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• The system is really made up of two systems:
  – Supply systems- brings in fresh water.
  – The drain-waste-Vent system- takes out used
    water and sewage. (DWV)
  – Between these two systems are the fixtures.
Steps in designing a plumbing systems.
1. First Consult the local plumbing codes so
   that the requirements are met as the design
   is developed. Some areas plumbing must be
   done by a licensed plumber other areas allow
   anyone to do the work.
Steps in designing a plumbing system.
2. Identification of needs: kinds and number of
   fixtures, hot and cold water that will be used.
3. Design plumbing so that fixtures are
   clustered together to increase efficiency and
   reduce costs.
Steps in designing a plumbing system.
4. First place the fixtures in the plan. Then draw
   the piping systems. Color code the cold
   water, hot water, and drain- waste-vent lines.
   What is needed for the plumbing
            supply system?
• Source- in a town the water supply is tapped
  into the city’s water main. City employees
  make the connection to the water and install a
  meter to measure water usage. In the country
  your water is likely to come from a well.
               Supply system
• Pressure- is a closed continuous system where
  water flows under pressure.
• Recommended pressure varies from 40-60 lbs
  per square inch.
• This depends on such things as number of
  fixtures, the height of the building, the length
  of piping , and the size of the piping.
              Supply system
• Pressure continued- Pressure is created by
  using a water pump, or by allowing water to
  flow by gravity from a water tower.
• Advantage of water tanks is more constant
  pressure and reserve of water for peak use
• Run supply lines as short and as direct as
  possible. Minimum number of fittings.
             Supply systems.
• Size- Most common supply line is ½ inch.
  Bathtub, dishwasher, kitchen sink, laundry
  sink, lavatory, shower , washing machine, flush
  toilet, and water heater.
• ¾ inch line can supply three 1/2inch lines.
• ½ inch line can supply three 3/8 inch lines.
              Supply systems
• Types of pipe suitable for supply lines include
  PVC and CPVC plastic, copper tubing and
  galvanized iron. Black iron and lead pipe
  should not be used for supply lines
                Supply lines
• When drawing supply lines in the plan hot
  water lines should be on the left and cold
  water lines should be on the right. Pipes
  should be at least 6 inches apart. Both should
  have a shut off valve at them.
                Supply Lines
• Installation- supply lines should be secured to
  walls, floors, and ceilings. Noise vibration is
  the result of loose unsupported pipes.
• Water hammer- is banging sound sometimes
  heard when faucets are shut off quickly.
• Air chamber- installed to prevent banging,
  made by adding a 12 inch vertical extension of
  the supply line capped on the top.
• Source- city employees are responsible for
  making the connections to the municipal
  sewer system. Rural properties require the
  installation of a septic tank and filter field.
• Since this piping is expensive after fixtures
  this piping should be drawn in first. A good
  design uses the least amount of material and
  fewest turns.
• All fitting connections should be smooth and
  all bends or curves gradual.
• Soil stack-is a vertical pipe that extends from
  the lowest point in the system to at least 6
  inches above the roof.
• The drain lines from all the fixtures feed into
  the soil stack.
• The bottom end of the vertical soil stack
  changes directions and is connected
to the horizontal main sewer or septic
• Clean out plug- is a removable plug located
  where the pipe changes from vertical to
• This junction between the soil stack and sewer
  line is a likely location of clogging.
• Can be 4 in cast iron, 3 in copper pipe, or 4 in
  ABS or PVC.
• Waste Lines- are drain lines that connect
  fixtures to the soil stack.
• They either fall straight down or run
  horizontally with 1/8 in to ½ in drop per foot
  of run.
• The ideal slope is ¼ in per foot of fun.
• Load Factor- is the number of gallons of water
  that must be discharged per minute from a
  fixture or group of fixtures.
• An average bathroom sink can discharge 1
  cubic foot or a load factor of 1. (approx. 7 ½
  gallons per minute.)
• Venting- is vertical piping that is used to
  permit air to circulate into the piping resulting
  in a relatively constant air pressure
  throughout the system and allows the exhaust
  of sewer gas build up above the roof.
• All tied into the soil stack or run through
  separate stack in the roof.
• Traps- are installed between the fixture and
  the waste pipe to form a “water seal”
  preventing sewer gas and unpleasant odors
  from entering the building.
• Also help stop air from entering the waste
• Traps may be P, S, or drum.
• Storm drain system- it is used to carry away
  only water that comes from guttering,
  downspouts, driveway drains, sump pumps,
  floor drains, and foundation drain tiles or
  perforated pipe.
              Galvanized Pipe
• Is a zinc coated pipe that can be used for
  water supply and DWV lines.
• It is less likely to rust and corrode than black
• Black pipe is recommended for oil, air, and gas
               Galvanized pipe
•   Sold in three grades:
•   Standard
•   Extra Strong
•   Double Extra Strong
•   Size of the pipe is designated by the inside
    diameter. Actual inside diameter of a pipe is
    slightly larger than its nominal or designated
              Galvanized Pipe
• The most common sizes of iron pipe are 3/8,
  ½, ¾, 1, 1 ¼, 1 ½, and 2 inches.
• Iron pipe is joined by using threaded fittings.
  The fittings are sized by the size pipe that they
  fit on.
             Galvanized Pipe
• Drainage Fittings- leave a smooth,
  unobstructed flow and can be used for air, gas,
  and water, as well as drainage lines.
• Pressure Fittings- create an offset so they are
  suitable for air, gas, and water, but not for
  drainage lines since they tend to clog.
• Pipe Fittings come in a variety of shapes and
              Galvanized Pipe
• Pipe Nipples- are short pieces of pipe
  threaded on both ends.
• Coupling- is used to join two pieces of pipe
  together that you do not intend to
• Union- is a fitting that joins two pieces of pipe
  but can be unscrewed at any time.
             Galvanized Pipe
• Pipe Elbows- either 45 or 90 degree, have a
  piece of pipe threaded into both ends.
• Street Ells- either 45 or 90 degree, have a
  piece of pipe threaded into one end and
  another fitting screwed onto the outside of
  the other end.
             Galvanized Pipe
• Pipe Tees- allow three pieces of pipe to be
  threaded into them.
• Reducing tee- allows a change in size from the
  input to the output pipe.
• Pipe cap- screws onto the outside of a pipe.
• Pipe Plug- screw into a fitting
             Galvanized Pipe
• Reducing Bushing- used in connection with a
  fitting allows you to change sizes of pipe from
  the input to the output side.
             Galvanized Pipe
• Total length-fittings+ how far pipe goes in=
  Total amount of pipe.
• Pencil or chalk marks only temporary marks.
• Permanent marks three corned files or a
  scratch awl.
               Galvanized Pipe
•   Cutting:
•   secured in a vise.
•   hack saw
•   A power hacksaw
            Galvanized Pipe
• Wheel Type pipe cutter- has two guide wheels
  and one cutting wheel that you tighten as
             Galvanized Pipe
• Reaming- removing raised places or burrs
  from the inside of a pipe
• t handle reamer
• ratchet reamer.
             Galvanized Pipe
• To thread pipe-
• grind a slight taper on the end
• clamp the pipe in a vise.
• Place the correct size of pipe guide and die
  into the pipe threader .
• turn the threader slowly.
             Galvanized Pipe
• apply thread cutting oil.
• Do not turn the threader back and forth.
• Continue until about one thread projects
  through the die.
• tap the cuttings from the die or blow then out
  with compressed air.
               Galvanized Pipe
•   Pipe Compound-
•   Pipe stick
•   Paste in a can
•   Teflon Tape- usually white tape.
              Copper Tubing
• water and fuel lines.
• sturdy, durable, light weight, and easy to work
• Sold as rigid (hard) or Flexible (Soft).
• Sizes are from heaviest to lightest:
  – M- recommended for most supply line situations
  – DWV
              Copper tubing
• Sized by inside diameter (ID) or Outside
  Diameter (OD)
• Rigid (hard) Tubing sold in 10 foot lengths
• Flexible (Soft) Tubing-
• 3/8, ½ , 5/8 and ¾ inch diameter rolls 60 foot
               Copper tubing
• joined by soldering.
• Sweat fitting- refers to soldering

• Flared Fittings- end of the tubing is spread out
  or flared and a flare nut is tightened against a
  threaded flared fittings.
               Copper Tubing
• Compression fittings- have a compression ring
  and threaded nut
• Soldered fittings done on
  – couplings, elbows, tees, caps, reducers, and
• Flare fittings include
  – flare nuts, caps, elbows, tees, plugs, and unions.
              Copper tubing
• Compression fittings :
• union, a fixture, or a shutoff valve.
• Mark with a three corned file or a scratch awl.
              Copper Tubing
• cut with a hacksaw or tubing cutter.
• Cutter better if you ream out the burrs
                Copper Tubing
• Best technique for joining copper tubing
  depends on the:
  – Type (rigid or flexible)
  – Location of the tubing
               Copper Tubing
• Soldering:
  – fine steel wool, emery cloth, or a tubing cleaner to
  – Coat tubing end and the inside fitting with a layer
    of flux.
  – Push and rotate the fitting
               Copper Tubing
• Soldering continued:
  – Apply heat until the flux begins to sizzle.
  – Every few seconds test the heat
  – right temperature is reached the solder will melt
  – drawn into the joint by capillary action.
  – Wipe off excess solder
               Copper Tubing
• Flared Fittings (only soft tubing):
  – Slip the flare nut onto the tubing and then flare
    the tubing.
• Flaring Tool- includes a split die block and
  compression screw with a T handle to tighten
             Copper Tubing
– The flared end is placed next to a threaded flare
– the flare nut is slid up
– Tighten
                Plastic Pipe
• Will not rust, rot, or corrode.
• tough sturdy, durable, resistant to chemical
  action, and light weight.
• Low cost and easiest to work with.
                Plastic Pipe
• Plastic pipe may be flexible or semi-rigid.
• available in 100 foot coils or 10 and 20 foot
  lengths, 3/8 inch to 16 inches in diameter.
• Fittings are either clamped, screwed, or glued
• Grades are schedule 40, pressure rated pipe,
  and non code pipe.
                 Plastic Pipe
• Schedule 40- used for DWV and some water
• Pressure rated pipe- has the maximum
  pressure marked on it
• Non-Code pipe- is lightweight pipe used for
  septic tank, leach fields, and outside drainage
                  Plastic Pipe
•   Types:
•   Polyvinyl-chloride Plastic Pipe- PVC-
•   semi-rigid
•   cemented fittings
•   pressure applications, such as cold water and
    gas lines.
                 Plastic Pipe
• Chlorinated polyvinyl-chloride plastic pipe-
• is 100 psi rated pipe
• threaded or cemented fittings. It is suitable for
  hot water.
                 Plastic Pipe
• Acrylonitrile-Butadience- Styrene plastic pipe-
• is low cost
• cemented pipe
• DWV piping.
• Polyethylene Plastic Pipe- PE is a flexible black
  pipe sold in 100 foot rolls. It is joined with
  slide in compression fittings
                Plastic Pipe
• Polyethylene Plastic Pipe- PE
• flexible black pipe
• slide in compression fittings
                Plastic Pipe
• Glue on fittings-
• plugs, caps, elbows, street ells, couplings,
  reducers, drain flanges, Y(wyes), and sanitary
• Outside of fitting
                Plastic Pipe
• Screw on fittings-
• Glued to the pipe on one side
• Screwed onto a fitting from the other side.
            Clamp in fittings
• Couplings, tees, and elbows that are made
  with ridges.
                Plastic Pipe
• mark with a permanent marker, scratch awl,
  or three cornered file.
• Cut with a wheel type pipe tuber, specialized
  cutters, fine toothed hacksaw, miter saw,
  motorized miter saw, sabre saw, or sawsall.
                Plastic Pipe
• remove any burrs with a reamer, sandpaper,
  round file, or utility knife.
• All plastic pipe except PE pipe can be joined
  with glue on fittings.
                Plastic Pipe
• cleaning solvent to clean and remove the gloss
  for better bonding.
• Light cement to the inside of the fitting and a
  heavy cement to the outside of the pipe.
               Plastic Pipe
• Insert immediatley