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ASPECTS TO ASPECTS TO COMMERCIALISE COMMERCIALISE SATELLITE BASED

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					  ASPECTS TO COMMERCIALISE

SATELLITE BASED TECHNOLOGY

                 IN NEW MARKETS




                            - Gerrit P. Human -
                                June 2003




A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of
                        DOCTOR INGENERIAE
                                     in
                      ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT
                                   at the
                       FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
                     RAND AFRIKAANS UNIVERSITY
 Aspects surrounding the Commercialisation of Satellite Based Technology


Promoter:      Prof. Leon Pretorius
Co-promoter:   Prof. Jan-Harm Pretorius




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                  All information contained in this study is protected by Copyright held by the RAU.
                                        G Human - RAU Student: 76/1586/9




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STUDY SUMMARY

Abstract: The birth of the first low earth orbit satellite network for packet switched data, was received with
much enthusiasm. This enthusiasm was quickly dampened as solution developers went into Chapter 11
(protected liquidation in the USA) and faded away because the introduction of new technology to the market
has not been so obvious - the aspects of commercialisation was not taken care off with the necessary caution.
       The basis of this study is to establish and assess reasons why commercialisation has been so difficult
for solution developers using low earth orbit satellite communication in the high technology market, while it has
been such a long awaited technology in the remote monitoring and telemetry fields
       In today's economy, the marketing of innovative technologies is of critical importance. Innovations
succeed or fail in the marketplace based not just on the soundness of the technology, but also on a company's
skills at bringing that technology to market and getting it adopted by customers. Unfortunately, traditional
approaches to consumer or industrial marketing often prove inadequate when it comes to the introduction of
new products in domains such as telecommunications.
       This study concentrates on and defines the additional aspects surrounding the commercialisation of
discontinuous high technology products in new industrial markets.

Keywords: Commercialisation, product life cycle, crossing the chasm, product development, market
development, sales cycle, discontinuous innovation.

                                                 Introduction
          “High tech – high hope. Turning your vision of technology into business success” - a statement by
Franson (1998) [1] that is followed by individual entrepreneurial engineers, also companies wanting to keep
the competitive advantage in search of technology success to become the new winner in the market. The
focus is to strive to be the leader, not the follower. For most however this is the start of a losing battle between
technology and the market.
          Technology has invariably been defined by a number of leading economists as being the cornerstone
of a country’s strategy for global competitiveness - certainly also that of a technological company [2]. In some
cases at least for survival, but for others it meant vast successes in the international market. According to
Dieter [3], many studies have shown that the ability to introduce and manage technological change is a major
factor in a country’s leadership in world markets and also a major factor in raising standards of living.
          This typical approach comes from the competitive advantage generated by the computer industry in
the USA over the rest of their international competing counterparts. Following them closely is the Far East with
their leading computer hardware manufacturing facilities. The USA however still leads, simply due to most of
the intellectual property residing in the USA - software development is a vital key to the evolutionary process of
the digital processor and computer hardware. The Far East obeyingly has to follow with hardware
manufacturing.
          Certainly, the importance of technology as a cornerstone of a country’s competitive advantage in the
global market, as demonstrated by Microsoft, cannot be ignored. Not by a country and certainly even more so,
not by any technology driven company. This technology cornerstone strategy within the company can only be
supported by a well-informed engineering team - with a knowledgeable engineering manager at the lead.
In today's economy, the marketing of innovative technologies is of critical importance. Innovations succeed or
fail in the marketplace based not just on the soundness of the technology, but also on a company's skills at
bringing that technology to market and getting it adopted by customers. Unfortunately, traditional approaches


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to consumer or industrial marketing often prove inadequate when it comes to new high technology product
introduction in technology domains such as telecommunications and other industrial sectors of the market.
                                                                   Only few innovative ideas prove profitable
                                                           because the research, development and pre-
                                                           marketing costs of converting a concept into a
                                                           profitable product, are extremely high. Booz Allen &
                                                           Hamilton [4] found that less than 2% of innovative
                                                           projects initially considered by 51 companies,
                                                           eventually reached the marketplace. Specifically, out
                                                           of every 58 new product ideas, only 12 passed an
                                                           initial test, 7 remained after an evaluation of their
                                                           potential and 3 survived development attempts. Of the
                                                           3 survivors, 2 appear to have profit potential after test
                                                           marketing and only 1 is commercially successful –
                                                           refer to Figure 1.
                                                                   Perhaps this is very bluntly put by Schon [5]: “In
the absence of any clear criteria of success and failure and of adequate statistics, it is not very useful to
attempt a quantitative analysis. It is, at any rate, more accurate to say ‘Almost nothing new works’, than to say
‘Most new developments succeed’.”
        The problems associated with the introduction of cutting edge technology to the market can bring
sudden death to the most brilliant innovation - unless the innovator (and ultimately the engineering manager)
has the ability to identify the risks and minimize the problems to enter the mainstream market. In the following
sections some additional aspects of commercialisation of new high technology in the satellite industry will be
highlighted and discussed which may lead to the failure of the commercialisation of discontinuous innovations.

                                             Commercialisation
        Baker has defined the process of commercialisation of products as a sub-set of innovation [6]:
“Innovation involves two stages. The invention of something new and its industrial or commercial introduction
and exploitation”. Invention may be thought of as the conception of an idea. This definition dates back to 1911
                                                                      when Schumpeter [6] has defined the
                                                                      difference between innovation and
                                                                      invention following the confusion
                                                                      between the two terms at the time.
                                                                      According to Baker, innovation may be
                                                                      defined as:

                                                                          INNOVATION
                                                                          = INVENTION + COMMERCIALIZATION

                                                                                  Commercialisation of a product
                                                                          is defined by Thamhain [7] as the
                                                                          conversion, development or exploitation
                                                                          of an innovative idea into a
                                                                          commercially useful application or
                                                                          product.     For    technology-based
                                                                          innovations, the commercialisation
                                                                          process involves the transfer of


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technology from an idea to a paying customer. Thamhain further defined the innovative process and its
interfaces with the market, technology, and the administrative subsystems as indicated in Figure 2. This clearly
positions commercialisation of technology in the innovative process.

Steps of Commercialisation

        To define the steps forming the process of commercialisation of a product, the two basic approaches
towards commercialisation of products need to be distinguished between. In the first case the product will be
sold on conceptual value (vapour-ware), while in the second case the product will be developed first, then
marketing of the product will start.
        With regards to the first approach, Moore indicates that one of the most common reasons why the
early product market does not get a proper start and leads to market failure is because; “the company sells the
vision before it has the product. This is a version of the famous ware-ware problem, based on pre-announcing
and pre-marketing a product that still has significant development hurdles to overcome” [8].
        The approach in this study is based on a proper scientific approach that is initiated by two distinct
phases, the development of a product followed by the commercialisation of the product. The first phase is the
pre-marketing phase, which extends back to the idea concept (the invention), product development (with
market research) and product manufacturing. The second phase involves the commercialisation of the product
and support during the maturity stage. This phase ends with the decline of the product’s life cycle and eventual
abandonment. The steps during the two phases have been defined by Dieter to comprise of [9]:
        Pre-market phase
             - R&D
                  Idea generation (market gap analysis)
                  Product idea evaluation
                  Feasibility analysis
                  Technical R&D
             - Market Study
                  Product market research
                  Preliminary production
                  Market testing through pilot installations
                  Commercial production
        Market phase
             - Introduction
                  Product introduction and trial sales
                  Market development and commercial expansion
             - Growth
                  Rapid growth
                  Competitive market
             - Product Maturity and Decline
                  Maturity
                  Decline
                  Abandonment

        These steps are superimposed on a typical Product Life Cycle in Figure 3. The approximate position of
the chasm is also indicated to occur prior to the rapid market growth of the product.
        It is obvious that during the commercialisation of new high technology products, marketing should
become more important as well. Marketing is a concept unknown to many engineers since it is perceived to be
of non-technical nature and thus also less important. U    nfortunately, an inadequate understanding of the

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market within which the product will compete, is also the number one cause for failure of the innovation
(product) [10].
        During the market phase, the aspects of commercialisation of technology are those needed to
successfully introduce new technology products into the market. The aspects that will be concentrated on are
those that will be present during the introduction phase and the initial stages of the market growth phase:
        •         Product introduction and trial sales – customisation of products
        •         Market development and commercial expansion – marketing of products
        •         Crossing the Chasm – a barrier identified by Moore [11]




       The following is a basic discussion of the aspects of marketing, which can be considered of
importance during the initial stages of the market phase as shown in Figure 3.

Aspects of Marketing

         Prior to and after industrialization, the demand for products was much larger than the product
offerings. There was no need for aggressive marketing. Whatever were offered by the producing companies,
were to be accepted by the market. At that stage “it was the producer that was king” [12]. However, between
the 50 to 60’s, as more production companies gradually brought more products to the market, companies
started losing their captive markets. This has lead to a high degree of competition between the production
companies. The focus changed from a product driven market to a consumer driven market. More emphasis
was placed on service to the customer. “In the past the producer was king, now it is the customer” [13].
         Since then, the broad subject of marketing revolves around strategies to enable managers to actively


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implement methods to supply value to the customer. Wright has defined marketing as: “A management
process that is involved in identifying, anticipating, satisfying customer needs and wants through the efficient
and effective use of the company’s resources” [14].
        The first aspect of marketing deals with the influential aspects surrounding the product specifications
and design; the customer needs, product opportunities, and an understanding of the market segments. Ever
heard the short definition of marketing? [15]:
        The right product,
        at the right price,
        at the right time,
        with the right production and
        the right positioning.

         The aspects involved during commercialisation of new products can be derived from a comparison
between the aspects listed in the general marketing concepts [16] and the aspects from crossing the chasm
[17]. Since crossing the chasm is already down the road of the commercialisation of the technology, one would
expect that the number of aspects required for crossing the chasm to be less.
         According to Wright [16], the important aspects of marketing after market segmentation has been done
are:
         • Customer behaviour
        •   Company structure
        •   Market research
        •   Product
        •   Price                        Marketing Mix
        •   Place                        (4 “P’s” of marketing)
        •   Promotion

        The aspects of marketing addressed by Moore [17] to be considered during crossing the chasm can
be interpreted as:
        • Niche market focus
        •   Target customer
        •   Whole product
        •   Competition
        •   Distribution and pricing

       Although various marketing strategies have been defined in the literature, the basic principles remain
the same. A comparison between the general marketing literature and the aspects required for crossing the
chasm, results in the following important marketing aspects, which are of importance during the
commercialisation of technology (efforts of marketing):
       • Market segmentation – a niche market focus

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        •   Market research – market sector
        •   Company structure
        •   Customer behaviour – target customer; industrial market
        •   Place – product distribution
        •   Promotion – advertising
        •   Product – whole product
        •   Price – price and revenue
        •   Competition


                             Additional Aspects of Commercialisation
         In a comparative study performed by the first author as part of doctoral research, some additional
important aspects of commercialisation of discontinuous innovations were identified. The results are based on
a study performed on a Low Earth Orbit Satellite Service Provider and a Value Added Reseller who developed
remote monitoring solutions based on both GSM/SMS and satellite communication technologies.
         The birth of the first low earth orbit satellite network for packet switched data, was received with much
enthusiasm. This enthusiasm was quickly dampened as solution developers called for protected liquidation
and faded away because the introduction of new technology to the market has not been so obvious - the
aspects of commercialisation were not taken care off with the necessary caution.
         The basis of this study is to establish and assess reasons why commercialisation has been so difficult
for solution developers using low earth orbit satellite communication in the high technology market, while it has
been such a long awaited technology in the remote monitoring and telemetry fields. To find answers to these
questions, the aspects of commercialisation, or perhaps efforts of marketing, need to be discussed
individually.
         Having re-arranged the marketing efforts listed, the sequence results in a logical approach to define
the additional aspects to commercialise new high technology products during the comparative study:
         a) Market segmentation            Define the niche market
         b) Market research                Market size and viability
         c) Product strategy               Complete/whole product
         d) Customer behaviour             Industrial market, adoption process
         e) Competition                    Define or create competition
         f) Place                          Product distribution strategy
         g) Company structure              Company change management
         h) Price strategy                 Price and revenue
         i) Promotion                      Marketing

        From the comparative study, additional aspects of commercialisation of discontinuous products in new
markets were found in market segmentation, product strategy, customer behaviour, competition and company
structure. The following is a discussion of the salient aspects relating to each of the efforts of marketing in an
attempt to identify these additional aspects of commercialisation.
Market Segmentation




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          The purpose of segmentation is to direct the focus of the organization on a specific market segment
and to stop marketing from accepting any selling opportunity. Moore supports the purpose of market
segmentation in his view that focus is one of the most important aspects of crossing the chasm – one
customer, one product [18].
          Although Moore supports the idea of
one specific solution within a market segment
for a specific customer, this is not always
economically viable in some countries. By
installing a number of test installations with
various customers in the same field of
application, the most suitable product line
can be identified very effectively through the
use of the revised BCG/GEC Product
Portfolio Matrix. The market response to
these installations allowed the analysis of the
various products in order to establish the
most suitable products to base the future
marketing approach on. This approach is
found to be specifically helpful when
discontinuous products are launched into
new markets.

Product Strategy

         Moore [8] has defined a reason for failure of a technology company to launch its product in the market
due to: “the company sells the vision before it has the product. This is a version of the famous ware-ware
problem, based on pre-announcing and pre-marketing a product that still has significant development hurdles
to overcome”. On the other hand, how do you develop a product for a new market in which information
regarding the customer needs is not available?
         Many companies allow R&D to lead the product development and these products often fail because of
the design of the product being based on perceived design criteria. Market-led products are much less likely to
fail because the customer’s interaction will have weeded out wrong designs and bad development [19].
         From the comparative study it follows that the development of a product during the initial stages may
be based on personal experiences and can be adopted later to the customer needs. This implies that a
product-oriented strategy is followed initially, and then a market oriented strategy during which the product is
customized to the requirements of the customer. During this period Kruger [25] indicates that cooperation
between marketing and technology is of paramount importance for the delivery of a complete product to the
requirements of the customer.

Customer Behaviour

       A number of additional aspects of commercialisation follow from this marketing effort. From the
comparative analysis the following aspects were found to be of importance: customer sales cycle and the
technology adoption cycle. The following is a summary of both aspects.




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         A customer sales cycle (shown in Figure 5) has been developed to optimally utilize the knowledge
base of the technology company in an attempt to render a proper service to the customer. This customer sales
cycle follows from the sales funnel
approach and a definition of a
sales cycle by Gardner [20]. The
steps of marketing will follow the
same format as the sales funnel
where the initial contact is
converted to an order. During this
process the approach will be to
eliminate the fears, uncertainties
and doubts of the customer. The
second step is to develop a
solution to the customers needs
based on the product features.
Then the basic design will be
delivered to the customer as a
quote for approval. Once
approved, this will become an
order. Thereafter the main aim is
customer satisfaction through delivery, reliability of the product, service and support. According to Kotler [21],
a satisfied customer stays loyal, buys more when new products or upgrades are launched, talks favourable
about the company (the much needed word of mouth), pays less attention to competing brands, offers product
service and improvement ideas, and cost less to serve than new customers. Based on this statement the loop
in the developed sales cycle has been closed which indicates that a satisfied customer will remain loyal.
         The second aspect found to be miss-understood by most system developers during the comparative
study, is the diffusion of technology in the market. Baker refers to the market reaction to new technology to be
similar than the laws of Newton; constant inertia, constant speed and diffusion [22]. To rely on a single
customer to place a large order for new technology without having had a chance to thoroughly test and use the
product, is a major gamble. Practical experience with the market has shown that this hardly ever occurs. It is
rather advisable to start with the smaller accounts and build them up to more reliable, sustainable accounts.

                                                           Competition

                                                              Selling new high technology products to
                                                      markets that do not exist is very difficult since the
                                                      customers cannot easily perceive the value of the
                                                      new technology. To solve this problem, specifically
                                                      with discontinuous products, Moore suggests to
                                                      “create your own competition”.
                                                              In the comparative study it was found that
                                                      the market resistance against new radical
                                                      discontinuous innovations to be higher than
                                                      expected.
                                                              An approach, which was followed during the
                                                      launch of the new technology, is to relate the radical
discontinuous products to existing technology – thus create competition if this does not exist. The radical
discontinuity of a product needs to be portrayed as marginal discontinuous products to the visionary and

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pragmatist markets. “Mind the Gap” as indicated in Figure 6. The fears, uncertainty and doubt of the customer
are addressed more efficiently through this approach.

Company Structure

         In this section the term "company structure" will refer to the way the company structure influences and
supports the marketing efforts of the company. These are the aspects required from a company to form a unity
during crossing of the chasm and to ensure that customers’ needs continually are the driving force behind the
company.
         Ultimately, company structure will imply the changes within the company structure as a result of the
change from one market segment to the other; the technology enthusiasts to the visionaries to the pragmatist
to the conservatives. These company changes originate from the technical base of the initial invention team
who are responsible for the development of the product. Once product development is complete, the company
has to change the structure to support a market development culture.
         To expect a technology based company to perform the tasks of marketing successful is questionable.
Levitt [23] has indicated that a big danger of R&D is that top management is wholly transfixed by the profit
                                                                      possibilities of technical research and
                                                                      development. The great danger that faces
                                                                      new technology development companies is
                                                                      not that they do not spend enough effort and
                                                                      time on R&D issues, but that they pay too
                                                                      much attention to it. Some companies even
                                                                      grow up with the perception that a superior
                                                                      product will sell itself. Levitt states that once
                                                                      companies have created a successful
                                                                      product, management continues to think
                                                                      towards the product rather than the
                                                                      customer.
                                                                               From the comparative analysis, the
                                                                      company will be forced to change the
                                                                      company structure to adopt to the changing
                                                                      requirements and dynamics of the changing
                                                                      market. It was found that an R&D oriented
company structure would have to be changed to accommodate the changes of the market from early adopters
to early majority. The company will have to concentrate on a predominantly marketing oriented structure during
the commercialisation of technology. These efforts of the company during the life stages of the product are
clearly shown in Figure 7. These efforts are separately indicated as 1) research, development and design, 2)
marketing and 3) manufacturing.
         By integrating the results of the Company Structure change with the Customer Sales Cycle, a solution
is proposed which will enable the engineering manager to plan proactively in terms of the management of
technology within the requirements of the company. The engineering manager will be able to change the
company structure through this proposed method without risking loss of the knowledge base of the company
since a large portion of the intellectual property of the company resides with the employees. Based on this
proposal, a large portion of the marketing responsibilities will be delegated to the technologists. This way re-
applying the technologists expands the marketing functions of the company. Refer to Figure 8 regarding this
integration proposal.



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 Figure 8 – Integration of the Company Structure change with Customer Sales Cycle


                                               Conclusion
         Marketing of radical discontinuous products in a new market has been attempted by many without
reaching the final goal – a successful invention and its subsequent commercialisation. From the contents of
this study some additional aspects of commercialisation of new high technology products to be introduced into
new markets, were identified.
         These additional aspects are in addition to the normal efforts of marketing proposed by Moore, Kotler
and Baker. Possibly one of the main causes for failure to successfully commercialise new technology is the
reluctance of technologists to adapt to the changing requirements of the company structure during the life
cycle of the product.
         The nature and cause for marketing failures is listed by Baker to [24] be inadequate market analysis,
poor timing, competition reaction, insufficient marketing effort, inadequate sales force and inadequate
distribution. All of these indicate a lack of marketing knowledge by management. Specialist marketing
knowledge will be inevitable in the commercialisation process of new high technology products to new
unknown markets.
         The difference could be justified by referring to the initial process as product development and the
succeeding process as market development. Both phases are different processes with different skills and
approaches required.




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               My sincere thanks to both Leon Pretorius and Jan-Harm Pretorius
                      for their involvement and support during this study.

                                                             Gerrit Human




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      A study dedicated to Marlise, Lize and Gerrit-Johannes,




              “Do not fret or have any anxiety about anything, but in every
               circumstance and in everything, by prayer and petition, with
               thanksgiving, continue to make your wants known to God”.


                                                                            Philippians 4:6 [bib, p 1797].




      First and foremost, it is the author's strong belief that, through experience of so many “incidental
      occurrences” throughout the process of commercialisation of the LEOCell products, success of
      an immensely involved process like this is only possible if the approach is based on a firm believe
      as depicted in Philippians 4 verse 13.


      Then, second to this, a strong believe in the power of knowledge, and that of others, combined
      will result in a balanced knowledge base that will lead to a clearer, purer and more direct process
      of thought.




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INDEX
                                                                           Page
     LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS                                            Index-7


1.   INTRODUCTION
      1.1   General                                                          1.1
      1.2   Purpose of the Study                                             1.3
     1.3    Conclusion                                                       1.5


2.   APPROACH TO RESEARCH
      2.1   Problem Statement                                                2.1
      2.2   Subjects of the Study                                            2.4
      2.3   Research Objectives                                             2.10
      2.4   Benefits of the Study                                           2.12
      2.5   Research Design                                                 2.13
      2.6   Comparative Analysis                                            2.18
      2.7   Conclusion                                                      2.19


3.   SATELLITE BASED TECHNOLOGY
      3.1   Introduction                                                     3.1
      3.2   Existing Technology                                              3.1
      3.3   Satellite Communication                                          3.6
      3.4   Remote Monitoring Solutions                                     3.14
      3.5   Conclusion                                                      3.20




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4.   LITERATURE REVIEW
      4.1   Introduction                                                    4.1
      4.2   Commercialisation Process                                       4.1
      4.3   Aspects of Marketing                                            4.6
      4.4   Market Behaviour and Dynamics                                  4.19
      4.5   Crossing the Chasm                                             4.28
      4.6   Conclusion                                                     4.47


5.   COMPARATIVE STUDY
      5.1   Introduction                                                    5.1
      5.2   Basis of Comparative Study                                      5.3
      5.3   Market segmentation – Define the Niche Market                   5.9
      5.4   Market research – Market Viability                             5.19
      5.5   Product strategy – Whole/Complete Product                      5.26
      5.6   Customer behaviour – Industrial Market                         5.37
      5.7   Place - Product Distribution Strategy                          5.59
      5.8   Company structure – Company Change Management 5.66
      5.9   Price strategy - Price and Revenue                             5.76
      5.10 Promotion - Marketing                                           5.78
      5.11 Conclusion                                                      5.83


6.   ASPECTS OF COMMERCIALIZATION
      6.1   Introduction                                                    6.1
      6.2   Additional Aspects supporting the Commercialisation
            of New High Technology Products                                 6.2
      6.3   An Integrated Approach                                          6.9
      6.4   Conclusion                                                     6.13
7.   CONCLUSION
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     7.1   Introduction                                                      7.1
     7.2   Field Covered                                                     7.3
     7.3   Results Obtained                                                  7.3
     7.4   Contribution                                                      7.7
     7.5   Evaluation (Contribution & Limitations)                           7.9
     7.6   Recommendation and Future Work                                  7.10
     7.7   Summary                                                         7.12


    APPENDIXES

A.1 BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                             A1


A.2 LIST OF TABLES                                                           A7


A.3 LIST OF FIGURES                                                          A8


A.4 ANNEXURES                                                              A10
    Annexure A.4.1 – Glossary of New Product Development Terms A.4.1-1 to 36
    Annexure A.4.2 – The Chasm Group Encyclopaedia of Market        A.4.2-1 to 34
                      Development Models
    Annexure A.4.3 – Orbcomm System Description                     A.4.3-1 to 23
    Annexure A.4.4 – LEOCell System Description                     A.4.4-1 to 50




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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

[Ex-ib]IIC   =   Intrinsic Safe Classification in terms of IEC
AIDA         =   Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action (a Marketing term)
AMR          =   Automatic Meter Reading
BAH          =   Booz Allen Hamilton
CP           =   Cathodic Protection
CSP          =   Communication Service Provider
DCC          =   Data Control Centre
FUD          =   Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt
GEO          =   Geo-synchronous/Geo-stationary (Satellite)
GSM          =   Global System for Mobile Communication
HMI          =   Human Machine Interface
IVAR         =   International Value Added Reseller
LEO          =   Low Earth Orbit
MMI          =   Man-machine Interface
NDA          =   Non-disclosure Agreement
PDN          =   Packet Data Networks
PLC          =   Product Life Cycle
PRN          =   Private Radio Networks
R&D          =   Research and Development
RIFU         =   Remote Intelligent Field Unit
ROI          =   Return On Investment
SCADA        =   Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition
SME          =   Small to Medium Enterprises
SMS          =   Short Message Service (with GSM)
SPII         =   Support Program for Industrial Innovation
TLG          =   Tank Level Gauging
US           =   United States of America
USA          =   United States of America
VAR          =   Value Added Reseller
ZA           =   South Africa
MMI          =   Man Machine Interface – SCADA view terminal
HMI          =   Human Machine Interface




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