Skripsi Bab III by KlikAll


									                                   CHAPTER III

                         RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Research Design

       Classroom Action Research (CAR) is an action research conducted with the

aim of improving the quality of practice learning in the classroom. This methods

focus on the students or the academic process that occurs in the classroom.

       The research design which used by the researcher is Classroom Action

Research (CAR) is Kurt Lewin in Hopkirn’s model. The scheme of Classroom

Action Research is following:





     Planning

      Planning is the process of setting goals, developing strategies, and outlining

      tasks and schedules to accomplish the goals.


   Acting

    Acting is a translation of planning embodied in concrete actions in the


   Observing

    Observation is the action or methods to analyze and conduct a systematic

    recording of behavior by looking at or observing individuals or groups


   Reflecting

    Reflecting is the action to evaluate the learner when do the material from

    researcher or doing action that has been conducted, including evaluation of

    quality, quantity and time of each kind of action.

      The aim of this method was to compare descriptively the chain of each

cycle. The first stage in this research was done with an observation to know the

students’ listening ability, to find out the identification of problems, which appear,

and to determine the kinds of treatment, which are appropriate to be carried out.

Each cycle consists of four stages. Those are planning, action, observation, and


      Since the writer wanted to know whether or not jigsaw are effective used in

increasing listening ability, she then replied into the next stage of re-planning,

action, observation, and reflection until the problem were clearly been solved.

3.2   Setting and Subject

      The setting and subject of Classroom Action Research covering: place of

research, time of research, subject of research, and cycle of Classroom Action

Research, such as:

     Place of Research

      This Classroom Action Research is executed at SMP PGRI Bandar for

English lesson. This school is located in Bandar subdistrict, Pacitan district. The

researcher wants to help the students in order they can improve their capability in

English especially to listening skill.

     Time of Research

      This Classroom Action Research is executed at early new teaching year

2010 / 2011, at July 28, 2010. The determine time of research relate at calendar of

academic in school, because Classroom Action Research needed many cycle that

effectively teaching learning process in class.

     Subject of Research

      The subject of Classroom Action Research is the eight years students, which

administered at SMP PGRI Bandar, Pacitan teaching year 2010 / 2011.

3.3   Research Procedure

      Classroom Action Research (CAR) through cycle, the cycles are consisted

of planning, acting, observing, reflecting. The cycles are following:

3.3.1 Planning

     Before doing researching, researcher makes a planning to identify the

problems and how to find out its problem solving. The planning are:

      Analyzing the student’s problems when they listening English.

      Make a lesson plan.

      To make student spread sheet

      Make instruments (observation sheet, test and questionnaire).

a.   Observation:      used as technique for data collected about students’ activity

in teaching learning process and implemented The Jigsaw. The observation sheet

is given to collaborator for measuring activity level in teaching learning process.

The steps of observation are following:

    Researcher ask an English teacher in SMP PGRI BANDAR to be an

     observer collaborator

     Observer observes the student’s attitude when they are learning listening

     Observer observes the students response when they learn listening using


     The observation sheet consisted 5 questions

    The aspect in the observation sheet about student’s attitude, student’s

     response, and effectiveness of learning listening using jigsaw

b.   Test:    used for getting data about result students learning. To given question

item/question instrument for measuring study result from students.reseacher

choose the writing test option is given to student. Material of test is of 10

questions in multiple choices. The steps of giving test are following:

     Teacher ask the student to prepare listening well on recorder

     Teacher plays the record of text from tape recorder

     Student listen well the text

     Researcher gives the question sheet to student

     Students do the test with jigsaw model.

      For scoring the result of the test is use pattern bellow :

     The number with true answer is given score 10

     The number with false answer is given score 0

     The maxsimam score is 100

                              Score acquisition
     The student score =                         x 100
                              Score maximum

c.    Questionnaire : the questioner is given to the students to know opinion or

attitude by students about Jigsaw.    Questionnaire is part of a study being

conducted by the center for the study of learning. One of the centers for the study

is to study and promote effective classroom process through an active association.

The steps of giving questioner are following:

     questioner is consisted 10 question

     aspect f questioner is according the student opinion when they are learning

     listening using jigsaw

     student fill the questioner according to their opinion

     teacher collect the questioner to get conclusion of student opinion about

     learning listening use jigsaw.

3.3.2 Acting

     Researcher in implementing the plan to do the action of researching,

researcher makes research description and prepares the work scenarios, such as:

    Students are grouped with members of the ± 4 people.

    Everyone in the team is given materials and different tasks

     Members of different teams with the same assignment to form new groups

    (expert groups)

     Give learners in these expert groups time to discuss.

     Bring the learners back into their jigsaw groups.

     Ask each learner to present her or his segment to the group

     Float from group to group, observing the process

     At the end of the session, give a quiz on the material

3.3.3 Observing

     Observing is perception activity to see how far effectively for action have

reached target. There are many steps in observation:

     To observe the activity situation in teaching learning process.

     To observe the active by students.

     To observe student ability in the Jigsaw group discussion.

     To conduct a final evaluation.

     To analyze the test result.

3.3.4 Reflecting

      Reflection is description of procedure analyzes to result of research and

reflection interconnected the process and affects in order to decide whether if

scheme successful or must be continued to next cycle. In this classroom action

research, it will be succeeds if:

     More than 70%, the students get mark higher or equal than 70.

     The result of observation, when learning process more than 75% the students

      gives good responses.

     The students listening ability are increasing..

     The students are actively involved to assess their peer’s work.

     The students enjoy giving positive response toward the implementation of


     The students are able to improve their listening and its development before

      it submitted to the teacher.

     The students understand that their membership in cooperative learning.

     The student’s help each other learn and encourage individual team member


     The attitude of students, they are interested to learning English.

3.4   Technique of Data Analyzes

      To know the effectiveness a method in teaching learning process, require to

data analyzes. At the Classroom action Research, to use qualitative description

analyzes, is a research method having the character of depicting fact and fact of

according to get data with a purpose to know the study result student also to know

the respond student to study activity and student activities of during study process

take place. This analysis is calculated to use the statistic modestly in the


1)   Test

     Test is given to the students to measure the student’s listening ability when

they learn English using jigsaw, by this test reseacher can know the effectiveness

of learning listening using jigsaw. Researcher can analize data by using the pattern

below :


     Detail of: P     :    percentage of testing result

                 ΣX :      student’s amounts who get mark higher or equal than


                 ΣN :      student’s amount.

     If          x    :    ≥ 75

2)   Observation

     List observation passed to by a teacher to observe the classroom action

research to know how his responses of student and student ability in listening

English. Then researcher analyzes the list observation. To measure the result of

observation, the researcher uses the pattern bellow:

                          P       x100%

     Detail of: P= student percentage

                 F= the number of student that choose each option

                 N= the number of all student

3)   Questioner

     With the aim acquiring additional data for the study, the questioners are

given to students. The question reconstructed around the implementation teaching

strategies using Jigsaw. It is given to students in order to get the information on

how far the teaching strategies used by the teacher give effects on the students in

the perspective.

     The questioner uses the close – ended form. And it is as a check list where

the respondents only choose the answers of the question.

     The data of questioner are as questioner list. It would be described in

sentences which is shown by graphic or chart. To analyze the questioner, it is

transformed into percentage by using the formula which used in this study is:

                           P       x100%

     Detail of: P = respondent percentage

                   F = the number o respondent that choose each option

                   N = the number o all the respondents

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