DMAIC Charge Template by RussellBawden


									                          Charge Template (DMAIC/DMADV)
                         Making the Business Case for Change:
         Charging a Team to Follow Structured Problem Solving (09/08/06; 04/07 vs.)

Following is an outline to use when appointing a team to study a process or solve a problem or
complete a project--to improve the quality of outcomes for customers and reduce costs.

It is recommended that those involved in the process or familiar with the problems (often the
project team) be involved in drafting the charge. The form is designed to help those who write
the charge to clearly make the business case for change—from the current situation to a better

Filling in all categories in the outline will help the project team be efficient and focused.

The charge should be drafted, if at all possible, by the Management Review Team (MRT) with
members of the team and/or staff who work on the process, or the MRT should start the charge
draft by identifying the current situation which needs change (“The Problem” or “Reasons for
Seizing an Opportunity”) and develop it with those involved. This will ensure that all involved
„uniformly‟ understand as much as possible about the team‟s work and the business case for
change. If the team cannot be present, after drafting the charge, a meeting should be held with
the charging group (MRT) and the project team, to discuss and agree on a final draft of the initial

Problem Statement or the Case for Change:
Write a brief, specific, quantifiable identification of the problem the team is to address:
    What is the baseline or current performance of the process, service, product? What is the
       current situation or „baseline‟ that should change? Include information about both
       existing technical systems capabilities and employee performance capabilities and
       competencies relative to the problem discussed.
    What is unacceptable or problematic about this performance?
    When and where do problems occur?
    How extensive are the problems?
    What is the impact on our customers, our business, and our employees?

The case for change or problem statement should not suggest any solutions or jump to
conclusions about causes. It should state the effect of the present undesirable situation from
the customer point of view. If the problem is unquantifiable, then this should identify any
symptoms (statements of fact) that point to the perceived problem.

      Example: Our mean-time to respond to email reference referrals is 6 hours compared to
       our standard of 1 hour.
      Example: Costs for delivering this service are unknown. There is potential for loss of
       staff on this process owing to budget reductions.

      Example: 80% of the time, customers expect a 3 day turn around time on ILL. Presently
       we are meeting this turnaround time only 40% of the time.

Purpose/Objective Statement:
Write brief, specific statements of the purpose for which this team has been formed. The
statement should quantify specific expectations and requirements of the final improvement,
service or product. Outline expected outputs and outcomes by indicating improvement
targets, product requirements, service qualities and expected timeframes. Use the SMART
guideline for writing the Objective Statement, and then specify the Outputs and Outcomes for

An objective statement is SMART, if it is:
    Specific: Is there a clear description of the expected improvement, including outcomes
       for customers, qualities of the final product or service including new work descriptions,
       associated competencies and expectations for cost.
    Measurable: Is the expected outcome stated as a measurable Quality Standard (QS) the
       team should aim for?
    Attainable: Have you been clear about the time frame in which the QS should be
       reached; outline progress expected over multiple years? Describe how you will implement
       new competencies required of the outcome (see Competency Analysis Tools-Step B
    Results-oriented: Are the results and benefits to the customer, stakeholders clear?
    Timely: Have you made the urgency clear?

      Example: The team will reduce IS team allocations for reference services from 20% to
       5% by the end of 2005. Customers will receive accurate service at time of need in all
       present service locations during the presently scheduled hours of service.
      Example: The team will improve the processes involved with virtual reference to bring
       us as close as possible to the Quality Standard: Response from an appropriate staff
       member within 24 hrs, 95% of the time. Decisions about new technology will be made on
       the basis of costs/benefits and the need to increase usage of VRef by 15% per year while
       holding to present costs at current level.
      Example: 80% of the time, journal articles requested thru ILL will be delivered to the
       customer within 3 days; the cost per article delivered will be the same or less than
       currently assessed.

      Outputs: Provide a detailed list
      Outcomes: State what the customers of the process, service or product will be able to do
       as a result of the project completion.

Parameter Statement:
This should list important process boundaries and constraints within which the team must
operate including 1) scope, 2) resource constraints (what funds are available or what budget they
must work within, and 3) assumptions.

a) Project Scope
   States the explicit boundaries of the project.
    Are there processes related to this process that are not included in the study? Scope creep
       is dangerous for any project, explicit boundaries help keep the project manageable and on
    Are there aspects of the service that should not be included?
    Is this a service or process improvement to be implemented at all Libraries? Is there a
       priority order for implementation at particular sites?

      Example: The team will focus on the current processes related to training, scheduling
       and delivering Information & Referral Service—at all sites and including all 3 levels of
       service as described in attached memo.
      Example: The team will give priority to the following collections: the Phipps collection,
       the Adams archive, the Steiglitz archive and the Alvarez Bravo collection.
      Example: The team will focus on journal article delivery—not book, book chapters, or
       conference proceedings.

b) Resource Constraints
   States any specific resources or limitations thereof that the project team needs to work with
   or work within.
    How much time are the members allocated to spend on this project?
    Is there available funding for the research? For benchmarking? For learning about
       alternative solutions thru travel to conferences?
    Is there funding for any new capital investment that will yield a return on investment
       within 3 years?

      Example: Team members are expected to dedicate 20% of their time to the project. A
       budget of $10,000 has been allocated for travel to benchmark other institutions or attend
       key seminars or conferences.
      Example: Any new technology will have to be purchased with one-time funds and
       submitted to Cabinet for consideration once a cost-benefit analysis is complete, or from
      Example: The amount in the IA Budget devoted to this should not exceed $100,000.

c) Project Assumptions
   Any specific, additional issues, concerns, or expectations not previously listed that the
   project team needs to beware of, because it may affect their work, while investigating the
   problem and producing a solution.

      Example: No reasonable solution will be considered out of bounds as long as there is a
       cost benefit analysis showing a return on investment within 2 years.
      Example: In-person Type 1 and 2 level reference service will continue to be offered in the
       Main Information Commons, the Science-Engineering Library main floor and the Fine
       Arts Library.
      Example: Developing international standards for image digitization must be considered
       as the team develops its plan.

      Example: The Library will continue to work in partnership with RAPID, AULC, and
       GWLA on consortial interlibrary loan agreement and negotiate acceptable turnaround
       time standards.

Project Roles:
a) Designated Roles and Accountabilities
   Lists specific roles of project members and any designated accountabilities in those roles.
   Identify roles of other teams, if relevant.
    Which is the Management Review Team and who are their current members? Who is the
       assigned sponsor to this team?
    Who is/are the process owner(s)?

      Example: Helena Mendoza will be the Team Leader responsible for leading progress on
       the charge and communicating with the sponsor. The Sponsor from SLRP will be Mary
       Hu. George Martin will be the Process Improvement support person and liaison with the
       PI Support Team.
      Example: Mary Smith will be the liaison to DLIST; DLIST will work with the team to
       develop the cost-analysis and the justification for purchase of the selected technology.
       Eduardo Sanchez will be the liaison with the Director of Development. John Hu is
       presently the process owner for giving permissions for Rights and Reproductions; Sara
       Whitsone owns the cataloging process for prints; Sixtus Pendergast owns the process for
       archival processing.

b) Decision Authority
   Lists the scope of decisions within the authority of the team.
    Is the team to make final decisions? From whom should they solicit input before making
       final decisions?
    Is the team to make recommendations? If so, should they rank them? What information
       should they provide with their recommendations?

      Example: The team has the authority to make consensus decisions based on data, facts,
       and logic after receiving input on the wider implications of each of their proposed
       decision—from Team X and Cabinet. All decisions should be piloted before full
       implementation. Implementation plans should be developed with the process owners on
       Team X.
      Example: The team will bring all draft decisions to the Management Review Team for
       input prior to making the final decision on what system to seek funding for. The Library
       Cabinet has final authority on budget allocation. The CCP Team and Director will
       decide on priorities for fundraising.

c) Communication Plan
   Identifies the reporting structure for the team. Specifies how progress reports will be made
   including to whom and by when.
    With whom should the team communicate—regularly? Before major decisions?

      Example: The Strategic Long Range Planning Team (SLRP) is the Management Review
       Team for this team. Reports of progress should be made to the Library on the Team
       Report Schedule for Cross-Functional Teams. The final analysis of the root causes
       identified and the data leading to those conclusions should be shared with SLRP and
       Cabinet and the affected teams prior to developing solutions. Draft solutions should be
       shared on e-mail and in meetings with affected teams, SLRP and Cabinet.
      Example: the Team will report to the entire CCP team. They will report progress to the
       team prior to developing their report to the Library. The Marketing Assistant will help
       create communications with photographers and potential donors.

Identifies the recommended macro-steps to follow to solve problems and reach data-based,
implementable solutions (see Appendix for models).

       Handoff: All Teams should complete their work by ensuring a handoff to the team or
       individual who will maintain the process, service or product delivery.
        Deliverables: A description of the training, process, and means of future measurement
           that will be used to ensure the continuing quality of the service or product and the
           understanding of the improved or new process workflow.

       Self Assessment of your teams work: Including Accomplishments, Barriers, Learnings
        Deliverables: A final report to your Management Review Team.

Skills and Knowledge Required on the Team:
List all technical, subject, group interaction, process improvement and project facilitation skills
needed on the team.

Resources Available outside the Team:
List all staff resources, people who have knowledge or skills important to the team.
     Have resources external to the Library been considered?
     Is there a literature that the team should review?
     Are there data already collected?
     Are there institutions identified that the team can approach for benchmarking?

      Example: PI Support team can provide guidance in workflow and cost analysis, data
       gathering methodologies, statistical process control and pareto charting, etc. HROE
       Facilitators can provide meeting facilitation when it is important for challenging
       meetings. DLIST DCAP can provide advice on software programs which may be useful.
       Team X has 3 years of data on usage of VRef.

Timeframe, Milestones and Final Deadline
List all major milestones. Include actual dates of expected regular reports. Note when each
phase of the DMAIC approach should be targeted for completion, and when deliverables are

Sunset Review: (for Standing Teams/Projects)
    When will the charge and purpose of this team be reviewed?


Approach Models:

A. For a process improvement team (DMAIC)

Define               Define the project goals and customer (internal and external) deliverables
Measure              Measure the process to determine current performance
 Analyze             Analyze and determine the root cause(s) of the defects
 Improve             Improve the process by eliminating defects
  Control            Control future process performance

Define: Create and establish a clear and compelling reason for improving the process or product.
       Deliverables: A preliminary business case for change: a charge that includes the current
       observable problems, goals for the project and information that will guide the team.

Measure: Factually understand the problem; collect data that will narrow the range of potential
causes and use later in the analysis phase.
       Deliverables: An amended business case: including an „as is‟ flow chart, display of data
       collected, baseline performance data, financial impact data and key metrics.

Analyze: Make sense of all the data gathered and use that data to discover areas of delay, waste,
and poor quality.
       Deliverables: An amended business case: including a list of causes that have been shown
       to be responsible for poor quality, defects, unacceptable costs, in the system/process and
       data and results from the process analysis.

Improve: Generate, pilot and implement viable solutions that address the root causes and
improve quality, manage or reduce costs and are acceptable to the larger organization.
      Deliverables: Alternative solutions and their related cost/benefit analysis and a
      “proposed” process map with related data.

Control: Sustain and control future process performance.
      Deliverables: An amended business case which includes a documented monitoring plan
      that will ensure gains for customers and the organization; standardized processes and
      procedures; a training plan; a document transfer of ownership to the process owner and
      management teams.

Self Assessment of your teams work: including Accomplishments, Barriers, Learnings.
       Deliverables: A final report to your Management Review Team.

B. For a team charged to develop new, innovative products and services that can meet
   customer expectations for quality and reliability (DMADV)

Define               Define the project goals and customer (internal and external) deliverables
Measure              Measure and determine customer needs and specifications
 Analyze             Analyze the process options to meet the customer needs
 Design              Design (detailed) the process to meet the customer needs
  Verify             Verify the design performance and ability to meet customer needs

When To Use DMADV:
The DMADV methodology, instead of the DMAIC methodology, should be used when:
    A product or process is not in existence at your company and one needs to be developed
    The existing product or process exists and has been optimized (using either DMAIC or
      not) and still doesn't meet the level of customer specification or six sigma level

Define: Create and establish a clear and compelling reason for improving the service or product.
       Deliverables: A preliminary business case for change: a charge that includes the current
       observable problems, goals for the project and information that will guide the team; the
       team may have to further define what the expectations are for use, cost, etc. of the
       product or service.

Measure: Factually understand the requirements, needs and specifications customers have;
collect data that will focus the potential design features that will be used in the later in the
analysis phase.
        Deliverables: An amended business case: including an „as is‟ flow chart, display of data
        collected, baseline performance data, financial impact data and key metrics.

Analyze: Analyze the process options for offering the service or designing the product, or the
off-the-shelf product options available that will meet the customer needs and future expectations.
        Deliverables: A decision-matrix which lists all options considered and the relative rating
        of their ability to meet identified requirements or specifications.

Design: Design, in detail, the product, process or service that you believe will meet the
customer needs.
      Deliverables: Draft „blueprints‟ of the product and how it will be implemented; process
      steps for the service delivery, and plans for piloting and training those involved in the

Verify: Verify the design performance and ability to meet customer needs.
       Deliverables: Assessment of customer satisfaction or evaluation of the product, service in
       relation to their identified need.


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