitoring

The above mitigation measures have been included in the Draft EMP. Environmental
management objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of the proposed
development have been finalised and approved.

9.3.3.3 The Impact of Construction or Upgrading of Roads and other Infrastructure
         associated with the Residential Development and Golf Estate.

Potential Impact: Negative impacts of river crossings, new roads, effects of erosion
and dust.

The construction phase of any development is potentially the most destructive phase of
any development project. Heavy machinery and the delivery of road building materials
cause noise and dust. Continuous use of access roads by heavy vehicles to the
construction site also causes damage to roads.

River crossings of infrastructure such as roads and services may cause damage to the
stream bed, but more importantly may cause damage to the adjoining wetlands (stream
flow diversions, sedimentation of streams, soil compaction, vegetation die-back,
dewatering).

The removal of vegetation on slopes and the mechanical cutting into slopes can lead to
erosion during wet weather. During dry times dust will be a problem.



                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          114
                                   DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



The primary potential source of pollution, which may influence air quality during the
construction phase of the golf course and residential development, is dust. Increased dust
levels may be associated with the clearing of vegetation and general construction
activities such as shaping / landscaping of the course, which will expose and disturb the
soil surface. The potential for pollution from dust will be exacerbated by the occurrence of
strong winds during the windy, dry summer season especially. An additional source of air
pollution may include the increase in emissions from construction vehicles.

Discussion

The construction programme must be designed to minimize potential impacts and time of
year for construction within river and wetlands. The construction of river crossing must be
programmed for the dry summer months where possible.

All bridge structures, culverts and other crossing of the Mosselbank River and wetlands
must be designed not to impact on the storm flow of the Mosselbank River and must allow
free drainage of wetlands. All temporary river crossing must ensure that compaction does
not impede subsurface drainage.

Infrastructure crossings of river must ensure that high stream flow (floods) will not damage
such infrastructure, such as water, irrigation and sewage pipelines. Any rupturing of such
services will not only waste water resources, but a raw sewage pipe rupture would cause
serious pollution of rivers and wetlands. The installation of electrical and telephone cables
equally require safety measures to be in place to minimize disruption to these services.

Mitigation:

•   The construction yard and construction offices will be sited over the disturbed feeding
    lot area. The site is to be fenced off. Any storage areas must be clearly demarcated.
    No naturally vegetated areas must be impacted upon by the construction site and
    storage areas and construction vehicles.
•   All roadways must be clearly demarcated with appropriate fencing or danger tape and
    stakes to keep vehicles and people out of any naturally vegetated areas.
•   Bridge or culvert structures must not impede the high flow of streams and must be
    designed accordingly. The main entrance bridge structure must be constructed as
    soon as possible to provide access to the site.
•   Any roads over wetlands must be built on a porous revetment of allow seepage to
    pass beneath them.
•   Any infrastructure crossing through a stream bed must be at least 1m below the bed
    and must be protected by a concrete casement or a reno mattress.
•   Any cuts into the slope must be protected against run-off and erosion. Erosion
    diversion berms must be used. When working near streams, shade cloth netting or
    some other geo-fabric must be used to prevent siltation of streams and wetlands.
•   Should dust along haul roads or other exposed surfaces become a nuisance, the
    surfaces should be kept well wetted or treated with a dust suppressant chemical.
•   Any structural damage to roads in the vicinity of the construction site must immediately
    be repaired.
•   Rehabilitation of the road verges must be undertaken as soon as construction has
    been completed to minimize any erosion.
•   Shaping and / or grading on steep slopes (30% or greater) or highly erodible soils
    should be avoided.
•   Ensure that appropriate erosion and stormwater control mechanisms are implemented
    over the entire golf course area and are incorporated into the design of the course.
•   The overall drainage system should be designed to ensure that there is no increase in
    the velocity or amount of off-site flows.

                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          115
                                      DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




•     Drainage lines should, as far as possible, be kept in a natural state and be
      incorporated into the design.
•     The shaping (landscaping) of the golf course should be undertaken in a phased
      manner so as to limit the disturbance and exposure of soil to the smallest area
      possible at any one time.
•     Disturbed areas should be revegetated as soon as disturbance has been completed.
      Revegetation should be undertaken in a progressive manner, where possible, during
      construction, i.e. revegetation should be undertaken immediately after disturbance to a
      particular area has been completed, rather than revegetating the entire disturbed area
      after the completion of the full construction phase.
•     Disturbance and clearing of natural vegetation should be kept to the minimum required
      to allow the required work to progress without causing dust pollution or water erosion.
•     Wet down the dry, exposed soils when dust problems arise.
•     Where topsoil and overburden is stockpiled for later use in revegetation and
      landscaping, cover with mulch from local vegetation to reduce dusting during high
      wind periods.

Assessment:
                                                Assessment of Impact
                   Prop.
       Potential           Extent     Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                    Dev.
        Impact
                   Option No With     No With No With No With No              With   No     With
                          Mit. Mit.   Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.      Mit.   Mit.   Mit.
       Impact of   Prim.              MH ML                         MH        ML
                                                          Pr   Po                     C      C
    construction, Appl.               (-)  (-)                      (-)        (-)
      erection or                      M    L                        M        ML
     upgrading of Alt. 1   R   L      (-)  (-)      L     Pr   Po
                                                                    (-)        (-)
                                                                                      C      C
      roads and
         other     No Go               Z     Z               Im    Im    N      N     C      C
    infrastructure

Management and Monitoring:

The above mitigation measures have been included in the Draft EMP. Environmental
management objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of the proposed
development have been finalised and approved.

The ECO must monitor the construction phase and take the necessary steps to ensure
that construction vehicles and personnel are not damaging the natural environment. Any
signs of erosion must be immediately mitigated.

River and wetland crossings must be carefully monitored for any impacts.

9.3.3.4 The Storage and Handling of Diesel

Potential Impact: Negative Impact of Diesel and Oil Spills on Environment

Accidental spills from the temporary storage of diesel in diesel tanks and oil spills from the
servicing of construction vehicles may cause severe pollution of the surrounding
environment, including the die-back of natural vegetation and the pollution of drainage
channels and wetlands.

Discussion

The off-loading of diesel and the use of diesel for filling construction vehicles can lead to
pollution of the environment if not managed correctly. The petro-chemical companies will


                  WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           116
                                   DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



not deliver diesel to construction sites unless appropriate measures are in place to receive
diesel.

Mitigation

•   The storage of diesel tanks must be housed within the secured construction camp
    area. The tanks must be located for ease of access to large construction vehicles.
•   A bunded area beneath the tanks must be provided that can accept 110% of the
    volume of diesel stored. The bunded area must contain a porous sand to absorb any
    diesel drips and spills. Contaminated sand must be removed from the construction
    site from time to time to a licensed hazardous waste disposal facility.
•   Drip tray must be provided beneath construction vehicles when being serviced or
    when parked each day.
•   Used oils (from the servicing of vehicles) use oil contaminated parts and rags are to be
    stored in leak-proof drums to be removed by oil recycling companies or removed to
    hazardous waste sites from time to time, respectively.

Assessment
                                            Assessment of Impact
                Prop.
   Potential            Extent Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                 Dev.
    Impact
               Option No With No With No With No With No With No With
                       Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.
                Prim.             L   VL                          L   VL
                                                     Pr    Po               C     C
  Impact of     Appl.            (-)  (-)                        (-)  (-)
Diesel and oils Alt. 1    SS      L   VL       C                  L   VL
                                                     Pr    Po               C     C
     spills                      (-)  (-)                        (-)  (-)
                No Go             Z    Z             Im    Im    N     N    C     C

This assessment will be the same for the Primary Application and all the Alternatives.

Management and Monitoring:

The above mitigation measures have been included in the Draft EMP. Environmental
management objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of the proposed
development have been finalised and approved.

The ECO must assess the use of diesel on site and whether any pollution is taking place
and if so to take the necessary steps to curtail further pollution for the duration of the
construction phase.

9.3.3.6 General Impacts Associated with the Construction and Management of the
        Golf Course

Potential Impacts

The primary impacts associated with golf courses relating to surface and groundwater is
the large quantities of water required to irrigate the courses and the high potential for
contamination of water resources. Due to the unusually high rates of fertilisers and
pesticides applied to the tees, greens and fairways, golf courses may cause severe water
pollution, not only during construction but also during the operational phases. However,
good management can help reduce the risk of contamination of water resources.

The major impacts on surface water associated with construction activities include
pollution, increased run off and the alteration of natural drainage lines. Sediment is one of


                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          117
                                   DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



the primary pollutants associated with construction activities. Sediment is often defined as
mineral or organic solid material that is eroded from the land surface by water, wind, or
other processes and is then transported or deposited away from its original location.
Sediment may choke streams, or fill lakes, reservoirs, ponds, canals or drainage ditches,
and generally reduce the quality of the water resource it enters.

The clearing of vegetation and levelling and shaping of the course will disturb soil surface
and increase the potential for erosion occurring, potentially washing and / or blowing
sediment into the drainage lines.

Potential impact on the groundwater will be a result of the possible introduction of
contaminants into the system. Impacts on the ground water are directly related to the
management of surface water and other environmental elements, particularly soil.
Potential pollutants of concern include silt, cement, concrete, fuel, lubricating oils, petrol,
diesel, sewage, and other waste materials during the construction phase.

Discussion

Water Use for Irrigation
Large quantities of water are required to maintain golf courses. Due to the fact that the
required water demand will be met through the use of treated effluent from the
Fisantekraal WWTW, impacts on Cape Town’s potable water supplies are considered to
be of a low significance. Public Open Spaces and domestic gardens will also be irrigated
using treated effluent

Fertilisers and Pesticides
It is essential that the use of fertilisers and pesticides is well managed. Research on golf
courses has shown that through better management of fertilisers and pesticides leaching
can be considerably reduced.

Potential Pollution from Nitrates
Nitrates will be used to fertilise the proposed Bella Riva Golf Course. Nitrates are a
common pollutant of surface and groundwater bodies related to golf courses. Elevated
levels of nitrates pose a threat to water bodies as they create eutrophication problems
(algae blooms). Leaching of nitrates can however be kept to a minimum while still
providing the turf with the optimum amount of nutrients. Several factors that are important
in determining the leaching potential of a fertiliser can be controlled. The Virginia Tech
Turfgrass, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences Department, identify the following
factors:

Source of Nitrogen
A water-soluble source of nitrogen has a higher leaching potential than a slow release
source, particularly when its application is followed by a large amount of water (either from
rainfall or irrigation). If, however, water-soluble sources are applied in several split
applications, instead of one bulk application, their pollution potential is reduced. Use of a
slow release nitrogen source is a good practice whenever possible as it provides a more
even supply of nitrogen and reduces the number of applications required, the risk of foliar
burn and nitrogen leaching. Since treated effluent is being used for irrigation, traces of
nitrogen and phosphates will probably still be present in the water, thus alleviating the
need for fertilizers.

Rate of Application
The rate of application is affected by the source of the nitrogen. A soluble source should
be applied more frequently at a reduced rate. In general, slow release fertilisers can be
applied at higher rates.


                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           118
                                   DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Time of Year
The total amount of nitrogen applied to warm or cool season grasses and the timing of the
application reflects differences in plant uptake and root growth. The best time to fertilise
cool season grasses in autumn. This is due to the fact that in late autumn to winter, cool
season grasses begin to develop their root system and store carbohydrates. On the other
hand, warm season grasses have the greatest rate of uptake in the spring and throughout
the summer.

Irrigation Practices
Excessive irrigation can cause leaching of nitrates, especially if from water-soluble
sources or if the nitrogen is applied to the turf in the dormant or semi-dormant period of
limited plant uptake.

Soil Type
Certain soil types have a greater ability to hold nutrients. This is related to the amount of
clay present in the soil, which affects the cation exchange capacity of the soil. The cation
exchange capacity of a soil is a measure of the ability of a soil to retain positively charged
ions (such as NH4+ and K+). Soils with a high sand content have a low cation exchange
capacity and should be managed to reduce the risk of leaching. Amending soils with clay
or organic matter increases their cation exchange capacity. The soils of Bella Riva are fine
sands on the surface and deep clays below.

Vegetation Selection
Using indigenous vegetation in non-playing areas reduces the management inputs
required, including fertilisers, pesticides and mowing.

Mowing Height
Mowing is a stress-creating management practice. Each species of turfgrass has a
mowing tolerance range, under which it can exist within a broad range of climatic
conditions. If turf is mowed too short, it tends to become denser, but have less growth of
roots and rhizomes. This makes the turf less tolerant of environmental stresses and more
prone to disease. In addition the smaller, shorter root system requires more water and
fertiliser to compensate for its decreased ability to secure and maintain moisture and
nutrients from the soil.

To avoid this stress, stress-reducing inputs such as irrigation, fungicides, herbicides and
properly timed cultivation and fertilisation must be provided. However, care must be taken
when providing these inputs, because by removing leaf area and reducing root area, while
applying pesticides, fertilisers and water to reduce stress, increases the risk of these
inputs being leached out of the soil or being washed away in runoff water.

The best approach is to use the highest mowing height acceptable for the turf being used.

Mowing Frequency
Time of mowing, pattern of mowing and even the type of mowing equipment can influence
turf quality. For example, mowing turf that is too wet or that is under extreme heat or
moisture stress can be detrimental to the turf. Stressing the turf can lead to the need to
increase inputs. If turf is too wet, clipping discharge can be affected, leading to clumps of
clippings that shade turf, and reducing the quality of the playing surface. Mowing
increases evapotranspiration, and when temperatures are high water loss may be
extreme, necessitating irrigation.

Integrated Pest Management
According to the Virginia Tech Turfgrass, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences
Department of the United States, integrated pest management is the use of a variety of


                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          119
                                   DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



management practices to control pests that offers the possibility of improving the
efficiency of plant production while minimising environmental impacts. Developing these
concepts for turf areas is important in maintaining high quality turf while minimising the
potential damage to water resources.

Pesticides are valuable components of a turfgrass cultural programme, but pest
management includes more than simply applying the right pesticides to control specific
organisms. It also includes selecting turf grasses that are well adapted and maintaining
the health of the turf through good management practices. Damage from insects and
other pests is often greater in turf that is subjected to other stresses.

Many pesticides can leach through the soil or runoff into water supplies if applied
incorrectly or at the wrong time. Soil characteristics also have an effect on pesticide
leaching. Highly modified soils, for example, leach more easily than a soil with organic
matter.

In order to minimise the potential environmental hazard associated with pesticides, it is
considered good practice to employ integrated pest management in turf areas. Some of
the suggested practices include:

Spot Treat
Scout for and treat specific pest problems instead of treating large areas.

Understand Damage Thresholds
The presence of a few spots on leaves or a few insects in the turf does not require the use
of a pesticide. It is only when the pest populations develop sufficiently to cause damage
that a pesticide should be applied.

Selecting Pesticides
Pesticides should be selected based on the effectiveness in controlling the pest problem,
while minimising environmental impacts. There are several compound-related factors to
consider when selecting pesticides. These are discussed below.

Mobility
In general, highly water-soluble chemicals leach faster than the less soluble ones,
although high solubility alone does not imply that a chemical will contaminate
groundwater.

Adsorption
Depending on their composition, most compounds are more or less strongly adsorbed on
soil organic matter, the thatch layer and clay. Adsorbed chemicals do not move in bulk
with the water, but are retained while the water moves toward the groundwater-saturated
zone. Adsorbed compounds are gradually released back into the soil solution where they
are broken down.

Persistence
Chemicals persist in the soil for varying amounts of time. Most modern chemicals are
moderately persistent or non-persistent. Persistence is reported as half-life, that is, the
time it takes for about half of a given amount to break down.

None of the above factors, taken by themselves, should be used to condemn a pesticide.
However, for example a pesticide with high mobility, low adsorption and moderate to high
persistence would be more prone to contaminate than one with low mobility, high
adsorption and low persistence. Table 10 summarises the chemical and physical



                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            120
                                            DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



properties of pesticides that indicate their potential for groundwater or surface water
contamination.

Table 10: Chemical Physical Properties of Pesticides: Values that Indicate Potential
for Ground Waters and Surface Water Contamination.

                                                    Parameter Value or Range
             Pesticide Characteristic                Indicating Potential for
                                                         Contamination

                   Water solubility                       Greater than 20 ppm


               Henry's Law Constant                     Less than 102 atm m3 mol


                 Hydrolysis half-life                    Greater than 175 days


                 Photolysis half-life                     Greater than 7 days


              Field dissipation half life                 Greater than 21 days


From EPA 1988 as reported by Balogh and Walker, 1992.


Pest Identification
It is important to properly identify pest problems before applying pesticides. Proper
identification will result in a higher efficiency rate in quickly eradicating the pest and the
impact on the environment, especially to water resources, will be minimised.

General Construction Impacts
The recommended mitigation and management measures for limited clearing of the
vegetation will ensure that potential impacts related to the degradation of surface water
from sediment will be of a low significance.

Most pollution incidents are avoidable with the careful planning of operations and facilities
to reduce the risk of spillage. Simple precautions can be taken to prevent a spillage
causing pollution. Often the necessary measures cost little, especially if included at the
design stage. In contrast, the costs of cleaning up a pollution incident can be very high.
The risk of groundwater pollution associated with the proposed development is considered
to be of a low significance.

Mitigation

Water Abstraction and Use
• Plant areas not in play with indigenous vegetation to minimise the amount of irrigation
  and fertilizers required for these areas.
• Drought tolerant plant materials should be used wherever possible.
• Irrigation should be planned to meet the needs of the plant materials without over
  watering (use computers for “water on demand” programmes).
• Emphasis should be placed on the design of irrigation, drainage and retention systems
  in order to provide for efficient use of water and the protection of water quality.
• Modern irrigation techniques that provide efficient water usage should be used.
• Irrigation systems should be regularly checked for leaks.


                    WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                               121
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




•   Water usage should be monitored.
•   Irrigation should be undertaken at appropriate times of the day to minimise
    evaporation.

Fertilisers and Pesticides
• Buffer zones of a sufficient width should be created alongside the drainage lines and
   water features to minimise any adverse impacts of runoff.
• To minimise the need for chemical application, turf areas should be kept to the
   minimum size required to accommodate the use.
• Areas between turf areas, i.e. areas not in play, should be vegetated with indigenous
   vegetation.
• Pesticides and fertilisers should be carefully selected based on their properties. Slow
   release, less soluble and least mobile chemical fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides
   should be used.
• The turf should be mowed to the highest mowing height acceptable.
• Integrated pest management should be implemented. Integrated pest management
   should incorporate the following decision making steps:
• Regular monitoring and record keeping should be undertaken in order to identify the
   pest problem, analyse the conditions causing it, and determine damage threshold
   levels below which the pest can be tolerated.
• Ways to change the conditions to prevent or discourage the recurrence of the pest
   problem should be devised. Examples could include using improved turfgrass
   varieties, or changing cultural practice management programs.
• If damage thresholds are met, a combination of control strategies to suppress the pest
   populations with minimal environmental impacts should be selected and implemented.
   Control measures could include biological, mechanical and chemical methods.
• The minimum amount of fertiliser and pesticide that will achieve the required effect
   should be used.
• Spot treatments should be used on pests whenever possible as opposed to treating
   large areas.
• Label directions should be read and followed when using fertilisers and pesticides.
• Pest control and nutrient products should be stored and handled in a manner that
   minimises the potential for pollution.

General Construction
• Use mulch, grass-seeding, and other erosion control and revegetation techniques
  around the areas where extensive clearing is essential for the golf course
  development. These methods are used to protect freshly disturbed soils until natural
  vegetation can be established.
• Plan for the worst case, i.e., heavy rainfall and runoff events.
• Halt construction activity on exposed soil during events of high rainfall intensity and
  runoff.
• Minimise vegetation cover removal on all the cleared areas.
• Initiate replanting of disturbed areas immediately after disturbance is completed to
  minimise any runoff. Rehabilitate progressively, wherever possible.
• No rock, silt, cement, grout, asphalt, petroleum product, timber, vegetation, domestic
  waste, or any deleterious substance should be placed or allowed to disperse into any
  drainage line.
• Ensure all construction equipment is free of leaks from oil, fuel or hydraulic fuels. No
  construction vehicles should be cleaned on the development site.
• Adequate stormwater control mechanisms should be put in place over the entire golf
  course area.




                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                         122
                                        DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



        Assessment:
                                                    Assessment of Impact
                        Prop.
           Potential            Extent Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                         Dev.
            Impact
                        Option No With No With No With No With No With No With
                               Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.
                        Prim.             M   VL                         M    VL
                                                             Pr    Pr               C     C
           General      Appl.            (-)  (-)                        (-)  (-)
         Impact of golf Alt. 1  R   L     M   VL Long Term               M    VL
                                                             Pr    Pr               C     C
            course                       (-)  (-)                        (-)  (-)
                        No Go             Z    Z             Im    Im    N     N    C     C

        Management and Monitoring:

        The above mitigation measures have been included in the Draft EMP. Environmental
        management objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of the proposed
        development have been finalised and approved.


9.3.4   Planning Issues

        9.3.4.1 Urban Edge Issues

        Potential Impact: Creation of Urban Sprawl

        The proposed development represents leap frog development in a predominantly rural
        landscape. Lower density alternative should be considered.

        Discussion:

        The development does not constitute what is commonly referred to as “leap frog”
        development as it directly abuts the identified Northern Metropolitan Urban Edge and
        therefore follows on the existing urban context.


        Mitigation:

        N/A

        Assessment:
        N/A
        Management and Monitoring:

        N/A

        9.3.4.2 Impact on the Character of Surrounding Rural Area

        Potential Impact

        The proposed development of Bella Riva lies in a rural landscape and the development of
        the project will significantly change the character of the surrounding rural area.

        Discussion




                       WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                        123
                                  DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



According to the visual impact assessment undertaken of the proposed development by
CNdV (Appendix 17) the character of the landscape at the urban edge of Durbanville
changes from a rural landscape with wheat fields to areas developed for light industrial to
accommodate the brick making industry and intensive chicken processing and farming.
The existing Fisantekraal settlement also lies immediately south of the study area. In
addition, a large regional WWTW is to be built shortly on the Bella Riva farm, in the centre
of the proposed golf estate.

The characteristics are therefore not typical rural farmlands, but aspects of the rural
characteristics still remain as one moves further to the north of the application area. The
undulating terrain with the rolling wheat fields gives a pleasing visual (rural) experience.
The contrast of the brown ploughed fields in summer and the lush green fields in winter
makes this a rich visual experience, and adds to the rural character of the landscape. Due
to the undulating hills the site is alternately shielded and exposed to view. The impact of
the development on the character of the surrounding rural areas has been dealt with as
part of the Visual Impact Assessment, which is discussed in short below. The full VIA is
also included as Appendix 17.

Mitigation:

•    See below and Appendix 17

Assessment:

                                             Assessment of Impact
                 Prop.
      Potential          Extent Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                  Dev.
       Impact
                 Option No With No With No With No With No With No With
                        Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.
                 Prim.             M   ML                       MH     M
     Impact on                                        Pr    Po               C     C
                 Appl.            (-)  (-)                        (-)  (-)
        Rural                      M   ML                       MH     M
                            R                   L
    Character of Alt. 1           (-)  (-)
                                                      Pr    Po
                                                                  (-)  (-)
                                                                             C     C
        Area
                 No Go             Z    Z             Im    Im    N     N    C     C

Management and Monitoring

The above mitigation measures have been included in the Draft EMP. Environmental
management objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of the proposed
development have been finalised and approved.


9.3.4.3 Visual impact

Potential Impact

The proposed development will have a negative visual impact in the generally rural area

Discussion

Due to the size of the proposed development a visual impact assessment was undertaken
by CNdV Africa (Appendix 17) to assess the possible impacts resulting from the
proposed development. The site has a relatively small viewshed because of the nature of
the surrounding hills. Major views will be from the R302, the surroundings farms and a
limited area of the northern suburbs of Durbanville. Views will be possible from the
mountains to the south but these views are not considered significant because of the

                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                         124
                                   DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



mitigating effect of distance, (25 km and further.) The overall significance of the visual
impact is anticipated to be medium-high during the construction period falling to medium
over time if full mitigation is implemented. The nature of the development and its uses are
not highly compatible with the current use of the immediate surrounding land, but is felt
that due to its proximity to Fisantekraal and the industrial areas to the South, it should be
read as an extension of the existing urban development of Fisantekraal. In addition, a
large residential devlopemnt is being planned to the east of Fisantekraal.

Mitigation

•   General
    ∼ The nature and character of the surrounding landscape should be considered
      when discussing and amending the current layout. The fact that the topography of
      the proposed development creates a relatively high visual impact increases the
      need for adequate mitigation measures to be considered and implemented. There
      are areas that should be considered where the visual impact is highest; these
      include the entrance roads to the development and their management, and the
      edges of the development on the R302. Specifically the eastern boundary of the
      proposed development where all proposed housing must not exceed heights of
      4.5m. The existing treelines and natural features which currently aid in obscuring
      views should be kept. These will also maintain the rural character of the area. It is
      proposed that all roads are planted with avenues of trees at a spacing of at the
      most 10m centre to centre.
•   Massing
    ∼   It is essential that all development be kept as low as possible:
          o It is proposed that building forms are broken up and that the coverage is no
               more than 50% of the erf.
          o Buildings to be predominantly single story with a height restriction of 5m
          o Houses with permission to build ‘solder’ rooms have a height restriction of
               6m.
          o Double storey buildings are to have flat roofs and a maximum height of 8m.
          o All heights are to be measured parallel to the natural ground level before any
               excavation has taken place.
          o Buildings are not to be set on plinths – cut and fill is to be kept to a minimum.
          o Retaining walls should be no higher than 1.2m.
          o It is proposed that side building lines on erven are a minimum of 3m (6m in
               total)
          o Landscape guidelines must be specify tree planting in these areas.
          o Buildings to be rectilinear

•   Architectural Style and Finishes
    ∼   An architectural guidelines document has been drawn up and must be applied
        throughout the project.
    ∼   The architectural style is to be consistent throughout the development although
        ‘local’ differences within the different buildings and functions are appropriate.
    ∼   Lighting, street furniture, paving, etc. are to be controlled by the guidelines
        document so that consistency can be achieved.
    ∼  Colours are to be predominant natural for walls and dark grey for roofs, with the
       colours used for elements such as windows being consistent.
•   Parking Areas and Roads




                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          125
                                     DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




    ∼   Parking areas which are normally not visually obtrusive can become a visual
        liability when full of brightly coloured vehicles or at times of the day when the sun
        can cause an intense visual impact through reflections and glare.
    ∼   Road surfaces should be kept as narrow as possible and preferably be finished in
        as natural a looking material as possible.
    ∼   Parking area should be finished in as natural a colour as possible.
    ∼   All parking areas must be designed so that the vehicles are shielded from view
        over as large an area as possible.
    ∼ At least one tree per 4 bays must be mandatory.
•   Fencing
    ∼   No tall security fencing is to be allowed in the development.
    ∼   The use of such security aids as razor wire is not to be allowed.
    ∼   Areas are to be demarcated by the use of tree lines and hedges rather than any
        use of any other form of formal fencing.
    ∼   Boundary fencing must not be solid walls, razor wire or vibracrete.
    ∼  Boundary fencing should be steel palisade fencing in dark grey or black, without
       masonry columns and base walls
•   Lighting and Signage
    ∼   Light pollution and spillage needs to be minimised so as not to create the
        impression that a bit of urban development has been dropped into the rural
        landscape at night. Likewise the signage should be appropriate to the rural nature
        of the development and the surroundings.
    ∼   All lighting is to be shielded so that only the area needing to be lit is lit.
    ∼   No naked light sources should be visible from outside the development.
    ∼   Only reflected light is to be visible.
    ∼   Where necessary street lighting is to be low level bollard type.
    ∼   No uplighting onto buildings should be allowed although limited uplighting into
        trees and shrubs can be used provided the light sources are not visible.
    ∼   Signage to be limited in size so as to be readable but not overwhelming.
    ∼   The colours used for the signage are to compliment the colours in the landscape.
        No bright inappropriate colours are to be used.
    ∼   No neon or backlit signs are to be allowed although sensitive uplighting onto signs
        can be used provided that no light source is visible.
    ∼ No floodlighting or bright security lights should be allowed anywhere on site.
•   Tree Lines and Landscaping
    ∼   The long-term visual success of the development depends as much on the
        landscaping as it does on the architecture and layout. In time the landscaping
        should be predominant in the visual experience of those seeing the development
        from afar, i.e. in a mature landscape.
    ∼   A comprehensive landscape masterplan and landscape guidelines document need
        to be drawn up that will establish a planting theme for the entire development.
    ∼   Where possible existing tree lines are to be retained and over time replaced.
    ∼   New tree lines are to be planted as soon as possible.



                  WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                              126
                                    DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




    ∼   It is suggested that the use of alien tree species that are considered part of the
        cultural landscape and are not invasive be allowed.
    ∼  It is essential that adequate shade trees, berming and screen planting be
       mandatory in all parking areas.
•   Entrance Buildings
    ∼   Entrance buildings must be set back from view and of as small a scale as possible.
        Lighting to be kept to a minimum. (No floodlighting)
•   Mitigation Measures during Construction
    ∼   The site must be kept tidy at all times
    ∼   Building material stockpiles must be protected from dispersion into the surrounding
        terrain by wind or water,
    ∼ A concerted effort must be made to minimise dust generation and its effect on the
      surrounding buildings and dwellings.
•   Controlling Future Development
    ∼   Any future changes, improvements or extensions to the development must be
        subject to a separate visual impact assessment.
    ∼   All individual erven shall be sold together with landscape and architectural
        guidelines.
    ∼   An Architectural Review Committee (ARC) must be set up to review all plans. A
        qualified professional architect and landscape architect should serve on the
        committee.
    ∼   The ARC must approve all plans prior to the local authority approving any building
        plans.
    ∼   Architectural and landscape plans must form part of submissions by individual
        owners to the ARC.
    ∼   Future owners shall be policed by the homeowners association/ Body Corporates.

Assessment

                                           Assessment of Impact
               Prop.
    Potential          Extent Magnitude Duration Probability Significance Confidence
                Dev.
     Impact
               Option No With No With No With No With No With No With
                      Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit. Mit.
               Prim.             M   ML                       MH     M
                                                    Pr    Po               C     C
General Visual Appl.            (-)  (-)                        (-)  (-)
Impact of Golf Alt. 1     R      M   ML       L               MH     M
                                                    Pr    Po               C     C
   Estate                       (-)  (-)                        (-)  (-)
               No Go             Z    Z             Im    Im    N     N    C     C

Management and Monitoring

A review of the final plans, designs and guidelines should be required once they have
been completed to ascertain whether they still fall within the assessments of the visual
impact assessment and will be visually acceptable.

The above mitigation measures have been included in the Draft EMP. Environmental
management objectives will be defined in the EMP after the components of the proposed
development have been finalised and approved.



                 WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          127
                                            DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



       TABLE 11. The Significance of the Potential Impacts (Positive and Negative)
       Associated with the Development of either the Primary Application, Alternatives 2
       or Undertaking the No Go Development Option

                                                         Significance of the Potential Impact
                                                       Primary
                                                                    Alternative 2     “No Go”
Ref.                 Potential Impact                 Application
                                                      No     With    No     With    No     With
                                                      Mit.   Mit.    Mit.    Mit.   Mit.    Mit.
                       Potential Impacts on the Biophysical Environment
         Negative aquatic impacts;                     M       L     M        L
                                                                                    N       N
                                                       (-)    (-)    (-)     (-)
                                                       M      VL     M      VL
         Negative impact of WWTW;                                                   N       N
                                                       (-)    (-)    (-)    (-)
                                                       M      VL     M      VL
         Impact on the County Fair Bio-security;                                    N       N
                                                       (-)    (-)    (-)    (-)
                                                        L     VL      L     VL
         Impact on Groundwater;                                                     N       N
                                                       (-)    (-)    (-)    (-)
         Impact of Use of Treated Effluent for         M             M
                                                              N              N      N       N
         Irrigation;                                   (-)           (-)
                                                      ML      VL     ML     VL
         Impact of Nutrients and Pesticides;                                        N       N
                                                      (-)     (-)    (-)    (-)
                                                       VL      M     VL      M
         Increase in Biodiversity                                                   N       N
                                                       (+)    (+)    (+)    (+)
                                     Socio-economic Impacts
         Impacts on Fisantekraal and Farming            M      H      M      H
                                                                                    N       N
         Communities;                                  (+)    (+)    (+)    (+)
         Impact of Removal of Land from                M       L     M        L
                                                                                    N       N
         Agriculture;                                  (-)    (-)    (-)     (-)
                                                        M      H      M      H
         Impact on Employment;                                                      N       N
                                                       (+)    (+)    (+)    (+)
                                                        L     VL     ML       L
         Economic Viability.                                                        N       N
                                                       (-)    (-)    (-)     (-)
                          Potential Impacts on the Engineering Services
                                                        L     VL      L     VL
         Impact of New Dams;                                                        N       N
                                                       (-)    (-)    (-)    (-)
                                                      MH      M      M      ML
         Cumulative Impact of Traffic;                                              N       N
                                                      (-)     (-)    (-)    (-)
                                                      MH      ML     M        L
         Impact of Road Construction;                                               N       N
                                                      (-)     (-)    (-)     (-)
                                                        L     VL      L     VL
         Impact of Diesel and Oil Spills;                                           N       N
                                                       (-)    (-)    (-)    (-)
         General Impacts Associated with the           M      VL     M      VL
                                                                                    N       N
         Construction of Golf Courses.                 (-)    (-)    (-)    (-)
                            Potential Impacts on the Planning Issues
                                                      MH      M      MH      M
         Impact on the Rural Character of Area;                                     N       N
                                                      (-)     (-)    (-)     (-)
                                                      MH      M      MH      M
         Visual impact.                                                             N       N
                                                      (-)     (-)    (-)     (-)


                       WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                            128
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE




10.    CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

10.1   Introduction
       The necessary steps for the proposed change in land use have been followed in
       accordance with the EIA Regulations of NEMA, (Act 107 of 1998). The various activities
       which have been triggered by the proposed development have been identified according
       to the EIA Regulations.

       A comprehensive public participation process has been run with the Scoping Meetings
       having been held, together with a number of individual meetings with the Fisantekraal
       Community Forum. A detailed social assessment was also undertaken, with individual
       interviews having been undertaken. Numerous opportunities have been provided to IAPs
       and the broader public to provide verbal and written comment on all the documents
       advertised for comment (to date), namely:
              •    BID
              •    Draft Scoping Report
              •    Draft Environmental Impact Report (this report).

       A second Open Day and Public Meeting will be held to discuss the DEIR and the findings
       of the specialist reports.

       In order to facilitate meaningful results from certain specialist studies to guide the planning
       process of the proposed development, a number of specialist studies were commissioned
       at the start of the Scoping Process, namely:

              •    Engineering Services Report, including Stormwater Management and a Traffic
                   Impact Assessment (Africon Consulting Engineers);
              •    Archaeological Impact Assessment (D. Halkett and P. Hine);
              •    Heritage Impact Assessment (M. Geldenhuys);
              •    Visual Impact Assessment (CNvD);
              •    Fresh Water Assessment on the Mosselbank River (Toni Belcher);
              •    An assessment of the botanical features of the properties and the Mosselbank
                   River (Dr. Boucher);
              •    Landscape Design Guidelines (Planning Partners);
              •    Architectural Guidelines (Stauch Voster Architects & Urban Designers);
              •    A social impact assessment and economic impact assessment for the Bella
                   Riva Golf Estate Project (Multi-Purpose Business Solutions).

       In addition, three specialist reports from the previous application were also included in this
       current study, namely:

              •    Agricultural soils potential (B. Schloms);
              •    Groundwater and boreholes Resources Assessment (SRK)
              •    Preliminary Geotechnical investigation (SRK).

       The results of these existing and subsequent studies were initially used to assist with
       determining the environmental constraints of the property. The environmental constraints
       in turn guided the Master Plan of the proposed development.

       The above specialist studies were revised and completed during the EIA phase of the
       project and provided the necessary conclusions of the potential impacts and their severity
       of the proposed development on the surrounding environment and the site itself. In

                         WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          129
                                            DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



        addition, certain recommendations (mitigation) were put forward for reducing the
        significance of the potential environmental impacts.


10.2    The Main Conclusions Summarised from the EIA Process include the
        following:

10.2.1 Conclusions: Biophysical Impacts
         Negative Impacts on Aquatic Systems

          •    Due to the distance of the proposed development from the Mosselbank River, the
               expected impact is likely to be small. At its closest point, the distance of boundary of
               the development site to the river is approximately 25 to 30m. In addition, a railway
               line and the sewage pipeline run between the site and the river and provide an
               additional physical boundary.
          •    The significance of the potential impact of the proposed development on the
               Mosselbank River is assessed to be Low with the necessary mitigations being
               applied and will be site specific.

       Impact of WWTW on surrounding area and proposed development
           •   A large buffer area between any residential components and the WWTW and the
               covering of the effluents inlet will insure that the significance of the potential impact
               of the WWTW on the proposed development is will be Very Low.

       Impact on Bio-security of County Fair
           •   The implementation of the proposed mitigation measures will insure that the impact
               of the development on the bio-security of County Fair will remain of Low
               significance as assed in this report.

       Possible Pollution of Groundwater
           •   Due to the deep clay layers and a perched water table the possible impact on the
               groundwater is assed to be of Very Low significance. The impact will also be site
               specific due to the very low magnitude of the impact.

       Impact of use of Treated Effluent for Irrigation
           •   The re-use of treated effluent for irrigation has a positive impact on water
               conservation by reducing the amount of potable water required for irrigation and
               reducing the quantity of treated effluent released directly into the Mosselbank River.

           •   If the mitigation measures proposed in this report is implemented the use of treated
               effluent should not have any significant impact.

       Impact of Nutrients and Pesticides use on Golf Courses
          • It is generally found that the use of treated effluent, even “polished” still contains
             traces of phosphates and nitrates. When irrigated, such excess nutrients are taken
             up by the grass cover of fairways and greens, thus necessitating less need for
             fertilizer. Based on the above research and use of treated effluent, and the physical
             characteristics of the area (thick clay deposits and gentle slopes), it is highly unlikely
             that fertilizer and pesticides used on the Bella Riva golf estate will cause pollution of
             the groundwater and surrounding environment.
          • The significance of the potential impact of the nutrient and pesticides used on the
             golf courses is assessed to be Low and site specific with the necessary mitigations
             being applied.

                          WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           130
                                          DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



      Increase in Biodiversity of the area
          •   Through the creation of habitat diversity the proposed Bella Riva Golf Estate
              development will have a positive impact of Medium significance on biodiversity in
              the area.

10.2.2 Conclusions: Socio-economic Impacts
         Impacts on Fisantekraal and the Surrounding Communities

          • The significance of the potential impact of the proposed development on the
            communities is assessed to be positive and of High with the necessary mitigations
            being applied.

         Impact of Removal of Land from Agriculture

          • Due to the low soil potential of the site, the significance of the potential impact of the
            removal of the properties from agriculture is assessed to be Low.

         Impact on Employment Opportunities

          •   According to the Social Impact Assessment done for the development by Prof.
              Bloom (Appendix 12a), the anticipated benefits associated with the proposed
              development area largely economic in nature and would serve to strengthen the
              social fabric that needs attention in Fisantekraal and Klipheuwel. The significance of
              the positive impact the development will have on employment in the area if assed as
              of High significance.

         Economic Viability of the Proposed Development

          •   Professor Jonathan Bloom has been appointed to conduct an Economic Impact
              Assessment (Appendix 12b) for the proposed development. The project will be
              phased over a period of 10 years. According to Prof. Bloom From it can be
              ascertained from the business model of the developer that value will be added to
              certain sections of the property by vesting the rights and on-selling the sub-divided
              properties to investors and other developers. In terms of a risk-assessment, the
              approach adopted by the developer is the norm used, with a clear focus on
              minimising risk through project phasing and adding value. The value addition is
              generally large and provides funding for other components undertaken. Phasing the
              development is an attempt to minimise the risk of current economic conditions and
              negative growth in the residential sector.

10.2.3 Conclusions: Engineering Services Impacts
         Impact of Creation of New Dams

         •    The engineers and the aquatic specialist will ensure that the chosen irrigation
              system complies with DWAF standards and that the necessary approvals are
              obtained. No water will be extracted from the Mosselbank River and no instream
              dams will be constructed. There are no natural springs on the property. No streams
              will be diverted and no run-off from the golf estate will reach the Mosselbank River.
              The impact on the Mosselbank River and the property is assed to be of Very Low
              significantly.




                        WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                           131
                                        DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



        Cumulative Impact of Traffic in the Area

        • The impact of the proposed development will have a negative impact of Medium
          significance on the traffic in the area and will be of long term nature.

        The Impact of Construction or Upgrading of Roads and other Infrastructure
        associated with the Residential Development and Golf Estate.

        • The significance of the potential impact of the proposed construction or upgrading of
          roads and other infrastructure associated with the residential development and golf
          estate is assessed to be negative and of Medium-Low with the necessary
          mitigations being applied.

        The Storage and Handling of Diesel
        •   The petro-chemical companies will not deliver diesel to construction sites unless
            appropriate measures are in place to receive diesel. The significance of the potential
            impact of possible diesel and oil spills is assessed to be negative and of Very Low
            significance with the necessary mitigations being applied.

        General Impacts Associated with the Construction and Management of the Golf
        Course

        • The significance of the general impacts associated with a golf course is assessed to
          be negative and of Very Low significance with the necessary mitigations being
          applied.

10.2.4 Conclusions: Planning Impacts

        Urban Edge Issues
        •    The development does not constitute what is commonly referred to as “leap frog”
             development as it directly abuts the identified Northern Metropolitan Urban Edge
             and therefore follows on the existing urban context.

        Impact on the Character of Surrounding Rural Area

        •    The significance of the impacts associated with the development on the
             surrounding rural area is assessed to be negative and of Medium significance with
             the necessary mitigations being applied.

        Visual Impact

        •   According to the visual impact assessment done of the proposed development by
            CNdV (Appendix 17) the character of the landscape is not typical rural farmlands,
            but aspects of the rural characteristics still remains. Due to the undulating hills the
            site is alternately shielded and exposed to view. The site has a relatively small
            viewshed. The overall significance of the visual impact is anticipated to be Medium-
            High during the construction period falling to Medium over time if full mitigation is
            implemented. The nature of the development and its uses are not highly compatible
            with the current use of the immediate surrounding land, but is felt that due to its
            proximity to Fisantekraal and the industrial areas to the South, it should be read as
            an extension of the existing development.

      All the various mitigation proposals that are recommended to reduce the significance of
      the anticipated environmental impacts have been included in the Draft Environmental


                      WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                          132
                                 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT: BELLA RIVA GOLF ESTATE



Management Plan (EMP) that includes various Environmental Management Programmes,
i.e. the strategies for ensuring sustainable development.

Other conclusions and recommendations related to the Primary application and the
Alternative development options may come to light from the written comments to be
received from IAPs on the DEIR.

The Draft EIR was advertised for public review in the local Tygerburger, and regional Die
Burger and The Cape Times newspaper on 21 January 2008 (Appendix 4f). Written
comments from IAPs must reach the environmental consultant by 23 February 2009.

The report will be revised according to the comments received from IAPs and the resultant
Final EIR will be advertised for final public comment. Any written comments received will
be collated and appended to the final EIR and submitted to DEA&DP for a Record of
Decision (ROD).


WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS
January 2009




                WITHERS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS                        133

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:374
posted:3/9/2011
language:English
pages:144