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GENDER EQUITY REPORT OUTLINE

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					                                                            Enhancing Gender Equity

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Enhancing Gender Equity Awareness and Skills in Preservice and Inservice
                   Technical Education Teachers


                               Rodney Stanley
                               Ronald Spangler

                          Morehead State University
                            Morehead, Kentucky


                 Kentucky Workforce Development Cabinet
                 Department for Technical Education Grant




                                   Abstract

  Enhancing gender equity involves activities that provide future and current
  teachers with the knowledge and skills to develop appropriate lessons and
  activities. These activities are designed to influence their students to be more
  successful in a nontraditional technical area or to consider a career in a non-
  traditional technical area. During this project, gender equity activities were
  developed, attitude surveys of in-service teachers toward gender in employment
  and educational situations were completed and enrollments by gender for
  technical programs was analyzed in comparison to employment numbers. The
  final report and activities was distributed on CD to Kentucky‘s 176 School
  Districts, 53 Area Technology Centers, 14 Community Colleges, 9 Technical
  Colleges, and 8 Universities receiving Perkins funding.
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                                        Introduction

Original Proposal

       This project was undertaken after acceptance of a proposal submitted to the

Cabinet for Workforce Development (see Appendix A). Changes to the project were

necessary after delays caused by the Institutional Review Board for the Protection of

Human Subjects (IRB) at Morehead State University (MoSU). The IRB at MoSU does

not recognize the exemptions set forth in Federal regulations covering research using

human subjects. As a result the researchers had to undergo an exhaustive process of

submittal, review, and re-submittal that resulted in final approval by the IRB in February,

2004. This left the researchers with fourteen weeks to complete a project that was

planned for a full year.

       After approval by the IRB, it was evident that many of the researchers‘ plans for

visiting schools would need to be modified or abandoned. The researchers also decided

to limit the collection of survey data to in-service teachers in secondary school programs.

These surveys were conducted through state meetings such as HOSA and VICA, as well

as a limited number of school visits. Conditions set forth by the IRB resulted in the

researchers abandoning the plans to administer the survey to pre-service teachers. The

researchers also decided, due to the compressed time frame, that post-secondary teachers

would not be surveyed at this time.

       The researchers were fortunate that the services of a few undergraduate and

graduate students were available to assist with the research project. These students

provided help in developing ideas for activities as well as collecting and scoring data.

These students are identified in the conclusion of this paper.
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Definitions and Descriptions

       For purposes of this research the following definitions were used:

       Non-Traditional, as related to employment or field of study - Any area where

there is 25% or less of one gender compared to the other gender.

       Gender Equity - The intentional establishment of policies and procedures to

ensure that there is no discrimination, bias, or harassment of students or employees based

on gender.

       SRES Instrument - ―Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale‖ available through Sigma

Assessment Systems, Inc (1993) is a survey instrument with scales to measures a

person‘s attitudes about gender in marital roles, parental roles, employment roles, social-

interpersonal-heterosexual roles and education roles. National norms have been

established for each of the instrument's scaled areas. For this study the researchers used

the employment and education scales.

       Subjects for Survey - The subjects used in the collection of data from the SRES

consisted of in-service male and female technical education teachers.

       Subjects for Activity Field-Testing – The majority of the subjects were in-service

teachers. In addition others subjects that were not directly involved in education

participated in field-testing of the activities. The majority of the reviewers were enrolled

in a graduate level course being taken under one of the researchers. As part of an on-line

class meeting, nineteen students reviewed the materials and conducted a discussion about

the value and appropriateness of the activities. The discussion consisted of 115

messages, many with multiple comments and suggestions. This discussion was under the

direction of the other researcher so that the students would not feel pressured to
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participate. This part of the class was voluntary and was not used as part of the grade

calculations. Additional teachers in area schools also reviewed the materials. Due to the

limited time frame not all of the activities were able to be field-tested.

                                         Procedures

Activity Development

       The activities were developed with the goal of providing teachers with materials

they could use in their classrooms to establish a gender-neutral environment, to attract

nontraditional students to their classes, and to retain these students through completion of

the program. Another focus was to develop activities for a professional development.

The activities consisted of materials developed by the researchers as well as the

identification of materials already available from published or Internet sources. When

Internet sources were utilized the activity consisted of a directed Internet search to locate

the items (see Appendix B).

Activity Field Testing

       The majority of the field test consisted of a review by nineteen students in a

graduate level course under the direction of one of the researchers. The students

provided anonymous critiques of the materials and provided ideas for additional

activities. This method of field-testing the activities was supplemented with feedback

from teachers at area technology centers through phone conversations and personal

interviews.

Survey Instrument Modification

       The SRES is made up of five scales covering attitudes about gender in marital

roles, parental roles, employment roles, social-interpersonal-heterosexual roles and
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education roles. For the purposes of this study the researchers elected to use only the

scales covering the employment roles and education roles (see Appendix C). This greatly

reduced the number of questions on the survey and emphasized the areas most closely

related to the purpose of this project. The questions were taken from Form B of the

SRES and were reproduced and printed by the researchers with permission from SRES.

The resulting survey consisted of 38 questions with each scale consisting of 19 questions.

The subjects were to identify their gender and then select an answer from five choices.

Strongly agree, agree, neutral or undecided, disagree, or strongly disagree. These choices

were scored on a scale of one to five with a higher score representing a greater degree of

agreement based on gender. The wording of the questions had an effect of whether a

score of five was related to the strongly agree answer or to the strongly disagree answer.

       A manual-scoring template was utilized and the surveys were hand scored to

establish points for each question. The total score for the scale was determined by

summing the point values for each question grouped by the scale addressed. These

values could then be compared to differences in scores for male and female subjects and

to scores obtained through previous administrations of the SRES Form B. The SRES

manual by Sigma Assessment Systems (King and King, 1993) included comparison data

that provided a means of relating scores from this study with scores obtained by previous

studies using the SRES.

Survey Administration

The modified survey used in this study was administered to subjects using three different

methods. One method was soliciting participants at two different statewide meetings.

The attendees of the meeting were asked if they would care to assist in a research study
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on gender equity. Those that agreed to participate were given a survey instrument and an

informed consent letter. After reading and signing the consent letter the subject was

instructed to read the instructions for the survey and complete the instrument. The

instruments and consent letters were collected by the researcher and kept in separate

locations so the name on the consent letter could not be identified with a survey

instrument. This method was used at the state HOSA and VICA meetings.

       Another group of subjects were solicited at a two-day meeting of the New

Teacher Institute. At this meeting the participants of the meeting were asked if they

would be willing to participate in the research and the individuals that agreed to

participate were provided the materials as at the state meetings. The survey instruments

and the consent forms were collected and separated in the same manner as before.

       The last method used for the collection of survey data was through visits to

individual schools. During these visits the principal was first asked for permission to ask

for volunteers to participate. After approval by the principal the researcher made

individual contact with the teachers in their classrooms and if they agreed to participate a

survey and consent form was given to the subject. The researcher came back later and

collected the survey instruments and the consent forms. As with previous collections the

survey instrument and the consent forms were separated and stored so that the name on

the consent form could not be associated with a survey instrument.

Kentucky Enrollment Data

       Another aspect of the research involved an analysis of enrollment by gender in the

technology programs under the Department for Technical Education (see Appendix D).

This data was analyzed to determine the level of gender equity among programs in
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operation during the 2002-2003 school year. Another analysis using this data involved a

comparison of 2003 employment data for non-traditional areas to the enrollment numbers

for potential feeder programs. This analysis was conducted to determine if current

enrollment numbers could potentially increase the number of non-traditional gender

workers available for these jobs. At the time of completion of this study only data on

employment for females in non-traditional employment could be located. Although

employment data for areas where males represent 25% or less of the workforce can be

developed, no specific listing of male non-traditional employment was located. During

the data collection for this study, enrollment numbers were obtained for programs

operated by the Kentucky Department of Education, Kentucky Community and Technical

College System, and Kentucky's Public Universities. Enrollment data for these

institutions were not analyzed as a part of this report, but, will be analyzed in future

reports and publications by the researchers.

                                          Analysis

Survey Data

       Data collected from the modified SRES instrument indicated that both male and

female subjects held similar views on the employment and education questions asked (see

Appendix E). Figure 1 illustrates the comparison between male and female averages on

the responses for each question. As can be seen from the graph the female subjects would

be considered slightly more egalitarian than the males, however, the overall comparison

was very similar. The sixteen subjects that did not identify gender were not documented

in this comparison. However, the graph presented in Figure 1 does indicate an overall

consistency among male and female averages.
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                    Comparison of Female and Male
                             Responses

                6
     Averages

                                                                      Male
                4                                                     Responses
                2                                                     Female
                                                                      Responses
                0
                    1   6   11 16 21 26 31 36
                             Statements


                                            Figure 1

Comparison Between Genders for Selected Statements

The following graphs illustrate the differences in responses to thirteen of the thirty-eight

statements from the survey. Each set of graphs provides a comparison between the male

and female response to the questions. Questions 2,9,10,24,28,32, and 38 are from the

education scale. Questions 4,6,19,27,29, and 34 are from the employment scale.

The following graphs were generated from the following statements:

           2. Home economics courses should be as acceptable for male students as for
                    female students.
           4. Males and females are equally suited for business careers.
           6. Women have as much ability as men to make major business decisions.
           9. Secretary training is more fitting for women than for men.
           10. High school counselors should encourage qualified women to enter technical
                    fields like engineering.
           19. Women make better receptionists than men do.
           24. Men and women should be given an equal chance for professional training.
           27. The entry of women into traditionally male jobs should be discouraged.
           28. Expensive job training should be given mostly to men.
           29. It is wrong for a man to enter a traditional female career.
           32. More men ought to major in elementary education.
           34. Women are just as capable as men to run a business.
           38. A major in the fine arts, such as drama and dance, can be as rewarding for a
                    man as it is for a woman.
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                           Male Responses for Selected Statements

              90
              80
              70
              60                                                        SA
Percentages




                                                                        Agree
              50
                                                                        Neutral
              40
                                                                        Disagree
              30
                                                                        SD
              20
              10
               0
                       2         4      6        9     10   19
                                       Statements

                                            Figure 2



                       Female Responses for Selected Statements

              120

              100

               80                                                       SA
Percentages




                                                                        Agree
               60                                                       Neutral
                                                                        Disagree
               40                                                       SD

               20

                   0
                           2     4      6        9     10   19
                                       Statements

                                            Figure 3
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                        Male Responses for Selected Statements

                 90
                 80
                 70
                                                                     SA
                 60
   Percentages




                                                                     Agree
                 50
                                                                     Neutral
                 40
                                                                     Disagree
                 30
                                                                     SD
                 20
                 10
                  0
                        24         27          28       29
                                    Statements

                                        Figure 4



                       Female Responses for Selected Statements

                 120

                 100

                  80                                                 SA
Percentages




                                                                     Agree
                  60                                                 Neutral
                                                                     Disagree
                  40                                                 SD

                  20

                   0
                        24         27          28       29
                                    Statements

                                        Figure 5
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                          Male Responses for Selected Statements

                 70
                 60
                 50                                                   SA
Percentages




                                                                      Agree
                 40
                                                                      Neutral
                 30
                                                                      Disagree
                 20                                                   SD
                 10
                  0
                            32             34            38
                                       Statements

                                           Figure 6




                          Female Responses for Selected Statements

                 100
                  90
                  80
                  70                                                  SA
   Percentages




                  60                                                  Agree
                  50                                                  Neutral
                  40                                                  Disagree
                  30                                                  SD
                  20
                  10
                      0
                             32            34            38
                                       Statements

                                           Figure 7
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Enrollment Data Vs. Employment Data

       One of the areas where student help was utilized was in collecting data on current

employment numbers by gender. Data for female non-traditional occupations was found

through the Department of Labor Women‘s Bureau, Current Federal Data On Non-

Traditional Employment (see Appendix F). The researchers analyzed the data in relation

to the enrolment numbers in Kentucky technical programs. Three programs considered

non-traditional for females exceeded the 25% threshold. These were:

1. CULINARY ARTS [20.0401] 88.89%
2. COMPUTER AIDED DRAFT [48.0101] 27.95%
3. PRINTING TECHNOLOGY [48.0201] 25.58%

Another nine programs had enrollment numbers where the percentage of females enrolled

exceeded the percentage of females employed in the workforce. These programs were:

4. MASONRY [46.0101] 2.56%
5. METAL FABRICATION [48.0506] 6.25%
6. WELDING [48.0508] 10.24%
7. ELECTRICITY [46.0302] 10.86%
8. MACHINE TOOL TECH [48.0503] 12.18%
9. AUTO TECH [42.0604] 12.33%
10. CARPENTRY [46.0201] 14.02%
11. BUILD/CONST MAINT [46.0401] 16.44%
12. INDUSTRIAL MAINT TECH [47.0303] 19.28%

Figure 8 illustrates the difference between the percentages of females enrolled in these

non-traditional programs compared to the percentage of females employed. The

researchers could not find comparable data for non-traditional male occupations.

However, analysis of general data from the Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor

Statistics, indicated that healthcare practitioner and technical occupations employ 26.3%

males. And, personal care and service occupations employ 20.9% males. Whereas, DTE
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enrollment data for areas such as health science and cosmetology programs indicate

males enrolled at rates of 12.65% and 0% respectively.



             Comparison of DOL Employment to
                     DTE Enrollment

   100.00%

    80.00%

    60.00%                                                                        DOL
    40.00%                                                                        DTE

    20.00%

      0.00%
                    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

                                              Figure 8

                                      CONCLUSION

Summary of Project

       Although the reduced amount of time the researchers had available for the project

resulted in changes from the original proposal, the researchers were able to identify some

useful information. The researchers were able to collect data using the SRES to establish

a baseline for Kentucky technology teacher attitudes about gender. The researchers were

able to analyze the differences between program enrollments and national employment of

females in non-traditional occupations. And, the researchers were able to produce and

field test the activities that were a major component of the original proposal.
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       One of the most interesting results of the study was the identification of

enrollment in non-traditional areas that exceeded the employment percentages at the

national level. This could be seen as positive evidence that even though there is a long

way to go to reach the 25% threshold, that Kentucky schools are a step ahead of the

employers when it comes to non-traditional occupations. One observation made by the

researchers was that there were even more programs that were above the employment

percentages if data for previous years was included. But many of these programs had

been discontinued as evidenced of a lack of enrollment numbers for either male or female

students. It was also noticed that there were programs that in previous years would have

exceeded the employment percentages but had dropped enrollment. When comparing

2002-2003 school year data to 2003 employment data the program fell below the national

employment percentages.

       Sex-role stereotype obstacles are still evident in our society and are a subject of

discussion in career choice theories. Gottfredson indicates that ―…public presentations

of masculinity-femininity will be most carefully guarded when making career decisions

based on conflicts dealing with self-concepts‖ (p. 91, Brown, 2002). It is the researchers

opinion that this factor will not be mitigated until employment in non-traditional areas

reaches a point where the non-traditional gender is accepted and gender is no longer

associated with an occupation. It appears to the researchers that Kentucky schools are

making progress in providing the non-traditional student access to these areas but that it

is up to employers to hire the non-traditional gender student.

       The surveys conducted using the modified SRES provided preliminary indication

that in Kentucky female teachers are more egalitarian than male teachers. However, it
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must be noted that this survey data at best can help establish a base line to judge future

efforts in gender related professional development for the teachers. A relatively small

sample population was used in this study. The sample was also somewhat influenced by

school visits to the eastern half of the state. The researchers were fortunate to be able to

collect statewide data by administering the surveys at the VICA and HOSA conferences

and at the NTI meeting.

       In field-testing the activities, the reviewers accepted the context and premise for

what was suggested. The activities developed provide a wide range of classroom and

professional development possibilities. As the activities are distributed and utilized by

administrations and teachers, it will be interesting to note any changes in enrollment

numbers in the non-traditional programs.

       The researchers are grateful to the students who provided help for this study. The

students provided the researchers with ideas for activities, assisted in data collection,

helped in scoring the surveys and many additional tasks that allowed the researchers to

complete much more of the project than would have been possible within the given time

frame. The students that assisted in this project were:

       Michelle Legge
       Linda Thompson
       Felicia Ferrell
       Jason Fights
       Students in CTE 650 Organization and Administration of Career and Technical
               Education.
       In addition the researchers would like to thank all of the teachers that agreed to
               participate in the SRES survey.
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Suggestions for Future Study

         o Completion of additional attitude surveys after teachers have viewed the

             activities.

         o Compare enrollment data for KDE programs and post-secondary

             programs. The researchers have in hand the reported enrollment data for

             these groups and have discussed plans to analyze the data in a similar

             manner as was done with the DTE enrollment data for this study. This

             analysis was not done for this study due to the reduced time frame the

             researchers were under.

         o The collection and analysis of enrollment data from other states would

             allow for comparisons and the identification of trends in enrollment and

             employment.
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                                    Bibliography

       Brown, Duane, & Associates (2002) Career Choice and Development (4th ed.).
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

       King, Lynda A., & King, Daniel W. (1993) SRES Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale

      U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Unpublished data, Annual
Averages 2003, Current Population Survey
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                                        APPENDIX A


                         CONTRACT SUMMARY

     Gender Equity Materials for Technical Education Areas

                                      Project Title

Project Name                       Enhancing Gender Equity Awareness and Skills in
                                   Preservice and Inservice Technical Education Teachers

Eligible Recipient                 Morehead State University

Address                            Department of Industrial Education and Technology

City, ST Zip Code                  Morehead, Kentucky 40351

Phone                              606-783-2418

Fax Number                         606-783-5030

e-mail Address                     r.spangl@moreheadstate.edu;
                                   r.stanley@moreheadstate.edu

Briefly Describe the Project (Limit description to this page):

Enhancing gender equity at the university level concerning technical education will
involve activities that provide future and current teachers with the knowledge and skills
to develop appropriate lessons and activities that might influence their students to be
more successful in a nontraditional technical area or to consider a career in a technical
area. In doing so, the developers of this proposal plan a multifaceted approach.
Each facet of this plan is summarized below.
        1) Preservice and inservice teacher awareness and skills.
               A. Surveys will be administered to determine technical education teachers’
                  attitudes toward gender equity in their area and school structure;
               B. Surveys will be administered to determine to what degree gender equity
                  issues and career opportunities are included in daily lessons and activities;
               C. Materials for lessons and activities will be developed for teacher educators to
                  use;
               D. Workshops will be held at convenient locations for teachers in particularly
                  problematic career areas.
        2) Local community awareness of gender in-equity.
              A. Seminars will be conducted for schools, government, and industry to
                  discuss gender equity issues and opportunities.
        3) Success of overall program.
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               A. Rubrics and other evaluation tools will be developed for use by all
                  levels—KCTCS, local school districts, area technology centers, and
                  universities;
               B. Assistance will be provided through collaboration with all agencies
                  receiving funding.


A.      Introduction. Identifies the agency requesting the funds and its credibility.
Summarize outcomes of project in past if continued funding is requested. This section is
limited to 1/2 page.
         Morehead State University (MoSU) has led the state in intergrating technology
into its technical education courses. Since the year 2000 more than 600 teacher education
students have recieved instruction in the use of computers in the classroom. MoSU has a
strong commitment to diversity and has instituted a Women‘s Study Minor and is the
leading institution for training technical educators in Eastern Kentucky. MoSU has also
been actively involved in work with PT3 grants and the P-16 council
B.     Problem/Need. Identifies the problem to be solved or the results of a needs
assessment. This section is limited to one-half page.

Talent is a precious thing to waste. This fact along with the needs of a technologically
based work force that needs well trained individuals makes it imperative that we as
educators do all we can do to help insure that all students have an unbiased opportunity to
enter the career of their choice. One only needs to look in their own communities to learn
that special training facilities have been established to train workers from
telecommunications to truck drivers. Kentucky‘s Accountability Testing System,
showing school report cards, reflects that students at all levels remain at single digit
percentages in proficiency in science related classes. Further research shows a large
discrepancy in the enrollment of male and female students in many of these science
related classes, especially technology. This problem is even more exacerbated by
nontraditional gender roles. Because research has shown that both female and male
students can perform in these areas, it is critical that preservice and inservice teachers
implement classes that encourage all students to consider fields that they might not
consider otherwise. It is also important to encourge schools to make available technical
programs that provide equal opportunities based on gender.


C.      Program Objectives. Measurable outcomes (rates of increases or decreases in
certain performances or behaviors within specific time periods) of program. Program
objectives are limited to no more than 4 and to a total of one-half page.
        1) Document level of awareness and attitudes concerning gender equity issues
           for both pre-service and in-service technical education teachers. Surveys will
           be administered to a random sample of teachers in all 21 counties of
           Morehead State University's (MoSU) service region. An additional sample of
           teachers statewide will be surveyed. The survey will be repeated at the end of
           the grant cycle and once per year there after for a total of five years data.
           Preservice teachers in MoSU's technology teacher education program would
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          be surveyed upon consent of the student and the course instructor. Pending
          cooperation of students and instructors, pre-service teachers at other regional
          Universities with technology teacher education programs will be included in
          the survey.
       2) Assist both pre-service and in-service technical education teachers to
          incorporate gender equity into their schools and curriculum. Professional
          development workshops will be conducted to field test in materials during the
          year for secondary and postsecondary programs. These field-testing
          workshops will be made available to all schools in MoSU's service region
          with a goal of providing the materials to a minimum of 1/3rd of the
          technology programs. This would result in a minimum of seven to ten, county
          secondary programs at area technology centers; seven to ten, technology
          education programs in local school districts and at least two KCTCS colleges
          being provided the workshop. Preservice teachers in MoSU's technology
          teacher education program would be provided workshop instruction upon
          consent of the course instructor.;
       3) Track and analyze enrollment data for gender equity in [100% of secondary
          and postsecondary] technical programs for a total of five years using
          enrollment data as reported by the school systems to State agencies where
          available. It is the expectation of the researchers that this enrollment data
          would be made available through State agencies for the research purposes
          outlined in this proposal. ;
       4) Assist pre-service and in-service teachers to identify and address gender
          equity issues in their community and program areas concerning
          nontraditional careers for both male and female students. This objective will
          be included through the above mentions field-testing workshops as well as
          additional consulting available through professional development activities if
          requested.

D.       Methods. Describe the processes, activities, services, and products that will be
completed within a certain time schedule in order to meet the objectives. The time
schedule for initiating and completing the processes, activities, services, and products are
a part of this section. Criteria to be used in the formative evaluation of the processes,
activities, services and products are also included in this section. This narrative is limited
to two pages.

In being consistent with the traditional teacher education role of universities this proposal
and the resulting activities will be developed to assist the classroom teacher through in-
service training workshops and pre-service teachers through university class activities in
the need for gender equity awareness and techniques for ensuring gender equity is
incorporated into the daily classroom. These materials and activities should assist the
teacher in incorporating the specific classroom activities developed by the other
recipients of the grants and provide ideas for developing additional materials for their
individual classroom.
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The process for completing this project includes the development of ―teacher education‖
materials on the gender equity issue and the importance of addressing gender equity for
recruitment and retention purposes. An activity ―blueprint‖ will be constructed to
provide guidance in the development of the specific activities. By using a consistent
format, schools will be able to use the format as a model for developing additional in-
service activities and lesson plans that take gender equity into consideration. A selection
of individual activities will be developed for the purpose of field-testing the ‗blueprint‖
and the effectiveness of the sample materials. After the data from the initial field-testing
is analyzed the initial activities will be adjusted and the remaining activities will be
developed. At this time another evaluation meeting will be conducted to provide
feedback on the complete activity package. The data developed through the final
evaluation meeting will be utilized for a final round of revisions and for inclusion in the
final report. Materials to be developed would include activities as shown on the list of
activities at the end of this document. The list is a result of preliminary discussion among
the researchers. These are subject to change upon input from teachers throughout the
state and results of field tests. These activities would assist the teacher in developing
additional materials. The activities would include a basic format for identifying
appropriate Internet sites, reference materials, and useful publications. An example
would be for the activities such as "Role Models" or "A Historical Perspective." An
example of an activity would be provided with information about an appropriate role
model or historical event. Guidelines on developing other teacher made activities will be
illustrated. Activities would range in scope from creating information sheets/posters to
multi-step activities with implementation guidelines for creating a more gender friendly
classroom.
These activities will be presented through workshops, conference presentations, and will
be available on-line through a Web site provided by the researchers. Participating
teachers will be asked to complete a survey, develop classroom products as per activity
directions, and provide feedback on the activities usefulness to their teaching situation.

As previously stated, the specific activities developed will result in products designed for
use as in-service training for teachers and as classroom activities for pre-service teacher
education students. The process required for completing project objectives will include,
in addition to the development of the ―activities,‖ using the activities in teacher education
courses at the university and the development and presentation of workshops for schools
on the use and development of other classroom activities. It is during this time that the
field-testing of the specific activities will be conducted. Sites for the field-testing will be
selected to include at least one local school district, one area technology center, one
technical or community college, and at least one teacher education course at the
university.

Services that will be provided include but are not limited to the presentation of in-service
workshops, critique and review of teacher-developed materials, and assistance in
identifying areas where gender equity is an issue.

The evaluation of the materials will consist of an evaluation rubric as well as survey
instruments collected from the participating teachers. The survey instruments will be
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used to measure the teacher‘s attitudes on gender equity issues before and after
completing the field-tested activities and the degree gender equity issues are addressed
and applied in the preparation of teacher-developed materials for the classroom. The
evaluation will be further discussed in the next section of this document.

A pre-test/post-test procedure will be used to track awareness and attitude changes. The
planned surveys, indicated in the expanded objectives section in these pages, will be
analyzed to document changes. The survey will be conducted using electronic means as
well as hardcopy surveys conducted during field-testing workshops and conferences. In
addition the information collected from enrollment data will indicate the overall effect of
the gender equity efforts across the state.

The researchers are investigating the use of all or portions of the ―Sex-Role
Egalitarianism Scale‖ available through Sigma Assessment Systems, Inc. At this time it
appears that the researchers will be able to survey a minimum of 200 to 300 teachers
using this instrument. The exact number will be influenced by reproduction requirements
imposed by Sigma Assessment Systems, Inc. It is a possibility that the researchers will
be able to survey a larger number of teachers than indicated. More than one version of
the survey instrument may be developed depending on limitations imposed by the use of
copyrighted materials.

Data on the individual activities will depend on the number of field-testing workshops
conducted and the number of individual teachers reviewing the materials. As activities
are developed they will be made available for statewide access through the Web site.

The researchers feel that it will be necessary to continue tracking data as indicated after
the first year efforts. Although in is possible that awareness and attitudes can be
influenced through the workshops and materials distribution within the first year, it is
unlikely that noticeable changes in career choice, as indicated by enrollment data, will be
evident until after the teachers and programs have implemented the materials.
Career ―sextyping‖ and self-concept are a major influence in career choice and are the
root causes that have led to the under representation by gender in the technical areas. It
will most likely require a sustained effort over a period of years to see significant change.

Additional data on the school environment will be collected through antidotal
information provided by participating teachers and through changes observed by the
researchers during school visits. Most of this data will come from MoSU‘s service
region as the researchers have more contact in this area than in other areas of the state.

E.     Evaluation.

The evaluation of the objectives will be based on:
•     To what degree teacher‘s (in-service and pre-service) attitudes on gender equity
      are affected by the activities presented.
•     To what degree gender equity issues are incorporated into the school structure.
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•     To what degree gender equity issues are incorporated into daily lessons and
      classroom activities.
•     To what degree gender equity issues in the local community are identified and
      addressed.
•     To what degree gender equity activities assist in the recruitment and retention of
      students in individual programs or schools.

Methods used in the evaluation will consist of:
•    Before and after survey instruments conducted during classroom or workshop
     activities. These surveys will measure the attitudes of the individuals participating
     and will focus on the awareness and concern for the gender equity issue.
•    The application and critique of a ―gender equity rubric‖ to assist in the
     development of materials for the classroom and the effectiveness of such materials.
•    Observations of changes in the school environment that indicate an awareness of
     the gender equity issue and the issue are being addressed.
•    Documentation of enrollments indicating that gender equity activities are having
     an effect on underrepresented genders.
•    Documentation of efforts to include the community in addressing gender equity
     needs.

Survey instruments used to measure the attitudes will consist of existing instruments used
for measuring psychological traits or will be developed by the researchers. These
instruments will be used to provide quantitative data on the effect the activities have on
teacher attitudes about gender equity and the teacher‘s general knowledge about the
gender equity issue.

The gender equity rubric will provide quantitative and qualitative data on the use,
application, and effect of gender equity materials. It will be designed based on rubrics
used to evaluate multi-media materials, lesson plans, etc.

Changes in the school environment will be conducted through observations and will be
based on objective and subjective data collected during visits by the researchers to the
sites used for the field-studies.
Documentation on enrollments will be based on school records.

Documentation of addressing of the needs of the community will be done through
compilation of examples identified during the evaluation meetings conducted at the test
sites.

Quantitative data will be analyzed using statistical analysis techniques to determine if
activities have had a significant effect on the gender equity issues addressed through the
activities presented.

Qualitative data will be compiled and reported through the final report in a section on
researcher‘s observations and case study examples of outcomes.
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F.      Future Funding. Describes a plan for continuing the project or program beyond
the grant and the availability of other resources necessary to implement the grant. This
section is limited to 1/2 page.

The continuation of this project can be easily accomplished through the role of Morehead
State University as a teacher education institution. Continued development and testing of
materials can be accomplished during teacher education courses at the university.
Additional in-service workshops can also be provided for school systems within the
service region and the state. In many cases the travel expense incurred can be absorbed
by combining with travel for recruitment, KTIP observations, student teacher
observations, and on-site advising trips that are a part of the normal travel for university
personnel. Materials can be distributed through individual and departmental WEB pages
and other electronic media at a relatively low cost.

Another source of continued funding is to incorporate gender equity materials into
activities of future grants. MoSU personnel are currently preparing an application for a
grant to improve pre-service teachers ability to use instructional technology. Activities
addressing the gender equity issue could easily be incorporated into the proposal.
Additional support is possible through MoSU industrial contacts and resources from
industries seeking to address the gender equity problem.
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                                   APPENDIX B

ACTIVITY 1: Gender Inequity

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:         1 Class period

DERSCRIPTION:

The intent of this activity is to help make participants aware of gender equity
opportunities for students in technology. Participants will define gender equity
and discuss how students perceive gender issues in technical areas.

OBJECTIVES:

       To define gender equity;
       To find instances of gender inequity;
       To discuss influences that visuals have on creating stereotypes in society.

MATERIALS:

Access to the Internet

Out of class—access to the Internet, magazines, TV

PROCEDURE:

   1.      Define gender, equity, and inequity as a group or in small groups.
           Come to consensus and display suggested definitions on large screen
           or chalkboard.
   2.      Discuss examples of gender inequity in society, in work, and in school.
   3.      Discuss how examples could be used to reverse these inequities.
   4.      Discuss why these issues exist.
   5.      Role-play by taking opposite viewpoints as a group to generate several
           viewpoints on gender issues.

EVALUATION:

How many instances did the class find?
How open was the discussion?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Find examples on TV, at work, in school, etc. where gender inequity could have
been turned more positively to reflect a more equitable scenario.
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ACTIVITY 2: Design a Poster

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:         2-3 Class periods

DERSCRIPTION:

The intent of this activity is to help make participants aware of gender equity
opportunities for students in technology. Participants will define gender equity
and discuss how students might be influenced by visual displays in their schools.
The participants will create posters for display in their schools or class that might
attract students to a particular technology. The poster’s visuals should attract
students who would not normally be inclined to take a particular class. The
posters will be displayed and discussed in class.

OBJECTIVES:

       To define gender equity;
       To find or create visuals that attract opposite genders to a class;
       To discuss influences that visuals have on creating stereotypes in society;
       To create a poster for display in a school that might attract the opposite
        sex to a particular class.

MATERIALS:

For in-class work—markers, large paper, scissors, glue, computers, color printer,
projector, overhead projector, magazines, newspapers, etc.

Out of class—access to the Internet, magazines, TV

PROCEDURE:

        1. Define gender, equity, and inequity as a group or in small groups.
           Come to consensus and display suggested definitions on large screen
           or chalkboard.
        2. Discuss examples of gender inequity in society, in work, and in school.
        3. Discuss how examples could be used to reverse these inequities.
        4. Discuss why these issues exist.
        5. Role-play by taking opposite viewpoints as a group to generate several
           viewpoints on gender issues.
        6. Break into small groups and go through magazines, search the
           Internet, and work on mock-up of a poster so that all participants get
           the idea.
        7. Assign out of class to view TV ads, commercials, shows, etc and bring
           back to class in written and picture formats.
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       8. For the next class, have participants complete the poster. Work in
          groups as desired. Display the posters and have groups explain
          choices.
       9. Select the best poster(s) for display in a particular area of the
          participants’ school.

EVALUATION:

Use rubric to help with finalizing evaluation.
Have participants help score the posters.

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Design a poster for a community event for recruiting nontraditional students into
a particular program.
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ACTIVITY 3: What Would You Do?

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:          1 Class period

DERSCRIPTION:

Watching someone else do something often gives the viewer a different
perception of their activities. In this lesson you will locate several videos, watch
the videos, and reflect upon things that were or were not done—both
appropriately and inappropriately.

OBJECTIVES:

       List the major events you witnessed in this video;
       State the advantages and disadvantages of the approaches you observed;
       Make suggestions for improving the activities, the ambience, the
        motivational factors, etc.

MATERIALS:

TV and VCR or computer and projector

PROCEDURE:

        1. Use the library or internet to locate videos that deal with gender equity
           in classrooms, especially in technology related subject matter.
        2. View the videos as a class.
        3. List the major events that take place in the video.
        4. State the advantages in each scenario.
        5. State the disadvantages in each scenario.
        6. Make suggestions for improvement.

EVALUATION:

How many different observations were listed?
What was the maximum number of advantages listed?
What were the maximum number of disadvantages listed?
Which group made the most suggestions?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Hold an activity based event for a group of students who would not normally take
a particular class.
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ACTIVITY 4: Make a Movie

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:           “Semester” project

DERSCRIPTION:

One of the best methods for effective learning to occur is to have students
involved in activities. By having those activities embody several disciplines,
students not only learn valuable content, but gain many intrinsic values from the
class. One of the most popular of these trends is to have students create a
video. In this lesson, students will work in groups where partners must be of the
opposite gender. The group will develop a video that will represent best
practices in typically nontraditional gender under-represented classes. The
purpose of the video is to act as a model that all technology teachers could follow
in any class that might cause a female or male student to take a class they might
not otherwise consider taking.

OBJECTIVES:

       Develop a minimum of three different lessons for a particular activity;
       Develop a storyboard for the video;
       Capture film from a video of the activity;
       Narrate over the activity in a way that will motivate students and increase
        learning;
       Develop a video for a nontraditional class (sewing for all, welding for all,
        etc.).

MATERIALS:

Poster paper; video camera; microphone; method to mix or capture the video,
narration, text, etc.

PROCEDURE:

        1.   Develop lessons
        2.   Write and display a storyboard
        3.   Video examples
        4.   Capture video to include in lessons
        5.   Practice narration
        6.   Find someone to do the narration
        7.   Narrate over the activity
        8.   Find pictures
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      9. Capture pictures
      10. Develop presentation
      11. Burn CD of lesson(s)

EVALUATION:

At the end of the week, did the teacher make adjustments to accommodate all
students?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Create a lesson plan that addresses inappropriate teacher behaviors.
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ACTIVITY 5: Be a Nontraditional Student

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:          1 Class period

DERSCRIPTION:

Role playing is a good method to get students to think alternative thoughts. In
this lesson, students will assume the opposite of their gender. They will attend a
nontraditional class in technology assuming this posture. After the class,
students will critique the entire day.

OBJECTIVES:

       List all activities for one day;
       In the assumed role, list the activities that made the student feel uneasy;
       In the assumed role, list the activities that made the student feel at easy;
       List suggestions that would make the student feel comfortable in either
        scenario.

MATERIALS:

Note paper and pencil

PROCEDURE:

        1. The instructor should assign each person the gender opposite their
           own.
        2. The student should choose a class that is predominately attended by
           the opposite gender.
        3. The student will attend the class for a minimum of one activity-based
           day.
        4. At the end of the day, the student will list all the situations that made
           them feel uncomfortable, inadequate, and so forth.
        5. Lastly, students will make suggestions to correct those situations that
           made them feel less wanted or able to be successful in the class.

EVALUATION:

At the end of the week, did the teacher make adjustments to accommodate all
students?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Create a lesson plan that addresses inappropriate teacher behaviors.
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ACTIVITY 6: A Personal Invitation

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:           1 Class period

DESCRIPTION:

One of the best methods to attract students to a class is to invite them
personally. This activity will require you to develop a couple of approaches for
students who would not normally take your class. You will write a script to
accompany one of the approaches whether it is for a one-on-one encounter or for
a group.


OBJECTIVES:

       To develop an approach for a single student;
       To develop an approach for a group of students.

MATERIALS:

For in-class work—word processor, printer, projector, overhead projector.

PROCEDURE:

        1.   Jot down people that you will contact.
        2.   Jot down groups that you will contact.
        3.   Develop a survey to determine possible interest in a class.
        4.   Develop a plan for contacting these students.
        5.   Develop a script to use in the approach to an individual.
        6.   Develop a scenario to use for an assembly of students.

EVALUATION:

Follow-up on the number of students who take a class.
Follow-up on the number of students who are retained in the class.

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Hold an activity based event for a group of students who would not normally take
a particular class.
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ACTIVITY 7: “Maze Production”

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:         1 Class period

DESCRIPTION:

This activity should be presented early in a class. The idea is to do something
interesting and attractive for ALL students. The context could be centered
around building a picture frame, doll house, set of horses, welded structure,
welded art form, putting in a door, wiring a lamp, and so forth. Students would
start at a beginning point where they would perform some function. They would
then move to the next station or step and so forth until the activity was finished.
Another student of course would then be at station one and three. Students
would move through the “maze” to the finish where they would receive a finished
product or reward.

OBJECTIVES:

       Describe mass production;
       Describe a logical process;
       Identify certain tools components, or equipment.

MATERIALS:

Shop setting; tools or equipment; cleaning materials or equipment; sandpaper;
glue; clamps; finish material; etc.

PROCEDURE:
    1. Set up the stations you need.
    2. Place tools or equipment at each station.
    3. Place needed components at each station.
    4. Have students take turns at each station performing the task for that
       station.
    5. At the end of the “maze” each student is rewarded.

EVALUATION:

Short quiz.
Interest survey
Participation

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Research building a small shed
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ACTIVITY 8: Trouble-Shooting

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:         1 Class period

DESCRIPTION:

You have undoubtedly performed service on an automobile or some trouble-
shooting problem in one of your classes. The idea for this activity is a spin-off of
the “Maze Production” activity. Because, to a large extent, these activities are to
help recruit and retain nontraditional students in class, it might be beneficial to
perform this activity as a group. The group activity might take pressure off of
students who might be interested in taking a class but not certain whether to try.
By performing this activity as part of an open house activity, more students might
end up taking the class. The idea is to set up several stations where students
would progress through several activities. If it is checking out an automobile,
they could perform one task or two on one vehicle then move to the next station
or another vehicle to perform another task. At the end they would get to start a
Corvette or take a spin with the teacher.

OBJECTIVES:
   State the steps in trouble shooting a problem a simple problem;
   Perform basic service checks on an automobile;
   Help recruit your friends to take a class.

MATERIALS:

Auto mechanic classroom, two or three vehicles; “reward” vehicle.

PROCEDURE:
    1. Set up the stations you need.
    2. Place tools or equipment at each station.
    3. Place needed components at each station.
    4. Have students take turns at each station performing the task for that
       station.
    5. At the end of the activity, the student is rewarded.

EVALUATION:
Was interest generated in taking the class?
Did the students actively participate?


ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:
Set up a trouble-shooting problem for the students to solve.
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ACTIVITY9: Panel Discussion

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:          1 Class period

DERSCRIPTION:

This activity will provide students of both genders with real life opportunities for
all students in areas typically considered to be male or female dominated. The
instructor should invite speakers from real work environments who are
considered to be successful in an area typically reserved for the opposite sex.
The panel should represent a balance between men and women in
“nontraditional roles”. An ideal panel would consist of two workers of each
gender from two or three different trades—welding, carpentry, and automotive for
instance.

OBJECTIVES:

       State three benefits of working in nontraditional trades;
       State three downsides to work in nontraditional trades;
       State entry obstacles for nontraditional workers;
       State the requirements for success in at least one nontraditional setting.

MATERIALS:

6 chairs sitting on a raised platform
Flip chart to record major points or to write questions from audience
Internet Connection
Video Camera

PROCEDURE:

        1. Have two guests from each trade, one male and one female minimum,
           sit on the panel.
        2. Have each panel member give a brief introduction of who they are and
           what they do.
        3. Have each member give a brief overview of how they got into their
           trade and obstacles to their success.
        4. Allow the audience to ask questions—they could write the question on
           paper and have the moderator combine similar questions then give to
           the appropriate speaker.
        5. Have the panel members summarize anything not covered to this
           point, ending with the pros and cons if not already addressed.
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EVALUATION:

Did students seem interested in the discussions?
Was there adequate interaction between the panelists?
Was there adequate interaction between the audience and the panelists?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Have students form a follow up panel made up of classmates from their own or
other classes.
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                                                                                  37

ACTIVITY 10: Guest Speaker

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:         1 Class period

DESCRIPTION:

In this activity, students will be expected to invite a guest speaker who is a
nontraditional worker, business person, etc. in a nontypical work setting. The
person should be as well known and successful as possible in the community or
the speaker could be a nationally recognized individual from a particular field—a
female astronaut or male chef for example.

OBJECTIVES:

       Elaborate upon being a nontypical gender in a certain field;
       Discuss pros and cons;
       Describe requirements to enter the field.

MATERIALS:

Non classroom setting.

PROCEDURE:

        1. Have students assemble in a special place.
        2. Introduce the speaker.
        3. Have speaker make the presentation following suggested outline (they
           should have this well in advance).
        4. Allow for questions from audience.

EVALUATION:

Participation
Interest survey
Short questionnaire

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Find videos or research successful individuals in nontypical settings
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ACTIVITY 11: All Female Shed

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:         Semester project

DESCRIPTION:

This activity is analogous to the all female habitat house, but on a scale that can
be completed in a time frame conducive to teaching concepts while dong
something novel to catch students’ attention throughout the school and
community.

OBJECTIVES:

       Complete a small shed;
       Identify tools and equipment;
       Describe processes in building;
       Demonstrate can do attitude.

MATERIALS:

        Building materials
        Tools and Equipment

PROCEDURE:

        1.  Determine whether the shed is to be permanent or transportable.
        2.  Have the supervisor (female builder) on site as coordinator.
        3.  Have all female students assemble in a special place.
        4.  Assign a leader for each group.
        5.  The foundation should already be in place, especially if concrete or
            block.
        6. Layout and build walls on platform as in house construction.
        7. Erect and brace walls.
        8. Continue and complete all walls.
        9. Build trusses for roof or erect ridge board and rafters.
        10. Complete roof with strips for metal or standard sheathing for shingles,
            etc.
        11. Cut out and install at least one window.
        12. Build and hang door.
        13. Stain or paint to suit.
        14. Build work bench and at least one cabinet.

EVALUATION:
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Participation
Quiz
School wide survey to determine any desired feedback.

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Plan a small house or vacation home.
Give students credit who would like to work on a habitat house in the community.
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ACTIVITY 12: Home Repair

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:           One class period

DESCRIPTION:

The instructor should choose a home repair item that is gender neutral. A good
example might be to change out a door knob to one with a key and dead bolt; to
replace an old faucet; or to place a ceiling fan where none existed, etc.

OBJECTIVES:

       Identify small hand tools needed around the house;
       State the procedure to perform the task;
       Demonstrate a can do attitude;
       Invite a friend to take the class.

MATERIALS:

        Desired fixture or repair parts
        Tools and Equipment
        Stain, finish, paint, etc.

PROCEDURE:

        1.   Identify problem to be remedied.
        2.   Collect components, parts, or item.
        3.   Layout needed tools.
        4.   Layout and make certain all parts are at your disposal.
        5.   Perform “dry run” if appropriate.
        6.   Begin repair.

EVALUATION:

Participation
Quiz
School wide survey to determine any desired feedback

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Give students credit who would like to work on a habitat house in the community.
Have students bring something from home that needs repair.
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ACTIVITY 13: Curriculum Page on Gender

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:        For the Instructor prior to beginning of school year or assignment

DESCRIPTION:

The instructor should prepare a sheet that will be given to the class. The sheet
should contain a list of valid sites and other sources pertaining to a particular
topic. The purpose of the curriculum sheet is to help students focus upon the
assignment and to use the best possible sources without spending unnecessary
time in the search process. It is easy to waste hours searching the Internet or to
become distracted while trying to find pertinent information—worse yet, students
become frustrated with finding unrelated sites. This activity can be used in many
applications from scavenger hunts to more serious research on any topic.

OBJECTIVES:
   Follow prescribed steps in finding information to help solve a problem;
   Locate pertinent information on the web, in the library, and in the
     community;
   Complete a resource sheet giving correct annotation and references.

MATERIALS:
    Access to the Internet
    Access to the library
    Access to business, industry, and government entities in the community

PROCEDURE:
    1. Assign an appropriate topic concerning gender issues that requires
       finding alternative solutions, ideas, or other information from several
       sources.
    2. Require students to find information by using several sources.
    3. Group students of opposite sex to perform the research.
    4. Have students complete notes, annotated bibliography, etc., and
       reference list from their findings.

EVALUATION:
To what extent did the groups (pairs) find pertinent information?
How complete were the assignments in using multiple resources?
Was the assignment correct and in the appropriate format?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:
Have students compile and analyze the information as a collective body.
Have students select an opposite gender person to report on gender findings.
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ACTIVITY 14: Attend a conference of opposite gender

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:          For the Instructor prior to beginning of school year

DESCRIPTION:

The instructor should attend a conference concerning the gender that is opposite
their own. In other words, men might attend the conference on Women in
Construction, or Men in Nursing, etc. Women might attend and Engineering
conference, or Men in Nursing, etc.

OBJECTIVES:

       Discuss the pros and cons of working in a “nontraditional” setting;
       List ideas to attract and retain the opposite sex into nontraditional classes;
       List speakers for your school or class;
       List appropriate videos for your school or class that deals with
        nontraditional jobs.

MATERIALS:

        Open

PROCEDURE:

        Open

EVALUATION:

Did the conference cause you discomfort?
Did you gain worthwhile knowledge from the conference?
Will you do anything differently as a result of attending the conference?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Complete a report that others might find beneficial from the information gathered
at the conference.
Speak to a group concerning your experience at the conference.
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ACTIVITY 15: Find Examples of Nontraditional Workers

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:          For the student or the instructor—two class periods

DESCRIPTION:

The focus of this activity is to find quality examples of women and men in
nontraditional settings in the workplace. These examples could be from real-life
local areas, television or broader populations, videos, etc. These examples
should be shared with other instructors and students as part of a school or class
activity. Instructors and students should have the opportunity to discuss the
examples and to give examples of their own.

OBJECTIVES:

       Use several resources to locate examples;
       State pros and cons of working in “nontraditional” settings;
       List financial rewards of a particular vocation.

MATERIALS:

        Community or national audience
        Videos
        Newspapers
        Magazines
        Etc.

PROCEDURE:

        Open

EVALUATION:

Number of examples located
Quality of the examples

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Show your examples to other instructors, students, or classes.
Invite a speaker to your school or class.
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ACTIVITY 16: First Visit to your Class

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:        One class period

DESCRIPTION:
You never know when a prospective student or parent might visit your class, or
when all the bright new faces start one of your classes. What impressions do
you wish to make? What kind of examples of student work should be on display?
What message are you sending to the nontraditional student? Do you have a
systematic plan to keep fresh examples in your classroom? Prior to the first day
of school, you should have examples displayed in your classroom that would be
interesting to both male and female students. If you cannot have actual projects,
you might consider having pictures of past students with their projects. These
pictures should be large enough to be easily seen from most vantage points in
your room. The objective you want is for any student in your area to say wow, I
would like to do that.

OBJECTIVES:
   Attract more nontraditional students to your class;
   Retain all students that start your class;
   Send positive messages to parents who visit your classroom.

MATERIALS:
    Display area(s) in your classroom
    Examples of students’ work in project or picture form

PROCEDURE:
    1. Find strategic locations in your classroom for displays of objects or
       pictures.
    2. Find or create examples the will be appealing to male and female
       students.
    3. Ask students from the previous semester to loan you their projects if
       necessary.
    4. Ask them to set up the display in a tasteful manner.

EVALUATION:
There should be examples interesting to male students.
There should be examples interesting to female students.
Did people make positive comments?
Over time you should notice an increase in nontraditional students taking your
class.

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:
Have students from previous semesters present their projects.
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ACTIVITY 17: Verbal Sensitivity

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:         One week

DESCRIPTION:

We often think of visual ques in gender stereotyping, but do we here what people
are saying. The objective of this activity is to listen to words and comments
people make about men or women concerning the task they are asked to do,
jobs they are expected to do, or any statement in general that tends to reflect
stereotypical thinking concerning expectations of male or female gender. You
should jot down the statement as accurately as possible and as soon as possible
after you hear it. Because you might hear such opportunity at any time, you
should carry a small notepad and a pencil as much as possible from the time you
awake to the time you go to sleep. You will collect these statements for at least
one week’s duration.

OBJECTIVES:

Become more sensitive to verbal statements that tends to stereotype people;
More easily detect inappropriate speech in everyday conversations;
Model more appropriate behavior in your own day to day activities.

MATERIALS:

        Notepad and writing instrument

PROCEDURE:

        1. For at least one week, carry a notepad and pencil.
        2. Jot down every statement you here that tend to stereotype people.
        3. Share these statements with other teachers or students as part of a
           school or class activity on sensitivity training, etc.

EVALUATION:

Number of statements collected
What insight was gained from this activity

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:
Make an audio recording that could be used in conjunction with the poster
activity. The tape could be played continuously during an appropriate activity
concerning gender issues.
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                                                                                  46

ACTIVITY 18: Women in History

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:          One week

DESCRIPTION:

The purpose of this activity is to help break down any preconceived ideas about
whether women have played significant roles in technology throughout history.
One might begin to think about early pioneer days; the west expansion; early
apprenticeship programs; the industrial revolution; military conflicts and world
wars; ventures into outer space, and so forth.

OBJECTIVES:

       Discuss historical significance of women in history;
       Help dispel stereotyping when in conversation with others.

MATERIALS:

        Access to the Internet, library, and historical documents.

PROCEDURE:

   1. Early in the semester, discuss roles different genders have played in
      important events.
   2. Begin to narrow this discussion to focus on technological events.
   3. Break the class into teams or pairs consisting of both genders if possible.
   4. After getting the students’ attention and motivation going, assign them to
      search for women from early times to the present who have made
      significant contributions related to machines, or other technically related
      events.
   5. Have each team present their findings to the entire class.

EVALUATION:

How well did the class participate?
How many instances did the teams find?
Did the students seem to carry the conversations beyond the classroom?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Have students create a documentary, complete with pictures and notation.
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                                                                                  47

ACTIVITY 19: Men in History

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:          One week

DESCRIPTION:

The purpose of this activity is to help break down any preconceived ideas about
whether men have played significant roles in “nontraditional” events throughout
history. One might begin to think about early pioneer days; the west expansion;
early apprenticeship programs; homemaking, and so forth.

OBJECTIVES:

       Discuss historical significance of men in history;
       Help dispel stereotyping when in conversation with others.

MATERIALS:

        Access to the Internet, library, and historical documents.

PROCEDURE:

   1. Early in the semester, discuss roles different genders have played in
      important events.
   2. Begin to narrow this discussion to focus on men in nontraditional roles.
   3. Break the class into teams or pairs consisting of both genders if possible.
   4. After getting the students’ attention and motivation going, assign them to
      search for men from early times to the present who have made significant
      contributions related to nontraditional events.
   5. Have each team present their findings to the entire class.

EVALUATION:

How well did the class participate?
How many instances did the teams find?
Did the students seem to carry the conversations beyond the classroom?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Have students create a documentary, complete with pictures and notation.
                                                                    Enhancing Gender Equity

                                                                                          48

ACTIVITY 20: Sexual Harassment

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:          One to two class periods

DESCRIPTION:

Harassment is not an acceptable way to treat anyone. Regardless of how our beliefs were
perpetuated through media, family, or peers about the role men or women should play in
life or work, it is wrong and can be detrimental to the victims to harass them in an
antagonistic fashion. Not only is harassment detrimental to self esteem or more serious
psychological problems, it can cause students to drop out of a class or school or do poorly
in academic activities. In our fast changing technological world, we need all students to
remain competitive on a global scale. We need for girls to integrate classes previously
dominated by boys and vice versa.
While it takes serious efforts from the entire educational community to keep a school free
of sexual harassment, we should take particular steps in our work related classrooms to
establish a positive attitude about the worth of all students in a particular area. Our goals
should be to maintain an environment that fosters appropriate and respectful behavior
among all students; to employ only non-sexist curriculum and teaching methods; to
promote staff modeling of non-sexist behavior; and to indicate clearly that harassment
will not be tolerated.
Each classroom should have a written policy that prohibits all forms of sexual harassment
and that promotes equitable treatment for all students. If not already, it should be posted
in a visible area in the classroom. In order to help ensure that all students believe and
buy in to appropriate actions, this activity promotes that students could do some research
on their own. This activity could be a good follow-up to the activity on men or women in
history. Students would be required to check on current legal policy in the work place,
school, or community. They should also find examples of instances and cases in these
locales. The students could also arrive at some activities for their class that would be
appropriate for a class activity.

OBJECTIVES:

       Become more sensitive to inappropriate behavior;
       Model more appropriate behavior in your own day to day activities;
       Promote a harassment free environment;
       Attract more students to your class;
       Retain more students in your program;
       Improve self esteem for all your students.
                                                             Enhancing Gender Equity

                                                                                 49
MATERIALS:

      Access to the Internet, library, and community.


PROCEDURE:

      1. Have students attend a school wide activity on harassment.
      2. Discuss harassment in your classroom.
      3. Allow for classroom interaction.
      4. Assign students singly or in pairs to find their own information on
         harassment.
      5. Have students share information with the entire class.

EVALUATION:

Did students get involved in discussions?
What was the quality of findings shared with entire class?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Role play harassment scenarios in the class.
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                                                                                     50

ACTIVITY 21: Co-teaching

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:         One class period

DESCRIPTION:

For this activity you will find an opposite gender to join you for at least one class,
preferably during an activity that is usually performed by a “traditional” teacher.
This team-teaching approach will set a good example for the students in any of
your classes. It will be even more effective if you choose a novel activity for that
particular day. It might be an activity that would be better performed with two
people in the first place and if it is an activity typically performed by the opposite
sex it will have a positive affect on either or both genders in your class.

OBJECTIVES:

       Duplicate team effort between two people of opposite gender to complete
        a task;
       Express to others that certain jobs can be performed by either sex;
       Approach the opposite gender to ask them to help you complete a task.

MATERIALS:

Open

PROCEDURE:

   1. Early in the semester plan a class activity where you will invite the
      opposite gender to assist (join) you in class.
   2. Choose an activity that is normally done by the opposite gender.
   3. At two weeks and one week, announce to your class that you will have a
      guest instructor to help you with a particularly difficult task (don’t tell them
      the person will be opposite to you in gender).

EVALUATION:

        Did students react positively to the guest?
        Did students ask questions?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:
Allow one or two of your better nontraditional students to demonstrate a task
usually performed by the opposite gender.
                                                              Enhancing Gender Equity

                                                                                  51
ACTIVITY 22: Job Earnings

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:         One week assignment

DESCRIPTION:

What earnings can you expect in a particular job? What if you were of a
nontraditional gender in a particular job? In this activity you will search for jobs
not typically performed by either a male or female. The assignment is left to the
discretion of the instructor. For motivational use, the female student may want to
find jobs that females are not expected to do and vice versa for males. For
gender equity issues or awareness of stereotyping, the male and female student
may switch their searches to the gender opposite their own.

OBJECTIVES:

       State the expected earnings for either a male or female in a
        “nontraditional” setting;
       Discuss the difference(s) in pay for men and women doing the “same “
        technically oriented job.

MATERIALS:

Access to information

PROCEDURE:

   1. During a motivational or informational topic discussion, assign students to
      search for jobs they would be expected NOT to do.

   2. During the search, have students list salary ranges based on experience.


EVALUATION:

Were students motivated by their findings?
Did students seem to change their minds about how the opposite sex faired in
nontypical jobs?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Have students complete a comparison study of male and female earnings for
similar positions.
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                                                                                  52

ACTIVITY 23: Men in Nursing

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:         One class period

DESCRIPTION:

Did you know that nurses were predominately men prior to 1854 and mostly men
from early times until the 18th century? In 1914 the Pennsylvania Hospital started
a school for men to study nursing and in 1974 the Michigan Male Nurse
organization was formed. Why do you think this was true? What caused the
transition from mostly men to mostly women in nursing? As a male, don’t you
think you could do as well as a woman in nursing? As a female, don’t you think
you could talk a male friend into taking a look into the nursing field? What jobs
are available in the nursing field? Are men needed in nursing and why? How
much money do nurses make? In this activity, you will do some research into the
history of nursing with emphasis on men in nursing. While searching, think about
what your school and class might do to attract more men into nursing. At the end
of this activity you might be asked to develop a brochure or activity for your class,
school, or community to recruit males into nursing.

OBJECTIVES:

       Briefly discuss the major milestones of men in nursing throughout history;
       Make a case for men as nurses—are they needed, why, etc.;
       State expected salaries for nurses;
       Develop a recruiting activity or brochure.

MATERIALS:

Access to information
Access to graphics material or computer

PROCEDURE:

   1. Give a motivational presentation.
   2. Have students research men in nursing from a historical perspective.
   3. Ask students to compare their notes in small group sessions.
   4. Have students present and discuss their observations in a class setting or
      through PowerPoint presentations.
   5. Optional: have students develop a brochure or activity as a recruiting tool.
                                                           Enhancing Gender Equity

                                                                               53
EVALUATION:

Were students motivated by their findings?
Did students seem more open to men as nurses?
Were major milestones discovered and presented with names and dates?
Were more males enticed to consider the nursing field?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Develop a brochure for recruiting.
Develop a school wide activity that would encompass recruiting males into
nursing.
                                                              Enhancing Gender Equity

                                                                                   54

ACTIVITY 24: Women in Welding

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:         One class period

DESCRIPTION:

The title of this activity could just as easily be Women in Mining, Women
Mechanics, or Builders, etc. The point is to find events where women have
played dominate roles in technology, or who have been successful in a
nontraditional field of work. I chose welding for this activity because people can
do several different things in welding and not be restricted by physical attributes.
For this activity, think about the different things people could do in welding. As a
female, think about what you would do as a welder?

OBJECTIVES:

       Briefly discuss where women have been successful in welding;
       State several different kinds of jobs related to welding;
       Discuss the income opportunity you would have as a welder.

MATERIALS:

Access to information

PROCEDURE:

   1.   Give a motivational presentation of women in different areas.
   2.   Have students research women in welding.
   3.   Have students present and discuss their findings in class.
   4.   Allow students role play as welders.

EVALUATION:

Were students motivated by their findings?
Did students seem more open to women as welders?

ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Have a female student set up a display of her work and give demonstrations
related to art, pipes, structural, etc.
                                                               Enhancing Gender Equity

                                                                                   55

ACTIVITY 25: Publicity Brochure

AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas

TIME:          Two class periods

DESCRIPTION:

At least one or two of the activities in this manual center around a major
recruiting event, the purpose of this activity is to allow the students to develop a
publicity brochure to help make certain the event is well publicized and attended
by your target audience.

OBJECTIVES:

       Layout and develop a brochure to increase the attendance of either male
        or female to a recruiting event;
       Find examples of pictures to download to your brochure;
       Scan pictures to place on your brochure;
       Choose appropriate text for the front and body of the brochure;
       Include important links that people might access to increase their interest.

MATERIALS:

Access to information
Access to graphics material or computer
Internet
Scanner
Color printer
Color copier

PROCEDURE:

   1.   Remind the class of the upcoming recruiting event.
   2.   Break the class into groups and assign tasks to each group.
   3.   Choose a coordinator for the development if possible.
   4.   Collect details for the event (time, date, location, etc.)
   5.   Collect information that will be placed in the brochure.
   6.   Complete a draft of the brochure.
   7.   Allow several people, including administration, to review the draft.
   8.   Complete and print the brochure.

EVALUATION:

Were students motivated to complete the brochure?
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                                                                          56
Were drafts of the brochure in good form?
Were the brochures completed and delivered on time?
ENHANCED ACTIVITIES:

Set up a table (booth) at the event.
Videotape the event.
                                                                   Enhancing Gender Equity

                                                                                       57
                                          APPENDIX C
Note: Education scale shown in bold
type. Not identified on actual survey.      SRES
                       EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT SCALES

                                         Survey Questions

  1. There are many jobs in which women should be given preference over men in being
  hired.

  2. Home economics courses should be as acceptable for male students as for female
  students.

  3. Education beyond high school is as important for women as it is for men.

  4. Males and females are equally suited for business careers.

  5. Women should not feel as obligated as men to get a college degree.

  6. Women have as much ability as men to make major business decisions.

  7. A math teacher should expect more from male students than from female
  students.

  8. Business courses are more appropriate for male students than for female
  students.

  9. Secretary training is more fitting for women than for men.

  10. High school counselors should encourage qualified women to enter technical
  fields like engineering.

  11. Job promotion should be based on merit, not on the worker's sex.

  12. Women shouldn't take jobs away from men in hard times.

  13. A female executive deserves the same respect as a male executive.

  14. Men and women should have the same equal educational opportunities.

  15. Women are more likely than men to work after hours when the boss requests it.

  16. Female students are more hardworking than male students.

  17. Female students are more dependable than male students in doing class
  assignments.
                                                                    Enhancing Gender Equity

                                                                                          58

18. Women ought to have the same opportunities as men to enter careers in industry.

19. Women make better receptionists than men do.

20. Nursing schools ought to try to recruit equal numbers of male and female
students.

21. Women are not as qualified as men to become church clergy.

22. Male students take their education more seriously than female students.

23. Men and women differ in their desires for challenging work.

24. Men and women should be given an equal chance for professional training.

25. Female bosses are unable to motivate their workers as well as male bosses can.

26. Male elementary teachers are not as effective as female elementary school
teachers.

27. The entry of women into traditionally male jobs should be discouraged.

28. Expensive job training should be given mostly to men.

29. It is wrong for a man to enter a traditional female career.

30. It is more rewarding to teach girls than to teach boys.

31. Women are not as devoted to their jobs as men.

32. More men ought to major in elementary education.

33. More women are needed in key industrial management jobs.

34. Women are just as capable as men to run a business

35. Sex should not disqualify a person from any occupation.

36. Men and women should be treated the same when applying for student loans.

37. Equal opportunity for all jobs reguardless of sex is an idea we should all support.

38. A major in the fine arts, such as drama and dance, can be as rewarding for a
man as it is for a woman.
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                                                                                        59
                                     APPENDIX D

The data used to calculate enrollment numbers can be found in the file ―ENROLLMENT
DATA_DTE‖ on the disk provided.

The file is arranged down in the following manner.

Sheet 1-5: Enrollment data form schools by program area and gender.

Sheet 6-10: Filtered data to separate female and male enrollments. Schools not identified.

Sheet 11: Percentages of female and male students by program area. Identified with

yellow for programs that exceed the 25% threshold and by blue for programs that have

non-traditional enrollments above employment rates. Only program data for the 2002-

2003 school year was used for comparison to national employment data.
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                                                                                60
                                      APPENDIX E

Gender Equity          NUMERIC           M = MALE
                       SCORES            F = FEMALE
   Study                                 X = DID NOT MARK


Identification Numer      Education         Employment
         M001                80                 76
         M002                69                 50
         M003                82                 78
         M004                86                 71
         M005                78                 82
         M006                81                 85
         M007                65                 54
         M008                89                 86
         M009                68                 63
         M010                69                 50
         M011                80                 83
         M012                71                 73
         M013                78                 80
         M014                67                 62
         M015                86                 81
         M016                95                 95
         M017                71                 61
         M018                85                 72
         M019                94                 86
         M020                93                 84
         M021                93                 88
         M022                85                 72
         M023                83                 83
         M024                91                 80
         M025                60                 62
         M026                78                 76
         M027                74                 66
         M028                91                 85
         M029                69                 74
         M030                77                 73
         M031                73                 69
         M032                93                 93
         M033                83                 67
         M034                72                 70
         M035                79                 80
         M036                74                 72
         M037                62                 43
         X001                82                 70
         X002                85                 84
         X003                68                 60
         X004                76                 72
         X005                74                 72
         X007                82                 82
         X008                76                 71
         X009                84                 89
         X010                91                 89
         X011                83                 80
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                                                                              61
Identification Numer         Education       Employment
         X012                   86               88
         X013                   71               72
         X014                   88               84
         F001                   88               77
         F002                   87               85
         F003                   95               95
         F004                   88               89
         F005                   86               93
         F006                   72               66
         F007                   85               90
         F008                   86               81
         F009                   84               82
         F010                   83               84
         F011                   84               82
         F012                   86               80
         F013                   87               82
         F014                   86               82
         F015                   85               84
         F016                   88               82
         F017                   85               84
         F018                   92               88
         F019                   81               83
         F020                   77               70
         F021                   91               86
         F022                   94               93
         F023                   78               80
         F024                   86               81
         F025                   87               85
         F026                   80               80
         F027                   90               91
         F028                   95               94

Raw data is located in file ―SURVEY DATA.‖
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                                                                                                              62
                                                            APPENDIX F


                            Nontraditional Occupations for Women in 20031
                                       (Numbers in thousands)
Text Version

                                                                  Employed     Employed   Percent
Occupation                                                        Both Sexes   Female     Female


Upholsterers                                                      56           14         25
Farmers and ranchers                                              825          204        24.7
Metalworkers and plastic workers, all other                       423          103        24.3
Dishwashers                                                       294          70         23.8
Detectives and criminal investigators                             112          26         23.2
Supervisors, protective service workers, all other                100          23         23
Architects, except naval                                          180          40         22.2
Drafters                                                          224          49         21.9
Engineering technicians, except drafters                          419          91         21.7
Coin, vending, and amusement machine
  servicers and repairers                                         65           14         21.5
First-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives          127          27         21.3
Security guards and gaming surveillance officers                  781          165        21.1
Miscellaneous agricultural workers                                741          156        21
Cutting workers                                                   95           20         21
Job printers                                                      83           17         20.5
First-line supervisors/managers of production and
  operating workers                                               939          189        20.1
Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges                         85           17         20
Chefs and head cooks                                              281          56         19.9
Industrial engineers, including health and safety                 180          35         19.4
Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand            1,748        321        18.4
Couriers and messengers                                           244          44         18
Farm, ranch, and other agricultural managers                      206          37         18
Barbers                                                           95           17         17.9
Printing machine operators                                        191          34         17.8
Industrial production managers                                    276          48         17.4
Surveying and mapping technicians                                 75           13         17.3
Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine
  tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic         79           13         16.5
Supervisors, transportation and material moving workers           216          35         16.2
Transportation, storage, and distribution managers                225          36         16
Meter readers, utilities                                          50           8          16
Service station attendants                                        96           15         15.6
Painting workers                                                  177          27         15.2
Cost estimators                                                   100          15         15
Chemical engineers                                                75           11         14.7
Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood              62           9          14.5
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                                                                                                                  63
Appendix F cont.
                                                                          Employed   Employed Percent
Occupation                                                                Both Sexes Female   Female


Cleaners of vehicles and equipment                                        326        46       14.1
Clergy                                                                    410        57       13.9
Radio and telecommunications equipment installers
  and repairers                                                           251        35       13.9
Parts salespersons                                                        137        19       13.9
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs                                               286        39       13.6
Motor vehicle operators, all other                                        66         9        13.6
Precision instrument and equipment repairers                              62         8        12.9
Material moving workers, all other                                        64         8        12.5
Police and sheriff‘s patrol officers                                      612        76       12.4
Engineers, all other                                                      282        35       12.4
Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers                  296        36       12.2
Aerospace engineers                                                       82         9        11
First-line supervisors/managers of farming, fishing, and
  forestry workers                                                        65         7        10.8
Engineering managers                                                      77         8        10.4
Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers               107        11       10.3
Computer hardware engineers                                               99         10       10.1
Sales engineers                                                           50         5        10
Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders               72         7        9.7
Construction and building inspectors                                      95         9        9.5
Parking lot attendants                                                    74         7        9.5
Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators,
  and tenders, metal and plastic                                          11         1        9.1
Industrial truck and tractor operators                                    534        46       8.6
Civil engineers                                                           278        24       8.6
Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and
  radio operators                                                         94         8        8.5
First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairers   340        28        8.2
Refuse and recyclable material collectors                                 63         5        7.9
Electrical and electronic engineers                                       363        26       7.2
Grounds maintenance workers                                               1,135      78       6.9
Miscellaneous construction and related workers                            58         4        6.9
Welding, soldering, and brazing workers                                   528        36       6.8
Painting, construction and maintenance                                    660        44       6.7
Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators               61         4        6.6
Telecommunications line installers and repairers                          138        9        6.5
Pest control workers                                                      81         5        6.2
Construction managers                                                     680        40       5.9
Cabinet makers and bench carpenters                                       70         4        5.7
Railroad conductors and yardmasters                                       53         3        5.7
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                                                                                                      64
Appendix F cont.
                                                          Employed     Employed   Percent
Occupation                                                Both Sexes   Female     Female


Glaziers                                                  53           3          5.7
Mechanical engineers                                      285          16         5.6
Other, installation, maintenance, and repair workers      272          15         5.5
First-line supervisors/managers of landscaping,
  lawn service, and groundskeeping workers                223          12         5.4
Machinists                                                454          22         4.8
Sheet metal workers                                       147          7          4.8
Driver/sales workers and truck drivers                    3,214        148        4.6
Tool and die makers                                       88           4          4.5
Millwrights                                               73           3          4.1
Highway maintenance workers                               79           3          3.8
Fire fighters                                             258          9          3.5
Helpers, construction trades                              114          4          3.5
Aircraft pilots and flight engineers                      116          4          3.4
Crane and tower operators                                 61           2          3.3
Security and fire alarm systems installers                60           2          3.3
Construction laborers                                     1,151        35         3
Maintenance and repair workers, general                   309          8          2.6
Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers          271          7          2.6
Cement masons, concrete finishers, and
  terrazzo workers                                        120          3          2.5
Logging workers                                           79           2          2.5
First-line supervisors/managers of construction
  trades and extraction workers                           897          22         2.4
Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics             460          11         2.4
Aircraft mechanics and service technicians                128          3          2.3

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics,
  installers, and repairers                               86           2          2.3
Electricians                                              774          16         2.1
Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers   205          4          1.9
Plasterers and stucco masons                              53           1          1.9
Stationary engineers and boiler operators                 113          2          1.8
Carpenters                                                1,595        26         1.6
Automobile service technicians and mechanics              884          12         1.4
Operating engineers and other construction
  equipment operators                                     376          5          1.3
Roofers                                                   233          3          1.3
Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators         88           1          1.1
Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters       595          6          1
Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service
  technicians and mechanics                               200          2          1
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists     339          3          0.9
                                                                                   Enhancing Gender Equity

                                                                                                         65
Appendix F cont.
                                                     Employed     Employed    Percent
Occupation                                           Both Sexes   Female      Female


Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons            218          2           0.9
Electrical power-line installers and repairers       111          1           0.9
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration
    mechanics and installers                         350          2           0.6
Structural iron and steel workers                    71           0           0
Small engine mechanics                               54           --          --
1
    Nontraditional occupations are those in which women comprise 25 percent or less of total employed.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Unpublished data, Annual Averages 2003,
Current Population Survey.

                                                                                          Women’s Bureau
                                                                                             March 2003

				
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