A NEW ERA by gyvwpsjkko



Over centuries, scholars, poets and prophets

                                                    ON THE BRINK OF SPACE –

                                                    A NEW ERA
                                                     BY JOHAN LE RO UX

                  EW THINGS HAVE HELD               Internationally, space activities have had,             As a technologically-advancing country,

     F            mankind in such collective awe
                  as space. Phrases such as “The
                  eagle has landed”, “It’s time
                  for the human race to enter the
     solar system”, “Space – the final frontier”,
     all ring familiar.
                                                    and continue to have, significant and
                                                    beneficial impact on everyday life and
                                                    society. Although the cost of space activi-
                                                    ties is high, there are tremendous returns
                                                    for the community relating to job creation,
                                                    technological know-how, scientific know-
                                                    ledge, and space spin-offs.
                                                                                                            South Africa is increasingly reliant on
                                                                                                            space-based services and applications. It
                                                                                                            has a rich tradition of involvement in space
                                                                                                            science and technology and has been an
                                                                                                            active participant in the exploration of
                                                                                                            space since the 1950s. Due to this heri-
                                                                                                            tage, South Africa also has some unique
     Over centuries, scholars, poets and                                                                    space infrastructure.
     prophets have pondered the great infinity      From a social perspective, the value of
     called space. ‘Space fiction’ has long lost    space applications in addressing chal-                  The Cabinet-approved Ten-Year Innovation
     its derisive edge with Sputnik 1 hailing the   lenges to the state of the environment is               Plan of the Department of Science and
     advent of the ‘Space Age’ some 50 years        undeniable. These are mainly relating to                Technology (DST) also describes space
     ago — an age that, despite controversy,        the management and use of natural re-                   science and technology as one of the five
     would bear testimony to astonishing politi-    sources, increasing mobility of people                  grand challenges and a national strategy
     cal, scientific and technological achieve-     and products, growing security threats                  supporting a viable space programme is
     ments.                                         and the shift towards a knowledge                       being finalised for Cabinet presentation
                                                    economy.                                                and approval.
     Space is defined as the area beyond the
     earth’s measurable atmosphere, which           Since space technology enables instant                  The transformation of the space landscape
     has very few particles of any size and is      communication anywhere in the world,                    in South Africa was ushered in when the
     flooded with electromagnetic energy.           accurate observation of any spot on earth               government announced the intention to es-
     Despite its inherent fascination, the notion   and the ability to locate a fixed or moving             tablish a space agency two years ago.
     that space holds the key to solving current    object anywhere on the surface of the                   The bill for establishing the agency is in the
     and future global challenges has increa-       globe, economic and human catastrophes                  final stages of approval.
     singly been augmented with successes           can be timeously foreseen, predicted,
     and demonstrations of space technology         averted or stemmed.                                     Space-related activities cut across all
     enriching the daily existence of society.                                                              spheres of government and its agencies.

                                                        S C I E N C E S C O P E   O C T O B E R   2 0 0 8

have pondered the great infinity called space

  Johan le Roux, Group Manager: CSIR Strategic Initiatives

  To optimise the utilisation of resources and   and sustainable development. The strategy               The National Space Science and Techno-
  to maximise the benefits of space applica-     states that it is essential for South Africa            logy Strategy is an expression of national
  tions to society, there is a need to coordi-   to develop robust, effective and efficient              priorities and has three primary goals.
  nate activities. The Department of Trade       space capabilities in order to increase
  and Industry has developed the space           knowledge, discovery and economic pros-                 These are to capture a global market
  policy and with the support of the South       perity, and to enhance national security.               share for small to medium-sized space
  African Council for Space Affairs, will                                                                systems in support of the establishment of
  regulate space activities. Being committed     In this regard three key priority areas have            a knowledge economy through fostering
  to responsible use of the space environ-       been identified:                                        and promoting innovation and industrial
  ment, the cornerstone of the space policy                                                              competitiveness; to empower better deci-
  is the promotion of a domestic space           > The environment and resource                          sion-making through the integration of
  industry, capacity building, space aware-        management programme is a space                       space-based systems with ground-based
  ness and international cooperation.              programme helping South Africa to un-                 systems for providing the correct informa-
                                                   derstand and protect the environment,                 tion products at the right time, and to use
  The DST is responsible for the implementa-       and develop its resources in a sustain-               space science and technology to develop
  tion of the national space programme. As         able manner                                           applications for the provision of geospa-
  such, DST has contracted the CSIR to host      > The innovation and economic growth                    tial, telecommunication, timing and posi-
  an interim office of the South African Na-       space programme stimulates innova-                    tioning products and services.
  tional Space Agency.                             tion, while leading increased producti-
                                                   vity and economic growth through                      With South Africa on the brink of taking
  The National Space Science and Techno-           commercialisation                                     a giant leap into space, the benefits of
  logy Strategy, developed by an inter-          > The safety and security space pro-                    such a step for the overall well-being and
  governmental committee, will aim to lever-       gramme strengthens developmental                      quality of life of all South Africans might
  age the benefits of space science and            efforts through ensuring the safety and               just be cosmic.
  technology for socio-economic growth             security of South Africa’s communities.

                                                     S C I E N C E S C O P E   O C T O B E R   2 0 0 8

                         Front from left: Wabile
                         Motswasele (CSIR), Dr
                         Darasri Dowreang (CEOS
                         incoming Chair - GISTDA,
                         Thailand), Raoul Hodges
                         (CSIR), Dr Pakorn Apaphant
                         (CEOS incoming Chair
                         point of contact) Back:
                         Asanda Ntisana (CSIR),
                         Alex Fortescue (CSIR)

             BY WABILE
             AND ASANDA
                                                         THE COMMITTEE on Earth                 > Improving its global presence
         According to www.ceos.org,                      Observation Satellites (CEOS)            in the domain of earth obser-
         this body “was created in 1984                  is a global umbrella body for            vation
         in response to a recommendation                 civilian space agencies that           > Deriving benefit from the
         from the Economic Summit of                     have a common interest in col-           human capacity development
         Industrialized Nations Working                  laborating on satellite-based re-      > Enhancing data democracy in
         Group on Growth, Technology,                    mote sensing techniques.                 developing countries.
         and Employment’s Panel of
         Experts on Satellite Remote                     Comprising 26 members (most            PROMOTING
         Sensing. This group recognised                  of which are space agencies)           ACCESS TO DATA
         the multidisciplinary nature of                 and 20 associates, CEOS is
         satellite earth observation and                 seen as the major international        ‘Data democracy for developing
         the value of coordination across                forum for the coordination of          countries’ is a CSIR flagship pro-
         all proposed missions.                          earth observation satellite            ject as CEOS Chair 2008 and
                                                         programmes and for interaction         comprises four pillars: access to
         “Individual participating agencies              of these programmes with users         datasets, software tools, capacity
         make their best efforts to imple-               of satellite data worldwide.           building and dissemination of
         ment CEOS recommendations.                      The CSIR was presented with            satellite-based earth observational
         The main goal of CEOS is to                     a number of exciting opportuni-        datasets.
         ensure that critical scientific ques-           ties and worthwhile challenges
         tions relating to earth observation             in its role as CEOS Chair for          The CSIR has structured the pro-
         and global change are covered                   2008.                                  ject into phases to derive targeted
         and that satellite missions do not                                                     objectives. In the short term, the
         unnecessarily overlap each                      The organisation’s strategic in-       CSIR will collaborate closely with
         other.”                                         tent to assume the chairperson-        INPE (Brazil), CRESDA (China),
                                                         ship of CEOS was guided by             USGS (USA) and EUMETSAT
                                                         the following set of criteria:         (Europe) on receiving, processing

                                            S C I E N C E S C O P E   O C T O B E R   2 0 0 8

and distributing of satellite imagery
received in South Africa for local and
regional usage.

In the medium term, the CSIR will seek to         SOCIETAL BENEFIT                            BASIC SET OF CHALLENGES
strengthen the project by collaborating           AREA
closely with other CEOS agencies such
as CONAE (Argentina), CSA (Canada),               Agriculture                                 Promote sustainable agriculture
ESA (Europe) and NASA (USA).
                                                  Biodiversity                                Establish a biodiversity observation network

In the longer term, the CSIR will seek to         Climate                                     Address climate variability and change
sustain data democracy by working
closer with agencies such as GISTDA               Disasters                                   Respond to natural man-made disasters
(Thailand), CNES (France), ISRO (India)           Ecosystems                                  Manage ecosystems for conservation and sustainable use
and others.
                                                  Energy                                      Provide energy that is clean and secure
SUPPORTING                                        Health                                      Protect human health and well-being
                                                  Water                                       Manage global water resources
CEOS activities have direct relevance to
our local earth observation community             Weather                                     Leverage the value of weather forecasts
when taking into account the three
important working groups within CEOS:
> Information Systems and Services
   facilitates data and information            As a participating member of GEO,                        With a staff complement of approxi-
   management and services. It under-          CEOS contributes space-based obser-                      mately 230 people, it has a ground re-
   takes the capture, description,             vational data to assist GEO in fulfilling                ceiving station in Bangkok and Lad
   processing, accessing, retrieval,           its 10-year Global Earth Observation                     Krabang, and a control centre for Thai-
   utilisation, maintenance and ex-            System of Systems implementation plan.                   land’s first satellite, Thailand Earth Obser-
   change of earth observational data                                                                   vation System (THEOS). THEOS will be
> Calibration and Validation working           On the local front, the DST is establishing              launched in 2008 and will provide
   group activities focus on enhancing         the South African Earth Observation                      Thailand with worldwide geo-referenced
   coordination of spaceborne earth            Forum in collaboration with the CSIR.                    image products and image processing
   observational data                          The objectives of this forum are to involve              capabilities.
> Education and Capacity Building of-          a broader audience in the activities of
   fers education and training on utilisa-     GEO and CEOS.                                            During the 22nd CEOS plenary and
   tion of tools and systems required to                                                                official hand-over in Fancourt, George,
   process earth observational data.           TAKING THE BATON:                                        on 11 and 12 November 2008, the
                                               HANDOVER TO                                              current chairperson, Pontsho Maruping,
Currently, representatives from the CSIR,      THAILAND                                                 will reflect on the resolutions adopted at
the Meraka Institute and the University of                                                              the last plenary, provide an update on
Fort Hare participate in these working         The Geo-Informatics for Space and Tech-                  the developments and report on the
groups. The CSIR stands to benefit from        nology Development Agency (GISTDA) is                    achievements made throughout her tenure
this active participation with international   the CEOS 2009 incoming Chair desig-                      of twelve months.
peers.                                         nate. The CSIR will handover its CEOS
                                               2008 chairpersonship to GISTDA during                    The CSIR looks forward to its continued
GLOBAL OUTLOOK                                 the 22nd CEOS plenary this year. Some                    involvement and participation in CEOS
At a global level, South Africa, through       effort and planning has already been ex-                 and GEO in order to retain relevance in
the Department of Science and Techno-          pended in ensuring a smooth transition                   global earth observation developments.
logy (DST), presently co-chairs the Group      from the CSIR to GISTDA. During June
on Earth Observations (GEO). GEO               2008, a delegation from GISTDA visited
introduced and formalised the concept          the CSIR to seek alignment between the                   Enquiries:
                                                                                                        Wabile Motswasele
of societal benefit areas as a systematic      current and future Chairs of CEOS. The
method to represent the challenges             agency demonstrates a thorough under-
planet Earth needs to address. The table       standing of the leadership requirements                  Asanda Ntisana
illustrates a high level overview of the       for this post as well as a high level of                 antisana@csir.co.za
solution for each of these areas:              technical expertise.

                                                   S C I E N C E S C O P E   O C T O B E R   2 0 0 8



                                     SINCE THE EARLY DAYS OF SPACE EXPLORATION IT WAS
                                     1983 AND 1986, WITH THE GOAL OF ‘OBTAINING A SCIEN-
                                     TIFIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE ENTIRE EARTH SYSTEM ON
                                     A GLOBAL SCALE BY DESCRIBING HOW ITS COMPONENTS
                                     AND THEIR INTERACTIONS HAVE EVOLVED, HOW THEY
                                     FUN CTION , AND HOW THEY MAY BE EXPECTED TO
                                     CONTINUE TO EVOLVE ON ALL TIMESCALES.’ AT THE
                                     HIGHEST LEVEL, THE FOUR BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE EARTH
                                     SYSTEM CAN BE REPRESENTED AS AIR (ATMOSPHERE),
                                     WATER (HYDROSPHERE), LAND (GEOSPHERE) AND LIFE
                                     (BIOSPHERE, INCLUDING HUMAN ACTIVITIES) .

   SATELLITES PROVIDING DATA                     Currently, South Africa is using data from             putationally intensive coupled, biophysical
   ON EARTH OBSERVATION                          only a very small number of these avai-                models are brought together by high-
                                                 lable satellites.                                      performance computing.
   An entire fleet of space craft (satellites)
   has been launched to observe different        Satellites are about more than supplying               UTILISING HIGH-PERFORMANCE
   components of the earth as a system.          ‘pictures’ of people’s neighbourhoods.                 COMPUTING FOR RESEARCH
   These include satellites with interesting     Satellites are used to produce a constant
   and unlikely names such as Terra, Aqua,       stream of data measuring physical attri-               The Centre for High Performance Comput-
   Auro, Jason, Grace, ICESat, CloudSat,         butes of the land, oceans and atmos-                   ing (CHPC), a Department of Science and
   WindSat, TRMM, Envisat, SeaWifs, to           phere (even the cryosphere) at global                  Technology-funded initiative managed by
   name but a few. To highlight just three,      scales.                                                the Meraka Institute, supports earth system
   ICESat (ice, cloud and land elevation                                                                science research through the provision of
   satellite) measures ice sheet mass            These satellite data streams are fed into              high performance computing facilities to
   balance, cloud, aerosol heights and land      models that mimic the earth system to                  carry out computationally expensive tasks.
   topography using laser-ranging (lidar).       help scientists understand human impacts               Currently, scientists from the universities of
   TRMM (tropical rainfall measuring             and predict global change, such as the                 Pretoria and Cape Town, and the South
   mission) measures rainfall rate in three      climate impacts of tropical deforestation.             African Weather Services are running
   dimensions with radar and microwave           Earth system science therefore not only re-            ocean, atmosphere and coupled ocean-
   imagers. Jason-2 (ocean surface topo-         lies on earth observation data, but em-                atmosphere models. The models currently
   graphy mission) measures global sea-          braces chemistry, physics, biology and                 being utilised were developed in Europe
   level rise with a radar altimeter, global     mathematics by transcending disciplinary               and the United States; however, the CHPC
   positioning system (GPS), laser retrore-      boundaries to treat the earth as an inte-              also supports model development taking
   flector and microwave radiometer.             grated system. The observation and com-                place at the University of Pretoria.

                                                    S C I E N C E S C O P E   O C T O B E R   2 0 0 8

                                                                                    >                                                                                               > Climate change


Current activities in earth science at the                Today, many space agencies operate                                                           The GEOSS societal benefit areas, such
CHPC are spearheaded by the computa-                      satellites for the ultimate purposes of                                                      as climate change, ecosystems and
tional climatology and oceanography                       earth system science, driving international                                                  natural disasters, represent complex
special interest group (SIG). A new SIG                   programmes such as the Intergovern-                                                          issues that can hardly be solved with
called terrestrial, ecosystem and land sur-               mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)                                                        observations from a single satellite.
face modelling will be established soon.                  and International Geosphere Biosphere                                                        These societal benefits will ultimately
Earth observations form an important part                 Program (IGBP). The Global Earth                                                             be achieved by unravelling complex
of modelling activities for initial condi-                Observing System of Systems (GEOSS)                                                          systems through focused long-term
tions, boundary conditions, verification                  is the embodiment of the dream to bring                                                      earth system science research, which
of model simulations and for the study                    together all the space-borne and in situ                                                     recognises humans as part of the system.
of the earth system itself, as mentioned                  sensors from around the world. The South                                                     This will be accomplished with the aid
earlier. For this reason, a remote sensing                African Earth Observation Strategy was                                                       of constellations of earth observing
SIG is also being established by CHPC                     developed by DST and implemented by                                                          satellites relaying data to coupled
to provide computation resources to the                   the CSIR in response and close alignment                                                     models applied using high performance
CSIR’s rapidly growing earth observation                  to GEOSS.                                                                                    computing.

                 BRETHERTON DIAGRAM                                                                                     P H Y S I C A L C L I M AT E S Y S T E M

                                                                                                                   Atmospheric Physics/Dynamics



                                                                                                                   Ocean dynamics                  energy/moisture
                                              External forcing






                                                                                                                                 Global moisture                     Soil   CO 2                   activities




                                                                                                                       Marine                          Terrestrial

           >                                                                                                       biogeochemistry                     ecosystems




                                                                                                                              Tropospheric chemistry
                                                                                                                                                                                            CO 2

                                                                                                                         BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

                                                                                                                                                                                            Dr Konrad Wessels

                                                                                                                                                                                            Mary-Jane Kgatuke

                                                                             S C I E N C E S C O P E           O C T O B E R      2 0 0 8


S C I E N C E S C O P E   O C T O B E R

                                          2 0 0 8
                THE OBJECTIVE of the South African                      end user. An archive hosting more than
                Earth Observation Strategy (SAEOS) is to                100 Tb of remote sensing data dating
                coordinate the collection, assimilation                 back to 1972, creates a priceless tempo-
                and dissemination of earth observations                 ral dataset for analysis and change
                (EOs), to realise the full potential of these           detection applications.
                to support policy, decision-making, eco-
                nomic growth and sustainable develop-                   The centralisation of an EO spatial portal
                ment in South Africa. This is achieved by               as a final result of the SAEOS project
                adding value to the existing expenditure                presupposes an advanced EO data
                on EO and related activities in South                   centre (EODC) to feed the EO portal
                Africa, by making the information avai-                 with a remote sensing archive and new
                lable to a broad spectrum of users in an                products and imagery. The collection and
                integrated, timely and easily-accessible                image processing of terabytes of imagery
                form.                                                   requires an advanced automated supply
                                                                        chain to control and manage the work-
                SAEOS is implemented by the CSIR                        flow of image processing. An advanced
                Satellite Applications Centre on behalf                 customer interface to order and search
                of the Department of Science and Tech-                  the required products from the EODC is
                nology (DST). Its ultimate goal is to                   essential.
                contribute to the nine societal benefit
                areas identified by the Group on Earth                  After intensive research, the Data Informa-
                Observations, directly or indirectly:                   tion and Management System (DIMS-
                monitoring and assessment of natural                    EO) was selected. This product from
                disasters, health, energy, climate change,              WERUM, Germany, which has been
                water, weather, ecosystems, agriculture                 implemented within DLR (the German
                and biodiversity.                                       Space Agency) and ESA (European
                                                                        Space Agency), will enhance operational
                A WEALTH OF TELEMETRY                                   control, quality and throughput within the
                                                                        CSIR’s remote sensing supply chain.
                The CSIR has been receiving telemetry
                from EO satellites since 1980 and there-                MATCHING SERVICES
                fore has unique operational experience                  TO REMOTE SENSING
                to manage the remote sensing supply                     USER REQUIREMENTS
                chain to a geo-processed product for the
                                                                        The CSIR hosted a user requirement work-
                                                                        shop on 14 February 2008 to under-

                                                                        stand user requirements and align current
                                                                           and future earth observation satellite
                                                                              sensors. Over 50 delegates repre-
                                                                                senting 23 government depart-
                                                                                  ments and representatives from
   DERIVING                                                                         parastatals participated.
 SOUTH AFRICA                                                                        The broad aims of the work-
   FROM EARTH                                                                         shop were to inform stake-
                                                                                      holders of the role of the
 OBSERVATIONS                                                                         South African Space
                                                                                      Agency in coordinating
BY DR CORNÉ ELOFF                                                                     EO data access. It was
                                                                                     also an opportunity for
                                                                                    these participants to gain
                                                                                   better understanding of avai-
                                                                                 lable imaging technologies for
                                                                               a potential follow-on reception
                                                                             agreement post March 2009
                                                                          through presentations by various

                    S C I E N C E S C O P E   O C T O B E R   2 0 0 8

                             <                                                                               <

  OVERVIEW                                                         Figure 1: The DIMS-EO system software elements

            Main control flow –––––
                                                                                                                                     Tile server
                                                                                                                          <                                       <
            Main data flow –––––

                                                         <                             >                                >                 EOWEB gateway       >
                                                                      EOWEB                          EOWEB
                                                                                               retrieval manager                            SOAP IFC
                                                                    data server
                                                                                                                                                                                World Wind
                                                                                      <                                          <                             <
                                                                                                                                             CIP IFC
             Tasking                     PI
                             >                >
                                                                                                                                     XML based IFC (WFS)
                                 Adapter                                                                                                                                      Google Earth
                                                                                            Application server
         Other catalogue     >
             source                           >                                                                        Ordering control

                                 Adapter                               >
                                                   UIS Interface
      Catalogue harvesting                                             >
                                                  Adapter                                                              Production control

          Management                                 Adapter
                                                         Adapter                                                             Rules
                                                                       <           Product library
                                                                               Inventory          HSM                                                             Operating
                                                                              PostgreSQL         archive                                                  >         tool
    Historical data
                                                                              Archive for
                                                                                                                                                          >           Views
                                                                              vector data
        O                                                          <         Oracle


                                                                                      Processing system
                                                                                                                                  <             delivery               <
                                                                                           Management                                       Packing
      RAW                                                                                   Algorithms                                      Media
         L0                   Ingestion
                                                                                                                                                              Removable disks
         L1                                                                                    SARMES
                                 Cache                                                                                                                        CD/DVD/BlueRay

                                                                   Project tools


satellite and aerial imaging suppliers,                        budgets for 2008-2011, allowed for                                         THE WAY FORWARD
notably Infoterra on TerraSAR-X; Digital-                      discussion on a suitable sensor portfolio
Globe on Quickbird and the new World-                          for 2009-2011 and beyond.                                                  The SAEOS programme initiated by the
view satellite; Geoeye on Ikonos and the                                                                                                  DST has enabled the CSIR to re-engineer
new Geoeye-1 satellite; RapidEye on its                        Detailed user requirements are available                                   its EODC service and will conclude in
new high resolution constellation; Antrix                      on request and were used to formulate                                      March 2009. The DIMS-EO system will
on the Indian resourcesat and Cartosat                         recommendations. These include renew-                                      result in a world-class remote sensing
1 and 2 satellites; SpotImage on Spot 5                        ing SPOT 5 and considering engagement                                      supply chain centre. The EODC centre
and Astroterra (Spot 6) and CDSM on                            into Astroterra (SPOT 6); direct telemetry                                 will contribute to various national,
the new digital airborne imager.                               access to CartoSAT (P5) and Resource-                                      regional and international programmes
                                                               SAT (P6); procurement of sub-1 metre                                       and play a vital role in the South African
Through a questionnaire survey, user re-                       satellite imagery on an ad hoc basis                                       Space Agency. Ultimately, its service will
quirements for 2008-2011 per depart-                           where CDSM airborne camera is un-                                          impact positively on every person in
ment were gleaned. This, together with                         available; and securing an ‘emergency/                                     South Africa.
information on available departmental                          rapid response’ contract with TerraSAR-X.

                                                                       S C I E N C E S C O P E     O C T O B E R       2 0 0 8

The DIMS-EO system                 Product library with               Online/offline product                  Production interface                   image data are converted
elements depicted in               relational database                delivery                                This component facilitates             to Level 3 (L3) and Level 4
Figure 1 consist of the            management system                  This generates customised               exchange requests and,                 (L4) data products. The L3
following modules:                 and data archive                   delivery packages of                    optionally, data with                  products are stored in the
                                   The earth observation              ordered product items,                  external production or                 PL, the geographical query
                                   data product is the central        either for online transfer              acquisition systems.                   capabilities of which can
                                   management unit of the             or on media.                                                                   then be used to select all
Product ingestion                  EODC product library (PL).                                                 Definiens Intelligence                 relevant L3 products for
This service accepts data          A product typically groups         UIS interface                           Suite                                  the generation of the L4
from the various data pro-         metadata describing the            The components user inter-              This suite provides image              product (Figure 2).
ducers and coordinates             item and several logical           face loader and user infor-             analysis for earth observa-
archiving and inventorying         components.                        mation services interface               tion data to generate
of the data. It implements a                                          employ the PL insert and                higher-level thematic map-
workflow that consists of          Production control                 update event subscription               ping from earth observa-
data detection, metadata           This controls and monitors         to upload product data into             tion data, such as thematic
extraction, and data and           complex production work-           the EOWEB User Services                 maps and feature extrac-
metadata submission to the         flows in DIMS.                     and external data manage-               tion information.
product library.                                                      ment systems.
                                   Processors and pro-                                                        PCI Geomatics
Catalogue harvesting               cessing management                 EOWEB                                   The PCI Geomatics soft-
This module retrieves meta-        Processors like the South          EOWEB is the user informa-              ware suite is integrated into
data from third-party cata-        African Resource Manage-           tion service of the DIMS.               the system to support post-
logues to make the data            ment and Expert System             It provides catalogue, or-              processing workflows dur-
available for ordering and         (SARMES) or Definiens              dering and data services                ing ordering, e.g. to extract
implements a workflow              workflows are wrapped              to end users and external               subsets from mosaics to be
performed at regular inter-        into operational processing        systems.                                supplied to the user.
vals, consisting of new            systems. Processing systems
entry detection and meta-          consist of one or several          Order control                           SARMES
data retrieval, transforma-        processors and a frame-            This component handles                  The SARMES system, based
tion and submission to the         work layer – the processing        and processes user orders               on PCI Geomatics software,
product library.                   system management.                 and covers aspects from                 is used to perform various
                                                                      validation and on-demand                processes. Level 1 satellite
                                                                      production to accounting.

                      LO Product            LO Product             LO Product                LO Product                LO Product       LO Product            Archived





                       SARMES                SARMES                 SARMES                    SARMES                    SARMES             SARMES
                       L0 – L3               L0 – L3                L0 – L3                   L0 – L3                   L0 – L3            L0 – L3            L0-L3 Production





                      L3 Product            L3 Product             L3 Product                L3 Product                L3 Product       L3 Product            Archived


                                                                                 L3 – L4                                                                      L3 – L4 Production

                                                                                L4 Product                                                                    Archived

                                                                  Figure 2: SARMES production chain L0 to L4

                                                                                                                                       Corné Eloff

                                                                 S C I E N C E S C O P E     O C T O B E R   2 0 0 8


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